Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)RussiaDementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Headache Disorders, Primary: Conditions in which the primary symptom is HEADACHE and the headache cannot be attributed to any known causes.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kluver-Bucy Syndrome: A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cerebrovascular Trauma: Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.CADASIL: A familial, cerebral arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19q12, and characterized by the presence of granular deposits in small CEREBRAL ARTERIES producing ischemic STROKE; PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; and multiple subcortical infarcts (CEREBRAL INFARCTION). CADASIL is an acronym for Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. CADASIL differs from BINSWANGER DISEASE by the presence of MIGRAINE WITH AURA and usually by the lack of history of arterial HYPERTENSION. (From Bradley et al, Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2000, p1146)Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rest: Freedom from activity.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.

*Toxic leukoencephalopathy

The occipital lobe is typically most affected though the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes have shown involvement as well. ... and other structures in the brain is often bilateral and symmetric. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy often involves damage to ...

*Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance

Following sleep deprivation there is increased activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral parietal lobes. ... However, after 35 hours of deprivation, there are noted decreases in temporal lobe activation and increases in parietal lobe ... The parietal lobes of the brain are largely involved in attention. Lesions to this region of the brain in humans result in ... A common test used to assess error correction and trouble shooting with regards to the frontal lobe is the Wisconsin Card ...

*Sign language in the brain

The areas that showed bilateral activation were the inferior parietal lobes, fusiform gyri, and Brodmann Area 44, among others ... Those patients with left hemisphere damage (LHD), in areas ranging from the frontal lobe to the occipital lobe, exhibited both ... During the processes of each of the languages, there was bilateral activation in the occipital lobes, in the temporal lobes ... The processing of sign language showed stronger activation in both occipital lobes, both posterior temporal lobes, and in the ...

*Sleep and memory

As well, the bilateral parietal lobe, left middle frontal gyrus, and right interior frontal gyrus were found to be activated ... This initial compensation may be found in the bilateral regions of both frontal and parietal lobes and the activation of the ... bilateral inferior parietal lobule and superior parietal lobes. Increases in sleepiness also correlated with activation of two ... bilateral parietal lobes, and cingulate gyrus showing the strongest response). The implication of this finding is that ...

*Baddeley's model of working memory

The episodic buffer seems to be in both hemispheres (bilateral) with activations in both the frontal and temporal lobes, and ... less intense tasks seem to activate in the occipital lobe, whereas more complex tasks appear in the parietal lobe. The central ... "frontal lobe" tasks: A latent variable analysis". Cognitive Psychology. 41 (1): 49-100. doi:10.1006/cogp.1999.0734. PMID ... although it would seem to be more or less located in the frontal lobes of the brain. ...

*Cerebrum

The cerebral cortex is generally classified into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The lobes ... However, in humans, this part of the brain is much smaller and lies underneath the frontal lobe. The olfactory sensory system ... There is a strong but not complete bilateral symmetry between the hemispheres. The lateralization of brain function looks at ... These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are planned. Upper ...

*Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome

... bilateral lesions may form in the junctions between the frontal lobe and temporal lobe, the parietal lobe and cortical lobe, or ... Also, this type of imaging can reveal right frontal lobes contusions encompassing the anterior operculum, the premotor area, ... Posterior syndrome involving the junction between the frontal and the parietal lobe of the operculum. The bilateral form of ... Frontal operculum formed by posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Fronto-parietal opercula formed by the lowermost part ...

*Neuroscience of sex differences

... portions of the superior parietal lobe, the left insula and bilateral thalamus. In the work of the authors have computed ... left VI and right Crus II lobes. On the other hand, females on average had larger grey matter volume at the right frontal pole ... In 1854, Emil Huschke discovered that "the frontal lobe in the male is all of 1% larger than that of the female." As the 19th ... For example, both men and women's active working memory networks composed of bilateral middle frontal gyri, left cingulate ...

*Music-related memory

... the right anterior cingulate gyrus and parietal lobe region. There was also some activation in the middle and inferior frontal ... Although bilateral activation was found there was dominance in the right hemisphere. This research suggests independence of ... By studying the learning curves of patients who have had damage to either their left or right medial temporal lobes, Wilson & ... This suggests dual memory codes for musical memory, with the verbal code utilizing the left temporal lobe structures and the ...

*Amorphosynthesis

... the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe which is located superior to the occipital lobe and posterior to the frontal lobe. The ... Amorphosynthesis is most closely related to damage of the right parietal lobe but instances of left parietal and bilateral ... The parietal lobes then act as a main determinant for the summation of stimuli and spatial awareness. In research by Denny- ... The right parietal lobe is associated with sensory integration and perception whereas the left parietal lobe is believed to ...

*Posterior parietal cortex

Is the posterior parietal lobe involved in working memory retrieval? Evidence from patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage ... doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.01.009 Nee, D. E., & Brown, J. W. (2012). Dissociable Frontal-Striatal and Frontal-Parietal ... Let's Get to Know the Parietal Lobes! [PDF]. Retrieved from http://gablab.mit.edu/downloads/Parietal_Primer.pdf Scheperjans, F ... In turn, much of the output of the posterior parietal cortex goes to areas of frontal motor cortex: the dorsolateral prefrontal ...

*Neuroesthetics

This form of stimuli leads to increased activation in the left frontal lobe and bilaterally in the parietal and limbic lobes. ... In a study between filtered forms of abstract and representation art, the bilateral occipital gyri, left cingulate sulcus, and ... These roles are consistent with previously known parietal lobe responsibilities in spatial cognition and visual imagery. There ... In a study performed by Zeki and Kawabata, it was found that the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) is involved in the judgment of ...

*Neuroscience of multilingualism

... which relies on a network of bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, and left premotor activation), as well as a difference in ... PET scans of a 37-year-old, right handed, bilingual (English and American Sign Language) male with left frontal lobe damage ... With regards to language comprehension, differences in levels of language proficiency engage the temporal lobes (particularly ... The bilateral parietal activation pattern for sign language is similar to neural activity during nonverbal visuospatial tasks. ...

*Focal seizure

The brain is divided into two hemispheres, each consisting of four lobes - the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes ... in the temporal lobe, a feeling of déjà vu; in the parietal lobe, a numbness or tingling; and in the occipital lobe, visual ... If a focal seizure spreads from one hemisphere to the other side of the brain, this will give rise to a focal to bilateral ... In the frontal lobe symptoms may include a wave-like sensation in the head; ...

*Neural correlates of consciousness

... epileptic seizures of the temporal lobe was likewise accompanied by a decrease in cerebral blood flow in frontal and parietal ... Or only a subset of long-range projection cells in the frontal lobes that project to the sensory cortices in the back? Neurons ... Relatively local bilateral injuries to midline (paramedian) subcortical structures can also cause a complete loss of awareness ... It seems possible that visual zombie modes in the cortex mainly use the dorsal stream in the parietal region. However, parietal ...

*Ordinal numerical competence

Approximate arithmetic is processed in the bilateral areas of the parietal lobes. This part of the brain processes visual ... Research shows that exact arithmetic is language-based and processed in the left inferior frontal lobe. Approximate arithmetic ... People with left parietal injuries can lose the ability to understand quantities of things, but keep at least some ability to ... Takayama, Y.; M. Sugishita; I. Akiguchi; J. Kimura (1994). "Isolated Acalculia due to Left Parietal Lesion". Arch. Neurol. 51: ...

*Utilization behavior

It was thought that UB was an imbalance the frontal and parietal lobes, but the study demonstrated that only damage to the ... The unpreventable excessive behavior has been linked to lesions in the frontal lobe. UB has also been referred to as "bilateral ... ADHD is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities and with the knowledge that UB involves the frontal lobe, researchers have ... This was seen in patients with Moyamoya disease who had bilateral frontal lobe infarctions which resulted in UB. Upon treatment ...

*Parieto-frontal integration theory

... parietal, and inferior frontal regions. The frontal and parietal lobes were found to be critical for executive control ... Similarly, bilateral cortical areas in the occipital lobe, such as BA (Brodmann area) 19 were activated during reasoning tasks ... Interaction between the parietal cortex and frontal lobes for hypothesis testing available solutions ... parietal, and inferior frontal areas.[9] Only one brain area was unique to g, which was Brodmann Area 10 in the left frontal ...

*Hypergraphia

Primary areas are the superior parietal cortex and the frontal lobe, the region of the brain that plans out movement. An area ... June 2003). "Psychopathological profile in patients with severe bilateral hippocampal atrophy and temporal lobe epilepsy: ... Words and ideas are cognized and understood by the temporal lobes, and these temporal lobes are connected to the limbic system ... The physical motion of the hand is controlled by the primary motor cortex, also located in the frontal lobe, and the right ...

*Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe ... The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. ... bilateral simultaneous stimulation) The parietal lobe plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various ... The parietal lobe is defined by three anatomical boundaries: The central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal ...

*Brain damage

It wasn't until Leborgne, formally known as "tan", died when Broca confirmed the frontal lobe lesion from an autopsy. The ... Lesions to the parietal lobes may result in agnosia, an inability to recognize complex objects, smells, or shapes, or ... Lesions to V4 can cause color-blindness, and bilateral lesions to MT/V5 can cause the loss of the ability to perceive motion.[ ... Ten years later, Paul Broca examined two patients exhibiting impaired speech due to frontal lobe injuries. Broca's first ...

*Hippocampus

... the frontal lobe is at the left, the occipital lobe at the right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed ... "Severe amnesia following bilateral medial temporal lobe damage occurring on two distinct occasions". Neurological Sciences. 27 ... and a reduction in the volume and thickness of the cortex particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes has been noted. It has ... Due to bilateral symmetry the brain has a hippocampus in each cerebral hemisphere. If damage to the hippocampus occurs in only ...

*Subvocalization

... when we use inner speech there is bilateral activation in predominantly the left frontal lobe.[13] This activation could ... There is evidence for significant left hemisphere activation in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and inferior parietal ... suggest that the frontal lobes may be involved in motor planning for speech output.[13] ... These tasks show activation in the frontal cortices, hippocampus and the thalamus for silent counting.[13] Silent-reading ...

*Near-death experience

"type 2 NDEs are also due to bilateral frontal and occipital, but predominantly left hemispheric brain damage affecting the left ... "damage to unilateral or bilateral temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala" may lead to emotional ... but predominantly right hemispheric brain damage affecting the right temporal parietal junction and characterized by out of ... and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes.[5] ... "type 1 NDEs are due to bilateral frontal and occipital, ...

*Head injury

The majority of contusions occur in the frontal and temporal lobes. Complications may include cerebral edema and transtentorial ... and bilateral lesions to MT/V5 can cause the loss of the ability to perceive motion.[citation needed] Lesions to the parietal ... It wasn't until Leborgne, formally known as "tan", died when Broca confirmed the frontal lobe lesion from an autopsy. The ... Ten years later, Paul Broca examined two patients exhibiting impaired speech due to frontal lobe injuries. Broca's first ...
A pacemaker system includes an electrode lead having a distal tip electrode for supplying stimulation pulses to cardiac tissue and a ring electrode, the electrode lead being connected to a cardiac stimulator. A detector is contained in a stimulator housing and is connected to the electrode lead for detecting electrical cardiac activity between said ring electrode and said tip electrode. Measurement of a signal dependent on physical activity of the subject in whom the pacemaker is implanted is obtained either by applying a voltage on the ring electrode during a predetermined measuring period and measuring a current through the ring electrode during at least a part of this period, or by, after detection of a QRS wave, applying a potential on the ring electrode and measuring the current between the housing and the ring electrode during the measuring period and also applying an alternating current between the tip electrode and the housing and measuring a voltage difference between the tip electrode and the
An electrochemical sensor based on a three-electrode method containing a reference electrode, comprising: A working electrode 2, a counter electrode 3 and a reference electrode 4 formed on an insulating substrate 1; an examining electrode 8 provided to examine an electric potential of the reference electrode 4; a combining layer 20, an immobilized enzyme layer 21 and a diffusion-limiting layer 22 made of a fluororesin provided on voltmeter is provided on these electrodes, between the examining electrode 8 and the reference electrode 4 so that the electric potential of the reference electrode can be examined; to detect an abnormality in the reference electrode immediately after its occurrence, recover a high reliability of measured value by removing the abnormality quickly, make it possible to conduct a continuous measurement for a long time and furthermore try to reduce a running cost.
Effective language understanding is crucial to maintaining cognitive abilities and learning new information through adulthood. However, age-related changes in cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) have a profound influence on the products of language comprehension (e.g., problem solving, learning, following instructions). At the same time, the effects of age and working memory on the moment-to-moment processes underlying language comprehension are less well understood. The current project tests the causal role of working memory in language among older adults by examining the effects of a short-term working memory training program on changes in language comprehension. This dissertation describes the development of the iTrain program, a novel home-based computerized training program targeting complex verbal WM performance, and describes the results from a single 3-week randomized controlled training experiment testing the efficacy of iTrain on improving verbal working memory, language ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory ...
A removable medical electrode system for monitoring electrical activity of selected tissue comprises a flexible member (22) of electrically insulating material shaped to conform to a surface of the tissue (20). It includes a mechanism (32, 34) for articulating the electrode (10) between an expanded and contracted position to place and remove the electrode (10) on the tissue (20), and to hold the electrode (10) in place during an operation. An electrical conductor (42) is fixed to the electrode (10) to carry electrical impulse signals from the nerve tissue (20) to a monitoring system.
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0269] 100: NMP, 101: graphene or RGO, 102: graphene oxide, 200: positive electrode, 201: positive electrode current collector, 202: positive electrode active material layer, 203: positive electrode active material particle, 204: graphene, 300: secondary battery, 301: positive electrode can, 302: negative electrode can, 303: gasket, 304: positive electrode, 305: positive electrode current collector, 306: positive electrode active material layer, 307: negative electrode, 308: negative electrode current collector, 309: negative electrode active material layer, 310: separator, 401: container, 402: graphene oxide dispersion liquid, 403: formation subject, 404: conductor, 405: container, 406: electrolyte solution, 407: conductor, 408: counter electrode, 500: secondary battery, 501: positive electrode current collector, 502: positive electrode active material layer, 503: positive electrode, 504: negative electrode current collector, 505: negative electrode active material layer, 506: negative ...
0138]However, the electrode combination can be shifted distally, i.e., upward in the orientation of FIG. 7. There is room on leads 26A, 26B to shift the electrode combination distally by two shift positions. Hence, if the initial position is shift position 1, shifts can be made to shift position 2 and shift position 3. Each shift may represent a shift in the position of the active electrodes associated with the previous electrode combination such that the electrical stimulation pattern remains identical or substantially similar, e.g., in terms of relative positions and spacing between the active electrodes in both the initial and shifted electrode combination. In addition, the initial and shifted electrode combinations have a common number of electrodes. In the example of FIG. 7, each electrode combination has three electrodes (110C, 110D, and 112C for the first combination), and the electrode combinations have a substantially similar electrode pattern. Active electrodes are those electrodes ...
One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain
Hamilton, Colin, Nilsson, Jonna, Robinson, Lucy, Salgado, Juliana, Ferrier, Nicol and Gallagher, Peter (2012) Can impairment in visualization contribute to poor visuospatial working memory performance in Major Depressive Disorder? In: 13th European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition (EWIC 2012), 20 -22 June 2012, Bochum, Germany. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for electrochemical sensing. Particularly, the invention relates to optimizing bias settings in an electrode system to increase oxygen pr
In this study, a sodalite nanozeolite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Following the morphology evolution of the sodalite nanozeolite in the SEM images illustrates the formation of the spherical particle with a size between 60 and 80 nm. Then, carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by sodalite nanozeolite and Ni2+ ions. The electrocatalytic performance of the fabricated electrode (Ni-SOD/CPE) towards glucose oxidation were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and Chronoamperometry and it was used as anode for the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 0.1 M of NaOH solution. Also, the electron transfer coefficient, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for glucose and redox sites of electrode were found to be 0.86, 3.13×10−5 cm2 s−1 and 5.34×106 cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. Good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good choice and the stability and easy preparation enables the modified
In this paper, an electrochemical application of bismuth film modified glassy carbon electrode for azo-colorants determination was investigated. Bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was prepared by ex-situ depositing of bismuth onto glassy carbon electrode. The plating potential was −0.78 V (vs. SCE) in a solution of 0.15 mg mL−1 Bi(III) and 0.05 mg mL−1 KBr for 180 s. In the next step, a thin film of chitosan was deposited on the surface of bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode, thus the bismuth-chitosan thin film modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi-CHIT/GCE) was fabricated and compared with bare GCE and bismuth modified GCE.Azo-colorants such as Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine were determined on these electrodes by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to overlapping peaks of Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine, simultaneous determination of them is not possible, so net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) was used for this determination. The results showed that coated chitosan can enhance ...
... The MyoTrac Muscle Monitor ships with a starter package of 3 Triode electrodes. If you want to use a different electrode configuration than the Triode Electrode Pad provides, you can order an Extender Cable.. In order to allow bilateral placement on the same muscle group an Extender Cable (available in lengths of 40" or 21") is available. This extender cable plugs into the end of the Triode Electrode head that ships with the MyoTrac and allows a strip of 3 electrodes to be used together for a Frontalis placement or separated for placements on other muscles bilaterally (such as the temporalis, masseter, trapezius, etc. muscle groups).. We have created a series of illustrations to clarify the process preparing the electrodes for placement. Both the Triode Electrode Pads and the Strip of 3 Electrodes are available in packages of 100. They both feature hypoallergenic adhesive surfaces and silver chloride electrodes that do not need gel applied. Both types ...
article{e3604934-e3c4-4e2c-8fa9-23566d3e0157, abstract = {The role of the electrode material in the efficiency of direct (non-mediated) bioelectrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is studied and discussed. The variations in direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis when coming from carbon/graphite to metal electrodes and oxides, as well as modified electrodes, are analyzed regarding the variations in adsorption/orientation of peroxidase at the electrodes, interfacial electron transfer rates and mechanism of catalysis.}, author = {Ferapontova, Elena}, issn = {1040-0397}, keyword = {Modified electrodes,Silver,Gold,Graphite,Horseradish peroxidase,Bioelectrocatalysis}, language = {eng}, number = {13-14}, pages = {1101--1112}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Electroanalysis}, title = {Direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis on a variety of electrode materials}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200403003}, volume = {16}, year = {2004 ...
A highly reliable biosensor is provided which is reduced in influences of any interfering substance or preexisting oxygen in a sample solution. The biosensor comprises an electrode system including a working electrode, a counter electrode and a third electrode also usable as an interfering substance detecting electrode, a reagent layer containing at least an oxidoreductase and an electron mediator, and an electrically insulating base plate for supporting the electrode system and the reagent layer, wherein the third electrode is arranged at an opposing position to that of at least one of the working electrode and the counter electrode and the reagent layer is arranged at a predetermined position apart from the third electrode.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. T2 - Functional MR imaging analysis. AU - Chen, Chi-Jen. AU - Wu, Chih-Hsiung. AU - Liao, Yen Peng. AU - Hsu, Hui Ling. AU - Tseng, Ying-Chi. AU - Liu, Ho Ling. AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Purpose: To analyze brain activation patterns in response to tests of working memory after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: Research ethics committee approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. Brain activation patterns in response to n-back working memory tasks (n = 1, 2, 3) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 patients with MTBI within 1 month after their injury and in 18 healthy control subjects. In n-back working memory tasks, participants monitored a series of number stimuli and were to indicate when the presented number was the same as that presented n back previously. Nine (45%) MTBI patients underwent follow-up functional MR ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Mathematical Anxiety influences the cortical connectivity profiles in lower alpha band during working memory tasks. AU - Bayrak, Şeyma. AU - Margulies, Daniel. AU - Bamidis, Panagiotis. AU - Klados, Manousos A.. PY - 2016/7/30. Y1 - 2016/7/30. N2 - Introduction Highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths (Ashcraft, 2002). It is hypothesized that worries and intrusive thoughts associated with math anxiety (MA) reduce working memory resources needed for cognitively demanding math tasks (Chang & Beilock, 2016). However, mental processes that access the memory representations of mathematical knowledge has not been fully uncovered (Ashcraft, 2001). Previous studies indicate that the frontal cortex is dominantly involved in working memory (WM) and more specifically while updating the working memory representations (Smith & Jonides, 1997). ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Transient and sustained activity in a distributed neural system for human working memory
Introduction. SOPHIE ELLIS WORKING MEMORY MODEL WHAT IS THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL? The working memory model was proposed by two men called Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. This model was an alternative to Atkinson & Shiffrins multi-store memory model (1968) to show that short-term memory was actually a lot more complex than the MSM (multi-store model) had previously suggested. Although the MSM was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. This is an improvement over the multi-store model of memory because it is more detailed, and therefore we can learn more about the stores of memory in the brain from it. The working model proposes an active, multi-component short-term memory store with each sub-system having its own role to play in learning, problem solving and concentration. ...read more. Middle. It is helpful to think of it as ...
Causes of Short Term Memory Loss. The causes of short term memory loss can be quite varied, ranging from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers disease, to Vitamin B-12 deficiency and certain prescription medications. See this list of memory loss causes for more detail.. Free Brain Age Games Challenge a friend. Hello . Play game. This game will give your short term memory a good developmental workout. In this exercise you need to click on the buckyballs that you see light up in the order that they appear. Six is a good score in this game but it is infinitely long, a seven year old autistic boy was able to …. Short Term memory. classic memory game with 4 different levels. Brain games math games puzzle games Word Games Crosswords Sudoku Memory Games Downloads. Restart Fullscreen donate short term Memory. Play. Favorite. Favorite. Click to add this game to your favorites. share. rate. Current …. ...
The severe capacity limit of visual working memory (VWM) necessitates an efficient filtering mechanism to represent task-relevant items in VWM and restrict task irrelevant items from consuming capacity. Previous studies have shown that selective attention benefits post-perceptual as well as perceptual processing by filtering unnecessary items out of VWM (Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005). The present study asked whether the attentional filtering is supported by the same mechanism across various loci of VWM processing such as encoding and retention stages. To answer this question, we measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a neural index of VWM capacity, while participants filtered out task-irrelevant VWM representations. Participants were asked to remember four sample color squares to be tested after a 1s delay period. In the selective encoding condition, a position-cue was presented at one of the four color squares at the sample display. The position-cue indicated a test location, ...
The ability of the nervous system to retain, manipulate and use visual information which is no longer present in the external environment contributes to intelligent behaviour. A new approach to studying visual working memory has led to re-evaluation of the nature of its limitations in keeping with a finite memory resource which is flexibly distributed across space according to attentional priority. Using a novel behavioural paradigm to study visual working memory precision for sequentially presented items, I demonstrate how the resolution with which healthy subjects recall simple objects changes dynamically with each new item in the sequence. Stochastic modelling of the distribution of responses suggested that memory for earlier objects in the sequence was especially prone to failure in integration of visual features, such as orientation and colour, into complete objects. Next, I examined how memory precision was affected by attentional selection according to the relative behavioural relevance ...
The classic "modal model" of memory argues that short term memory (STM) serves as the primary gateway for the formation of long term memory (LTM) representations (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Over the years, though, this model has been disregarded by many because of various incompatible results. For example, one common interpretation of this model is that STM serves as an "incubator" that strengthens representations through repeated rehearsal so that they can be successfully transferred to LTM. However, several researchers have found that longer periods of retention and rehearsal in STM does not lead to better LTM representations (e.g. Craik " Watkins, 1973). In this study, we took a different approach to test this model. Rather than conceptualizing STM as an incubator, we instead tested whether it serves as the "gate" that filters what information from the environment will ultimately be encoded into LTM. It is well known that individuals substantially and reliably vary in their STM capacity. ...
The Brain & Cognition lab has been investigating the interplay between attentional prioritization and working memory for several years. In two recently funded projects by the British Academy and the Royal Society to Nahid Zokaei (British Academy Post-doctoral Fellowship) and Freek van Ede (Newton International Fellowship), we will be further investigating how information in working memory can be dynamically prioritized and what neural mechanisms prior to encoding and during working-memory maintenance contribute to this. This builds on recent research in the lab demonstrating that cues presented during working memory maintenance can dynamically prioritize items in working memory (Wallis et al., 2015) and that ongoing brain states (alpha oscillations) can influence the precision of subsequent working memory representations (Myers et al., 2014).. Experimental Approach. This research programme makes use of behavioural psychophysical experiments as well as state-of-the-art neuroimaging methodologies ...
Here we examined theta oscillations recorded from the mPFC of mice performing a SWM task. We found that theta oscillations were the most prominent feature of the mPFC LFP and that these oscillations were synchronized with both spiking of mPFC single units and theta-frequency fluctuations in the amplitude of gamma oscillations. Moreover, mPFC theta oscillations were modulated by working memory and synchronized with theta-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus. Finally, both analytical and experimental approaches revealed that this hippocampal-mPFC synchrony relies on activity in the vHPC.. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that cortical theta can be relevant to behavior. Theta oscillations have been observed previously in area V4 of the primate visual cortex during a visual working memory task (Lee et al., 2005), as well as in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of human subjects performing working memory tasks (Schmiedt et al., 2005; Raghavachari et al., 2006; Haenschel et al., 2009). Of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CMIP and ATP2C2 modulate phonological short-term memory in language impairment. AU - Newbury, Dianne F.. AU - Winchester, Laura. AU - Addis, Laura. AU - Paracchini, Silvia. AU - Buckingham, Lyn-Louise. AU - Clark, Ann. AU - Cohen, Wendy. AU - Cowie, Hilary. AU - Dworzynski, Katharina. AU - Everitt, Andrea. AU - Goodyer, Ian M.. AU - Hennessy, Elizabeth. AU - Kindley, A. David. AU - Miller, Laura L.. AU - Nasir, Jamal. AU - OHare, Anne. AU - Shaw, Duncan. AU - Simkin, Zoe. AU - Simonoff, Emily. AU - Slonims, Vicky. AU - Watson, Jocelynne. AU - Ragoussis, Jiannis. AU - Fisher, Simon E.. AU - Seckl, Jonathon R.. AU - Helms, Peter J.. AU - Bolton, Patrick F.. AU - Pickles, Andrew. AU - Conti-Ramsden, Gina. AU - Baird, Gillian. AU - Bishop, Dorothy V.M.. AU - Monaco, Anthony P.. PY - 2009/8/14. Y1 - 2009/8/14. N2 - Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the ...
This chapter discusses the development of working memory as children grow up. It argues that working memory is an important resource for acquiring and performing cognitive skills and that its limited capacity places key constraints on childrens abilities. It then describes some of the tasks that have been used to explore working memory in adults. It makes a key distinction between simple span tasks, used to assess the capacity to hold different types of temporary information, and complex span tasks that assess the ability to hold and manipulate temporary information. The chapter outlines the developmental progression of performance in these tasks. It discusses the possible role of speed of information processing as a general factor accounting for developmental change in all aspects of working memory. It also explores whether the structure of working memory is the same in children and adults, and whether working memory serves similar cognitive functions in children. A final topic concerns the ...
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) provides an on-line mental space for incoming sensory information to be temporally maintained to carry out complex behavioral tasks. Despite its essential functions, the capacity at which VSTM could maintain sensory information is limited (i.e., VSTM can hold only about three to four visual items at once). Moreover, the quality of sensory representation (i.e., precision) degrades as more information has to be maintained in VSTM. Correlational evidence suggests that the level and the pattern of neural activity measured in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) track both VSTM capacity and precision. However, the causal contributions of the PPC to these different VSTM operations are unclear. Here, we tested whether stimulating the PPC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase VSTM capacity or precision. We found that stimulating the PPC in male and female human participants selectively enhanced VSTM capacity when the number ...
0090] Various aspects of the subject-matter described herein are set out non-exhaustively in the following numbered clauses: [0091] 1. A method of operation within a memory device having a memory core and a signaling interface, the method comprising: [0092] receiving a command that specifies at least a portion of a memory access; and during the memory access: [0093] transferring data between the memory core and the signaling interface; [0094] transferring the data between the signaling interface and an external signal path; and [0095] receiving enable information prior to transferring the data between the signaling interface and the external signal path, the enable information to selectively enable at least a first memory resource and a second memory resource, wherein each of the first memory resource and the second memory resource performs a control function associated with the memory access. [0096] 2. The method of clause 1 wherein receiving enable information to selectively enable at least a ...
A method of preparing memory contents of a gaming machine for subsequent authentication and a method of authenticating the prepared memory contents are disclosed. A first memory stores a game data set and a first authentication code generated from the game data set. The game data set includes game data files and second authentication codes generated from the respective data files. A second memory stores an authentication program for authenticating the first memorys contents, as well as a third authentication code generated from the second memorys contents. To authenticate the memory contents, the second memorys contents are first authenticated and, if deemed authentic, the game data set as a whole and each data file in the first memory are authenticated. The authentication process involves generating fresh authentication codes using the authentication program and comparing the fresh codes with appropriate ones of the stored authentication codes.
Cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia has been reported, especially memory. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been effective in enhancing this function. We tested the effects of eight sessions of tDCS and cognitive training on i …
My husband is 76 years old and was operated on February, 2014, for an esthesioneuroblastoma. He had both the cranial and nasal approach. Margins were all clear, thankfully. Doctors recommended no chemo or radiation, but follow-up scans every 6 months for 2 years. He irrigates twice a day. While it is a minor problem in view of all that can happen he constantly complains of a wierd smell, which cant really be a "smell" because his olfactory nerve was totally removed. He also complains of stuffiness in his sinus area that causes inability to sleep through the night. I notice that his short term memory is not very good. Has anyone else experienced these problems. ...
Everyone forgets things a number of the time. You forget why you chose to enter and completely walk right into an area. Youre mid- space and unexpectedly dialog -out what was only said.. Although odd and sometimes embarassing, short-term memory loss below a specific threshold does not mean anything. But if youre experiencing unexplained, sudden and major trouble remembering things that only occurred, maybe its a symptom of a larger issue.. The mind is the seat of recollection. Short-term memory losses typically happen when the brain or nervous system changes for some reason. Here will be the most typical and significant reasons for short-term memory loss, a.k.a "anterograde amnesia," in no specific sequence. ...
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Background and Objective: Working memory is the most basic pillar of memory for doing cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on working memory in veterans and disabled athletes.   Material and Methods: The method of this study was ...
Henrietta is interested in the use of experimental methodologies to examine the nature of the relations between aspects of cognition, psychopathology, and self-regulation. Henrietta completed her PhD examining the relationship between rumination and cognitive inhibition under the supervision of Professors Ed Watkins and Andy Wills. Henrietta worked as a post-doc for Dr Barney Dunn on a project examining the associations between mood disorders and reward sensitivity in a large community cohort. Henrietta is currently working with Dr Anna Adlam on an ISSF funded project examining whether working memory training reduces repetitive negative thinking. Henrietta additionally works for Anna supporting a trial evaluating a working memory training intervention for children with an acquired brain injury.. ...
Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - People with special needs - special olympics - Dohsa-hou - Asghar Dadkhah - University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences
A recent study reported in the journal Brain, showed that Parkinsons patients improved their working memory if they had a good night sleep. Working memory is what is required to organize, plan, solve problems and function in daily living. This is a significant issue for patients with Parkinsons disease.. The study looked at 54 patients with Parkinsons disease to see the affects of sleep on their working memory. What they found was that if a patient had sleep apnea and interfered with their slow wave sleep (the deepest level of sleep), they had significantly more difficulty with their working memory. However, as they improved their slow wave sleep duration by treating their apnea, their memory improved.. This is similar with other studies showing that the slow wave sleep is needed to allow the brain to reorganize and make new connections. So, if sleep disorders are addressed in Parkinsons patients, then there is a good chance that their working memory will improve.. This is exciting news for ...
This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained by a common genetic factor for reading performance, IQ, WM and STM and a genetic factor that only influenced reading performance and verbal memory. Genetic variation explained 83% of the variation in reading performance; most of this genetic variance was explained by variation in IQ and memory performance. We hypothesize, based on these results, that children with reading problems possibly can be divided into three groups: (1) children low in IQ and with reading problems; (2) children with average IQ but a STM deficit and with reading problems; (3) children with low IQ and STM deficits; this group may experience more reading problems than the other two. ...
In order to clarify the mechanism through which extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) improves cognitive function, we examined the effects of EGb on cerebral blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on performance during a working memory task, using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS).. First, we evaluated differences in behavioral performance of the Sternberg working memory test (ST) and in the activation pattern of the PFC during ST between 15 young and 19 middle-aged healthy women. Then, we examined the effect of EGb (120 mg/day for 6 weeks) on ST performance and PFC activation pattern in the middle-aged group.. The middle-aged group exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) in ST than the young group and showed a different PFC activation pattern during ST, i.e., the middle-aged group showed bilateral activation while the young group showed right-dominant activation. In the middle-aged group, administration of EGb for 6 weeks shortened the RT of ST and changed the ...
The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory (WM), have been examined in a number of studies. However, much less is known about the behavioral effects of tDCS over other important WM-related brain regions, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In a counterbalanced within-subjects design with 33 young healthy participants, we examined whether online and offline single-session tDCS over VLPFC affects WM updating performance as measured by a digit 3-back task. We compared three conditions: anodal, cathodal and sham. We observed no significant tDCS effects on participants accuracy or reaction times during or after the stimulation. Neither did we find any differences between anodal and cathodal stimulation. Largely similar results were obtained when comparing subgroups of high- and low-performing participants. Possible reasons for the lack of effects, including individual ...
Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.[1][2] While sensory memory persists for several milliseconds, working memory persists for up to thirty seconds, and long-term memory persists from thirty minutes to the end of an individuals life, intermediate-term memory persists for about two to three hours.[3] This overlap in the durations of these memory processes indicates that they occur simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Indeed, intermediate-term facilitation can be produced in the absence of long-term facilitation.[4] However, the boundaries between these forms of memory are not clear-cut, and they can vary depending on the task.[5] Intermediate-term memory is thought to be supported by the parahippocampal cortex.[6] In 1993, Rosenzweig and colleagues demonstrated that, in rats conditioned with an aversive stimulus, percent avoidance of the stimulus (and, by implication, memory of the aversive ...
View Notes - Lecture 12 - Memory Encoding from PYSC 400 at South Carolina. Memory - Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Memory Short-term memory - Stores a limited amount of info for no more than about
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prefrontal cortex dysfunction mediates deficits in working memory and prepotent responding in schizophrenia. AU - Perlstein, William M.. AU - Dixit, Neha K.. AU - Carter, Cameron S. AU - Noll, Douglas C.. AU - Cohen, Jonathan D.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Background: Schizophrenic patients show deficits in working memory (WM) and inhibition of prepotent responses. We examined brain activity while subjects performed tasks that placed demands on WM and overriding prepotent response tendencies, testing predictions that both processes engage overlapping prefrontal cortical (PFC) regions and that schizophrenic patients show reduced PFC activity and performance deficits reflecting both processes. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while 16 schizophrenic and 15 healthy subjects performed the N-Back task that varied WM load and a version of the AX-CPT that required overriding a prepotent response tendency. Results: Both tasks ...
The prefrontal cortex regulates behavior, cognition, and emotion by using working memory. Prefrontal functions are impaired by stress exposure. Acute, stress-induced deficits arise from excessive protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, which diminishes prefrontal neuronal firing. Chronic stress additionally produces architectural changes, reducing dendritic complexity and spine density of cortico-cortical pyramidal neurons, thereby disrupting excitatory working memory networks. In vitro studies have found that sustained PKC activity leads to spine loss from hippocampal-cultured neurons, suggesting that PKC may contribute to spine loss during chronic stress exposure. The present study tested whether inhibition of PKC with chelerythrine before daily stress would protect prefrontal spines and working memory. We found that inhibition of PKC rescued working memory impairments and reversed distal apical dendritic spine loss in layer II/III pyramidal ...
Abstract Earlier work indicates that bilingualism may positively affect statistical learning, but leaves open whether a bilingual benefit is (1) found during learning rather than in a post-hoc test following a learning phase and (2) explained by enhanced verbal short-term memory skill in the bilinguals. Forty-one bilingual and 56 monolingual preschoolers completed a serial reaction time task and a nonword repetition task (NWR). Linear mixed-effect regressions indicated that the bilinguals showed a stronger decrease in reaction times over the regular blocks of the task than the monolinguals. No group differences in accuracy-based measures were found. NWR performance, which did not differ between the groups, did not account for the attested effect of bilingualism. These results provide partial support for effects of bilingualism on statistical learning, which appear during learning and are not due to enhanced verbal short-term memory. Taken together, these findings add to a growing body of research on
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Dec;38(13):2613-22. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.170. Epub 2013 Jul 16. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent conditions among school children. Executive function deficits representing difficulties in maintaining an appropriate problem set for the attainment of future goals are reported to be the major deficit in ADHD populations. There is a high rate of co-morbidity of learning disabilities and ADHD, with empirical evidence indicating an association with math and reading difficulties, but there is little research on the written expression of this population. There is a body of emergent research indicating that written expression is mediated by executive function. Written expression is a complex task that is affected by motivation, working memory, cognitive processes and long term memory, factors which are reported to be compromised in ADHD populations. This study evaluated the working memory and fluid reasoning in children with (combined and predominantly inattentive types) and without ADHD. Second, it explored the ...
Hypertension is a presumptive risk factor for premature cognitive decline. However, lowering blood pressure (BP) does not uniformly reverse cognitive decline, suggesting that high BP per se may not cause cognitive decline. We hypothesized that essential hypertension has initial effects on the brain that, over time, manifest as cognitive dysfunction in conjunction with both brain vascular abnormalities and systemic BP elevation. Accordingly, we tested whether neuropsychological function and brain blood flow responses to cognitive challenges among prehypertensive individuals would predict subsequent progression of BP. Midlife adults (n=154; mean age, 49; 45% men) with prehypertensive BP underwent neuropsychological testing and assessment of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological performance measures were derived for verbal and logical memory (memory), executive function, working memory, mental efficiency, and attention. A pseudo-continuous arterial ...
METHOD OF USING A PKC INHIBITOR TO REVERSE PREFRONTAL CORTICAL DECLINES - Aging is associated with deficiencies in the prefrontal cortex, including working memory impairment, and compromised integrity of neuronal dendrites. The role of Protein Kinase C(PKC) in age-related prefrontal cortical impairments had not been previously determined. The inventors provides evidence that PKC activity is associated with prefrontal cortical dysfunction in aging. The inventors provide methods of reversing the effects of prefrontal cortical decline, improving cognition, and improving working memory in aged subjects by providing a phenanthridinium alkaloid or closely related compound to the subject. The inventors found chelerythrine reversed working memory impairments in aged rats and enhanced working memory in aged rhesus monkeys. Improvement correlated with age, with older monkeys demonstrating a greater degree of improvement following PKC ...
Age-related differences in the regional recruitment of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during cognitive tasks suggests that aging is associated with functional reorganization. Cholinergic enhancement with physostigmine reduces activity in the {PFC} regions selectively recruited during working memory (WM) and increases activity in visual processing areas, suggesting that augmenting cholinergic function reduces task effort by improving the visual representation of {WM} stimuli. Here, we investigated how cholinergic enhancement influenced {PFC} and visual cortical activity in young and older subjects as {WM} difficulty was altered. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using H215O-PET in 10 young and 10 older volunteers during a parametrically varied face {WM} task, following an i.v. infusion of saline and physostigmine. Reaction time decreased during physostigmine relative to placebo in both groups. Prefrontal brain regions selectively recruited in each age group that ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
Work from our institution has shown that moderate and severe TBI subjects demonstrate an altered cerebral representation when they attempt to process a verbal WM task. Specifically, our data show a post-TBI pattern of activation that is dispersed and more lateralized to the right hemisphere, as compared to healthy controls. Taken together, we interpret these findings to mean that it is requires more cerebral resources for TBI subjects to process tasks that were previously more automatic. In other words, their processing is less efficient. This is consistent with TBI patients self-reports of needing to expend greater cognitive effort to perform such tasks, both in the lab and in everyday life. Our preliminary data was the first step in understanding the cerebral substrate of these difficulties. However, simply indicating that individuals with TBI have a WM problem is not enough. The development of targeted interventions to ameliorate these deficits is the next step in the treatment ...
The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. The original apparatus consists of eight equidistantly spaced arms, each about 4 feet long, and all radiating from a small circular central platform (later versions have used as few as three and as many as 48 arms). At the end of each arm there is a food site, the contents of which are not visible from the central platform. Two types of memory that are assessed during the performance in this task are reference memory and working memory. Reference memory is assessed when the rats only visit the arms of the maze which contains the reward. The failure to do so will result in reference memory error. Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory error. The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central platform before making another choice. ...
A memory device including an array of memory cells and a method for copying information within the memory device. Each memory cell includes a first memory sub-cell and a second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell also includes a device that copies information from the first memory sub-cell into the second memory sub-cell. Each memory cell may include a static random access memory (SRAM) cell and may utilize tri-state inverters to make overwriting information easier and reduce power consumption. Each memory cell may also include a second copy device that allows information to be copied from the second memory sub-cell to the first memory sub-cell. The memory device may be provided in a register file of a microprocessor to copy information from an architectural branch register (ABR) file to a speculative branch register (SBR) file.
Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day). Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has
Objective The current research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Sternbergs successful intelligence program upon working memory and executive functions of sharp-witted primary school students. The statistical population of the current research consisted of all sharp-witted male students of the city of Isfahan in the academic year of 2015-2016.Method For this purpose, totally 30 sharp-witted male students were selected through multi- stage cluster random sampling method and were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (15 students in the experimental group and another 15 students in the control group). The Sternbergs successful intelligence program was administered on the experimental group. The tools used for this research included software to measure working memory and questionnaire (inventory) on rating executive functions of the primary school students. To analyze the research data, multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) was employed.Results Findings revealed that
Abdulla S, Vielhaber S, Heinze HJ, Abdulla W. A new approach using high volume blood patch for prevention of post-dural puncture headache following intrathecal catheter pump exchange. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2015;5(2):93-8. Baecke S, Lützkendorf R, Mallow J, Luchtmann M, Tempelmann C, Stadler J, Bernarding J. A proof-of-principle study of multi-site real-time functional imaging at 3T and 7T: Implementation and validation. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:8413. Barleben M, Stoppel CM, Kaufmann J, Merkel C, Wecke T, Goertler M, Heinze HJ, Hopf JM, Schoenfeld MA. Neural correlates of visual motion processing without awareness in patients with striate cortex and pulvinar lesions. Hum Brain Mapp 2015; 36(4):1585-94. Bartsch MV, Boehler CN, Stoppel CM, Merkel C, Heinze HJ, Schoenfeld MA, Hopf JM. Determinants of Global Color-Based Selection in Human Visual Cortex. Cereb Cortex 2015; 25(9):2828-41. Becke A, Müller N, Vellage A, Schoenfeld MA, Hopf JM. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human ...
Modulation of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system results in changes in memory performance, including working memory (WM), in animals and in patients with Alzheimer disease. To identify associated changes in the functional brain response, we studied performance measures and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects during performance of a WM task. Eight control subjects received an infusion of saline throughout the study and 13 experimental subjects received a saline infusion for the first 2 scans followed by a continuous infusion of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, for the subsequent 8 scans. rCBF was measured using H215O and PET in a sequence of 10 PET scans that alternated between rest and task scans. During task scans, subjects performed the WM task for faces. Physostigmine both improved WM efficiency, as indicated by faster reaction times, and reduced WM task-related activity in anterior and posterior regions of ...
Episodic memory exercises such as reminiscing and storytelling have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits for older adults by prolonging their ability to lead an independent lifestyle. In this paper, we describe a mobile reminiscence tool called Memory Karaoke, which facilitates episodic memory exercise through contextualized storytelling of meaningful experiences by using contextual cues such as location, time, and photos. We present results from two studies we conducted with Memory Karaoke to explore which contextual cues contribute to best exercising a persons episodic memory. Our findings suggest that while viewing photos do exercise episodic memory to some extent, additional contextual cues (e.g. location and time) can solicit a greater amount of episodic memory exercise. This suggests that Memory Karaokes selective capture process and its ability to contextualize memories while users retell stories are two effective features which help it to support episodic memory use. These ...
This study investigates the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS)-methylphenidate, a long-acting stimulant, on multiple dimensions of attention and on working memory. Specifically, we will investigate the following two hypotheses: (1) OROS-methylphenidate will result in improved performance on measures assessing multiple domains of attention, including sustained attention, attentional control, selective attention, and divided attention, and (2) OROS-methylphenidate will result in improved performance on measures of working memory. In addition we will use the study to collect pilot data on whether the magnitude of the effect of OROS-methylphenidate varies across the different components of attention and working memory and whether improvement across any of these measures is helpful in predicting parent or teacher ratings of improvement ...
Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, ...
The research, led by scientists at UCSF, is also one of the first to measure both mental performance and changes in neural activity caused by a cognitive training program.. In the study, healthy older participants trained on a computer game designed to boost visual perception. After ten hours of training, they not only improved their perceptual abilities significantly, but also increased the accuracy of their visual working memory by about ten percent - bringing them up to the level of younger adults. Few brain training programs have been subjected to such rigorous research evaluation to reveal such a transfer of benefits, the researchers say.. Working memory is the ability to hold information in mind for brief periods. It is essential to accomplish immediate tasks, such as engaging in conversation with several people. If improvements in a simple perception skill can transfer to a higher level function such as memory, as this research found, then other interventions might further improve brain ...
Ashton, R & De Lillo, C. (2011). Association, inhibition and object permanence in dogs (Canis familiaris) spatial search. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 125(2): 194-206.. Bennett. M., Duke, P.A. & Fuggetta, G. (2014). Event-related potential N270 delayed and enhanced by the conjunction of relevant and irrelevant perceptual mismatch. Psychophysiology. 51(5):456-463 De Lillo, C., Kirby, M. & Poole, D. (2016) Spatio-Temporal Structure, Path Characteristics, and Perceptual Grouping in Immediate Serial Spatial Recall. Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 7 , Article 1686.. De Lillo, C. Kirby, M. & James, F.C. (2014). Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organisation, travelling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens). American Journal of Primatology, 76: 436-446.. De Lillo, C. & James, F.C. (2012). Spatial working memory for clustered and linear configurations of sites in a virtual reality foraging task. Cognitive Processing. 13(Suppl1): S243-246.. De ...
The subject invention provides systems and methods that facilitate formation of semiconductor memory devices comprising memory cells with one or more injecting bilayer electrodes. Memory arrays generally comprise bit cells that have two discrete components; a memory element and a selection element, such as, for example, a diode. The invention increases the efficiency of a memory device by forming memory cells with selection diodes comprising a bilayer electrode. Memory cells are provided comprising bilayer cathodes and/or bilayer anodes that facilitate a significant improvement in charge injection into the diode layers of memory cells. The increased charge (e.g. electrons or holes) density in the diode layers of the selected memory cells results in improved memory cell switching times and lowers the voltage required for the memory cell to operate, thereby, creating a more efficient memory cell.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
An SDRAM memory chip device comprises a non-volatile memory controller for operating a non-volatile memory, e.g., a NAND-flash, and a FIFO memory buffer. The FIFO memory buffer serves to operate background store and load operations between a FIFO buffer array and the non-volatile memory, while a host system such as a CPU exchanges data with the SDRAM work memory. The SDRAM memory chip device, therefore, has at least two additional pins as compared with conventional SDRAM standard for generating a set of additional commands. These commands are employed by the FIFO memory buffer to manage the data transfer between the FIFO buffer and each of the non-volatile memory and the volatile SDRAM memory. Two further pins reflecting the flash memory status provide appropriate issuance of load or store signals by the host system.
Experimental work in animals has shown that memory formation depends on a cascade of molecular events. Here we show that variability of human memory performance is related to variability in genes encoding proteins of this signaling cascade, including the NMDA and metabotrobic glutamate receptors, adenylyl cyclase, CAMKII, PKA, and PKC. The individual profile of genetic variability in these signaling molecules correlated significantly with episodic memory performance (P , 0.00001). Moreover, functional MRI during memory formation revealed that this genetic profile correlated with activations in memory-related brain regions, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The present study indicates that genetic variability in the human homologues of memory-related signaling molecules contributes to interindividual differences in human memory performance and memory-related brain activations. ...
BACKGROUND: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes dopamine. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism influences its activity, and multiple neural correlates of this genotype on dopaminergic phenotypes, especially working memory, have been reported. COMT activity can also be regulated pharmacologically by COMT inhibitors. The inverted-U relationship between cortical dopamine signaling and working memory predicts that the effects of COMT inhibition will differ according to COMT genotype. METHODS: Thirty-four COMT Met(158)Met (Met-COMT) and 33 COMT Val(158)Val (Val-COMT) men were given a single 200-mg dose of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. They completed the N-back task of working memory and a gambling task. RESULTS: In the placebo group, Met-COMT subjects outperformed Val-COMT subjects on the 2- back, and they were more risk averse. Tolcapone had opposite effects in the two genotype groups: it worsened N-back performance
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrieval cue and delay interval influence the relationship between prospective memory and activities of daily living in older adults. AU - Tierney, S.M.. AU - Bucks, Romola S.. AU - Weinborn, Michael. AU - Hodgson, Erica R.. AU - Woods, Steven P.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Objective: Older adults commonly experience mild declines in everyday functioning and the strategic aspects of prospective memory (PM). This study used multiprocess theory to examine whether the strategic demands of retrieval cue type (event vs.Time based) and delay interval length (2 vs. 15 min) influence the relationship between PM and activities of daily living (ADLs) in older adults. Method: Participants included 97 community-dwelling older adults recruited from the Western Australia Participant Pool. Participants were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) as part of a larger neurocognitive ...
Insulin resistance is a key mediator of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease, yet the mechanisms underlying this link remain obscure. Using an integrative genomic approach, we identify 53 genomic regions associated with insulin resistance phenotypes (higher fasting insulin levels adjusted for BMI, lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher triglyceride levels) and provide evidence that their link with higher cardiometabolic risk is underpinned by an association with lower adipose mass in peripheral compartments. Using these 53 loci, we show a polygenic contribution to familial partial lipodystrophy type 1, a severe form of insulin resistance, and highlight shared molecular mechanisms in common/mild and rare/severe insulin resistance. Population-level genetic analyses combined with experiments in cellular models implicate CCDC92, DNAH10 and L3MBTL3 as previously unrecognized molecules influencing adipocyte differentiation. Our findings support the notion that limited storage capacity of peripheral
Acquired memory impairment commonly occurs after acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizure disorder and encephalitis and is one the defining features of progressive disorders, such as Alzheimers disease. There is a growing body of knowledge about the use of compensatory memory aids in the rehabilitation of memory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the systematic training of compensatory memory aids on everyday memory performance within a Memory Aids Clinic, a specialised outpatient clinic which supplied and trained the use of memory aids. A comparison was made between subjects with acquired memory disorders in a treatment group (n=63) and control group (n = 28) in a between subjects design. All subjects underwent a baseline session which was comprised of a neuropsychological assessment, clinical interview and goal setting session. Treatment subjects then underwent three training sessions, matching memory aids to goals, across a six week period. Training ...
This recording of an OK2Ask online professional development session from June 2016, opens in Adobe Connect. Excite and engage students to jump into learning with tech tools to support direct instruction for vocabulary. Increase the vocabulary in all subjects areas using direct instruction based on Marzano strategies to increase success in school and on achievement tests. Increased vocabulary deepens background knowledge providing a better schemata for different learning experiences. Using the six step approach, discover tech tools to bring the vocabulary from short term memory into long term memory. Discover how the tech tools chosen, can be used to increase student collaboration and provide data for formative assessments. Participants will: 1. Review Marzanos strategies for vocabulary instruction; 2. Explore tools for vocabulary instruction; 3. Learn strategies for student collaboration during vocabulary instruction; and 4. Understand how to create formative assessments for vocabulary using ...
Results Among patients with MCI, greater severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater global cognitive impairment, with a moderate effect size. A mediation analysis revealed that patients with MCI experiencing depressive symptoms may exhibit global cognitive impairment because their depressive symptoms were reducing their capacity for working memory, episodic memory and non-speed-based executive functions. A moderation analysis indicated that this effect was consistent across age, gender, years of education and APOE-e4 status for working memory and episodic memory, and was observed in patients with MCI older than 65 years for executive functions. In cognitively normal elderly adults and patients with AD, depressive symptoms were not associated with global cognitive impairment. ...
Memory consolidation requires a timely controlled interplay between the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory formation, and the cortex, a region recruited for memory storage. Here we show that memory consolidation is associated with specific epigenetic modifications on histone proteins that have a distinct dynamic in these brain areas. While in the hippocampus, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are rapidly and transiently activated after learning, in the cortex they are induced with delay but persist over time. When these histone PTMs are increased in vivo by transgenic intervention or intense training, they facilitate memory consolidation. Conversely, when they are pharmacologically blocked, memory consolidation is impaired. These histone PTMs are further associated with the expression of the immediate early gene zif268, a transcription factor that favours memory consolidation. These findings reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of histone marks during memory ...
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The acquisition of a memory depends on several mechanisms. Information is received from the environment, and the senses perceive it, interpret it, and respond to it. There are three stages involved in this process. Information is acquired during the first stage; the information is taken in through the senses, perceived, and understood. If the information is visual, it enters the brain through electrical impulses coming from the retina, traveling through the optic nerve and into the cerebral cortex. A limited amount of this information is retained in short-term memory. Like a clipboard on a computer, the contents of short-term memory are constantly being lost and replaced with other information unless the contents are restored through repetition. For example, when a telephone number is looked up, it is usually remembered long enough to complete the call. This information will soon be forgotten if it is not used again for several days or weeks. However, if the number is dialed every day or several ...
1. Zhang RW, Tang XC, Han YY, et al. Drug evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory disorders [in Chinese; English abstract]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1991;12:250-252. 2. Cheng DH, Tang XC. Comparative studies of huperzine A, E2020, and tacrine on behavior and cholinesterase activities. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998;60:377-386. 3. Cheng DH, Ren H, Tang XC. Huperzine A, a novel promising acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Neuroreport. 1996;8:97-101. 4. Xiong ZQ, Tang XC. Effect of huperzine A, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on radial maze performance in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995;51:415-419. 5. Zhi QX, Yi FH, XI CT. Huperzine A ameliorates the spatial working memory impairments induced by AF64A. Neuroreport. 1995;6:2221-2224. 6. Zhu XD, Giacobini E. Second generation cholinesterase inhibitors: effect of (L)-huperzine-A on cortical biogenic amines. J Neurosci Res. 1995;41:828-835. 7. Zhang GB, Wang MY, Zheng JQ, et al. Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by ...
A compact nonvolatile programmable memory cell. The memory cell has a floating gate (118), control gate (123), drain (108), and source regions (112). The memory cell is an electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) cell or a Flash memory cell. Data may be stored the memory cell of the present invention for the required lifetime of the memory cell usage, and data is retained even when power is removed. The memory cell of the present invention has a substantially transverse or vertical channel (140), relative to a surface of a substrate. The memory may be used to create very high-density memory arrays.
The enzyme protein kinase M-ζ (PKM-ζ) was thought to be a fixture of long-term memory, as its inhibition could erase old memories, whilst adding it could strengthen faded ones. Two independent groups have challenged the role of this memory molecule by developing mice that completely lack it and show no detectable memory problems.. The scientists published their findings in the journal Nature¹ ². Back in 2007, Todd Sacktor was able to wipe out month-old memories of unpleasant smells in rats by injecting their brains with ZIP, a peptide that was meant to block PKM-ζ. Other teams obtained similar results, erasing different kinds of memory by injecting ZIP into the brains of rodents, flies and sea slugs. In 2011, Sacktor was able to strengthen the memory of unpleasant tastes in rats by injecting their brains with viruses carrying extra copies of PKM-ζ.. These studies suggested that long-term memory was fragile and depended on the continuous activity of a single enzyme. Much of this data ...
The hippocampus is a section of the brain located below the cerebral cortex. It is a part of the limbic system and plays a part in memory.. The name derives from the fact that its curved shape resembles that of a sea horse (Greek: hippocampus).. There is substantial evidence (from animal studies and from patients with brain injury) that the hippocampus is crucial in the conversion of short term memory into long memory, though it is not yet clear how this occurs. Individuals whose hippocampus becomes damaged (for instance, those with Korsakoffs syndrome), whilst retaining the ability to access long-term memories from before their injury, become unable to form new ones. They can, however, learn new skills (such as playing a musical instrument) but will be totally unable to remember how they gained those skills.. There is also evidence, that the hippocampus is involved in storing unique information, as for example locations. Without a fully functional hippocampus a person may no more be able ...
Results Each group activated the fronto-parietal working memory networks, and deactivated the typical default mode network (DMN) in response to the increasing task demands. Group comparison revealed that TLE patients with a lifetime history of affective disorders showed significantly greater deactivation in bilateral subgenual prefrontal cortex than either the TLE without any psychiatric history and the healthy control groups (p,.001). Post-hoc analyses indicated that this main group effect persisted after co-varying for current psychotropic medication and severity of current depressive/anxiety symptoms (all p-values,.001). Correlational analysis revealed that this finding was not driven by differences in task performance (r=.49, p=.33). There were no significant differences in hippocampal volume or amygdala T2 signal between the TLE groups.. ...
p,People with schizophrenia consistently show memory impairment on varying tasks including item recognition memory. Relative to the correct rejection of distracter items, the correct recognition of studied items consistently produces an effect termed the old/new effect that is characterized by increased activity in parietal and frontal cortical regions. This effect has received only scant attention in schizophrenia. We examined the old/new effect in 15 people with schizophrenia and 18 controls during an item recognition test, and neural activity was examined with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Both groups performed equally well during the recognition test and showed increased activity in a left dorsolateral prefrontal region and in the precuneus bilaterally during the successful recognition of old items relative to the correct rejection of new items. The control group also exhibited increased activity ...
The contributions of the cerebellum, and cerebro-cerebellar circuits, to cognition. The cerebellum has traditionally been viewed as a structure involved in motor coordination. However, neuroimaging and patient studies have revealed unexpected cerebellar involvement in cognitive performance beyond motor behavior. We are specifically interested in cerebellar contributions to verbal working memory performance.. The effects of chonic heavy alcohol consumption on cognition and brain activation underlying cognitive function. We are also interested in neurovascular changes caused by alcohol, as well as changes in brain structure and functional connectivity.. How aging in humans affects neural systems that are important for associative learning and stimulus awareness. These investigations pay special attention to neural systems important for classical eyeblink conditioning in the cerebellum and medial temporal lobe, as well as structures involved in attention in the ...
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with CAD remains unclear. CAD is associated with brain atrophy and specific lesions. Detailed knowledge about the association of brain volume measured with MRI, and cognitive function in patients with CAD is lacking. We therefore investigated brain volume and cognitive function in ... read more patients with revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD), and controls without CAD. METHODS: Brain MRI scans and cognitive tests from patients with CAD were compared with data from control subjects without CAD. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (short term memory) and Trailmaking (divided attention) tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to study associations between CAD, brain volume and cognitive function. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with CAD and 48 control subjects were included. Level of education and age were comparable between the groups. Compared with controls, patients with ...
Science 15 March 2013: Vol. 339 no. 6125 pp. 1290-1295. A Neural Circuit for Memory Specificity and Generalization. Wei Xu, Thomas C. S dhof. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94304 5453, USA. [paraphrase]. Increased fear memory generalization is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, but the circuit mechanisms that regulate memory specificity remain unclear. Here, we define a neural circuit composed of the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus reuniens (NR) of the thalamus, and the hippocampus that controls fear memory generalization. Inactivation of prefrontal inputs into the NR or direct silencing of NR projections enhanced fear memory generalization, whereas constitutive activation of NR neurons decreased memory generalization. Direct optogenetic activation of phasic and tonic action-potential firing of NR neurons during memory acquisition enhanced or reduced ...
Memory Clinic. As the longevity of the life is increasing more and more people are affected with mental health. It ranges from mild depression to severe dementia. To educate the elderly people about mental health .Dr.V.S.Natarajan has written a booklet on "Good bye to Dementia" in Tamil. To assess the exact cause for memory loss, a "Memory Clinic" was started on 15th July 2006. This is the first of its kind in Tamil Nadu, which was inaugurated by a senior Psychiatrist Dr. Sarada Menon.. Early detection of primary dementia like Alzheimers disease is important to plan for future management and pharmacological treatment. The memory clinic is a specialized service for people with memory loss and dementia. Diagnosis and intervention is provided for people concerned about changes in their memory or the memory of some one they care about.. For the first time in Chennai, a fullfleged memory clinic is functioning at Adhiparasakthi Clinic 18, A, Flowers Road, Kilpauk, Chennai - 600 010 at 10.00 am to ...
The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor shows age-related declines in expression across the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This decline is strongly correlated to age-related memory declines. This study was designed to determine if increasing GluN2B subunit expression in the frontal lobe or hippocampus would improve memory in aged mice. Mice were injected bilaterally with either the GluN2B vector, containing cDNA specific for the GluN2B subunit and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP); a control vector or vehicle. Spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and associative memory were assessed using the Morris water maze. Aged mice, with increased GluN2B subunit expression, exhibited improved long-term spatial memory, comparable to young mice. However, memory was rescued on different days in the Morris water maze; early for hippocampal GluN2B subunit enrichment and later for the frontal ...
A study published in Environment International has demonstrated that exposure to air pollution on the way to school can have damaging effects on childrens cognitive development. The study, led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, found an association between a reduction in working memory and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon during the walking commute to and from school.
Lyme Signs & Symptoms Rash: Only about 9% get the classic bulls eye rash. Others may get another type of EM rash or may get no rash at all. Rash at other than bite site may be disseminated disease.. Musculoskeletal: joint/muscle pain in feet, ankle pain, shin splints, joint pain or swelling, stiffness of the joints, neck or back, muscle pain or cramps that migrate, TMJ, neck creaks & cracks, neck stiffness.. Reproductive: testicular pain/pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, milk production (lactation), sexual dysfunction or loss of libido.. Cardiac/Pulmonary: chest pain or rib soreness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, pulse skips, heart block, heart murmur.. Neurological: muscle twitching, headache, tingling, numbness, burning or stabbing sensations, facial paralysis (Bells palsy), dizziness, poor balance, increased motion sickness, light-headedness, wooziness, difficulty walking, tremor, confusion, difficulty thinking/concentrating/ reading, forgetfulness, poor short term memory, ...
Contents. Preface. Introduction. History of Qi Gong. Chapter 1. Introduction. What is Qi Gong?. Why Study and Practice Qi Gong?. How does Qi Gong Achieve its Goals. The Elements of Qi Gong study and Practice. The Five Organ Energy System and Success. Chapter 2. The Kidneys/Urinary Energy System. The Kidneys Provide the Power behind the Will. The Kidneys Provide the Ability for Hard and Long Work. The Kidneys Provide Emotional Strength. The Kidneys, Short Term Memory and Success. Kidneys Organ Talk. The Kidney Yin and Kidney Yang. Zhi, the Key to Mind Over Matter. Kidney Yin. The Water Of Life. The Kidney Yin, Key to Great Creativity. Self Contemplation, necessary for Success. Kidney Yin Deficiency. Your Kidney Yin Profile. Kidney Yang. The Fire of Life. Kidney Yang Deficiency. Your Kidney Yang Profile. Differentiating Kidney Yang Deficiency from Kidney Yin Excess. Kidneys Water Jing. Urinary Bladder. Chapter 3. The Liver/Gall Bladder System. The Imagination. Relaxation. Liver Anger and ...
P>It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of ...
The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual ...
Save 30% Irwin Naturals - Ginkgo Smart Maximum Focus & Memory 60 Softgels Ginkgo Smart Maximum Focus & Memory* Powerful Brain Boosters for Memory & Mental Clarity* Bioperine Enhanced Absorption Ginkgo Smart Maximum Focus & Memory* is specially formulated to help you maintain your mental edge.* This multi-faceted product delivers powerful brain-boosting nutrients to keep your mind sharp and your memory at its best.* Enhanced Memory: Ginkgo biloba is one of the very best botanicals for the brain.* Studies show that Ginkgo extracts can enhance blood flow to the brain, improve cognitive function and enhance memory.* The Ginkgo extract in this formula is standardized to contain 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones for optimum potency. Antioxidant Protection: Alpha-Lipoic Acid possesses antioxidant qualities that help protect neurons from oxidative stress.* Ginkgo extract is also known to be an excellent free-radical scavenger in the body.* Irwin Naturals Ginkgo Smart includes two emerging brain
A number of genetic polymorphisms are related to individual differences in cognitive performance. Striatal dopamine (DA) functions, associated with cognitive performance, are linked to the TaqIA polymorphism of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene. In humans, presence of an A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism is related to reduced density of striatal DA D2 receptors. The resource-modulation hypothesis assumes that aging-related losses of neurochemical and structural brain resources modulate the extent to which genetic variations affect cognitive functioning. Here, we tested this hypothesis using functional MRI during long-term memory (LTM) updating in younger and older carriers and noncarriers of the A1-allele of the TaqIa polymorphism. We demonstrate that older A1-carriers have worse memory performance, specifically during LTM updating, compared to noncarriers. Moreover, A1-carriers exhibited less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in left caudate nucleus, a region critical to updating. ...
Researchers have discovered a piece in the puzzle of how sleep deprivation negatively affects memory.. For the first time, a study in mice, to be published in the journal eLife, shows that five hours of sleep deprivation leads to a loss of connectivity between neurons in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory.. "Its clear that sleep plays an important role in memory -- we know that taking naps helps us retain important memories. But how sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal function and memory is less obvious," says first author Robbert Havekes, PhD, Assistant Professor at the Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences.. It has been proposed that changes in the connectivity between synapses -- structures that allow neurons to pass signals to each other -- can affect memory. To study this further, the researchers examined the impact of brief periods of sleep loss on the structure of dendrites, the branching extensions of nerve cells along which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The utility of a brief memory screen in the diagnosis of mild memory impairment in the elderly. T2 - Preliminary study. AU - Loewenstein, David. AU - Acevedo, Amarilis. AU - Agron, Joscelyn. AU - Ownby, Raymond. AU - Barker, William. AU - Strauman, Sylvia. AU - Duara, Ranjan. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the utility of the Florida Brief Memory Screen (FBMS), a new memory screening measure developed for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking subjects, which takes only 3ĝ€"4 minutes to administer. METHODS: The FBMS was administered to 25 patients with probable Alzheimer disease, 23 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 80 cognitively normal elderly. RESULTS: The FBMS evidenced good test-retest reliability and high correlation with standard measures of memory. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the FBMS correctly classified 100% of patients with probable Alzheimer disease and 87.5% of normal elderly subjects. ...

Joint Assessment of Structural, Perfusion, and Diffusion MRI in Alzheimers Disease and Frontotemporal DementiaJoint Assessment of Structural, Perfusion, and Diffusion MRI in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

Compared to CN, AD patients showed widespread GM loss in bilateral parietal and temporal lobes. The left temporoparietal lobes ... E. Englund and A. Brun, "Frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type IV: white matter changes," Archives of Gerontology and ... and bilateral occipital lobes. Compared to CN, FTD patients showed GM loss predominantly in bilateral frontal and temporal ... FTD patients showed reduced perfusion in bilateral frontal lobes, including inferior, medial, and superior frontal gyrus, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2011/546871/

Toxic leukoencephalopathy - WikipediaToxic leukoencephalopathy - Wikipedia

The occipital lobe is typically most affected though the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes have shown involvement as well. ... and other structures in the brain is often bilateral and symmetric. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy often involves damage to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxic_leukoencephalopathy

Frontiers | Hemispheric Differences within the Fronto-Parietal Network Dynamics Underlying Spatial Imagery | PsychologyFrontiers | Hemispheric Differences within the Fronto-Parietal Network Dynamics Underlying Spatial Imagery | Psychology

These nodes include areas within both, the dorsal fronto-parietal as well as ventral occipito-temporal visual processing ... These nodes include areas within both, the dorsal fronto-parietal as well as ventral occipito-temporal visual processing ... These results support the involvement of both parietal lobes in mental imagery, but suggest that each parietal lobe might have ... Compared to a control condition, the mental construction task specifically activated a bilateral occipito-parietal-frontal ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00214/full

Posterior parietal cortex - WikipediaPosterior parietal cortex - Wikipedia

Is the posterior parietal lobe involved in working memory retrieval? Evidence from patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage ... doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.01.009 Nee, D. E., & Brown, J. W. (2012). Dissociable Frontal-Striatal and Frontal-Parietal ... Lets Get to Know the Parietal Lobes! [PDF]. Retrieved from http://gablab.mit.edu/downloads/Parietal_Primer.pdf Scheperjans, F ... In turn, much of the output of the posterior parietal cortex goes to areas of frontal motor cortex: the dorsolateral prefrontal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posterior_parietal_cortex

Frontiers | Post-ictal Modulation of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Patients With Intractable Epilepsy | NeurologyFrontiers | Post-ictal Modulation of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Patients With Intractable Epilepsy | Neurology

We hypothesized that BRS and HRV would be reduced after bilateral convulsive seizures (BCS). METHODS: We recorded blood ... We hypothesized that BRS and HRV would be reduced after bilateral convulsive seizures (BCS). METHODS: We recorded blood ... Seizure onset zone in focal onset seizures included temporal, frontal or parietal lobes. ... Effect of bilateral convulsive seizures (BCS) and focal seizures (FS) on systolic BP (BPsys) and heart rate (HR). (A) Following ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2018.00793/full

Influence of hemispheric white matter lesions and migraine characteristics on cortical thickness and volume | SpringerLinkInfluence of hemispheric white matter lesions and migraine characteristics on cortical thickness and volume | SpringerLink

... are likely to be microvascular in nature and can be found in allhemispheric lobes. The aim of this study was to investigate... ... For the definition of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes please see Table 2. Lobar volumes were calculated as the ... subgroup with high number of frontal lobe lesions. Since lesions were rare in the occipital lobe with a median lesion number of ... we found that the WMLs and clinical migraine characteristics have no effect on cortical thickness and volume of bilateral lobes ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s10194-019-0959-2

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance - WikipediaEffects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance - Wikipedia

Following sleep deprivation there is increased activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral parietal lobes. ... However, after 35 hours of deprivation, there are noted decreases in temporal lobe activation and increases in parietal lobe ... The parietal lobes of the brain are largely involved in attention. Lesions to this region of the brain in humans result in ... A common test used to assess error correction and trouble shooting with regards to the frontal lobe is the Wisconsin Card ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_sleep_deprivation_on_cognitive_performance

Brain Lesion Pattern May Guide Diagnosis of Rare DisorderBrain Lesion Pattern May Guide Diagnosis of Rare Disorder

... bilateral frontal lobes, parietal lobes, limbic areas, subcortical areas, temporal lobes, occipital lobes, brainstem, and ... The WMHs were located predominantly in the frontal lobe (40% - 52%) and the periventricular areas (68% - 80%) at all time ... Like total WMHs, the frontal, parietal, and limbic areas of the brain also exhibited maximal changes in the third week, but the ... for practicing physicians are that WMHs are very common in RCVS and tend to be periventricular and in the frontal lobes" and " ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/898383

Biomarkers in dementia: clinical utility and new directions | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & PsychiatryBiomarkers in dementia: clinical utility and new directions | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

In PSP and CBD atrophy may affect the posterior frontal lobes, while in CBD the atrophy will often involve the parietal lobes ... It can involve the frontal and temporal lobes, and thalami, but may extend to the occipital lobe and cerebellum,69 where TDP-43 ... posterior insulae and parietal lobes.61 In SD, patients show bilateral but typically highly asymmetrical (left)-sided atrophy ... Thus TDP-A is often associated with asymmetric atrophy involving the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes; TDP-B is associated ...
more infohttps://jnnp.bmj.com/content/85/12/1426

Cognitive Aging, Executive Function, and Fractional Anisotropy: A Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Study | American Journal of...Cognitive Aging, Executive Function, and Fractional Anisotropy: A Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Study | American Journal of...

Bilateral cluster of voxels are present in the frontal and parietal lobes (sections +28 to +48 mm); in addition, significant ... Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe regions were defined so as to be consistent with the automated anatomic ... Bilateral cluster of voxels are present in the frontal and parietal lobes (sections +28 to +48 mm), in addition significant ... in the frontal and parietal lobes and 0.014 (P , .001) in the occipital and temporal lobes. ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/28/2/226.full

Two Infants with Presumed Congenital Zika Syndrome, Brownsville, Texas, USA, 2016-2017 - Volume 24, Number 4-April 2018 -...Two Infants with Presumed Congenital Zika Syndrome, Brownsville, Texas, USA, 2016-2017 - Volume 24, Number 4-April 2018 -...

Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed frontal lobe polymicrogyria, bilateral dystrophic calcifications, and severe ... large bilateral parenchymal cysts in the posterior parietal and occipital lobes, an overall smooth gyral pattern, dysgenesis of ... parietal, and occipital lobes (Figure 1, panel F). A prominent occipital bone was observed with overlapping of the region of ... Upper bilateral wrists continued to be contracted in the flexed and ulnar deviated positions and required physical therapy ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/4/17-1545

Psychoanatomical substrates of Bálints syndrome | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & PsychiatryPsychoanatomical substrates of Bálint's syndrome | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

... experienced by patients with parietal lobe lesions as opposed to frontal lobe lesions.193 Frontal lobe lesions may impair the ... simultanagnosia has been reported with bilateral lesions of the superior (dorsal) portions of both occipital lobes in ... with bilateral and nearly symmetric lesions of the posterior parietal lobe, upper temporal lobe, and occipital lobe; marked ... connections with temporal and parietal lobe regions (especially the inferior parietal lobule on the right), frontal eye fields ...
more infohttp://jnnp.bmj.com/content/72/2/162

BRAPH: A graph theory software for the analysis of brain connectivityBRAPH: A graph theory software for the analysis of brain connectivity

... bilateral superior parietal gyri, precuneus, left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and left anterior cingulate (Fig ... bilateral inferior temporal gyri, amygdala, hippocampus) and parietal (left inferior parietal, right precuneus) lobes. When the ... Whereas in MCI patients, these changes were confined to a single region in the left temporal lobe, in AD patients the local ... Module III included several middle, inferior frontal and parietal regions, similarly to the fronto-parietal network usually ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178798

Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyDisseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

A postmortem gross examination revealed numerous red to brown soft lesions involving bilateral parietal, frontal, and temporal ... left parafalcine frontal lobe, and inferior left frontal lobe thought likely to be chronic infarcts. A CXR showed diffuse, ... and occipital lobes. (B) Gross section of the pons and cerebellum; softened granular lesion in the pons (see arrow). (C) ... The largest lesions were in the left posterior temporal lobe. Other lesions were seen in the left dorsal pons and left frontal ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/53/9/3072

Medical Imaging 2009: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging | (2009) | Publications | SpieMedical Imaging 2009: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging | (2009) | Publications | Spie

... but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young ... right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that ... So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young ... we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during ...
more infohttps://www.spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/7262?SSO=1

Plus itPlus it

... included mainly bilateral parietal regions such as the inferior parietal lobe (BA39/40), and several regions of the right ... included mainly frontal and parietal regions such as the middle frontal gyrus (BA46), the medial/superior frontal gyrus (BA10 ... In both hemispheres, the discriminative pattern for cortical thickness in ASD comprised regions in all four lobes of the cortex ... In addition, the excess pattern included the inferior/superior parietal lobe (BA39), BA18 of the occipital lobe, and the ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/30/32/10612

Brain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes CareBrain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes Care

... and medial frontal lobes, and white matter loss was distributed in frontal and temporal regions. T2DM was associated with ... and parietal lobes before progressing to orbitofrontal regions and more so in the left hemisphere. Increased insulin resistance ... demonstrates that T2DM is associated with gray matter in several bilateral regions of temporal, cingulate, and medial frontal ... Type 2 diabetes and atrophy of medial temporal lobe structures on brain MRI. Diabetologia 2003;46:1604-1610pmid:14595538. ...
more infohttps://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/12/4036.full

Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderlySpecific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

... parietal lobes, right and left posterior and middle temporal lobes, right middle frontal gyrus, and the right occipital lobe.16 ... CDT performance is associated with several brain regions, including the bilateral ... Ino T, Asada T, Ito J, Kimura T, Fukuyama H. Parieto-frontal networks for clock drawing revealed with fMRI. Neurosci Res 2003; ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-57642015000200128&lng=en&tlng=en

fNIRS-Based Clinical Assessment of ADHD Children | IntechOpenfNIRS-Based Clinical Assessment of ADHD Children | IntechOpen

... superior frontal gyrus), supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal and temporal lobes, caudate ... The bilateral probe holders were attached in the following manner: (1) their upper anterior corners, where we connected the ... arranged alternately at an inter-probe distance of 3 cm to cover the lateral prefrontal cortices and inferior parietal lobe, ... studies on acute medication effects on ADHD have also shown that bilateral IFG and MFG were robustly normalized after ADHD ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/high-resolution-neuroimaging-basic-physical-principles-and-clinical-applications/fnirs-based-clinical-assessment-of-adhd-children

Evaluating the role of single-photon emission computed tomography in the assessment of neurotologic complaints. - Free Online...Evaluating the role of single-photon emission computed tomography in the assessment of neurotologic complaints. - Free Online...

... parietal lobes Male Severe Perfusion bilateral SNHL defects in both (R , L) temporal lobes Male Right-sided Focal area of SNFIL ... frontal lobe and the superior part of the left temporal lobe Female Bilateral Decreased tinnitus and perfusion in aural ... occipital lobes Female Left-sided Decreased SNFIL activity in the left temporal lobe seen in the coronal plane Female Bilateral ... parietal lobes Female Right-sided Perfusion SNFIL defect in the right inferior temporal lobe Female Left-sided Small focal ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Evaluating+the+role+of+single-photon+emission+computed+tomography+in+...-a0368676024

The corticobasal degeneration syndrome overlaps progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia | NeurologyThe corticobasal degeneration syndrome overlaps progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia | Neurology

On autopsy, the brain weighed 1,080 grams with marked atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, and moderate atrophy of the ... Frontal lobe dysfunction with behavioral disturbances, or poor performance on frontal lobe tests is described in at least 50% ... Just before his death, he had bilateral rigidity, severe immobility, vertical gaze palsy, and total mutism. ... Kertesz A, Davidson W, Fox H. Frontal Behavioral Inventory. Diagnostic criteria for frontal lobe dementia. Can J Neurol Sci . ...
more infohttp://n.neurology.org/content/55/9/1368?ijkey=ba33b7f542f14dcbb02075fdc9d3fc3b6fabe1c7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Glioblastoma Multiforme: Practice Essentials, Background, PathophysiologyGlioblastoma Multiforme: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

... parietal (24%), frontal (23%), and occipital (16%) lobes. [39] Combined frontotemporal location is particularly typical. Tumor ... Effacement of the ventricular system is present on the right, and mild impingement of the right medial temporal lobe can be ... it creates the appearance of a bilateral symmetric lesion, hence the term butterfly glioma. Sites for glioblastomas that are ... Effacement of the ventricular system is present on the right, and mild impingement of the right medial temporal lobe can be ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/283252-overview

Visual search patterns in semantic dementia show paradoxical facilitation of binding processesVisual search patterns in semantic dementia show paradoxical facilitation of binding processes

The SD patients also had more gray matter than AD patients in the left and right parietal lobes and the frontal lobes (p , 0.05 ... Medial versus lateral frontal lobe contributions to voluntary saccade control as revealed by the study of patients with frontal ... gray matter regions correlated with conjunction search accuracy included the bilateral dorsal parietal lobes, left superior ... Our VBM results show that larger gray matter volumes in the superior parietal lobe bilaterally, the precuneus, a portion of the ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3046767/?lang=en-ca

Brain injury unmasking Ehlers-Danlos syndromes after trauma: the fiber print | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Full TextBrain injury unmasking Ehlers-Danlos syndromes after trauma: the fiber print | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Full Text

... anterior-superior internal portion of the parietal lobe, superior frontal sulcus displaying a marked bilateral abnormal width [ ... Since these fibers spread over the two frontal lobes and the basal ganglia, their rupture and rarefaction tended to be ... anterior-superior internal portion of the parietal lobe and superior frontal sulcus ... a and b Bilateral rarefaction of fibers respectively crossing the anterior and posterior parts of the two lenticular nuclei. ...
more infohttps://ojrd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13023-016-0428-9

iLab Publications - University of Southern CaliforniaiLab Publications - University of Southern California

... frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, gray matter component of the lobes, cerebellar hemispheres, hippocampal complexes). ... Ventricular volume was inversely correlated with cognitive function, while left temporal lobe volume was positively correlated ... They were diagnosed with significant enlargement of ventricular volume and bilateral reduction of cerebellar hemispheres. ... a significant reduction of left temporal lobe volume was found in KS, compared with controls. ...
more infohttp://ilab.usc.edu/publications/Itti_etal06jcem.html
  • Moreover, these WMHs were predominantly located in the frontal and periventricular areas of the brain and differed in location from the locations of other neurologic conditions, such as migraine. (medscape.com)