Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Frontal Sinus: One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Schizophrenia, Disorganized: A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Schizophrenia, Catatonic: A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Frontal Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Laughter: An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Psychosurgery: Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Criminology: The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.DibenzothiazepinesAlzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Lie Detection: Ascertaining of deception through detection of emotional disturbance as manifested by changes in physiologic processes usually using a polygraph.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Frontal Lobes and Schizophrenia: Second Lobotomy Project of Boston Psychopathic Hospital. New York: Springer, 1953. Solomon, ...
Alzheimer's disease Executive functions Frontal lobe disorder Schizophrenia Halligan, P.W., Kischka, U., & Marshall, J.C. (2004 ... Not all patients with frontal lobe damage have DES and some patients with no damage at all to the frontal lobe exhibit the ... It is important to note that frontal lobe damage is not the only cause of the syndrome. It has been shown that damage, such as ... This is one reason why the term frontal lobe syndrome is not preferred. DES often occurs with other disorders, which is known ...
2004). "Glutamate carboxypeptidase II gene expression in the human frontal and temporal lobe in schizophrenia". ...
... related to schizophrenia may be the result of frontal lobe damage. E. Fuller Torrey, a psychiatrist and schizophrenia ... Anosognosia results from physiological damage to brain structures, typically to the parietal lobe or a diffuse lesion on the ... Pia, Lorenzo; Tamietto, Marco (2006). "Unawareness in schizophrenia: Neuropsychological and neuroanatomical findings". ... awareness of illness in schizophrenia and related disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 293. ISBN 0-19-852568-0. ...
Schizophrenia may be partially attributed to a lack in activity in the frontal lobe. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is ... Schizophrenia is also related to lack of dopamine neurotransmitter in the frontal lobe. The DLPFC dysfunctions are unique among ... page needed] Miller, Bruce L. (1999). The Human Frontal Lobes. New York, New York: The Guilford Press. [page needed] Greene, J ... by Donald T. Stuss ; Robert T. (2002). Principles of frontal lobe function ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. ...
... importantly in the frontal lobe and temporal lobe, which are critical memory centers. The later point regarding sulcal CSF has ... Schizophrenia Research. 58 (2-3): 305-12. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00166-4. PMID 12409171. "Brain atlas". Lundbeck Institute ... "Association between relative temporal and prefrontal sulcal cerebrospinal fluid and illness duration in schizophrenia". ... been linked to schizophrenia (a mental disorder affecting thought processes). Grey matter is a large component of the CNS and ...
1992). "Frontal and non-frontal lobe neuropsychological test performance and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia". ... The CWFT is used as one of the measures of brain's frontal lobe function. A related test, the COWAT (Controlled oral word ...
In the latter study, thalamic interactions with the frontal lobes were reduced, which could mean that schizophrenia affects ... "Cingulate gyrus volume and metabolism in the schizophrenia spectrum". Schizophrenia Research. 71 (2-3): 249-62. doi:10.1016/j. ... This is the upper part of the "limbic lobe". The cingulate cortex is made up of an area around the midline of the brain. ... Abnormal activity in the PCC has been linked to schizophrenia, a mental disorder with common symptoms such as hallucinations, ...
... are frequently and almost certainly related to lesions of the frontal lobe. Temporal lobe lesions have been ... Schizophrenia is a mental disorder distinguished by a loss of contact with reality and the occurrence of psychotic behaviors, ... Delusions in schizophrenia often develop as a response to the individual attempting to explain their hallucinations. Patients ... it has been found that GDs appeared more commonly in patients with bipolar disorder (59%) than in patients with schizophrenia ( ...
It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with #Moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in ... This refers to schizophrenia in people with mild learning disability. Piblokto, Pibloktoq, or Arctic hysteria is a condition ... It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with Witzelsucht, particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent ... a patient displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe. Lilliputian ...
Risk factors are:[citation needed] Advancing age; Mental health problems; Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Frontal lobe ... Living in squalor is sometimes accompanied by dementia, alcoholism, schizophrenia, or personality disorders.[citation needed] ...
... links the anterior portions of the temporal lobe with the inferior frontal gyrus and the lower surfaces of the frontal lobe. It ... The greater left than right fractional anisotropy of the uncinate fasciculus is missing in those with schizophrenia. In 2009 it ... Phineas Gage ( a railroad worker who had an iron bar go through his left frontal lobe) had damage done to his uncinate ... the human brain that connects parts of the limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala in the temporal lobe with frontal ...
Burckhardt, Gottlieb (1888). "Un cas de tumeur de la couche optique et du lobe temporal (A case of tumor of the optic thalamus ... From 1881 until his departure from the Waldau Clinic in 1882, Eugen Bleuler, who coined the term schizophrenia in 1908, served ... The operations excised regions of the cerebral cortex, specifically removing sections of the frontal, temporal, and ... Noll, Richard (January 2007). The encyclopedia of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0- ...
Psychological tests such as the WCST, administered alone, cannot be used to measure the effects of a frontal lobe injury, or ... or mental illness such as schizophrenia. It is one of several psychological tests which can be administered to patients to ... measure frontal lobe dysfunction. When administered, the WCST allows the clinician speculate to the following "frontal" lobe ...
... and various frontal lobe lesions. Schizophrenia is commonly described as a mental disorder in which a person becomes detached ... Theory and evidence suggest that the frontal lobes in other primates also mediate and regulate emotion, but do not demonstrate ... In most cases of executive dysfunction, deficits are attributed to either frontal lobe damage or dysfunction, or to disruption ... The neural circuit responsible for executive functioning is, in fact, located primarily in the frontal lobe. This main circuit ...
... which is caused by a stroke damaging the posterior-inferior frontal lobe. It is also a potential symptom of schizophrenia, as a ...
Instructed by Moniz, Lima performed ten of the first twenty surgeries by injecting absolute alcohol to destroy the frontal lobe ... mainly with schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. The surgeries took place under general anesthesia. The first psychosurgery ... Moniz thought that mental illness originated from abnormal neural connections in the frontal lobe. He described a "fixation of ... Moniz hypothesized that surgically removing white matter fibers from the frontal lobe would improve a patient's mental illness ...
... are frequently and almost certainly related to lesions of the frontal lobe. Temporal lobe lesions have been ... Schizophrenia[edit]. Main article: Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder distinguished by a loss of contact with ... Noll, R. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 122. ISBN ... 1962). "A social and clinical study of delusions in schizophrenia". The Journal of Mental Science. 108: 747-758. doi:10.1192/ ...
... and schizophrenia. The brain contains four main lobes: temporal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe and the occipital lobe. The ... frontal gyrus, temporoparietal junction, parietal lobe, and amygdala. However, participants with autism spectrum disorder ... The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is an area of the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet, at the posterior end of ... A study found that there was a connection between the auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and the TPJ; the TPJ has been ...
They immediately note Nick has frontal lobe disinhibition, which causes him to speak his mind and have no control over what he ... Thirteen years ago when Wilson was in med school Daniel was on meds for his schizophrenia. Daniel used to call Wilson, paranoid ... Kutner says what's causing Nick's frontal lobe disinhibition isn't nasal cancer. He also remarks that Nick will lose his wife. ...
... also known as frontal lobe syndrome). Studies show that the symptoms of schizophrenia do indeed correlate with frontal lobe ... the center located in the temporal lobe that processes meaning in language. A subgroup of chronic schizophrenia patients in a ... it is most commonly found as a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have previously been ... Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 171-177. Alpert, M. Clark, A. & Pouget, E.R. (1994). The syntactic role of pauses in the speech ...
... and a reduction in the volume and thickness of the cortex particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes has been noted. It has ... The causes of schizophrenia are not well understood, but numerous abnormalities of brain structure have been reported. The most ... Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can affect the normal development of new neurons and can cause tissue damage. Hippocampal ... This ridge can also be seen as an inward fold of the archicortex into the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampus can only be ...
... the frontal lobes, and the neurotransmitter dopamine have also all been linked to schizophrenia. It has been proposed that an ... the Val158Met polymorphism is thought to exert its effects on cognition by modulating dopamine signaling in the frontal lobes. ... Dopamine Schizophrenia O-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000093010 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ... a more recent study cast doubt on the proposed connection between this gene and the effects of cannabis on schizophrenia ...
The focus of Robbins' work is on the functions of the frontal lobes of the brain and their regulation by the chemical ... This work is relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, depression, drug addiction, obsessive compulsive ... "Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain". The ... "Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (2): 115-6. doi: ...
... the frontal lobe is at left, the occipital lobe at right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to ... Schizophrenia[edit]. The causes of schizophrenia are not well understood, but numerous abnormalities of brain structure have ... and a reduction in the volume and thickness of the cortex particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes has been noted. It has ... The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex (allocortical)[1][2][3] and in primates in the medial temporal lobe. It ...
In particular, the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary ... In addition, one of the most important ("first rank") diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia is the patient's delusion of being ... posterior sequential activation process beginning in the supplementary motor area on the medial surface of the frontal lobe and ... Although the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia are not yet clear, one influential hypothesis is that there is a breakdown in ...
The frontal lobe syndrome was avidly studied. Frontal lobotomy was developed in the 1930s for the treatment of mental illness ... E. Fuller Torrey, a noted psychiatrist and schizophrenia researcher. And he adds: "Those beds were closed down."[17]. ... SURGERY OF THE FRONTAL LOBES - LEUCOTOMY AND LOBOTOMY (c. 1935-1955). So it was in the mid 1930s under the circumstances of ... THE FRONTAL LOBE SYNDROME AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOBOTOMY (c. 1935). The historic operation that we can arguably describe as ...
"The frontal lobes and schizophrenia",. abstract = "Many patients with schizophrenia show clinical signs of frontal lobe ... The frontal lobes and schizophrenia. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Frontal Lobe Medicine & Life Sciences ... The frontal lobes and schizophrenia. / Weinberger, D. R.; Aloia, M. S.; Goldberg, T. E.; Berman, K. F. ... Weinberger, D. R. ; Aloia, M. S. ; Goldberg, T. E. ; Berman, K. F. / The frontal lobes and schizophrenia. In: Journal of ...
Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder that affects a persons ability to perceive reality. Common symptoms include false ... ADHD & the Frontal Lobe 5 What Are the Early Symptoms of Schizophrenia? ... Schizophrenia Research: Building Models for Postmortem Abnormalities in Hippocampus of Schizophrenic * Schizophrenia Bulletin: ... A study published in October 2012 in the Schizophrenia Bulletin reported that people with schizophrenia have slightly smaller ...
2010). Amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in schizophrenia: a resting state fMRI study. Schizophr. Res. 117, 13-20. doi: ... Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin Mind-Body Training Changes Resting-State Low-Frequency Fluctuations in the Frontal Lobe of Older ... Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin Mind-Body Training Changes Resting-State Low-Frequency Fluctuations in the Frontal Lobe of Older ... Amodio, D. M., and Frith, C. D. (2006). Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7 ...
Contributions of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dys... ... of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia ... "Contributions of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia."""""""" Although schizophrenia (Sz) is a strongly ... Contributions of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia. Roffman, Joshua Lawrence / Massachusetts General ... Contributions of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia. Roffman, Joshua Lawrence / Massachusetts General ...
1995) A voxel-based method for the statistical analysis of gray and white matter density applied to schizophrenia. Neuroimage 2 ... Temporolimbic and frontal lobe structures are involved in the neurobiology of aggressive behaviour.4 In patients with TLE, we ... 1992) Dissociation of two frontal lobe syndromes by a test of verbal fluency. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 14:327-339. ... 1998) The neurobiology of severe and repetitive violence: A H-1 MRS study of frontal lobe. Schizophr Res 29:100. ...
... schizophrenia, and rarer presentations such as misidentification syndromes, Frontal lobe dysfunction often goes unrecognized, ... frontal lobe dementias and frontal lobe epilepsies. ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS The frontal lobes are anatomically represented by ... BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS WITH FRONTAL LOBE INJURY One of the specific behavior deficits following frontal lobe damage is attention ... DETECTION OF FRONTAL LOBE DAMAGE Detection of frontal lobe damage can be difficult, especially if only traditional methods of ...
"Gene Slows Frontal Lobes, Boosts Schizophrenia Risk". National Institute of Mental Health. May 29, 2001. Archived from the ... The lateral sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. The frontal lobe can be divided into a lateral, polar, ... The frontal lobe is covered by the frontal cortex. The frontal cortex includes the premotor cortex, and the primary motor ... Common effects of damage to the frontal lobe are varied. Patients who have experienced frontal lobe trauma may know the ...
Frontal lobes and schizophrenia; second lobotomy project of Boston Psychopathic Hospital by Milton Greenblatt( Book ). 4 ... Drug and social therapy in chronic schizophrenia by Milton Greenblatt( Book ). 6 editions published in 1965 in English and held ... Schizophrenia Scientists Social conditions Social psychiatry Solomon, Harry C.--(Harry Caesar), Stress (Physiology) United ...
Pre-existing Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, Autism, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder ... Brain Training to Enhance Frontal Lobe Reasoning. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Brain Training to Enhance Frontal Lobe Reasoning in Soldiers and Civilian Adults With TBI. ...
Transitive inference in schizophrenia: impairments in relational memory organization.. *Debra A. Titone, Tali Ditman, Philip S ... Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans.. @article{Acuna2002FrontalAP, title={Frontal and ... Modeling of context-dependent retrieval in hippocampal region CA1: implications for cognitive function in schizophrenia.. * ... parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans.}, author={Bettina D. Acuna and James C. Eliassen and John P. ...
Schizophrenia, psychotic illness and other psychiatric symptoms in families with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe ... autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 2 34.5. CHRNA4 CHRNB2 2. epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 3 33.6. CHRNA4 ... is related to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 2 and epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 3. An important gene ... Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. 2. 155269 20. 54400000. 62435964. Copy number. CHRNA4 Autosomal dominant ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that runs in families. Explore ... However, some people with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or ... Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, type 1 *Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe ... Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, type 3 *Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe ...
... each co-edited by leaders in the specific domain of frontal lobe research. The topic areas include anatomy and ... The second edition of Principles of Frontal Lobe Function is a newly organized, and thoroughly updated, volume divided into 9 ... Prefrontal Cortex and Impaired Cognition and Behavior in Schizophrenia. 40. Helen Mayberg. Tuning Mood Circuits with Deep Brain ... Childrens Frontal Lobes: No Longer Silent?. 10. Jay N. Giedd, Armin Raznahan, & Rhoshel K. Lenroot. Adolescent Frontal Lobes: ...
Patients with chronic schizophrenia perform poorly on behavioral and neuropsychological tasks related to OFC functions. In a ... Frontal Lobe / physiopathology* * Gambling / psychology * Humans * Longitudinal Studies * Male * Memory, Short-Term / ... Preserved orbitofrontal function in first-episode schizophrenia: further evidence from the object alternation paradigm J Nerv ... Patients with chronic schizophrenia perform poorly on behavioral and neuropsychological tasks related to OFC functions. In a ...
Learn more about all the facets of schizophrenia here. ... Schizophrenia can be tricky to diagnose, because its symptoms ... Less active frontal lobes: This section of the brain is involved in future planning and reasoning, memory formation, speech and ... Types of Schizophrenia. *Paranoid Schizophrenia:. The most common type of schizophrenia characterized by psychosis misaligned ... Sex Differences in Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia Bulletin. (2006). "Variations in the Incidence of Schizophrenia: Data Versus ...
"Gene Slows Frontal Lobes, Boosts Schizophrenia Risk". National Institute of Mental Health. May 29, 2001. Archived from the ... The lateral sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. The frontal lobe can be divided into a lateral, polar, ... The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere (in front of the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe). It ... Left frontal lobe (click to view animation) Lobes Base of brain. Human brain showing the four major lobes of the cerebrum. ...
"Gene Slows Frontal Lobes, Boosts Schizophrenia Risk". National Institute of Mental Health. May 29, 2001. Archived from the ... Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Brain lobes. Colorings are same as the left and Insular lobe Insular ... The parietal lobe is positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe ... The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned in front of the parietal lobe and above and ...
... Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed ... Poor regulation of dopamine pathways has been associated with schizophrenia. The so-called executive functions of the frontal ... Frontal+Lobe The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals. Located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere, frontal ... Frontal lobe. Precentral gyrus (Primary motor cortex, 4), Precentral sulcus, Superior frontal gyrus/Frontal eye fields (6, 8, 9 ...
Levin S: Frontal lobe dysfunctions in schizophrenia. II: Impairments of psychological and brain function. J Psychiatr Res 1984; ... Morihisa J, Weinberger DR: Is schizophrenia a frontal lobe disease?-An organizing theory of relevant anatomy and physiology, in ... Nauta WJH: The problem of the frontal lobe: a reinterpretation. J Psychiatr Res 1971;8:167-187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cleghorn JM, Garnett ES, Nahmias C, et al: Temporal lobe metabolism in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1988, submitted.Google ...
Can paranoid schizophrenia be cured or controlled without the use of medication and Is schizophrenia a disorder ... Some- but not all- people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricle area and reduced frontal lobe area. ... What is childhood schizophrenia?. Childhood schizophrenia is defined as a case of schizophrenia in a person younger than 13 (or ... Can you get schizophrenia without a relative with schizophrenia?. Yes. Although most people with schizophrenia have at least ...
... models are used to explore the relationship between cognitive deficits and biological abnormalities in schizophrenia. ... Frontal Lobe / physiopathology* * Humans * Mental Processes / physiology * Models, Psychological * Neural Networks, Computer* ... Context, cortex, and dopamine: a connectionist approach to behavior and biology in schizophrenia Psychol Rev. 1992 Jan;99(1):45 ... models are used to explore the relationship between cognitive deficits and biological abnormalities in schizophrenia. ...
Petrie, Asenath 1952 Personality and the Frontal Lobes: An Investigation of the Psychological Effects of Different Types of ... ARTISS, KENNETH 1962 Milieu Therapy in Schizophrenia. New York: Grune & Stratton.. BELKNAP, IVAN 1956 Human Problems of a State ... Rylander, GÖsta 1939 Personality Changes After Operations on the Frontal Lobes. Acta psychiatrica and neurologica Supplement 20 ... Moniz severed the connections between the frontal lobes and the thalamus through small cuts of the fiber tracks responsible for ...
Changes in cortical thickness in the frontal lobes in schizophrenia are a result of thinning of pyramidal cell layers. Williams ... Changes in cortical thickness in the frontal lobes in schizophrenia are a result of thinning of pyramidal cell layers. Chaudhry ... Characteristics of frontal and temporal cortex in relation to cognitive dysfunction in Bipolar Disorders. Gutierrez Galve, ... The effect of schizophrenia on temporal attentional modulation and intra-individual distribution of reaction time. Birkett, ...
Changes in cortical thickness in the frontal lobes in schizophrenia are a result of thinning of pyramidal cell layers. Chaudhry ... Changes in cortical thickness in the frontal lobes in schizophrenia are a result of thinning of pyramidal cell layers. Williams ... Characteristics of frontal and temporal cortex in relation to cognitive dysfunction in Bipolar Disorders. Gutierrez Galve, ... Superior temporal lobe dysfunction and frontotemporal dysconnectivity in subjects at risk of psychosis and in first-episode ...
  • He has received continuous NIH funding for his research for 30 years and is the Director of an NIMH Conte Center on the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia (2001-11). (harvard.edu)
  • Neurologic models of frontal lobe structure and function highlight 5 frontal-subcortical circuits, 1 , 2 of which 2 are related to motor function and the other 3 are crucial in executive control. (ajnr.org)
  • These circuits link specific regions of the frontal lobes to subcortical structures and supply technique-specific mechanisms for interaction with the environment. (ajnr.org)