A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It was found that a subset of adults with type 1 diabetes took 4 times longer on average to approach ketoacidosis when given ... Hue L, Rider MH (July 1987). "Role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the control of glycolysis in mammalian tissues". The ... first two parts)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 304 (25): 1518-24. doi:10.1056/NEJM198106183042504. PMID 7015132. ...
... liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase II-( ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.11.31) that ... Winder WW, Hardie DG (July 1999). "AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes ...
... , more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... regulatory subunit type I - PRKAR1A, PRKAR1B. *regulatory subunit type II - PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B ... phosphorylate fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (stimulating it). *inhibit glycolysis *phosphorylate phosphofructokinase-2 ( ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ...
... type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.4: type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease EC 3.1.21.5: type III site-specific ... cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53: 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N- ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.20: acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.21: Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... fructose-bisphosphatase EC 3.1.3.12: trehalose-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.13: bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase EC 3.1.3.14: ...
... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... bone morphogenetic protein receptors, type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125 - ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase ... fructose-bisphosphatase MeSH D08.811.277.352.650.225 - glucose-6-phosphatase MeSH D08.811.277.352.650.300 - histidinol- ... adenosine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.155 - choline kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.175 - deoxycytidine kinase MeSH D08.811 ...
van Calker D, Müller M, Hamprecht B (1978). "Adenosine inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured brain cells". Nature ... The two histidine and two aspartic acid residues, which bind zinc are conserved among all studied PDEs (See review article [3] ... As different PDE types may affect different cAMP pools, the different PDEs may regulate different processes in the cell.[9]. ... Protein phosphatase *PP2A. *OCRL. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. *Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... It was found that a subset of adults with type 1 diabetes took 4 times longer on average to approach ketoacidosis when given ... Hue L, Rider MH (July 1987). "Role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the control of glycolysis in mammalian tissues". The ... first two parts)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 304 (25): 1518-24. doi:10.1056/NEJM198106183042504. PMID 7015132. ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of impaired systemic control of glucose homeostasis, in part through the dysregulation ... catalyzed by cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases and a histone phosphatase. Biochim Biophys Acta 422:98-108CrossRefPubMed ... II. Effects of glucagon, catecholamines, and adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-monophosphate on gluconeogenesis in the perfused rat liver. J Biol ... 3. Effects of l-lactate, pyruvate, fructose, glucagon, epinephrine, and adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-monophosphate on gluconeogenic ...
... liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase II-( ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... 5 AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.11.31) that ... Winder WW, Hardie DG (July 1999). "AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes ...
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position. ... Neurath KM, Keough MP, Mikkelsen T, Claffey KP: AMP-dependent protein kinase alpha 2 isoform promotes hypoxia-induced VEGF ... Hyperprolinemia Type II. Disease. Hyperprolinemia Type I. Disease. Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available. Interactions. ... cyclic adenosine monophosphate and salt thereof. U.S. Patent US4751293, issued July, 1984. ...
Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... regulatory subunit type I - PRKAR1A, PRKAR1B. *regulatory subunit type II - PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B ... phosphorylate fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (stimulating it). *inhibit glycolysis *phosphorylate phosphofructokinase-2 ( ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ...
... catalyze reactions that bypass pyruvate kinase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, Phosphofructokinase-1, and.... ... fructose diphosphate. Only two molecules of ATP are generated in glycolysis in the conversion of glucose into pyruvate. These ... Pyruvate kinase (PK) catalyzes an important process of transferring phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine ... Netics changed from a sigmoidal type in shamaperated rats to a hyperbolic type in obstructed rats, phosphofructokinase and. ...
... was found to play critical roles in tumour initiation and progression in several cancer types. Here, we review recent ideas and ... ADP adenosine diphosphate, AMP adenosine monophosphate, AKT protein kinase B, cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CBP CREB- ... of this enzyme by cAMP-dependent protein kinase results in inhibition of the kinase and activation of the bisphosphatase, ... Other cancer types. There is an even bigger knowledge gap in the role of FBPase in some cancer types due to only one to two ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Shikimate kinase/gluconokinase (IPR031322) Pfam signature: PF01202 Type II secretion system, protein N (IPR022792) Pfam ... Adenosine/AMP deaminase domain (IPR001365) Pfam signature: PF00962 Cellulosome anchoring protein, cohesin domain (IPR002102) ...
Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in ... Plastidial thioredoxin z interacts with two fructokinase-like proteins in a thiol-dependent manner: evidence for an essential ... AMP. Adenosine monophosphate. AOX. Alternative oxidase. APS. AGPase small subunit. ATP. Adenosine triphosphate ... Two members of the thioredoxin-h family interact with the kinase domain of a Brassica S locus receptor kinase. Plant Cell 8: ...
AMP nucleosidase 3.2.2.5 NAD(+) glycohydrolase 3.2.2.6 ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 3.2.2.7 Adenosine ... Type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease 3.1.21.4 Type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease 3.1.21.5 Type III site-specific ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase 3.1.2.20 Acyl-CoA hydrolase 3.1.2.21 Dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase ... Fructose-bisphosphatase 3.1.3.12 Trehalose-phosphatase 3.1.3.13 Deleted entry 3.1.3.14 Methylphosphothioglycerate phosphatase ...
EC 3.1.21.3: type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease * EC 3.1.21.4: type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease ... EC 3.1.3.48: protein-tyrosine-phosphatase * EC 3.1.3.49: (pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase ... EC 3.5.4.17: adenosine-phosphate deaminase * EC 3.5.4.18: ATP deaminase * EC 3.5.4.19: phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase ... EC 3.1.3.11: fructose-bisphosphatase * EC 3.1.3.12: trehalose-phosphatase * EC 3.1.3.13: bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase ...
The phosphatidylinositol‐4,5‐bisphophate 3‐kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway is a highly conserved signalling ... dependent target gene transcription, Utilization of glucose by two strains of Entamoeba histolytica, The effect of 2‐ ... a low level of ATP is produced which effectively decreases the ATP/AMP (adenosine monophosphate) ratio. Hexokinase I is the ... glucokinase phosphofructokinase pyruvate kinase PK! Microenvironment reduce immune cell types are recruited to a tumour to ...
... we have compared the effects of glucose on global transcription in a wild-type strain and in two strains devoid of PKA activity ... We show also that, for a number of genes controlled by glucose through a PKA-dependent pathway, the changes in mRNA levels are ... An increased activity of protein kinase A (PKA), triggered by a rise in the intracellular concentration of cAMP, can account ... Dombek KM, Young ET: Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits ADH2 expression in part by decreasing expression of the ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates ... Unger RH, Orci L (June 1981). "Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (first two parts)". The New England ... Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions of insulin suppression (such as diabetes mellitus type 1).[9] ... This regulates the reaction catalyzing fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (a potent activator of phosphofructokinase-1, the enzyme that ...
Pocket proteins are, in turn, regulated through phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk). miR-134 in extracellular ... The temperature dependence of the line widths of the proton resonances of AMP as a function of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase ... Thus, platelet aggregation and cyclic AMP formation are influenced by beta-adrenoceptor blockade in proportion to intrinsic ... The oral dose of Arcolan in adults is 200 to 400 mg daily, taken for two to eight weeks (a single dose may be effective for ...
van Calker D, Müller M, Hamprecht B (1978). "Adenosine inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured brain cells". Nature ... The two histidine and two aspartic acid residues, which bind zinc are conserved among all studied PDEs (See review article [3] ... As different PDE types may affect different cAMP pools, the different PDEs may regulate different processes in the cell.[9]. ... Protein phosphatase *PP2A. *OCRL. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. *Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases Phosphorylation Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Molecular basis for the substrate specificity of glycogen synthease kinase-3 and casein kinase-II (glycogen synthase kinase-5) ... Type Language Publication Year Top Authors Concepts Research Units Collaborators Open access ... The allosteric properties of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Meek, D. W. & Nimmo, H. G., 15 Aug 1984, In : Biochemical ...
The two strains investigated had significantly different uptake rates of xylose which led to an enhanced response in the XI- ... Two isogenic strains were studied, differing only in the pathways used for xylose assimilation: the oxidoreductive pathway with ... The isogenic relationship between the two strains ascertains that the observed responses are a result of the particular xylose ... We used this potential to evaluate the metabolic status of two recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic ...
cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase. kfl00484_0040 Gene product. probable lrr receptor-like serine threonine-prot ein ... kinase fructose- -bisphos phatase. kfl00285_0110 Gene product. serine threonine-protein kinase. ... kinase in Gene Symbols or Definition *kinase in all targets *photosystem II in all targets *photosystem II in GO gene ... calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. kfl00098_0050 Gene product. serine threonine-protein kinase ulk4-like. ...
R. Song, B. Yang, X. Gao et al., "Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein transcriptionally regulates ... a complex II assembly factor, and FBP1 (fructose bisphosphatase 1), an enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis (Lamont 2006). ... B. Wang and G. D. Kruh, "Subcellular localization of the Arg protein tyrosine kinase," Oncogene, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 193-197, ... Furthermore, it was revealed that c-AMP response element binding protein (CREBP) plays an important role in the transcriptional ...
Cyclic AMP controls mTOR through regulation of the dynamic interaction between Rheb and phosphodiesterase 4D. Kim, H. W., Ha, S ... Carbonylation of adipose proteins in obesity and insulin resistance: Identification of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein as ... Characterization of two forms of asparaginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dunlop, P. C., Meyer, G. M., Ban, D. & Roon, R. J., ... Creatine kinase B is necessary to limit myoblast fusion during myogenesis. Simionescu-Bankston, A., Pichavant, C., Canner, J. P ...
... bisphosphatase (TIGAR), hexokinase II, protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt, p70 S6 kinase (S6K), and phosphorylated p70 ... which diminishes diabetic cardiomyopathy in a chronic type 1 diabetic model via activation of AMP kinase.43 A potential, and ... cAMP‐dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling is impaired in the diabetic heart. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:29250-29258. ... Cyclic AMP suppresses the inhibition of glycolysis by alternative oxidizable substrates in the heart. J Clin Invest. 1998;101: ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha. 0.075. Cacna1a. calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A ... cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21. 0.014. Clgn. calmegin. 0.014. Tcea3. transcription elongation factor A (SII), 3. 0.014 ... fructose bisphosphatase 2. 0.011. Pgam2. phosphoglycerate mutase 2. 0.011. Llgl2. lethal giant larvae homolog 2 (Drosophila). ... adenosine deaminase domain containing 1 (testis specific). 0.012. Nos1. nitric oxide synthase 1, neuronal. 0.012. ...
YJR105W 2.7.1.20 YJR105W Adenosine kinase ADN + ATP -, AMP + ADP prm2 YDR226W 2.7.4.3 adk1 cytosolic adenylate kinase ATP + AMP ... Mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase YKL192C 1.6.5.3 ACP1 Acyl carrier protein, component of NADHm + Qm -, NADm + QH2m ... 271-284 (Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Lancaster, 1997). [0227]Sedivy, J. M. and Fraenkel, D. G. Fructose Bisphosphatase of ... AMP + PPI + GMP gua1 6.3.4.1 YML035C 3.5.4.6 amd1 AMP deaminase AMP -, IMP + NH3 amd1 YGL248W 3.1.4.17 PDE1 3,5-Cyclic- ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: 1 outcome in 5 results : IBA ... Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein (Cyclic AMP-Responsive DNA-Binding Protein): 1 study in 1 result : IBA ... Fructose-Bisphosphatase: 1 study in 1 result : IBA. *Haptens: 1 study in 1 result : IBA ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II (Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase): 1 outcome in 15 results : IBA ...
... adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and an inhibitor of glycolysis, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) ( ... two-thirds of which are classified as type I and the remainder are classified as type II (fig. S1, A to C). Type I MAGEs (MAGE- ... Phosphorylation of bovine hormone-sensitive lipase by the AMP-activated protein kinase. A possible antilipolytic mechanism. Eur ... Continuous spermatogenesis is dependent on SSCs, which balance self-renewing divisions that maintain the stem cell pool with ...
This study employed flux analysis to investigate phenotypic heterogeneity among two cyanobacterial strains with near-identical ... relative ATP ratio over ADP and AMP), less accumulation of glycogen, and potentially metabolite channeling. Furthermore, ... photorespiration and pyruvate kinase, but minimal flux through the malic enzyme and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways under ... fructose-bisphosphatase, transketolase, and RuBisCO reactions) that can enhance its growth [31-33] and could potentially be ...
Genetic and pharmacological demonstration of a role for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated suppression of protein ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein phosphatase 2A on the quisqualic acid-induced K-super(+)-current response in ... Mediation of Corticotropin Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptor Phosphorylation and Desensitization by Protein Kinase C: A Possible ... Biber, K., Walden, J., Gebicke-Harter, P., & Berger, M. (1996). Carbamazepine inhibits the potentiation by adenosine analogues ...
... cyclic AMP or cAMP, that activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase A or PKA (EC 2.7.11.11). The kinase ... Two hormones are mainly involved: glucagon and insulin. They act intracellularly through fructose 2,6-bisphosphate or F26BP, an ... The other LDH isoenzymes have intermediate properties, depending on the ratio between the two types of subunits.. It is thought ... by cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a crucial determinant of endogenous glucose production and is controlled by the glucose-6- ...
... of these genes are related to human type 2 diabetes. Then, we systematically compared these genes and found that more than 70% ... Higher dietary fructose is associated with impaired hepatic adenosine triphosphate homeostasis in obese individuals with type 2 ... Pilkis SJ, Claus TH, el-Maghrabi MR: The role of cyclic AMP in rapid and long-term regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis ... Zebrafish-specific si:ch211-167b20.8 and human-specific CALML6, encoding PP1 and PHK, respectively, which are two proteins that ...
  • Additionally, the coordinated control of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver is adjusted by the phosphorylation state of the enzymes that catalyze the formation of a potent activator of glycolysis called fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This regulates the reaction catalyzing fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (a potent activator of phosphofructokinase-1, the enzyme that is the primary regulatory step of glycolysis) by slowing the rate of its formation, thereby inhibiting the flux of the glycolysis pathway and allowing gluconeogenesis to predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation in the reversible switch over from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis seems to be feasible by the interplay of two feedback inhibitors, alanine and ATP, and a forward activator, fructose diphosphate. (bifi.es)
  • Only two molecules of ATP are generated in glycolysis in the conversion of glucose into pyruvate. (bifi.es)
  • Previous studies have mainly focused on catabolic glycolysis, but recently, FBPase, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was found to play critical roles in tumour initiation and progression in several cancer types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm, describes the anaerobic conversion of a single molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. (autotydzien.pl)
  • 2003). 10 steps of glycolysis serve to split glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvates. (autotydzien.pl)
  • The first five steps of Glycolysis are regarded as the preparatory (or investment) phase, since they consume energy to convert the glucose into two three-carbon sugar phosphates (G3P). (autotydzien.pl)
  • Phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK‐2) is a primary regulator of cardiac glycolysis and substrate selection, yet its regulation under normal and pathological conditions is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions The loss of PFK‐2 content as a result of reduced insulin signaling impairs the capacity to dynamically regulate glycolysis and elevates the levels of early glycolytic intermediates. (ahajournals.org)
  • Phosphofructokinase‐2 (PFK‐2), a central regulator of cardiac glycolysis that is normally activated in response to adrenergic stimulation and/or insulin signaling, is decreased in mouse models of reduced insulin signaling, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, high‐fat feeding, and overnight fasting. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Synechococcus 2973 flux maps show substantial carbon flow through the Calvin cycle, glycolysis, photorespiration and pyruvate kinase, but minimal flux through the malic enzyme and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways under high light/CO 2 conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase manufactures cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular effects of glucagon in the hepatocyte are complex, but most or possibly all result from activation of adenylate cyclase, intracellular production of cAMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA). (springer.com)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKA is also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase ( EC 2.7.11.11 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it has traditionally been thought to be activated through release of the catalytic subunits when levels of the second messenger cAMP rise in response to a variety of signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate kinase is phosphorylated, and thereby inhibited, by protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) in response to low blood glucose and increased when blood glucose levels rise. (bifi.es)
  • Bcy1, the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), when binding cAMP, dissociates from the catalytic subunits and thereby activates them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.11.31) that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, largely to activate glucose and fatty acid uptake and oxidation when cellular energy is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5'-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. (drugbank.ca)
  • Nucleotides such as Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate affect a number of immune functions, including the reversal of malnutrition and starvation-induced immunosuppression, the enhancement of T-cell maturation and function, the enhancement of natural killer cell activity, the improvement of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, helping resistance to such infectious agents as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and finally the modulation of T-cell responses toward type 1 CD4 helper lymphocytes or Th1 cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by chemists Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase , which, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), directly increasing the cAMP level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on normal and vinblastine treated melanophores. (shouludliighvt6.gq)
  • Pyruvate kinase (PK) catalyzes an important process of transferring phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (bifi.es)
  • Low blood glucose stimulates gluconeogenesis, which takes It has been shown that muscle pyruvate kinase (PK) responds hyperbolically to its substrate, PEP, but the liver form of the enzyme responds sigmoidally. (bifi.es)
  • The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present investigation was undertaken to determine the role of endotoxin (ET) upon hepatocyte glucoregulation, by measuring the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key glycolytic enzyme. (diva-portal.org)
  • When the G protein interacts with the receptor, it undergoes a conformational change that results in the replacement of the GDP molecule that was bound to the α subunit with a GTP molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the γ subunit includes four particular Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domains, giving AMPK its ability to sensitively detect shifts in the AMP:ATP ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • failed verification] As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on the α subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPK is regulated allosterically mostly by competitive binding on its gamma subunit between ATP (which allows phosphatase access to T172) and AMP or ADP (each of which blocks access to phosphatases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic subunit contains the active site, a series of canonical residues found in protein kinases that bind and hydrolyse ATP and a domain to bind the regulatory subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulatory subunit has domains to bind to cyclic AMP, a domain that interacts with catalytic subunit and an auto inhibitory domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gs alpha subunit of the stimulated G protein complex exchanges GDP for GTP and is released from the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released from their inhibitory Regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunits can go on to phosphorylate a huge number of other proteins in the minimal substrate context Arg-Arg-X-Ser/Thr. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxylation of HIF‐1α promotes its binding to the von Hippel‐Lindau (VHL) protein, a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which leads to the polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the α subunit. (autotydzien.pl)
  • Galpha subunit Gpa2 recruits kelch repeat subunits that inhibit receptor-G protein coupling during cAMP-induced dimorphic transitions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • It is in this catalytic domain where AMPK becomes activated when phosphorylation takes place at threonine-172 by an upstream AMPK kinase (AMPKK). (wikipedia.org)
  • They won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for their work on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and how it relates to protein kinase A activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), in its opposing pathway, is increased as a result of increased transcription of the PEPCK gene in response to the activation of the CREB transcription factor by its phosphorylation by protein kinase A. [(1974) Biochim. (bifi.es)
  • Pocket proteins are, in turn, regulated through phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk). (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Its binding to COX is promoted by tyrosine-99 phosphorylation, carried out by ABL2 kinase (ARG). (hindawi.com)
  • Decreased protein translation resulted from phosphorylation (and inactivation) of eIF2alpha. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The enzyme protein kinase A (PKA) that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine residue of the bifunctional polypeptide chain containing both the enzymes fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) is a chromogenic substrate for most phosphatases such as alkaline phosphatases, acid phosphatases, protein tyrosine phosphatases and serine/threonine phosphatases. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, TBK1 overexpression decreased sensitivity of ß-cells to the elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and reduced proliferation of ß-cells in a manner dependent on the activity of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3). (bvsalud.org)
  • First, the magnitude of glucagon-dependent changes in gene expression and cellular levels of metabolic enzymes under normal physiological conditions is unlikely to exert a profound influence on gluconeogenic fluxes. (springer.com)
  • In cell biology , protein kinase A ( PKA [N 1] ) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxaloacetate (OA) is the common metabolite of these enzymes, the product of the former and The ATP inhibition is enhanced by citrate, which stimulates fructose 1,6-bis phosphatase, and reversed by AMP. (bifi.es)
  • To enable xylose utilization and fermentation to ethanol by S. cerevisiae , one of two heterologous pathways have been introduced: the oxido-reductive pathway or the isomerisation pathway [ 10 ] (Figure 1 A). The oxido-reductive pathway is found in fungi and consists of two enzymes, a NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR) and a NAD-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of members of the family of enzymes known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases ( ERKs ) is now known to be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the pain associated with many inflammatory conditions, such as herniated spinal disc pain, chronic inflammatory articular pain, and the pain associated with bladder inflammation. (chemweb.com)
  • Many proteins are the enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (enacademic.com)
  • This hydrolytic reaction is catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphatase Step-1: Conversion of pyruvate into phosphoenolpyruvate. (bifi.es)
  • Baumner, H et al , Expression of Protein Histidine Phosphatase in Escherichia coli, Purification, and Determination of Enzyme Activity. (wikia.org)
  • However, the release of glucose into the circulation does not occur because these tissues, unlike liver, kidney cortex, and enterocytes, lack glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.9), the enzyme that catalyzes the last step of gluconeogenesis (see below). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Active ERK Contributes to Protein Translation by Preventing JNK-Dependent Inhibition of Protein Phosphatase. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In support of this hypothesis, we have found novel links among ERK, JNK, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2alpha. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent kinases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position. (drugbank.ca)
  • In PDEs that are selective for either cAMP or cGMP, this glutamine is constrained by neighboring residues to a position favoring selectivity for either cyclic nucleotide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: NAD+ + deoxyribonucleotide(n) + deoxyribonucleotide(m) = AMP + nicotinamide nucleotide + deoxyribonucleotide(n+m). (leibniz-fli.de)
  • This enzyme, in turn, activates phosphorylase kinase, which then phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase b (PYG b), converting it into the active form called phosphorylase a (PYG a). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen , sugar , and lipid metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Synechococcus 2973 demonstrated similar flux ratios to Synechococcus 7942 (under fast growth conditions), but exhibited greater carbon assimilation, higher NADPH concentrations, higher energy charge (relative ATP ratio over ADP and AMP), less accumulation of glycogen, and potentially metabolite channeling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the production of glucose 6-phosphate, including that from glycogenolysis , does not contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose levels, and only helps to restore glycogen stores, in the brain small and limited mostly to astrocytes. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, located in the plasma membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once in circulation it exerts its endocrine effects on the liver through activation of the glucagon receptor (GCGR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and engagement of the Gα s and β-arrestin pathways. (springer.com)
  • Extracellular hormones such as glucagon and epinephrine begin an intracellular signalling cascade that triggers protein kinase A activation by first binding to a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) on the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a GPCR is activated by its extracellular ligand, a conformational change is induced in the receptor that is transmitted to an attached intracellular heterotrimeric G protein complex by protein domain dynamics . (wikipedia.org)
  • They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. (chemweb.com)
  • The following human genes encode AMPK subunits: α - PRKAA1, PRKAA2 β - PRKAB1, PRKAB2 γ - PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3 The crystal structure of mammalian AMPK regulatory core domain (α C terminal, β C terminal, γ) has been solved in complex with AMP, ADP or ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2 , is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe hypoxic treatment (0.1% O2) fails to induce glycolytic gene expression (LDHA, PGK‐1, PGM‐1 and PKM) in human renal carcinoma cells (786‐O) overexpressing VHL (786‐O WT‐8) despite the induction of HIF‐2α responsive genes at the same oxygen tension (Hu et al. (autotydzien.pl)
  • 2018) are largely dependent on HIF‐2α expression, while the expression of genes encoding glucose transporter GLUT1 and VEGF appear to be regulated by both HIF‐1α and HIF‐2α (Hu et al. (autotydzien.pl)
  • We show also that, for a number of genes controlled by glucose through a PKA-dependent pathway, the changes in mRNA levels are transient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • over 57% of these genes are related to human type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, we observed a higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissue and an augmented browning in inguinal white adipose tissue with upregulation of UCP-1 and related genes involved in thermogenesis in Entpd3-/- mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Proteomic and transcriptome analyses revealed that genetic silencing of TBK1 increased expression of proteins and genes essential for cell proliferation in INS-1 832/13 rat ß-cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • [5] The co-crystal structures for PDE4B, PDE4D and PDE5 A have revealed two common features of inhibitor binding to PDEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are regulated by their location within the cell and by specific inhibitor proteins. (wikia.org)
  • To investigate the requirement for PKA in glucose control of gene expression, we have compared the effects of glucose on global transcription in a wild-type strain and in two strains devoid of PKA activity, tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 yak1 and tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 msn2 msn4 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 43. The method of claim 42, wherein said annotation is selected from the group consisting of assignment of a gene, assignment of a protein, assignment of a subsystem, assignment of a confidence rating, reference to genome annotation information and reference to a publication. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Camps, S et al , Dual specificity phosphatases: a gene family for control of MAP kinase function. (wikia.org)
  • The gene encoded a protein of 761 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 86,758 Da. (shouludliighvt6.gq)
  • cAMP binds to protein kinase A, and the complex phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase phosphorylates phosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase phosphorylates phosphorylase. (kiwix.org)
  • The classical PKA holoenzyme structure consists of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] In contrast, experimentally induced supra physiological concentrations of cAMP are able to cause separation of the holoenzymes, and release of the catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by two cAMP molecules binding to each of the two cAMP binding sites (CNB-B and CNB-A) which induces a conformational change in the regulatory subunits of PKA causing the subunits to detach and unleash the two (now activated) catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + deoxyribonucleotide(n) + deoxyribonucleotide(m) = AMP + diphosphate + deoxyribonucleotide(n+m). (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-aspartate + NH3 = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxytransferase) = AMP + diphosphate + (methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxytransferase). (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (R)-pantoate + beta-alanine = AMP + diphosphate + (R)-pantothenate. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Glucagon production appears to be dependent on the central nervous system through pathways yet to be defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two isogenic strains were studied, differing only in the pathways used for xylose assimilation: the oxidoreductive pathway with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) or the isomerization pathway with xylose isomerase (XI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kinase signalling pathways [7] ) or enable a protein-protein interaction to occur (e.g. (wikia.org)
  • An example of the pathway would be when glucagon binds to a transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol, derived from the lipolysis of adipose triacylglycerol in response to low insulin when blood [glucose] is low is phosphroylated in the liver by Glycerol Kinase and reduced to dihydroxyacdetone phosphate by Glycerol 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase, which enters the gluconeogenesis pathway. (bifi.es)
  • The isogenic relationship between the two strains ascertains that the observed responses are a result of the particular xylose pathway and not due to unknown changes in regulatory systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of the Mia40 (CHCHD4)/Erv1 import pathway in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) heightened interest in the CHCHD-containing protein family [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike matrix or inner-membrane-bound proteins, proteins that use the Mia40 pathway do not require a mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) precursor. (hindawi.com)
  • Gluconeogenesis is an essential metabolic pathway for at least two reasons. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Pancreatic cancers use the sugar fructose, very common in the Western diet, to activate a key cellular pathway that drives cell division, helping the cancer grow more quickly, a study by researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has found. (fuqna.com)
  • The first evidence of the existence of the phosphogluconate pathway was obtained in the 1930s by the studies of Otto Warburg , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931, who discovered NADP during studies on the oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • As a composite, our data demonstrate that in human alveolar macrophages, constitutive ERK activity positively regulates protein translation via the following novel pathway: active ERK inhibits JNK, leading to activation of PP1alpha, eIF2alpha dephosphorylation, and translation initiation. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some are cAMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 4, -7 and -8), others are cGMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 5, -6 and -9) and the rest can hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP (PDE1, -2, -3, -10 and -11). (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex also contains other proteins that may confer substrate specificity on the complex. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. (drugbank.ca)
  • NTPDase3 catalyzes the conversion of extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP and modulates purinergic signaling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions of insulin suppression (such as diabetes mellitus type 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of impaired systemic control of glucose homeostasis, in part through the dysregulation of the hormone glucagon. (springer.com)
  • Methods and Results Streptozotocin‐induced diabetes mellitus, high‐fat diet feeding, and fasted mice were used to identify how decreased insulin signaling affects PFK‐2 and cardiac metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both type 1 diabetes mellitus and a high‐fat diet induced a significant decrease in cardiac PFK‐2 protein content without affecting its transcript levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac PFK‐2 levels normally fluctuate dynamically between the fed and fasted states, but they are persistently decreased with diabetes mellitus and a high‐fat diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of CaMKK2 with AMPK only involves the alpha and beta subunits of AMPK (AMPK gamma is absent from the CaMKK2 complex), thus rendering regulation of AMPK in this context to changes in calcium levels but not AMP or ADP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four cAMP molecules are able to bind to the two R-subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to binding AMP and ADP, the net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipogenesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • present only in liver and kidney, the two tissues that can export glucose into the blood. (bifi.es)
  • The bottom line is the modern diet contains a lot of refined sugar including fructose, and it's a hidden danger implicated in a lot of modern diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and fatty liver," said Heaney, who also serves as co-director of the Pituitary Tumor and Neuroendocrine Program at UCLA . (fuqna.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Protein Structure and Molecular. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate + ATP + NH(3) = L-glutamine + ADP + 2 H(+) + phosphate. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: 5-phospho-D-ribosylamine + ATP + glycine = N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + ADP + 2 H(+) + phosphate. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • When cGMP binds to the allosteric GAF-B domain of the PDE, it causes conformational change in the protein structure leading to higher enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of AMPK by CaMKK2 requires a direct interaction of these two proteins via their kinase domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010). However, while these findings outline a likely role of non‐coding RNAs in regulating HIF‐1‐dependent reprogramming of glucose metabolism, as evident in hypoxic conditions, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of lncRNAs in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions remain to be fully elucidated. (autotydzien.pl)
  • The two histidine and two aspartic acid residues, which bind zinc are conserved among all studied PDEs (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain- (CHCHD-) containing proteins are small, nuclear-encoded proteins that are characterized by four cysteine residues organized in twin cysteine motifs, where the cysteines are separated by nine amino acids (twin CX 9 C proteins). (hindawi.com)
  • The oxidized cysteine residues of Mia40 then form disulfide bridges with the cysteine residues of the incoming twin CX 9 C protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in almost all organisms. (springer.com)
  • We used this potential to evaluate the metabolic status of two recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic batch fermentation of a glucose/xylose mixture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A long‐term decrease in PFK‐2 could increase cardiac metabolic inflexibility and contribute to diabetic heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The flux/metabolite profiling, biomass composition analysis, and genetic modification results elucidate a highly effective metabolic topology for CO 2 assimilatory and biosynthesis in Synechococcus 2973. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The addition of dietary nucleotides normalizes both types of responses. (drugbank.ca)
  • As mentioned above, PDE2 is able to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP ( figure 1 ), whereas some other members of the PDE family are selective for either of the two cyclic nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family and its orthologues are SNF1 in yeast, and SnRK1 in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins contain highly conserved cysteines in their redox-active sites, which enable the modification of target enzyme conformation and activity by reversible thiol-disulfide exchanges. (springer.com)
  • The transmembrane proteins interacts with Gɑβ𝛾. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gɑ separates from Gβ𝛾 and interacts with the transmembrane protein adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsova B, Hoja U, Wimmelbacher M et al (2010) Plastidial thioredoxin z interacts with two fructokinase-like proteins in a thiol-dependent manner: evidence for an essential role in chloroplast development in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. (springer.com)
  • This study was undertaken to determine how changes in insulin signaling affect PFK‐2 content, activity, and cardiac metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • NADPH is needed for reductive biosynthesis, such as the synthesis of fatty acids , cholesterol, steroid hormones and of two non-essential amino acids, proline and tyrosine, from glutamate and phenylalanine, respectively, as well as for the reduction of oxidized glutathione . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds . (enacademic.com)
  • A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin-protein ligase and enables ubiquitin protein ligase activity. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • An unbiased metabolomic study demonstrated that decreased PFK‐2 in fasted animals is accompanied by an increase in glycolytic intermediates upstream of phosphofructokianse‐1, whereas those downstream are diminished. (ahajournals.org)
  • The standard prep protocol starts with 100 µl of clarified cellular extracts, or approximately 2 mg total cellular extract protein, but the process can be scaled up or down to accommodate different sample volumes and protein concentrations. (biotechsupportgroup.com)
  • Cysteine -dependent Phosphatases (CDPs) and metallo-phosphatases (which are dependent on metal ions in their active sites for activity). (wikia.org)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been mainly studied in its role in the production of amyloid β peptides (Aβ), because Aβ deposition is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (chemweb.com)
  • And, the importance of gluconeogenesis is further emphasized by the fact that if the blood glucose levels fall below 2 mmol/L, unconsciousness occurs. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Sources of fructose in the Western diet include cane sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a corn-based sweetener that has been on the market since about 1970. (fuqna.com)
  • In this model, the phloem was considered as a non-growing transport compartment, the mesophyll compartment was considered as both autotrophic (growing on CO 2 under light) and heterotrophic (growing on starch in darkness), and the root was always considered as heterotrophic tissue dependent on sucrose supply from the mesophyll compartment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The main H + -fluxes were reconstructed and their directions matched with proton-dependent sucrose translocation from 'source' to 'sink' under any light condition. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Starch is a repository of carbon which is later used during the dark phase as the primary carbon source for biomass formation [ 2 ] and fuelling of sucrose biosynthesis and its transport. (beds.ac.uk)
  • KinaSorb™ was used to enrich for both a narrow spectrum substrate profile-Hexokinase activity, and a broad-spectrum protein kinase activity. (biotechsupportgroup.com)
  • This action is directly opposite to that of phosphorylases and kinases , which attach phosphate groups to their substrates by using energetic molecules like ATP . (wikia.org)
  • It occurs in all microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals, and the reactions are essentially the same, leading to the synthesis of one glucose molecule from two pyruvate molecules. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overnight fasting also induced a decrease in PFK‐2, suggesting it is rapidly degraded in the absence of insulin signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanistic studies using cardiomyocytes showed that, in the absence of insulin signaling, PFK‐2 is rapidly degraded via both proteasomal‐ and chaperone‐mediated autophagy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, we demonstrate that, in the absence of insulin signaling, PFK‐2 is degraded by mechanisms that include both proteasome‐ and chaperone‐mediated autophagy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although it is widely known that cancers use glucose, a simple sugar, to fuel their growth, this is the first time a link has been shown between fructose and cancer proliferation, said the study's senior author, Dr. Anthony Heaney, an associate professor of medicine and neurosurgery and a Jonsson Cancer Center researcher. (fuqna.com)
  • When AMPK phosphorylates acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), it inhibits synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and activates fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-molecule inhibitors of non-canonical IκB kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase ε (IKKε) have shown to stimulate ß-cell regeneration in multiple species. (bvsalud.org)