A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
Hexosediphosphates are organic compounds consisting of a hexose sugar molecule, such as glucose, linked to two phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in energy metabolism and signaling pathways in living organisms.
Fructosephosphates are organic compounds resulting from the combination of fructose with a phosphate group, playing crucial roles in various metabolic processes, particularly within carbohydrate metabolism.
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Hexoses are simple monosaccharides, specifically six-carbon sugars, which include glucose, fructose, and galactose, and play crucial roles in biological processes such as energy production and storage, and structural components of cells.
Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.
Hexosephosphates are sugar phosphate molecules, specifically those derived from hexoses (six-carbon sugars), such as glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, which play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
'Glucosephosphates' are organic compounds resulting from the reaction of glucose with phosphoric acid, playing crucial roles in various metabolic processes, such as energy transfer and storage within cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a high-energy organic compound, an intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, that plays a crucial role in the transfer of energy during metabolic processes, and serves as a substrate for various biosynthetic reactions.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Trioses are monosaccharides, specifically simple sugars, that contain three carbon atoms, and can be glyceraldehydes or dihydroxyacetones, which are important intermediates in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis.
Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are genetic disorders that result from enzyme deficiencies or transport defects in the metabolic pathways responsible for breaking down and processing carbohydrates, leading to accumulation of toxic intermediates or energy deficits, and typically presenting with multisystem clinical manifestations.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Glucose in blood.
Glyceraldehyde is a triose sugar, a simple monosaccharide (sugar) that contains three carbon atoms, with the molecular formula C3H6O3, and it exists in two structural forms, namely D-glyceraldehyde and L-glyceraldehyde, which are diastereomers of each other, and it is a key intermediate in several biochemical pathways, including glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
"Citrates, in a medical context, are compounds containing citric acid, often used in medical solutions for their chelating properties and as a part of certain types of nutritional support."
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Pyruvates, in the context of medical and biochemistry definitions, are molecules that result from the final step of glycolysis, containing a carboxylic acid group and an aldehyde group, playing a crucial role in cellular metabolism, including being converted into Acetyl-CoA to enter the Krebs cycle or lactate under anaerobic conditions.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Gluconates are salts or esters of gluconic acid, primarily used in medical treatments as a source of the essential nutrient, calcium, and as a chelating agent to bind and remove toxic metals such as aluminum and iron from the body.

Inhibition of transient and persistent Na+ current fractions by the new anticonvulsant topiramate. (1/2197)

The actions of the antiepileptic drug topiramate (TPM) on Na+ currents were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dissociated neocortical neurons and intracellular recordings in neocortical slices. Relatively low TPM concentrations (25-30 microM) slightly inhibited the persistent fraction of Na+ current in dissociated neurons and reduced the Na+-dependent long-lasting action potential shoulders, which can be evoked in layer V pyramidal neurons after Ca++ and K+ current blockade. Conversely, the same drug concentrations were ineffective in reducing the amplitude of the fast Na+-dependent action potentials evoked in slices or the peak of transient Na+ (INaf) current evoked in isolated neurons from a physiological holding potential. Consistent INaf inhibition became, however, evident only when the neuronal membrane was kept depolarized to enhance resting Na+ channel inactivation. TPM (100 microM) was ineffective on the voltage dependence of activation but induced a leftward shift of the steady-state INaf inactivation curve. The drug-induced inhibitory effect increased with the duration of membrane depolarization, and the recovery of INaf after long membrane depolarizations was slightly delayed in comparison with that observed under control conditions. The obtained evidence suggests that the anticonvulsant action of TPM may operate by stabilizing channel inactivation, which can be induced by depolarizing events similar to those occurring in chronic epileptic conditions. Concurrently, the slight but significant inhibition of the persistent fraction of the Na+ current, obtained with the application of relatively low TPM concentrations, may contribute toward its anticonvulsant effectiveness by modulating the near-threshold depolarizing events that are sustained by this small current fraction.  (+info)

Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. (2/2197)

BACKGROUND: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. DESIGN: Twelve healthy, male adolescents aged 14-16 y received, for 9 d, 15 g oligofructose or sucrose (control treatment) daily over 3 main meals. The treatments were given according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 19-d washout period. On the 8th day of each treatment period, 44Ca was given orally with a standard breakfast containing approximately 200 mg Ca. Within half an hour after administration of 44Ca, 48Ca was administered intravenously. Fractional calcium absorption was computed from the enrichment of 44Ca:43Ca and 48Ca:43Ca in 36-h urine samples, which was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: An increase in true fractional calcium absorption (%) was found after consumption of oligofructose (mean difference +/- SE of difference: 10.8+/-5.6; P < 0.05, one sided). The results are discussed in relation to the methods used. CONCLUSION: Fifteen grams of oligofructose per day stimulates fractional calcium absorption in male adolescents.  (+info)

Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose. (3/2197)

BACKGROUND: To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and alpha-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose-induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol suppressed high glucose-induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, alpha-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, alpha-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that probucol and alpha-tocopherol may suppress high glucose-induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.  (+info)

Adjunctive therapy in epilepsy: a cost-effectiveness comparison of two AEDs. (4/2197)

The objective of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two AEDs by a prospective clinical audit. Patients starting on the adjunctive therapies lamotrigine and topiramate were recruited from the out-patient epilepsy clinics at Queen Square. Three interview were scheduled: baseline; three months follow-up and six months from baseline. Of the 81 patients recruited, a total of 73 patients completed all three interviews. An intention to treat analysis was performed on the data. Seizure severity and frequency were assessed using the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale. Side-effects, adverse events and reasons for stopping medication were also recorded. At the third interview, a total of 47/73 (64%) were still on the prescribed adjunctive drug. Outcome was assessed by two methods: the > 50% seizure reduction cited in the literature and a more stringent assessment of patient 'satisfaction' which we defined operationally on clinical criteria. Using this definition, a total of 10/73 (14%) patients were 'satisfied'. The relative costs of starting patients on each of the two AEDs were calculated, both drug costs and the costs of adverse events (the latter were defined as events requiring urgent medical attention). The costs of the two drugs were compared. A number of methodological issues relating to cost comparison are discussed. Outcome and pharmaco-economic studies need to assess more than reduction in number of seizures. They should take into account variables important for quality of life including side-effects and adverse events.  (+info)

Topiramate for intractable childhood epilepsy. (5/2197)

To better define the efficacy and tolerability of the new anticonvulsant topiramate in pediatric patients, the clinical courses of 49 children with intractable seizures were monitored during topiramate therapy. The 80% of children who had complex partial seizures experienced better seizure control with topiramate than the 20% who had generalized seizures. Efficacy was greatest with doses between 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg/day. More than half the children on topiramate experienced adverse effects which could interfere with learning at school, but 20% demonstrated increased alertness or improved behavior. Topiramate is effective and may be considered as part of the treatment pathway for complex partial seizures in children, although careful monitoring of cognitive function is required.  (+info)

Novel alleles of yeast hexokinase PII with distinct effects on catalytic activity and catabolite repression of SUC2. (6/2197)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose or fructose represses the expression of a large number of genes. The phosphorylation of glucose or fructose is catalysed by hexokinase PI (Hxk1), hexokinase PII (Hxk2) and a specific glucokinase (Glk1). The authors have shown previously that either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for a rapid, sugar-induced disappearance of catabolite-repressible mRNAs (short-term catabolite repression). Hxk2 is specifically required and sufficient for long-term glucose repression and either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for long-term repression by fructose. Mutants lacking the TPS1 gene, which encodes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, can not grow on glucose or fructose. In this study, suppressor mutations of the growth defect of a tps1delta hxk1delta double mutant on fructose were isolated and identified as novel HXK2 alleles. All six alleles studied have single amino acid substitutions. The mutations affected glucose and fructose phosphorylation to a different extent, indicating that Hxk2 binds glucose and fructose via distinct mechanisms. The mutations conferred different effects on long- and short-term repression. Two of the mutants showed very similar defects in catabolite repression, despite large differences in residual sugar-phosphorylation activity. The data show that the long- and short-term phases of catabolite repression can be dissected using different hexokinase mutations. The lack of correlation between in vitro catalytic hexokinase activity, in vivo sugar phosphate accumulation and the establishment of catabolite repression suggests that the production of sugar phosphate is not the sole role of hexokinase in repression. Using the set of six hxk2 mutants it was shown that there is a good correlation between the glucose-induced cAMP signal and in vivo hexokinase activity. There was no correlation between the cAMP signal and the short- or long-term repression of SUC2, arguing against an involvement of cAMP in either stage of catabolite repression.  (+info)

Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum. (7/2197)

We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression  (+info)

Fructooligosaccharides and lactulose cause more symptoms in lactose maldigesters and subjects with pseudohypolactasia than in control lactose digesters. (8/2197)

BACKGROUND: Many lactose maldigesters tolerate more lactose in experimental studies than in everyday life, in which their symptoms may result from other carbohydrates as well. OBJECTIVE: The question of whether the symptoms caused by large quantities of carbohydrates are more severe in lactose maldigesters than in control lactose digesters or in lactose digesters who report milk to be the cause of their gastrointestinal symptoms (pseudohypolactasic subjects) was studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Comparisons between commonly used diagnostic methods for lactose maldigestion were also made. DESIGN: The subjects were 40 women aged 20-63 y from 3 groups: lactose maldigesters (n = 12), pseudohypolactasic subjects (n = 15), and control lactose digesters (n = 13). The subjects were given either 50 g lactose, 50 g sucrose, 25 g lactulose, or 25 g fructooligosaccharides. After carbohydrate ingestion, urine was collected and the breath-hydrogen concentration was measured every 30 min for 3 h. Blood glucose was measured every 20 min for 1 h and subjective gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored for 8 h with a questionnaire. RESULTS: When lactulose and fructooligosaccharides were ingested, the lactose maldigesters (P = 0.04 and 0.09, respectively) and the pseudohypolactasic subjects (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively) reported more symptoms than did the control lactose digesters. Sucrose caused more symptoms in the lactose maldigesters than in the control lactose digesters (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigesters and lactose digesters with pseudohypolactasia experience more symptoms than control lactose digesters after a single intake of large amounts of indigestible carbohydrates. Lactose maldigesters also experience more symptoms after ingesting sucrose.  (+info)

Fructose is a simple monosaccharide, also known as "fruit sugar." It is a naturally occurring carbohydrate that is found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Fructose has the chemical formula C6H12O6 and is a hexose, or six-carbon sugar.

Fructose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion and is metabolized primarily in the liver. It is sweeter than other sugars such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), which makes it a popular sweetener in many processed foods and beverages. However, consuming large amounts of fructose can have negative health effects, including increasing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fructosediphosphates" is not a recognized term in medicine or biochemistry. It's possible there may be a spelling mistake or misunderstanding in the term you're looking for.

If you meant "Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate," that is a key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. It's formed from fructose 6-phosphate in the process of glucose breakdown (glycolysis) and is then used in the generation of energy through the citric acid cycle.

If these terms are not what you were looking for, could you please provide more context or check the spelling? I'm here to help!

Hexose diphosphates refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms) linked to two phosphate groups. The most common examples of hexose diphosphates are glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which play important roles in cellular metabolism.

Glucose 1,6-bisphosphate is involved in the regulation of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. It acts as an allosteric regulator of several enzymes involved in this pathway and helps to maintain the balance between different metabolic processes.

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, on the other hand, is a key intermediate in gluconeogenesis, a process by which cells synthesize glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. It is also involved in the regulation of glycolysis and helps to control the flow of metabolites through these pathways.

Overall, hexose diphosphates are important regulators of cellular metabolism and play a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis in living organisms.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (also known as fructose 1,6-diphosphate or Fru-1,6-BP) is the chemical compound that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration and glucose metabolism. It is not accurate to refer to "fructosephosphates" as a medical term, but fructose-1-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important fructose phosphates with specific functions in the body.

Fructose-1-phosphate is an intermediate metabolite formed during the breakdown of fructose in the liver, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is a key regulator of glycolysis, the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate allosterically regulates the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is the rate-limiting step in glycolysis, and its levels are tightly controlled to maintain proper glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of fructose metabolism has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Fructose intolerance, also known as hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar called fructose, which is found in fruits, vegetables, and processed foods. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aldolase B, which is necessary for the breakdown and absorption of fructose in the liver.

When individuals with fructose intolerance consume food or drinks containing fructose, the undigested fructose accumulates in the bloodstream and gets absorbed by other organs, leading to a range of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, vomiting, and low blood sugar. Prolonged exposure to high levels of fructose can also cause liver damage, kidney failure, and growth retardation in children.

The diagnosis of fructose intolerance is usually made through a combination of clinical symptoms, genetic testing, and a fructose tolerance test. The treatment for fructose intolerance involves avoiding foods and drinks that contain fructose or limiting their consumption to very small amounts. In some cases, supplementation with enzyme replacement therapy may be recommended.

Fructose-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis, which is the process of generating new glucose molecules from non-carbohydrate sources in the body. Specifically, FBPase is involved in the fourth step of gluconeogenesis, where it catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and its conversion to fructose-6-phosphate represents an important regulatory point in these pathways. FBPase is inhibited by high levels of energy charge (i.e., when the cell has plenty of ATP and low levels of ADP), as well as by certain metabolites such as citrate, which signals that there is abundant energy available from other sources.

There are two main isoforms of FBPase in humans: a cytoplasmic form found primarily in the liver and kidney, and a mitochondrial form found in various tissues including muscle and brain. Mutations in the gene that encodes the cytoplasmic form of FBPase can lead to a rare inherited metabolic disorder known as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, which is characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis and hypoglycemia.

Glucose Transporter Type 5 (GLUT5) is a specific type of glucose transporter protein that facilitates the transport of fructose across biological membranes. It is a member of the solute carrier 2 family, also known as SLC2A5. GLUT5 is primarily expressed in the small intestine, where it absorbs dietary fructose from the lumen into the enterocytes, and in the kidney, where it reabsorbs fructose from the glomerular filtrate back into the bloodstream.

Unlike other GLUT family members that transport glucose using a facilitated diffusion mechanism, GLUT5 is unique because it transports fructose via a similar mechanism but with higher affinity and specificity for fructose. The gene encoding GLUT5 is located on chromosome 1 (1p34.2-p36.1) and consists of nine exons and eight introns.

Mutations in the GLUT5 gene have been associated with essential fructosuria, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an inability to metabolize fructose due to deficient intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of fructose. However, this condition is benign and does not cause any significant health problems.

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy currency for the cell. PFK-1 plays a crucial role in regulating the rate of glycolysis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using ATP as the phosphate donor.

PFK-1 is allosterically regulated by various metabolites, such as AMP, ADP, and ATP, which act as positive or negative effectors of the enzyme's activity. For example, an increase in the intracellular concentration of AMP or ADP can activate PFK-1, promoting glycolysis and energy production, while an increase in ATP levels can inhibit the enzyme's activity, conserving glucose for use under conditions of low energy demand.

Deficiencies in PFK-1 can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Tarui's disease or glycogen storage disease type VII, which is characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, and myoglobinuria (the presence of myoglobin in the urine due to muscle damage).

Fructokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates fructose into fructose-1-phosphate in the metabolism of dietary sugars. It plays a crucial role in fructose metabolism, particularly in the liver, kidneys, and intestines. In humans, there are several isoforms of fructokinase, including ketohexokinase (KHK-A and KHK-C) and liver fructokinase (KHK-B). Disorders in fructose metabolism, such as hereditary fructose intolerance, can result from mutations in the gene encoding for fructokinase.

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase is a crucial enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is a metabolic process that breaks down glucose to produce energy. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two triose sugars: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

There are two main types of aldolase isoenzymes in humans, classified as aldolase A (or muscle type) and aldolase B (or liver type). Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase refers specifically to aldolase A, which is primarily found in the muscles, brain, and red blood cells. Aldolase B, on the other hand, is predominantly found in the liver, kidney, and small intestine.

Deficiency or dysfunction of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase can lead to metabolic disorders, such as hereditary fructose intolerance, which results from a deficiency in another enzyme called aldolase B. However, it is essential to note that the term "fructose-bisphosphate aldolase" typically refers to aldolase A and not aldolase B.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the rate of glycolysis, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy. PFK-2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and subsequently fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-BP). F-2,6-BP is a potent allosteric activator of another enzyme called phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis.

PFK-2 exists as a complex with another enzyme, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-2), and together they form a bifunctional enzyme called PFK-2/FBPase-2. This enzyme can reversibly convert F-6-P to F-2,6-BP and vice versa depending on the cellular energy status. When cells have high energy levels, FBPase-2 is activated, which leads to a decrease in F-2,6-BP levels and an inhibition of glycolysis. Conversely, when cells require more energy, PFK-2 is activated, leading to an increase in F-2,6-BP levels and an activation of glycolysis.

Regulation of PFK-2 activity occurs through various mechanisms, including allosteric regulation by metabolites such as AMP, citrate, and phosphate, as well as covalent modification by protein kinases and phosphatases. Dysregulation of PFK-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Glycolysis is a fundamental metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, consisting of a series of biochemical reactions. It's the process by which a six-carbon glucose molecule is broken down into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. This process generates a net gain of two ATP molecules (the main energy currency in cells), two NADH molecules, and two water molecules.

Glycolysis can be divided into two stages: the preparatory phase (or 'energy investment' phase) and the payoff phase (or 'energy generation' phase). During the preparatory phase, glucose is phosphorylated twice to form glucose-6-phosphate and then converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. These reactions consume two ATP molecules but set up the subsequent breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into triose phosphates in the payoff phase. In this second stage, each triose phosphate is further oxidized and degraded to produce one pyruvate molecule, one NADH molecule, and one ATP molecule through substrate-level phosphorylation.

Glycolysis does not require oxygen to proceed; thus, it can occur under both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvate produced during glycolysis is further metabolized through fermentation pathways such as lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation to regenerate NAD+, which is necessary for glycolysis to continue.

In summary, glycolysis is a crucial process in cellular energy metabolism, allowing cells to convert glucose into ATP and other essential molecules while also serving as a starting point for various other biochemical pathways.

Sorbitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener in food and drinks, with about half the calories of table sugar. In a medical context, sorbitol is often used as a laxative to treat constipation, or as a sugar substitute for people with diabetes. It's also used as a bulk sweetener and humectant (a substance that helps retain moisture) in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

When consumed in large amounts, sorbitol can have a laxative effect because it's not fully absorbed by the body and draws water into the intestines, which can lead to diarrhea. It's important for people with certain digestive disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome or fructose intolerance, to avoid sorbitol and other sugar alcohols, as they can cause gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the final step of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Specifically, pyruvate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in the formation of pyruvate and ATP.

There are several isoforms of pyruvate kinase found in different tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain. The type found in red blood cells is known as PK-RBC or PK-M2. Deficiencies in pyruvate kinase can lead to a genetic disorder called pyruvate kinase deficiency, which can result in hemolytic anemia due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Hexoses are simple sugars (monosaccharides) that contain six carbon atoms. The most common hexoses include glucose, fructose, and galactose. These sugars play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as energy sources or forming complex carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. Hexoses are essential for the structure and function of living organisms, including humans.

Inborn errors of fructose metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process fructose, a simple sugar found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes responsible for encoding enzymes involved in fructose metabolism.

The two main types of inborn errors of fructose metabolism are:

1. Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI): This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B, which is necessary for the breakdown of fructose in the liver. When individuals with HFI consume fructose or sucrose (a disaccharide that contains fructose and glucose), they experience a buildup of toxic metabolites, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and in severe cases, liver damage and failure.
2. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase Deficiency (FBPase Deficiency): This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, which is essential for gluconeogenesis (the process of generating glucose from non-carbohydrate sources). Individuals with FBPase Deficiency experience symptoms such as hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and hyperventilation, particularly during periods of fasting or illness.

Both disorders can be managed through dietary restrictions and close monitoring of blood sugar levels. In severe cases, enzyme replacement therapy or liver transplantation may be considered.

Hexose phosphates are organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms, such as glucose or fructose) that has been phosphorylated, meaning that a phosphate group has been added to it. This process is typically facilitated by enzymes called kinases, which transfer a phosphate group from a donor molecule (usually ATP) to the sugar molecule.

Hexose phosphates play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. For example, glucose-6-phosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, while fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important intermediates in glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the production of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, begins with the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Overall, hexose phosphates are important metabolic intermediates that help regulate energy production and utilization in cells.

Dietary sucrose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the human diet. It is a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, but it is also added to a wide variety of processed foods and beverages as a sweetener.

In the body, sucrose is broken down into its component monosaccharides during digestion, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy. While small amounts of sucrose can be part of a healthy diet, consuming large amounts of added sugars, including sucrose, has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, it is recommended that people limit their intake of added sugars and focus on getting their sugars from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Glucose phosphates are organic compounds that result from the reaction of glucose (a simple sugar) with phosphate groups. These compounds play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in energy metabolism within cells. The addition of phosphate groups to glucose makes it more reactive and enables it to undergo further reactions that lead to the formation of important molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a primary source of energy for cellular functions.

One notable example of a glucose phosphate is glucose 1-phosphate, which is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including glycogenesis (the process of forming glycogen, a storage form of glucose) and glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose to release energy). Another example is glucose 6-phosphate, which is a key regulator of carbohydrate metabolism and serves as an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway, a metabolic route that generates reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis.

In summary, glucose phosphates are essential compounds in cellular metabolism, facilitating energy production, storage, and utilization.

Glucokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism. It is primarily found in the liver, pancreas, and brain. In the pancreas, glucokinase helps to trigger the release of insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels. In the liver, it plays a key role in controlling glucose storage and production.

Glucokinase has a unique property among hexokinases (enzymes that phosphorylate six-carbon sugars) in that it is not inhibited by its product, glucose-6-phosphate. This allows it to continue functioning even when glucose levels are high, making it an important regulator of glucose metabolism.

Defects in the gene that codes for glucokinase can lead to several types of inherited diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a key intermediate in the glycolysis pathway and other metabolic processes. It is a high-energy molecule that plays a crucial role in the transfer of energy during cellular respiration. Specifically, PEP is formed from the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and is then converted to pyruvate, releasing energy that is used to generate ATP, a major source of energy for cells.

Medically, abnormal levels of PEP may indicate issues with cellular metabolism or energy production, which can be associated with various medical conditions such as diabetes, mitochondrial disorders, and other metabolic diseases. However, direct measurement of PEP levels in clinical settings is not commonly performed due to technical challenges. Instead, clinicians typically assess overall metabolic function through a variety of other tests and measures.

Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple sugar that is used as an ingredient in many self-tanning products. When applied to the skin, DHA reacts with amino acids in the dead layer of the skin to temporarily darken the skin color. This process is known as the Maillard reaction, which is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a sugar. The effect of DHA is limited to the uppermost layer of the skin and it does not provide any protection against sunburn or UV radiation. The tanning effect produced by DHA usually lasts for about 5-7 days.

It's important to note that while DHA is considered safe for external use, it should not be inhaled or ingested, as it can cause irritation and other adverse effects. Additionally, some people may experience skin irritation or allergic reactions to products containing DHA, so it's always a good idea to do a patch test before using a new self-tanning product.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the small intestine. It involves the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. This process becomes particularly important during periods of fasting or starvation when glucose levels in the body begin to drop, and there is limited carbohydrate intake to replenish them.

Gluconeogenesis helps maintain blood glucose homeostasis by providing an alternative source of glucose for use by various tissues, especially the brain, which relies heavily on glucose as its primary energy source. It is a complex process that involves several enzymatic steps, many of which are regulated to ensure an adequate supply of glucose while preventing excessive production, which could lead to hyperglycemia.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Fructans are a type of carbohydrate known as oligosaccharides, which are made up of chains of fructose molecules. They are found in various plants, including wheat, onions, garlic, and artichokes. Some people may have difficulty digesting fructans due to a lack of the enzyme needed to break them down, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and stomach pain. This condition is known as fructan intolerance or fructose malabsorption. Fructans are also considered a type of FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols), which are short-chain carbohydrates that can be poorly absorbed by the body and may cause digestive symptoms in some individuals.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Glucose Transporter Proteins, Facilitative (GLUTs) are a group of membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of glucose and other simple sugars across the cell membrane. They are also known as solute carrier family 2 (SLC2A) members. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis within the body by regulating the uptake of glucose into cells. Unlike active transport, facilitative diffusion does not require energy and occurs down its concentration gradient. Different GLUT isoforms have varying tissue distributions and substrate specificities, allowing them to respond to different physiological needs. For example, GLUT1 is widely expressed and is responsible for basal glucose uptake in most tissues, while GLUT4 is primarily found in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue, where it mediates the increased glucose uptake in response to insulin signaling.

Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in various food and dental products. It has a sweet taste similar to sugar but with fewer calories and less impact on blood sugar levels, making it a popular choice for people with diabetes or those looking to reduce their sugar intake. Xylitol is also known to have dental benefits, as it can help prevent tooth decay by reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities.

Medically speaking, xylitol is classified as a carbohydrate and has a chemical formula of C5H12O5. It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most commercial xylitol is produced from corn cobs or other plant materials through a process called hydrogenation. While generally considered safe for human consumption, it can have a laxative effect in large amounts and may be harmful to dogs, so it's important to keep it out of reach of pets.

Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a vital intermediate compound in the metabolism of glucose, which is a simple sugar that serves as a primary source of energy for living organisms. G6P plays a critical role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, contributing to the regulation of blood glucose levels and energy production within cells.

In biochemistry, glucose-6-phosphate is defined as:

A hexose sugar phosphate ester formed by the phosphorylation of glucose at the 6th carbon atom by ATP in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase or glucokinase. This reaction is the first step in both glycolysis and glucose storage (glycogen synthesis) processes, ensuring that glucose can be effectively utilized for energy production or stored for later use.

G6P serves as a crucial metabolic branch point, leading to various pathways such as:

1. Glycolysis: In the presence of sufficient ATP and NAD+ levels, G6P is further metabolized through glycolysis to generate pyruvate, which enters the citric acid cycle for additional energy production in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2.
2. Gluconeogenesis: During periods of low blood glucose levels, G6P can be synthesized back into glucose through the gluconeogenesis pathway, primarily occurring in the liver and kidneys. This process helps maintain stable blood glucose concentrations and provides energy to cells when dietary intake is insufficient.
3. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP): A portion of G6P can be shunted into the PPP, an alternative metabolic route that generates NADPH, ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, and erythrose-4-phosphate for aromatic amino acid production. The PPP is essential in maintaining redox balance within cells and supporting biosynthetic processes.

Overall, glucose-6-phosphate plays a critical role as a central metabolic intermediate, connecting various pathways to regulate energy homeostasis, redox balance, and biosynthesis in response to cellular demands and environmental cues.

The Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is not exactly a "sugar," but rather a complex molecular machinery used by certain bacteria for the transport and phosphorylation of sugars. The PTS system is a major carbohydrate transport system in many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which allows them to take up and metabolize various sugars for energy and growth.

The PTS system consists of several protein components, including the enzyme I (EI), histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and sugar-specific enzymes II (EII). The process begins when PEP transfers a phosphate group to EI, which then passes it on to HPr. The phosphorylated HPr then interacts with the sugar-specific EII complex, which is composed of two domains: the membrane-associated domain (EIIA) and the periplasmic domain (EIIC).

When a sugar molecule binds to the EIIC domain, it induces a conformational change that allows the phosphate group from HPr to be transferred to the sugar. This phosphorylation event facilitates the translocation of the sugar across the membrane and into the cytoplasm, where it undergoes further metabolic reactions.

In summary, the Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System (PEP-PTS) is a bacterial transport system that utilizes phosphoryl groups from phosphoenolpyruvate to facilitate the uptake and phosphorylation of sugars, allowing bacteria to efficiently metabolize and utilize various carbon sources for energy and growth.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

Trioses are simple sugars that contain three carbon atoms and a functional group called a ketone or aldehyde. They are the simplest type of sugar molecule, after monosaccharides such as glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone.

Triose sugars can exist in two structural forms:

* Dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which is a ketotriose with the formula CH2OH-CO-CH2OH, and
* Glyceraldehyde (GA), which is an aldotriose with the formula HO-CHOH-CHO.

Trioses play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. In particular, DHA and GA are intermediates in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate during glycolysis, and they are also produced from pyruvate during gluconeogenesis.

Trioses can be synthesized chemically or biochemically through various methods, such as enzymatic reactions or microbial fermentation. They have potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, as they can serve as building blocks for more complex carbohydrates or as precursors for other organic compounds.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process carbohydrates, which are sugars and starches that provide energy for the body. These disorders are caused by defects in enzymes or transport proteins that play a critical role in the metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

There are several types of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism, including:

1. Galactosemia: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.
2. Glycogen storage diseases: These disorders affect the body's ability to store and break down glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a source of energy for the body. There are several types of glycogen storage diseases, each caused by a deficiency in a different enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism.
3. Hereditary fructose intolerance: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar fructose, which is found in fruits and sweeteners. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B.
4. Pentose phosphate pathway disorders: These disorders affect the body's ability to metabolize certain sugars and generate energy through the pentose phosphate pathway. They are caused by defects in enzymes involved in this pathway.

Symptoms of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and its severity. Treatment typically involves dietary restrictions, supplementation with necessary enzymes or cofactors, and management of complications. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or even organ transplantation may be considered.

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is an enzyme involved in the glycolytic and gluconeogenesis pathways. It catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), which are key metabolic intermediates in these pathways. This reaction is a reversible step that helps maintain the balance between the breakdown and synthesis of glucose in the cell.

In glycolysis, GPI converts G6P to F6P, which subsequently gets converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) by the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). In gluconeogenesis, the reaction is reversed, and F6P is converted back to G6P.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage diseases and hereditary motor neuropathies.

L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction between L-iditol and NAD+ to produce L-sorbose and NADH + H+. This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of sugars, specifically in the conversion of L-iditol to L-sorbose in various organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is part of the polyol pathway, which is involved in the regulation of osmotic pressure and other cellular processes.

Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate (DHAP) is a 3-carbon organic compound that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway called glycolysis. It is an intermediate molecule formed during the conversion of glucose into pyruvate, which ultimately produces energy in the form of ATP.

In the glycolytic process, DHAP is produced from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase. Then, DHAP is converted back to G3P in a subsequent step, which prepares it for further processing in the glycolytic pathway. This reversible conversion of DHAP and G3P helps maintain the equilibrium of the glycolytic process.

Apart from its role in energy metabolism, DHAP is also involved in other biochemical processes, such as the synthesis of glucose during gluconeogenesis and the formation of lipids in the liver.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Glyceraldehyde is a triose, a simple sugar consisting of three carbon atoms. It is a clear, colorless, sweet-tasting liquid that is used as a sweetener and preservative in the food industry. In the medical field, glyceraldehyde is used in research and diagnostics, particularly in the study of carbohydrate metabolism and enzyme function.

Glyceraldehyde is also an important intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, which is a series of reactions that convert glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy-rich compounds. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in this pathway.

In addition, glyceraldehyde has been studied for its potential role in the development of diabetic complications and other diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism disorders.

Glucose Transporter Type 2 (GLUT2) is a protein responsible for the facilitated diffusion of glucose across the cell membrane. It is a member of the solute carrier family 2 (SLC2), also known as the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT2 is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and intestines, where it plays a crucial role in regulating glucose homeostasis.

In the pancreas, GLUT2 is found in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, where it facilitates the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. Once inside the cell, glucose is metabolized, leading to an increase in ATP levels and the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This results in the depolarization of the cell membrane and the subsequent opening of voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing for the release of insulin from secretory vesicles into the bloodstream.

In the intestines, GLUT2 is expressed in the enterocytes of the small intestine, where it facilitates the absorption of glucose and other monosaccharides from the lumen into the bloodstream. In the kidneys, GLUT2 is found in the proximal tubules, where it plays a role in reabsorbing glucose from the filtrate back into the bloodstream.

Mutations in the gene that encodes GLUT2 (SLC2A2) can lead to several genetic disorders, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, which is characterized by impaired glucose and galactose absorption in the intestines, hepatic glycogen accumulation, and renal tubular dysfunction.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Liver glycogen is the reserve form of glucose stored in hepatocytes (liver cells) for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. It is a polysaccharide, a complex carbohydrate, that is broken down into glucose molecules when blood glucose levels are low. This process helps to maintain the body's energy needs between meals and during periods of fasting or exercise. The amount of glycogen stored in the liver can vary depending on factors such as meal consumption, activity level, and insulin regulation.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

Citrates are the salts or esters of citric acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables. In a medical context, citrates are often used as a buffering agent in intravenous fluids to help maintain the pH balance of blood and other bodily fluids. They are also used in various medical tests and treatments, such as in urine alkalinization and as an anticoagulant in kidney dialysis solutions. Additionally, citrate is a component of some dietary supplements and medications.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric monoesters into alcohol and phosphate. This class of enzymes includes several specific enzymes, such as phosphatases and nucleotidases, which play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of cellular processes.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are classified under the EC number 3.1.3 by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). The enzymes in this class share a common mechanism of action, which involves the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom of the substrate by a serine or cysteine residue in the active site of the enzyme. This results in the formation of a covalent intermediate, which is then hydrolyzed to release the products.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs that can modulate their activity. For example, inhibitors of phosphoric monoester hydrolases have been developed as potential treatments for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Hexokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the initial step of glucose metabolism, which is the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate. This reaction is the first step in most glucose catabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen synthesis.

Hexokinase has a high affinity for glucose, meaning it can bind and phosphorylate glucose even at low concentrations. This property makes hexokinase an important regulator of glucose metabolism in cells. There are four isoforms of hexokinase (I-IV) found in different tissues, with hexokinase IV (also known as glucokinase) being primarily expressed in the liver and pancreas.

In summary, hexokinase is a vital enzyme involved in glucose metabolism, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, and playing a crucial role in regulating cellular energy homeostasis.

Pyruvate is a negatively charged ion or group of atoms, called anion, with the chemical formula C3H3O3-. It is formed from the decomposition of glucose and other sugars in the process of cellular respiration. Pyruvate plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathways that generate energy for cells.

In the cytoplasm, pyruvate is produced through glycolysis, where one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, releasing energy and producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

In the mitochondria, pyruvate can be further metabolized through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) to produce more ATP. The process involves the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle and undergoes a series of reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide).

Overall, pyruvate is an important intermediate in cellular respiration and plays a central role in the production of energy for cells.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Beta-fructofuranosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of certain sugars, specifically those that have a fructose molecule bound to another sugar at its beta-furanose form. This enzyme is also known as invertase or sucrase, and it plays a crucial role in breaking down sucrose (table sugar) into its component parts, glucose and fructose.

Beta-fructofuranosidase can be found in various organisms, including yeast, fungi, and plants. In yeast, for example, this enzyme is involved in the fermentation of sugars during the production of beer, wine, and bread. In humans, beta-fructofuranosidase is present in the small intestine, where it helps to digest sucrose in the diet.

The medical relevance of beta-fructofuranosidase lies mainly in its role in sugar metabolism and digestion. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), which is characterized by the inability to digest certain sugars properly. This condition can cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after consuming foods containing sucrose or other affected sugars.

Gluconates are a group of salts and esters derived from gluconic acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally produced in the human body during the metabolism of carbohydrates. In medical contexts, gluconates are often used as a source of the essential mineral ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which are necessary for various bodily functions.

Gluconate salts are commonly used in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements because they are highly soluble in water, making them easy to absorb and utilize by the body. For example, calcium gluconate is a common treatment for hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), while magnesium gluconate is used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Gluconates may also be used as preservatives in some medical products, such as intravenous solutions and eye drops, due to their ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Overall, gluconates are a versatile class of compounds with important applications in medicine and health.

In addition, fructose transfer activity increases with dietary fructose intake. The presence of fructose in the lumen causes ... The first step in the metabolism of fructose is the phosphorylation of fructose to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase, thus ... Fructose exists in foods either as a monosaccharide (free fructose) or as a unit of a disaccharide (sucrose). Free fructose is ... The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus ...
... is a aminodeoxysugar. It takes the form of a pale yellow solid. It decomposes above 120 °C. Fructose- ... This fra locus has five genes: fraR (a regulator), fraB a fructose-asparagine deglycase, fraD a sugar kinase, fraA a fructose- ... However, this is not due to fructose-asparagine being an essential nutrient, but rather because fructose-asparagine is toxic to ... fraE encodes the periplasmic fructose-asparaginase FraE that removes ammonia from F-Asn to form fructose-aspartate (F-Asp). ...
... may refer to: Fructose malabsorption, a digestive disorder of the small intestine in which the fructose ... deficiency of liver enzymes that metabolise fructose This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Fructose ... carrier in enterocytes is deficient Hereditary fructose intolerance, a hereditary condition caused by a ...
... may refer to: Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (when the term "Fructose bisphosphatase" is used without ... 6-bisphosphatase This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Fructose bisphosphatase. If an internal link ... qualification, this is more frequently what is meant) Fructose 2, ...
Foods with high fructose-to-glucose ratio. Glucose enhances absorption of fructose, so fructose from foods with fructose-to- ... Simultaneous ingestion of fructose and sorbitol seems to increase malabsorption of fructose. Fructose that has not been ... However, fructose malabsorbers do not need to avoid gluten, as those with celiac disease must.[citation needed] Many fructose ... Fructose malabsorption is not to be confused with hereditary fructose intolerance, a potentially fatal condition in which the ...
This gene encodes a gluconeogenesis regulatory enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6 ... "Entrez Gene: Fructose-bisphosphatase 2". Retrieved 2018-09-14. Lee T, Bhushan B, Sochat M (January 2020). first aid for the ... September 2013). "Decreased fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-2 expression promotes glycolysis and growth in gastric cancer cells". ... Fructose-bisphosphatase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FBP2 gene. ...
Other names in common use include fructose 5-dehydrogenase (acceptor), D-fructose dehydrogenase, and D-fructose:(acceptor) 5- ... In enzymology, a fructose 5-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-fructose + ... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-fructose and acceptor, whereas its two products are 5-dehydro-D-fructose and reduced ... I Purification and properties of particle-bound fructose dehydrogenase". J. Biochem. Tokyo. 61 (5): 636-46. doi:10.1093/ ...
They should avoid fructose containing foods (as well as sucrose which breaks down to fructose). As with all single-gene ... In fructose bisphosphatase deficiency, there is not enough fructose bisphosphatase for gluconeogenesis to occur correctly. ... but fructose and glycerol cannot be used by the liver to maintain blood glucose levels. If fructose or glycerol are given, ... Kikawa, Y.; Shin, Y. S.; Inuzuka, M.; Zammarchi, E.; Mayumi, M. (1 February 2002). "Diagnosis of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase ...
... (HFI) is an inborn error of fructose metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B ... If fructose is ingested, the enzymatic block at aldolase B causes an accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate which, over time, ... After ingestion, fructose is converted to fructose-1-phosphate in the liver by fructokinase. Deficiencies of fructokinase cause ... Fructose malabsorption "Hereditary fructose intolerance". Genetic and Rare Disorders Information Center (GARD). National ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucose:D-fructose oxidoreductase. As of late 2007, 7 structures have been solved ... In enzymology, a glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.99.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucose + D ... Hardman MJ, Scopes RK (1988). "The kinetics of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis". Eur. J. Biochem. 173 (1 ... Zachariou M; Scopes RK (1986). "Glucose-fructose oxidoreductase: a new enzyme isolated from Zymomonas mobilis that is ...
... fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + 2(NADP+ + ADP + Pi) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + H2O → fructose 6-phosphate + Pi In gluconeogenesis ... "Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: a C-13 NMR study using C-13 fructose ... The metabolism of free fructose in liver exploits the ability of aldolase B to use fructose 1-phosphate as a substrate. ... Archaeal fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase is presumably involved in gluconeogenesis because its product is fructose 6 ...
Fructose-1-phosphate is a derivative of fructose. It is generated mainly by hepatic fructokinase but is also generated in ... In hereditary fructose intolerance caused by defects in aldolase B, fructose 1-phosphate accumulates in the liver and causes a ... Metabolism of fructose thus essentially results in intermediates of glycolysis. This means that fructose has the same fate as ... Because fructokinase has a high Vmax fructose entering cells is quickly phosphorylated to fructose 1-phosphate. In this form it ...
... (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6- ... Fructose is predominantly converted to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase following cellular import. The name Neuberg ester ... In 1918, he found that the compound (later identified as fructose 6-phosphate) was produced by mild acid hydrolysis of fructose ... Fructose 6-phosphate lies within the glycolysis metabolic pathway and is produced by isomerisation of glucose 6-phosphate. It ...
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Verduzco, Daniel; Rauch, Cyril; Muddathir, Abdel ... fructose 6-phosphate). Furthermore, TIGAR also removes the glycolytic intermediate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, the product of ... which allows FBPase-2 to dephosphorylate fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to produce fructose 6-phosphate and Pi. Fru-2,6-P2 strongly ... Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, abbreviated Fru-2,6-P2, is a metabolite that allosterically affects the activity of the enzymes ...
... (FruHis) is a ketosamine combining the d-isomer of fructose and the l-isomer of histidine into a ... Valeri V. Mossine and Thomas P. Mawhinney (2007). "Nα-(1-Deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-histidine ("D-Fructose-L-histidine"): a Potent ...
... fructose 5-(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), dehydrogenase, D-(-)fructose:(NADP+) 5-oxidoreductase, and fructose 5 ... In enzymology, a fructose 5-dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-fructose ... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-fructose and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 5-dehydro-D-fructose, NADPH, and H+. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-fructose:NADP+ 5-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include 5-ketofructose ...
The enzyme fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (EC 4.1.2.22) catalyzes the chemical reaction D-fructose 6-phosphate + ... Schramm M, Klybas V, Racker E (1958). "Phospholytic cleavage of fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase (adding phosphate; acetyl- ... phosphate-forming). Other names in common use include D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase, and (phosphate- ...
Upon entering the cell, most glucose and fructose is converted to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate lies ... Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as Harden-Young ester, is fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 (i.e., is a ... There are many other isomers, analogous to those of fructose. Fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) has also been implicated in the ... or whether fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) is capable of mitigating those effects. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate Alfarouk, Khalid O.; ...
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles ... The enzyme fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11; systematic name D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase) catalyses the ... Fructose bisphosphatase deficiency Fructose Gluconeogenesis Metabolism Marcus F, Harrsch PB (May 1990). "Amino acid sequence of ... More specifically, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate allosterically inhibits fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, but activates ...
... (HFCS), also known as glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup, is a sweetener made ... Because the sugar profile of high-fructose corn syrup is similar to that of honey, high-fructose corn syrup was more difficult ... Milk, meats, and most vegetables, the staples of many early diets, have no fructose, and only 5-10% fructose by weight is found ... ISBN 978-1-4200-8549-5. Chung, M; Ma, J; Patel, K; Berger, S; Lau, J; Lichtenstein, A. H. (2014). "Fructose, high-fructose corn ...
The fructose porters of this family phosphorylate fructose on the 1-position. Those of TC family 4.A.6 phosphorylate fructose ... The PTS Fructose-Mannitol (Fru) Family (TC# 4.A.2) is a large and complex family that is part of the PTS-GFL superfamily. It ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "4.A.2 The PTS Fructose-Mannitol (Fru) Family", which is licensed in a way that ... The IIB and IIC domains of the fructose porters appear to be dissimilar from each other as those of the mannitol porters. The ...
The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family (TC# 4.A.6) is a group of multicomponent PTS systems that are involved in sugar ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "4.A.6 The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family", which is licensed in a ... The mannose porter of Escherichia coli, for example, can transport and phosphorylate glucose, mannose, fructose, glucosamine, N ...
In enzymology, a glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (isomerizing) (EC 2.6.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate isomerase (deaminating). This enzyme ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-glutamine and D-fructose 6-phosphate, whereas its two products are L-glutamate and D- ... chemical reaction L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6- ...
The enzyme fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.54) catalyzes the reaction β-D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + H2O ... This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. Purwin C, Laux M, Holzer H (1986). "Fructose 2-phosphate, an ... Other names in common use include fructose 2,6-bisphosphate-6-phosphohydrolase, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 6-phosphohydrolase, ... Purwin C, Laux M, Holzer H (1987). "Fructofuranose 2-phosphate is the product of dephosphorylation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ...
In enzymology, a 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase (EC 1.1.1.263) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1,5-anhydro- ... 5-anhydro-D-fructose, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH- ... 5-anhydro-D-fructose". Journal of Biochemistry. 123 (1): 189-93. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021909. PMID 9504428. ... D-glucitol + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this ...
The enzyme fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase ({EC 3.1.3.46) catalyzes the reaction β-D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + H2O ... The systematic name is β-D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphohydrolase. Other names in common use include fructose-2,6- ... bisphosphatase, and D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphohydrolase. This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism ... van Schaftingen E, Davies DR, Hers HG (1982). "Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from rat liver". Eur. J. Biochem. 124 (1): 143-9. ...
The enzyme 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.111) catalyzes the chemical reaction 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose ⇌ {\ ... 5-anhydro-D-fructose 4-dehydratase, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose hydrolyase, 1,5-anhydro-D-arabino-hex-2-ulose dehydratase, AFDH, AF ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose hydro-lyase (ascopyrone-M-forming). Other names in common ... 5-anhydro-D-fructose to microthecin with ascopyrone M as the intermediate". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1723 (1-3): 63-73. doi: ...
... fructose-bisphosphate aldolase]-L-lysine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + [fructose- ... Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase]-lysine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.259) is an enzyme that catalyses the following chemical ... fructose-bisphosphate+aldolase)-lysine+N-methyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... "Characterization of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases as lysine-methylated proteins in plants". The Journal of ...
Another enzyme is then used to convert varying fractions of glucose into fructose...High-fructose corn syrup just doesn't exist ... Among the public health concerns cited were those individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance or fructose malabsorption, ... who have been advised to avoid ingredients that contain fructose. While individuals with fructose allergies have associated " ... Nutritionally, high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose may be identical." Since HFCS is present in a "staggering" amount of food ...
... is an American live-action/animated television series created by Tom Sheppard ... The High Fructose Adventures of Annoying Orange at IMDb (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external ... The High Fructose Adventures of Annoying Orange: Season 1 Archived 2017-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Amazon.com. Accessed ...
In addition, fructose transfer activity increases with dietary fructose intake. The presence of fructose in the lumen causes ... The first step in the metabolism of fructose is the phosphorylation of fructose to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase, thus ... Fructose exists in foods either as a monosaccharide (free fructose) or as a unit of a disaccharide (sucrose). Free fructose is ... The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus ...
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a persons ability to digest the sugar fructose. Explore symptoms, ... Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a persons ability to digest the sugar fructose. Fructose is a ... Hereditary fructose intolerance should not be confused with a condition called fructose malabsorption. In people with fructose ... or other foods containing fructose are introduced into the diet. After ingesting fructose, individuals with hereditary fructose ...
Fructose and glucagon loading in siblings with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency in fed state. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1992. ... False positive fructose loading: a pitfall in the diagnosis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. ... encoded search term (Fructose 1%2C6-Diphosphatase Deficiency) and Fructose 1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency What to Read Next on ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (FDPase) (also termed fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase) is a focal enzyme in gluconeogenesis via its ...
This is a detailed article about high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). What it is, how it is made and how its health effects compare ... The latest research, presented this week at the Canadian Neuroscience Meeting 2013, shows that high-fructose corn syrup can ... "There remains no credible scientific evidence to suggest that caloric sweeteners, such as sugar and high fructose corn syrup ( ... For their part, the Corn Refiners Association, which produces high-fructose corn syrup, challenged the validity of Leris ...
A new study suggests that fructose may not be as bad for us as previously thought and that it may even provide some benefit. ... 17, 2020 Consuming high fructose corn syrup appears to be as bad for your health as consuming sugar in the form of fructose ... The Gut Shields the Liver from Fructose-Induced Damage. June 29, 2020 After one consumes food or a beverage containing fructose ... Fructose and Glucose in High Fructose Corn Syrup Deliver a One-Two Punch to Health ...
I. An appeal was lodged by the opponent (appellant) against the decision of the opposition division rejecting the opposition against European patent No. 2 289 352 (the patent).. II. With their statement of grounds of appeal, the appellant requested that the decision under appeal be set aside and that the patent be revoked. Auxiliarly, oral proceedings were requested.. III. With their reply to the statement of grounds of appeal the patent proprietor (respondent) requested that the appeal be dismissed, i.e. the patent be maintained as granted, or, alternatively, that the patent be maintained in amended form on the basis of one of the sets of claims of auxiliary request 1 to 20, all filed with the reply to the statement of grounds of appeal. Auxiliarly, oral proceedings were requested.. IV. The board scheduled oral proceedings to be held on 17 May 2021 and issued a communication pursuant to Article 15(1) RPBA setting out its preliminary assessment of the appeal.. V. By letter dated 12 April 2021, ...
The process for making high-fructose corn syrup using enzymes was first developed in the 1950s, and by the mid-1970s HFCS was ... that has been processed into a sugar syrup with a higher than normal fructose-glucose ratio. ... High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a product of maize (corn) ... Syrups with 90% fructose will not state high fructose corn ... Glucose enhances absorption of fructose, so fructose from foods with fructose-to-glucose ratio ,1, like white potatoes, are ...
FRUCTOSE (UNII: 6YSS42VSEV) (FRUCTOSE - UNII:6YSS42VSEV) FRUCTOSE. 1.87 g in 5 mL. ... this product contains fructose and should not be taken by persons with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). ... NAUSEA RELIEF (dextrose (glucose), levulose- fructose, phosphoric acid solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL ... dextrose 1.87 GM / fructose 1.87 GM / phosphoric acid 21.5 MG in 5 mL Oral Solution. PSN. ...
Fructose makes you stupid; DHA makes you smart ... High Fructose Corn Syrup Now Labeled as Fructose or HFCS-90. ... Fructose makes you stupid; DHA makes you smart. Friday, May 25, 2012 by: Randall Neustaedter OMD. Tags: fructose, stupid, brain ... The rats fed fructose and omega-3 fats did better.. The conclusion of this study was that rats fed fructose had impairment of ... Fructose promotes hormonal imbalance and weight gain. High fructose corn syrup linked to cardiovascular disease in children, ...
Fructose feeding induces a rise in blood pressure in normal rats and is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, ... Effect of myricetin on blood pressure and metabolic alterations in fructose hypertensive rats Pharm Biol. 2010 May;48(5):494-8. ... Fructose feeding induces a rise in blood pressure in normal rats and is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, ... The results suggest that myricetin could prevent the development of high blood pressure induced by a diet rich in fructose, ...
... fructose, liquid from the USDA Nutrition Facts on RecipeTips.Com ... Sweeteners, tabletop, fructose, liquid (USDA#44018). Water. 23g ...
Beyond high-fructose fuel: Firm makes ethanol out of wood chips. Mar 07, 2011 , by Chris Fleisher , Concord Monitor ...
When we interviewed Chilean painter Victor Castillo in Hi-Fructose Vol 23, he told us: "Today, to me, it is especially ...
Published June 10, 2019 at 1080 × 1158 in MK3 ...
Sugar Industry Acting Like Big Tobacco in its Defense of Hi-Fructose Corn Syrup It is likely a no-brainer to many in natural ... health world that processed, refined sweeteners like white sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) are unhealthy. Studies ...
Fructose not linked to extra weight gain: report ... Fructose not linked to extra weight gain: report. Feb 21, 2012 ... But is fructose the real culprit? Many experts dont think so.. "I believe recent allegations suggesting that fructose is ... but those in the fructose groups got about 17 percent of their calories from fructose, on average. ... Even the FDA, says White, has concluded that "high-fructose corn syrup is as safe for use in food as sucrose, corn sugar, corn ...
When Lise Stoufflet creates an artwork, she begins with an intention. Only the titles, such as "Tous" (All) or "Magi" (Magic) offer clues as to the French artists original motivations to convey a concept, mood or atmosphere. As Stoufflet explains in a French-language interview with Boum Bang Magazine, the artist is often surprised by the resulting images, such as that of "Tous," in which blindfolded men in identical blue uniforms lay on the ground, bound by hand and foot with strings ...
Hi-Fructoses beautiful layouts feature in-depth features and interviews with cutting edge artists, creators, and many many ... Hi-Fructose showcases an eclectic mix of underground artists, pop surrealists, emerging and rediscovered counter cultures, and ...
... professor of nutrition Dr Barry Popkin said that he was wrong to single out high fructose corn syrup as largely responsible for ... This is not to say that Popkin is letting high fructose corn syrup off the hook - just that he is also eyeing other fructose- ... High fructose corn syrup has had a vast amount of bad press in recent years. Consumers are shunning the sweetener en masse, and ... "We showed later that fructose from sugar has the same effect,"​ Popkin said. "We were wrong in our speculations on high ...
Fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide, hence no enzyme is required. Fructose is absorbed by two pathways: the first is ... Therefore, fructose in excess of glucose (called free fructose) is potentially malabsorbed. This occurs if the fructose ... AUC for fructose and lactose as a proportion of the AUC for lactulose reveals that 100% of the ingested fructose and 14% of the ... Fructose or lactose breath hydrogen tests do not diagnose an illness or abnormality; malabsorption of lactose and fructose is a ...
... of high fructose corn syrup in our diet misses the obvious. ... High fructose corn syrup is an industrial food product and far ... HFCS also consists of glucose and fructose, not in a 50-50 ratio, but a 55-45 fructose to glucose ratio in an unbound form. ... "The digestion, absorption and metabolism of fructose differ from those of glucose. Hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de ... Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 79(4):537-43. ...
Fructose is also known as "fruit sugar". It is also processed to make high fructose corn syrup. This is a cause of obesity and ... They found that the way our body converts fructose into energy causes lower levels of a compound called ATP. When ATP falls, we ... A study from the University of Colorado found that although fructose isnt the biggest source of calories, it makes us want to ... The lead researcher said: "Fructose is what triggers our metabolism to go into low power mode and lose our control of appetite ...
Difference Between Sucrose and Fructose Sucrose vs Fructose There are many things in life that help in making it more enjoyable ... 5.Fructose is recommended for use by diabetics while sucrose is not.. 6.Fructose is sweeter, and any food or drinks only need ... Difference Between Sucrose and Fructose. • Categorized under Food , Difference Between Sucrose and Fructose ... It comes in several different forms; glucose, lactose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, and fructose. ...
For more than 40 years the war on cancer has been waged with abysmal results. Its no ...
CIL) offers product CLM-1201-1 D-Fructose (1-¹³C, 99%) ...
hello-o! Sugar is composed of sucrose and glucose, NOT fructose and glucose! Youll find fructose in FRUIT. And it is possible ... High Fructose Corn syrup is NOT the same as sugar…I encourage you to read this article to see how it biochemically affects you ... gh-fructose-c. orn-syrup-is-. bad#3.-Increa. ses-your-risk. -of-obesity-and-weight-gain ... Also, he only touches on fructose as thats what he mentions as one of the ingredients and nothing surrounding the controversy ...
By Citizens For Health Additives Dental Choice Family Health Fluoride Food Labeling Food Safety GE Foods GMOs High Fructose ... By Citizens For Health Additives Family Health Food Labeling Food Safety GMOs Health Freedom High Fructose Corn Syrup ... By Citizens For Health Additives Family Health Food Labeling Food Safety Health Freedom High Fructose Corn Syrup ... By Citizens For Health Additives Bonvie Blog Family Health Food Safety High Fructose Corn Syrup ...
Previous Tariff (1702.60.28 - Oth fructose & fruc. syrup contng in dry state >50% by wt. of fructose, blended syrup(see addl U ... Previous Tariff (1702.60.28 - Oth fructose & fruc. syrup contng in dry state >50% by wt. of fructose, blended syrup(see addl U ... Description: Glucose and glucose syrup, w/50% or more fructose, other than blended syrups described in add. US note 4 to Ch.17 ... 2004 NY K84201 - The tariff classification of a high fructose syrup from Brazil ...
Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50 ... Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing]. A, B. 358. Staphylococcus aureus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ... Structure of a putative Glutamine--Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50. *PDB ... Structure of a putative Glutamine--Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50. ...
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast enzymes convert sugar (sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but not lactose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is sugar wherein two small molecules (glucose and fructose) combine together to form one large molecule. (differencebetween.net)
  • When sucrose is digested, it separates into the glucose and fructose molecules. (differencebetween.net)
  • Whether extracted from corn or honey created by bees, glucose is glucose, and fructose is fructose. (acsh.org)
  • Glucose and fructose are isomers, meaning they have the same number of 'chemical ingredients' - carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H), but they are arranged differently. (acsh.org)
  • Sucrose is a disaccharide consisting of two simple sugars, glucose and fructose, bound together. (acsh.org)
  • Whether from a processing plant converted from corn, fruit juice, or tree sap, glucose is glucose, and fructose is fructose. (acsh.org)
  • High-fructose corn syrup consists of glucose and fructose at a 45:55 ratio. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of glucose (Glu), fructose (Fru), glucose and fructose (GluFru) and sucralose on blood glucose response in healthy individuals. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of this study demonstrate that gastric emptying rate of glucose and fructose is similar when ingested in a semi-solid meal. (frontiersin.org)
  • There remains no credible scientific evidence to suggest that caloric sweeteners, such as sugar and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), are addictive to humans in general," said John W. Bode, President and C.E.O. of the Corn Refiners Association. (healthline.com)
  • This is a detailed article about high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). (healthline.com)
  • High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a product of maize (corn) that has been processed into a sugar syrup with a higher than normal fructose-glucose ratio. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The process for making high-fructose corn syrup using enzymes was first developed in the 1950s, and by the mid-1970s HFCS was widely used as a sweetener in sodas and other processed foods. (rationalwiki.org)
  • In other countries, particularly those countries where "corn" is a generic term for any cereal crop, HFCS is called " glucose-fructose syrup . (rationalwiki.org)
  • The result is HFCS 42, which is 42% fructose and 58% glucose (not including the portion that's water). (rationalwiki.org)
  • Put the HFCS 42 through liquid chromatography to isolate the fructose, in much the same way that you isolate U-235 during uranium enrichment . (rationalwiki.org)
  • The result is HFCS 90, which is 90% fructose and 10% glucose. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Finally, add a little of this HFCS 90 back into the HFCS 42, until you raise its fructose concentration to 55% fructose. (rationalwiki.org)
  • It is likely a no-brainer to many in natural health world that processed, refined sweeteners like white sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) are unhealthy. (organicconsumers.org)
  • If Popkin thinks that beverages sweetened with sugar carry a health cost equal to that of those with high fructose corn syrup, then what does he make of sugar benefiting from the backlash against HFCS? (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • 1978 was before HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup). (radicalrc.com)
  • According to Wiki's High Fructose Corn Syrup page "Soft drink makers such as Coca-cola and Pepsi use sugar in other nations, but switched to HFCS in the U.S. and Canada in 1984. (radicalrc.com)
  • There's been a lot of talk about how unhealthy high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is. (greensahm.com)
  • High fructose corn syrup, or HFCS, is something that I keep coming back to, time and time again. (sustainlv.org)
  • HFCS isn't particularly high in fructose, as it turns out - the name is a hang-over from the 1970s, when it first came into popular use. (boingboing.net)
  • NaturalNews) High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is used as a sweetener in thousands of mainstream packaged foods sold in the United States and around the world, from bread to soda and even breakfast cereal. (12160.info)
  • This study compared the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to regular table sugar (sucrose), looking at their effects on body weight, body fat, and triglycerides (fats that float around in your blood). (weightology.net)
  • We hypothesized that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink consumption increases BPV and decreases cBRS and HRV to a greater extent compared to artificially-sweetened (Diet) and sucrose-sweetened (Sucrose) soft drinks and water. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also found in high-fructose corn syrup, the most common sweetener in commercially prepared foods. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It's a sweetener found naturally in fruit and honey and as a component of high-fructose corn syrup, which is used in sweetened foods and beverages. (health.am)
  • Consumers are shunning the sweetener en masse, and manufacturers are taking their cue, removing it from products, often to replace it with sugar. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • The sweetened water was 25 percent high-fructose corn syrup, which is the main sweetener of sugary drinks people consume. (medicalxpress.com)
  • As the second largest sugar ingested in the human body, fructose is an important source of fuel in the diet especially in western diet, and fructose constitutes more than 40% of sweetener consumption in western countries, in which high-fructose corn syrup consumption increased by more than 1,000% between 1970 and 1990 ( Bray, Nielsen & Popkin, 2004 ). (peerj.com)
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ability to digest the sugar fructose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Due to the severity of symptoms experienced when fructose is ingested, most people with hereditary fructose intolerance develop a dislike for fruits, juices, and other foods containing fructose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance should not be confused with a condition called fructose malabsorption. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The incidence of hereditary fructose intolerance is estimated to be 1 in 20,000 to 30,000 individuals each year worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the ALDOB gene cause hereditary fructose intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The combination of decreased cellular energy, low blood sugar, and liver cell death leads to the features of hereditary fructose intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Coffee EM, Yerkes L, Ewen EP, Zee T, Tolan DR. Increased prevalence of mutant null alleles that cause hereditary fructose intolerance in the American population. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Esposito G, Vitagliano L, Santamaria R, Viola A, Zagari A, Salvatore F. Structural and functional analysis of aldolase B mutants related to hereditary fructose intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This deficiency causes the clinical syndrome of hereditary fructose intolerance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Functional and molecular modelling studies of two hereditary fructose intolerance-causing mutations at arginine 303 in human liver aldolase. (medscape.com)
  • As the tablet coat contains sucrose (41.2 mg), patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase- isomaltase insufficiency should not take Buscopan Tablets. (janusinfo.se)
  • Excessive consumption of sugars, including fructose, (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages) may contribute to insulin resistance, obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in 2015 disputed the claims of fructose causing metabolic disorders, stating that "there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that fructose intake, at levels consumed in the normal UK diet, leads to adverse health outcomes independent of any effects related to its presence as a component of total and free sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "fructose" was coined in 1857 from the Latin for fructus (fruit) and the generic chemical suffix for sugars, -ose. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand why we must look at its history, structure, functionality, where it occurs naturally, how it is made synthetically, and compare fructose to other sugars in foods. (acsh.org)
  • Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are all naturally-occurring sugars. (acsh.org)
  • Campos VC, Tappy L (2016) Physiological handling of dietary fructose-containing sugars: implications for health. (springer.com)
  • The US Corn Refiners Association has petitioned the FDA for permission to change the name "High Fructose Corn Syrup" to the much more innocuous-sounding "Corn Sugars. (boingboing.net)
  • Maybe the FDA should approve the move, but require a ten year period when the ingredient is written as "Corn Sugars (formerly High Fructose Corn Syrup). (boingboing.net)
  • If you're trying to avoid high fructose corn syrup - as well you should be - one of the products you'd probably gravitate to is General Mills Vanilla Chex with natural vanilla flavor and "no high fructose corn syrup" (one of several additives it claims not to contain on the front of the box). (citizens.org)
  • How Do You Avoid High Fructose Corn Syrup… I Mean, "Corn Sugar" in Your Food? (greensahm.com)
  • We already know that the epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes is in large part due to the consumption of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet. (naturalnews.com)
  • There are many claims that Diabetes has risen in lock step with the increased use and consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup. (radicalrc.com)
  • Consider these tips to cut back on consumption of high fructose corn syrup: stay away from sugary soft drinks and try to drink water or other beverages instead. (sustainlv.org)
  • Over the last decade, there have been connections made between fructose intake and rates of obesity," said Dr. John Sievenpiper, a senior author of the study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In an attempt to explain the ever-increasing (no pun intended) incidence of obesity in the U.S., fingers have been pointing of late to fructose. (health.am)
  • I believe recent allegations suggesting that fructose is uniquely responsible for the current obesity crisis in the U.S. are unfounded," says biochemist John S. White, PhD, a researcher and consultant who specializes in nutritive sweeteners. (health.am)
  • In an exclusive interview with Caroline Scott-Thomas, professor of nutrition Dr Barry Popkin said that he was wrong to single out high fructose corn syrup as largely responsible for obesity. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • It noted the parallel between obesity and the rise in high fructose corn syrup consumption, and hypothesized that the two could be related. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Scientists have found that fructose, a naturally occurring sugar, is a big cause of obesity. (breakingnewsenglish.com)
  • Back to the fructose and obesity lesson . (breakingnewsenglish.com)
  • Also, he only touches on fructose as that's what he mentions as one of the ingredients and nothing surrounding the controversy of high-fructose corn syrup such as risk of fatty liver disease and its unique contributions to obesity. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Their study, published in Science , showed that consuming a daily modest amount of high-fructose corn syrup-the equivalent of people drinking about 12 ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage daily-accelerates the growth of intestinal tumors in mouse models of the disease, independently of obesity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These results suggest that when the animals have early stage of tumors in the intestines-which can occur in many young adult humans by chance and without notice-consuming even modest amounts of high-fructose corn syrup in liquid form can boost tumor growth and progression independently of obesity," Yun said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Lakhan S, Kirchgessner A (2013) The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline. (springer.com)
  • This is pretty alarming when you consider the fact that studies have linked fructose consumption to fatty liver, obesity and diabetes. (naturalnews.com)
  • Of particular interest has been the potential negative effects of dietary fructose, given that the ingestion of this monosaccharide has increased rapidly ( 1 ), and it has been suggested that this may play a role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They hypothesized that fructose might cause increased calorie intake leading to weight gain. (acsh.org)
  • In conclusion, cognitive deficits induced by chronic liquid fructose consumption are not exclusively related to increased caloric intake and are correlated with hypertriglyceridemia, impaired insulin signaling, increased oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial dynamics, especially in the frontal cortex. (springer.com)
  • it's almost as though fructose "tricks" the brain into seeking out food and increasing food intake. (naturalnews.com)
  • Diagnosis of fructose 1-phosphate aldolase deficiency is suggested by symptoms in relation to recent fructose intake and is confirmed by DNA analysis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To examine the relationship between intake of fructose-rich beverages and fructose and the risk of incident gout among women. (nih.gov)
  • In the Nurses' Health Study, a US prospective cohort study spanning 22 years (1984-2006), we analyzed data from 78,906 women with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of beverages and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires. (nih.gov)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldolase B is responsible for the second step in the metabolism of fructose, which breaks down the molecule fructose-1-phosphate into other molecules called glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1.Sucrose is a type of sugar that is formed by combining two small molecules into one large molecule while fructose is one of the molecules found in sucrose. (differencebetween.net)
  • A number of key differences have been observed regarding the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and appetite stimulating effects of fructose in comparison with glucose. (frontiersin.org)
  • The finding, he told Reuters Health, "represents pretty reasonable evidence that fructose in and of itself doesn't contribute to weight gain. (health.am)
  • and is involved in the breakdown (metabolism) of fructose so this sugar can be used as energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The researchers pointed out that the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of fructose differed from glucose. (acsh.org)
  • Are We Addicted to High-fructose Corn Syrup? (healthline.com)
  • The latest research, presented this week at the Canadian Neuroscience Meeting 2013 , shows that high-fructose corn syrup can cause behavioral reactions in rats similar to those produced by drugs like cocaine. (healthline.com)
  • Leri investigated the behavioral, chemical, and neurobiological responses of rats to unnaturally high concentrations of sugar, fats, and taste enhancers, such as high-fructose corn syrup and foods like Oreo cookies. (healthline.com)
  • For their part, the Corn Refiner's Association, which produces high-fructose corn syrup, challenged the validity of Leri's findings. (healthline.com)
  • High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Just Like Sugar, or Worse? (healthline.com)
  • 17, 2020 Consuming high fructose corn syrup appears to be as bad for your health as consuming sugar in the form of fructose alone, according to a new study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This is the high-fructose corn syrup used in American soft drinks. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Studies like this warn us that high fructose corn syrup should not be an ingredient in any foods in our diets. (naturalnews.com)
  • Even the FDA, says White, has concluded that "high-fructose corn syrup is as safe for use in food as sucrose, corn sugar, corn syrup, and invert sugar. (health.am)
  • That's especially a concern because high-fructose corn syrup is a main ingredient in many common foods and drinks, including soda. (health.am)
  • High fructose corn syrup has had a vast amount of bad press in recent years. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • We were wrong in our speculations on high fructose corn syrup about their link to weight. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • This is not to say that Popkin is letting high fructose corn syrup off the hook - just that he is also eyeing other fructose-containing sweeteners, like sugar. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Other drinks have suffered from image problems, including those sweetened with sugar, before they became eclipsed by the furore surrounding high fructose corn syrup - but for fruit juice, what about the five-a-day recommendation? (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • The current media debate about the benefits (or lack of harm) of high fructose corn syrup in our diet misses the obvious. (huffpost.com)
  • The goal of the corn industry is to call into question any claim of harm from consuming high fructose corn syrup, and to confuse and deflect by calling their product natural "corn sugar. (huffpost.com)
  • Like any parent, I have questions about the food my daughter eats -- like high fructose corn syrup. (huffpost.com)
  • Here are 5 reasons you should stay way from any product containing high fructose corn syrup. (huffpost.com)
  • Is High-Fructose Corn Syrup Hazardous to Your Health? (sparkpeople.com)
  • I'm reading about the perils of Sugar, and I cannot believe how closely High Fructose Corn syrup is correlated with Diabeties. (sparkpeople.com)
  • High Fructose Corn syrup is NOT the same as sugar…I encourage you to read this article to see how it biochemically affects you. (sparkpeople.com)
  • I don't remember so many people having diabetes back in the day before High Fructose Corn Syrup. (radicalrc.com)
  • They discovered that the APC-model mice receiving modest high-fructose corn syrup had high amounts of fructose in their colons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What is so fascinating yet horrifying to me is the fact that many consumers, if not the majority, know how bad high fructose corn syrup is for their body's and their health but continue to consume it. (sustainlv.org)
  • I have (for the most part), completely eliminated sugary soft drinks from my diet partly due to the absurd amounts of high fructose corn syrup that are found in each glass of soda. (sustainlv.org)
  • But really what is high fructose corn syrup? (sustainlv.org)
  • And although high fructose corn syrup is chemically similar to table sugar, concerns have been raised because it is processed. (sustainlv.org)
  • In an experiment done at Princeton University , it was found that the subjects, which were rats, who had access to high fructose corn syrup gained a significant more amount of weight compared to those that had access to table sugar. (sustainlv.org)
  • Excessive amounts of high fructose corn syrup can lead to numerous health problems. (sustainlv.org)
  • You'll be shocked to see how much of the food you buy and consume has high fructose corn syrup in it. (sustainlv.org)
  • Stanhope KL, Havel PJ (2008) Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high fructose corn syrup. (springer.com)
  • Fructose can be found in cane sugar as well as in high-fructose corn syrup . (naturalnews.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that Americans consume around 35 pounds of high-fructose corn syrup, and 47 pounds of cane sugar per year on average. (naturalnews.com)
  • Of course, high-fructose corn syrup is not the only unhealthy ingredient in foods. (naturalnews.com)
  • Consumers are asking manufacturers to remove ingredients they believe are harmful, and high-fructose corn syrup is near the top of many a mother's hit list. (bakersjournal.com)
  • The presence of mercury in high fructose corn syrup was documented by researchers at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and published in Environmental Health . (12160.info)
  • However, it has increasingly been added to products due to its sweet taste primarily in the form of sucrose or, particularly in the United States, as high fructose corn syrup. (frontiersin.org)
  • Is High Fructose Corn Syrup Worse Than Regular Sugar? (weightology.net)
  • A recent study out of Princeton University has the high-fructose corn syrup alarmists out in full force. (weightology.net)
  • You claim that High Fructose Corn Syrup and sucrose (table sugar) are equivalent. (bevindustry.com)
  • I've heard a lot about High Fructose Corn Syrup in the news recently. (bevindustry.com)
  • In people with fructose malabsorption, the cells of the intestine cannot absorb fructose normally, leading to bloating, diarrhea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Breath hydrogen testing can be used to detect malabsorption of fructose and lactose. (racgp.org.au)
  • malabsorption of lactose and fructose is a normal phenomenon. (racgp.org.au)
  • Breath hydrogen tests for fructose and lactose malabsorption are useful in patients with functional gut symptoms (abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, altered bowel habit) to identify if fructose and/or lactose could be dietary triggers, ie. (racgp.org.au)
  • Testing for both lactose and fructose malabsorption is recommended to inform dietary management rather than a sequential approach. (racgp.org.au)
  • METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients, who had performed hydrogen/methane breath testing for fructose and lactose malabsorption and had received dietary advice regarding the low FODMAP diet, were included. (medscape.com)
  • 75.6%, 37.8% and 13.3% of patients had fructose, lactose malabsorption or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth respectively. (medscape.com)
  • NaturalNews) A recent study in rats examined the effect of omega-3 fats (particularly DHA) and fructose on memory. (naturalnews.com)
  • The rats fed fructose and omega-3 fats did better. (naturalnews.com)
  • The conclusion of this study was that rats fed fructose had impairment of their ability to solve a maze because of memory deficits. (naturalnews.com)
  • Fructose feeding induces a rise in blood pressure in normal rats and is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. (nih.gov)
  • We supplemented Sprague-Dawley female rats with 10% w / v fructose in drinking water or with isocaloric glucose solution for 7 months. (springer.com)
  • In the study, researchers fed rats water spiked with fructose for a period of six weeks. (naturalnews.com)
  • The rats who had been drinking fructose took double the amount of time it took the water-fed rats to complete the maze, even though both groups had received the same level of training. (naturalnews.com)
  • A third group of rats who had been given an omega 3-rich flaxseed oil extract in addition to fructose water, were able to get through the maze almost as fast as those that had only been given water. (naturalnews.com)
  • A study from the University of Colorado found that although fructose isn't the biggest source of calories, it makes us want to eat fatty food. (breakingnewsenglish.com)
  • Interestingly, although fructose was readily used by breast cancer cells, it failed to restore proliferation of non-tumor cells in the absence of glucose. (peerj.com)
  • ALDOB gene mutations reduce the function of the enzyme, impairing its ability to metabolize fructose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deficiency of enzymes that metabolize fructose may be asymptomatic or cause hypoglycemia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sugar is composed of sucrose and glucose, NOT fructose and glucose! (sparkpeople.com)
  • Fatal hepatic or renal injury following ingestion of fructose has been reported in these patients. (medscape.com)
  • Fasting hypoglycaemia and metabolic acidosis associated with deficiency of hepatic fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. (medscape.com)
  • Dekker MJ, Su Q, Baker C, Rutledge AC, Adeli K (2010) Fructose: a highly lipogenic nutrient implicated in insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and the metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • De Pra M, Laudanna E. [Baker-Winegrad disease (hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia during fasting, hyperlactacidemic metabolic acidosis, hepatic fructose-1-6-diphosphatase deficiency). (medscape.com)
  • Fructose-rich beverages such as sugar-sweetened soda and orange juice can increase serum uric acid levels and, thus, the risk of gout, but prospective data on the relationship are limited. (nih.gov)
  • Schaefer EJ, Gleason JA, Dansinger ML (2009) Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis1-3. (springer.com)
  • Three successful pregnancies through dietary management of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • A lack of functional aldolase B results in an accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in liver cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers have wondered whether there's something about fructose - typically found in fruits as well as baked goods and sugar-sweetened beverages - that makes people store fat and gain weight faster than other carbohydrates. (health.am)
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) containing a mixture of glucose (Glu) and fructose (Fru), flow through the gastrointestinal tract after consumption. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The liver then converts both fructose and galactose into glucose, so that dissolved glucose, known as blood sugar, is the only monosaccharide present in circulating blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continued exposure to fructose may result in seizures, coma, and ultimately death from liver and kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Previous confirmatory testing used liver biopsy or induction of hypoglycemia by fructose infusion 200 mg/kg IV. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency using cultured lymphocyte fraction: a secure and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • Changes of liver metabolite concentrations in adults with disorders of fructose metabolism after intravenous fructose by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • Nuciferine blocks MIB2-mediated CARD6 polyubiquitination and degradation in the amelioration of high fructose-induced liver lipid accumulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the role and the upstream regulator of CARD6 in high fructose -induced liver lipid accumulation and whether and how the anti- lipid accumulation effect of nuciferine was related to CARD6. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggested that nuciferine exhibited a protective effect against high fructose -induced liver lipid accumulation through blocking MIB2-mediated CARD6 polyubiquitination and degradation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cornstarch is heated and treated with enzymes to convert some of the glucose to fructose, increasing its sweetness. (acsh.org)
  • Fructose supplementation reduced the expression of antioxidant enzymes and altered the amount of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion/fission in the frontal cortex. (springer.com)
  • Patients develop severe hypoglycemia with metabolic acidosis upon ingestion of fructose. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with FDPase deficiency typically present in the newborn period with symptoms or signs related to hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis following ingestion of fructose. (medscape.com)
  • The ingestion of fructose is of interest due to previously reported differences in gastrointestinal, appetite, and metabolic effects when compared to glucose ingestion when ingested in liquid solution. (frontiersin.org)
  • Seven healthy male participants completed three experimental trials involving the ingestion of 300 mL of semi-skimmed milk mixed with 40 g of instant porridge mix (CON) and with the addition of either 40 g of glucose (GLU) or fructose (FRU). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1): exon-intron organization, localization to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3, and mutation screening in subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Herzog B, Morris AA, Saunders C, Eschrich K. Mutation spectrum in patients with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Identification of genetic mutations in Japanese patients with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • This deficiency causes benign elevation of blood and urine fructose levels (benign fructosuria). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Taken together, our data show that fructose can be used by breast cancer cells specifically in glucose-deficiency, and suggest that the high-fructose diet could accelerate the progress of breast cancer in vivo . (peerj.com)
  • Rapid, simplified and sensitive method for screening fructose-1,6- diphosphatase deficiency by analyzing urinary metabolites in urease/direct preparations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. (medscape.com)
  • Asberg C, Hjalmarson O, Alm J, Martinsson T, Waldenström J, Hellerud C. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency: enzyme and mutation analysis performed on calcitriol-stimulated monocytes with a note on long-term prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Beatty ME, Zhang YH, McCabe ER, Steiner RD. Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency and glyceroluria: one possible etiology for GIS. (medscape.com)
  • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency: severe phenotype with normal leukocyte enzyme activity. (medscape.com)
  • Buhrdel P, Bohme HJ, Didt L. Biochemical and clinical observations in four patients with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Elpeleg ON, Barash V, Hurvitz H, Branski D. Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency: a 20-year follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • Fructose, which is naturally found in fruit, vegetables and honey, is a simple sugar that together with glucose forms sucrose, the basis of table sugar. (sciencedaily.com)
  • While fructose does occur naturally in fruit, fruits also contain very important antioxidants that make them worth consuming. (naturalnews.com)
  • Scientists believe that high amounts of fructose lead to health issues. (breakingnewsenglish.com)
  • 3.Fructose has high amounts of fat as it is converted into free fatty acids and triglycerides while sucrose does not. (differencebetween.net)
  • The mechanisms involved in the memory impairment seemed to be a direct result of brain insulin resistance induced by fructose and ameliorated by taking DHA. (naturalnews.com)
  • And it suggests that taking DHA improves insulin metabolism, even with a diet containing fructose that induces insulin resistance. (naturalnews.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria were added to each tube, in order to test the organism's ability to produce acid, during its oxidation of any of these carbohydrates, which included from left to right, glucose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, and mannitol. (cdc.gov)
  • Fructose (/ˈfrʌktoʊs, -oʊz/), or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose is also called fruit sugar because it is found in many fruits as well as honey, flowers, and most root vegetables-ditto for sucrose. (acsh.org)
  • You'll find fructose in FRUIT. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Fructose is found in a number of organic food products, including fruit. (frontiersin.org)
  • The primary reason that fructose is used commercially in foods and beverages, besides its low cost, is its high relative sweetness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL et al (2009) Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increase visceral adiposity and lipids and decrease insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men. (springer.com)
  • Among this cohort of women, consumption of fructose-rich beverages is associated with an increased risk of incident gout, although the contribution of these beverages to the risk of gout in the population is likely modest given the low incidence rate among women. (nih.gov)
  • Only a little amount of fructose is needed to achieve a certain amount of sweetness so only a few calories are absorbed by the body. (differencebetween.net)
  • 6.Fructose is sweeter, and any food or drinks only need less of it to obtain the same amount of sweetness that can be had with a larger amount of sucrose. (differencebetween.net)
  • Fructose has a relative sweetness of 1.3 - 30% sweeter than sucrose and much sweeter than glucose. (acsh.org)
  • In healthy humans, fructose-sweetened water consumption increases blood pressure variability (BPV) and decreases spontaneous cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). (cdc.gov)
  • 8,9 These short-chains of fructose or galactose units remain linked - as there is no human enzyme to cleave the bonds - and are fermented with gas formation, causing wind in healthy people and symptoms in hypersensitive IBS sufferers. (racgp.org.au)
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (FDPase) (also termed fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase) is a focal enzyme in gluconeogenesis via its conversion of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) to fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P), which permits endogenous glucose production from gluconeogenic amino acids (eg, alanine and glycine), glycerol, or lactate. (medscape.com)
  • Herein, we found that fructose, not amino acids, could functionally replace glucose to support proliferation of breast cancer cells. (peerj.com)
  • 4S1W: Structure of a putative Glutamine--Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. (rcsb.org)
  • In all the trials they reviewed, participants were fed diets where fructose was incorporated or sprinkled on to test foods such as cereals or coffee. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The diets with fructose had the same amount of calories as the ones without. (sciencedaily.com)
  • To see where the evidence stands, Sievenpiper and his colleagues looked back at studies that compared weight gain in people assigned to eat diets high in fructose or another carbohydrate instead, most commonly starch or glucose. (health.am)
  • In 31 studies including 637 people, participants on both diets ate an equal number of calories, but those in the fructose groups got about 17 percent of their calories from fructose, on average. (health.am)
  • Lowette K, Roosen L, Tack J, Van den Berghe P (2015) Effects of high-fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function. (springer.com)
  • This converts some of the glucose into fructose. (rationalwiki.org)
  • They found that the way our body converts fructose into energy causes lower levels of a compound called ATP. (breakingnewsenglish.com)
  • 3 Fructose, lactose, sugar polyols (sorbitol and mannitol) and the oligosaccharides, fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides are potential triggers. (racgp.org.au)
  • The other short-chain carbohydrates - fructose, lactose, sorbitol and mannitol - vary in their degree of absorption across individuals. (racgp.org.au)
  • 6 ) observed that gastric emptying rate of fructose was faster than glucose, prior to a period of glucose supplementation, when ingested in liquid form. (frontiersin.org)
  • This growth promoting effect is dependent on the enzyme, ketohexokinase (KHK), which produces fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) from Fru, and results in the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (medicalxpress.com)
  • It is important to note that, fructose is actually more easily metabolized than glucose, because it bypasses the rate-limiting enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, and its metabolism is not controlled by insulin ( Samuel, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • 4.One can get fructose from fruits and honey while sucrose can be obtained from fruits and vegetables. (differencebetween.net)
  • The group that was fed the fructose showed impairment of memory and took a longer time to solve the maze than prior to eating fructose. (naturalnews.com)
  • This implies that those who drank fructose were suffering from some sort of memory impairment. (naturalnews.com)
  • We're seeing that there may be benefit if fructose wasn't being consumed in such large amounts," Cozma said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Fructose readily dehydrates to give hydroxymethylfurfural ("HMF", C 6H 6O 3), which can be processed into liquid dimethylfuran (C 6H 8O). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract: 「Kinetic Model on Conversion of D‑Fructose to 5‑Hydroxymethylfurfural. (confex.com)
  • 459444 「Kinetic Model on Conversion of D‑Fructose to 5‑Hydroxymethylfurfural. (confex.com)
  • Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Studies on the Sulfuric AcidCatalyzed Conversion of D‑Fructose to 5‑Hydroxymethylfurfural and Levulinic Acid in Water. (confex.com)
  • Researchers found that people who consumed extra fructose baked into breads or sprinkled into drinks didn't gain any extra weight compared to those who had other types of carbohydrates instead - when they ate the same number of total calories. (health.am)
  • Fructose probably isn't any different than other sources of carbohydrates," said lead author Dr. John Sievenpiper, a research fellow at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto. (health.am)
  • 11-13 Breath hydrogen testing is used to assess carbohydrate absorption, most commonly fructose and lactose, to identify which carbohydrates should be restricted to improve symptoms. (racgp.org.au)
  • According to many, including DiabetesHealth.com - "However, fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion or require insulin to be transported into cells, as do other carbohydrates. (radicalrc.com)
  • All forms of fructose, including those found in fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose is a simple sugar found primarily in fruits. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of the disorder in infancy when fruits, juices, or other foods containing fructose are introduced into the diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A new study by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital suggests that fructose may not be as bad for us as previously thought and that it may even provide some benefit. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The results suggest it's not the fructose itself that causes weight gain, according to the researchers. (health.am)