The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Ascertaining of deception through detection of emotional disturbance as manifested by changes in physiologic processes usually using a polygraph.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/3907)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Frontal cognitive impairments and saccadic deficits in low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys. (2/3907)

There is considerable overlap between the cognitive deficits observed in humans with frontal lobe damage and those described in patients with Parkinson's disease. Similar frontal impairments have been found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate model of Parkinsonism. Here we provide quantitative documentation of the cognitive, oculomotor, and skeletomotor dysfunctions of monkeys trained on a frontal task and treated with low-doses (LD) of MPTP. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a spatial delayed-response task with frequent alternations between two behavioral modes (GO and NO-GO). After control recordings, the monkeys were treated with one placebo and successive LD MPTP courses. Monkey C developed motor Parkinsonian signs after a fourth course of medium-dose (MD) MPTP and later was treated with combined dopaminergic therapy (CDoT). There were no gross motor changes after the LD MPTP courses, and the average movement time (MT) did not increase. However, reaction time (RT) increased significantly. Both RT and MT were further increased in the symptomatic state, under CDoT. Self-initiated saccades became hypometric after LD MPTP treatments and their frequency decreased. Visually triggered saccades were affected to a lesser extent by the LD MPTP treatments. All saccadic parameters declined further in the symptomatic state and improved partially during CDoT. The number of GO mode (no-response, location, and early release) errors increased after MPTP treatment. The monkeys made more perseverative errors while switching from the GO to the NO-GO mode. Saccadic eye movement patterns suggest that frontal deficits were involved in most observed errors. CDoT had a differential effect on the behavioral errors. It decreased omission errors but did not improve location errors or perseverative errors. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed moderate ( approximately 70-80%) reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta after MPTP treatment. These results show that cognitive and motor disorders can be dissociated in the LD MPTP model and that cognitive and oculomotor impairments develop before the onset of skeletal motor symptoms. The behavioral and saccadic deficits probably result from the marked reduction of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. We suggest that these behavioral changes result from modified neuronal activity in the frontal cortex.  (+info)

Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (3/3907)

Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings.  (+info)

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (4/3907)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (5/3907)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

Crossmodal associative memory representations in rodent orbitofrontal cortex. (6/3907)

Firing patterns of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OF) were analyzed in rats trained to perform a task that encouraged incidental associations between distinct odors and the places where their occurrence was detected. Many of the neurons fired differentially when the animals were at a particular location or sampled particular odors. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of the cells exhibited odor-specific firing patterns prior to odor presentation, when the animal arrived at a location associated with that odor. These findings suggest that neurons in the OF encode cross-modal associations between odors and locations within long-term memory.  (+info)

Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (7/3907)

EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound).  (+info)

Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease. (8/3907)

Experimental studies indicate that overactivation of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to oxidative damage to DNA can cause cell death due to depletion of NAD+. Oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules has been reported to be increased in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we sought evidence of PARP activation in Alzheimer's disease by immunostaining sections of frontal and temporal lobe from autopsy material of 20 patients and 10 controls, both for PARP itself and for its end-product, poly(ADP-ribose). All of the brains had previously been subjected to detailed neuropathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, in the controls, to exclude Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. Double immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP), CD68, A beta-protein or tau was used to assess the identity of the cells with poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation and their relationship to plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both PARP- and poly(ADP-ribose)-immunolabelled cells were detected in a much higher proportion of Alzheimer's disease (20 out of 20) brains than of control brains (5 out of 10) (P = 0.0018). Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial differentiation (MAP2, GFAP and CD68, respectively) showed many of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) to be neurons. Most of these were small pyramidal neurons in cortical laminae 3 and 5. A few of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) were astrocytes. No poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was detected in microglia. Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and tau or A beta-protein indicated that the cells with accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) did not contain tangles and relatively few occurred within plaques. Our findings indicate that there is enhanced PARP activity in Alzheimer's disease and suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting PARP may have a role in slowing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Injury to the frontal lobes or interruptions of subcortical connections with the frontal lobe impair the functions of the frontal lobes, and some of these deficits of frontal lobe function are called executive deficits. Several studies suggest that frontal lobe dysfunction is often associated with aging. For example, Mittenberg, Seidenberg, OLeary, and DiGiulio (1989) compared older and younger individuals on tests that assessed frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe functions. These investigators found that it was frontal lobe function that best correlated with age.. Some of the most common executive deficits associated with frontal lobe dysfunction are forms of perseverative behavior. One of the tests that patients with frontal lobe perform poorly is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In this test there are a series of cards that have different geometric designs, and these geometric designs have different colors and a different number of designs on each card. The participants are asked to sort ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visual attention in patients with frontal lobe lesions or Parkinsons disease. AU - Lee, Sonia S.. AU - Wild, Krista. AU - Hollnagel, Caroline. AU - Grafman, Jordan. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - Visual selective attention and response competition were tested in patients with frontal lobe lesions or with Parkinsons disease, and matched normal controls. The target stimuli were presented with flanking distractors that were either compatible, incompatible, or neutral to the target stimulus. The distance between the target and distractors was systematically varied. A control condition without distractors was also included. Subjects response times to target stimuli and accuracy were measured. Both patient groups responded significantly slower and less accurately than their respective matched normal controls across all interference conditions and spatial distances. However, they did not show significantly greater interference or facilitation effects. Thus, the data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alteration of frontal EEG asymmetry during tryptophan depletion predicts future depression. AU - Allen, John J.B.. AU - McKnight, Katherine M.. AU - Moreno, Francisco A.. AU - Demaree, Heath A.. AU - Delgado, Pedro L.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background: Tryptophan depletion (TD) reduces brain serotonin and may induce acute depressive symptomatology, especially among those with a history of Major Depression. Depressive response to TD among euthymic patients with a history of depression also predicts future depression. Better prediction might result by assessing a putative endophenotype for depressive risk, frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, in the context of TD. Method: Nine euthymic history-positive participants and nine controls were administered TD. Symptomatic and EEG frontal asymmetry data were collected for 6 h following TD, and clinical status was followed for the next 12 months. Results: The magnitude of TD-induced change in frontal EEG asymmetry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perspectives on the Developmental Consequences of Early Frontal Lobe Damage. T2 - Introduction. AU - Eslinger, Paul J.. AU - Grattan, Lynn M.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The frontal lobes have been ascribed many of the psychological processes that underlie the highest forms of human adaptation and achievement. In most modern theories, frontal neural systems are the pivotal mediators of acculturation and social conduct, flexibility of thought and action, adaptive behavior, and goal attainment. Yet, despite this celebrated role in complex human behavior, the frontal lobes can sustain damage early in life that appears to have little impact on the organism, at least in terms of standard neuropsychologic and neurologic examinations. Hebb (1949) characterized the paradox this way.. AB - The frontal lobes have been ascribed many of the psychological processes that underlie the highest forms of human adaptation and achievement. In most modern theories, frontal neural systems are ...
The course will provide an overview of acquired deficits following damage to the frontal lobes of the brain. Evidence predominantly from neurological patients but also functional neuroimaging of healthy individuals will be related where possible. Specific areas include disorders of attention, executive function, memory and social cognition that arise after lesions in specific regions of the frontal lobes. Different theoretical views of frontal lobe function will also be discussed such as the supervisory system model and the somatic marker hypothesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospective memory and frontal lobe function. AU - Neulinger, K.. AU - Oram, J.. AU - Tinson, H.. AU - OGorman, J.. AU - Shum, Ho Keung David. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract & Past experience is hypothesized to reduce computational demands in PFC by providing bottom-up predictive information that informs subsequent stimulus-action mapping. The present fMRI study measured cortical activity reductions (neural priming/repetition suppression) during repeated stimulus classification to investigate the mechanisms through which learning from the past decreases demands on the prefrontal executive system. Manipulation of learning at three levels of representation-stimulus, decision, and responserevealed dissociable neural priming effects in distinct frontotemporal regions, supporting a multiprocess model of neural priming. Critically, three distinct patterns of neural priming were identified in lateral frontal cortex, indicating that frontal computational demands are reduced by three forms of learning: (a) cortical tuning of stimulus-specific representations, (b) retrieval of learned
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure activity in three frontal cortical areas, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC)/ventromedial frontal cortex (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when expectations about type of reward, and not just reward presence or absence, could be learned. Two groups of human subjects learned 12 stimulus-response pairings. In one group (Consistent), correct performances of a given pairing were always reinforced with a specific reward outcome, whereas in the other group (Inconsistent), correct performances were reinforced with randomly selected rewards. The mOFC/vmPFC and lOFC were not distinguished by simple differences in relative preference for positive and negative outcomes. Instead lOFC activity reflected updating of reward-related associations specific to reward type; lOFC was active whenever informative outcomes allowed updating of reward-related associations, regardless of whether the outcomes were
Decisions are typically guided by what we have experienced in the past. However, when direct experience is unavailable, animals and humans can imagine or infer the future to make choices. Outcome expectations that are based on direct experience and inference may compete for guiding behavior [1, 2], and they may recruit distinct but overlapping brain circuits [3-5]. In rodents, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) contains neural signatures of inferred outcomes and is necessary for behavior that requires inference, but it is not necessary when responding can be based on direct experience [6-10]. In humans, OFC activity is also correlated with inferred outcome expectations [11, 12], but it is unclear whether the human OFC is selectively required for inference-based behavior. To test this, here we used non-invasive targeted continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) [13] to inactivate the human OFC in a sensory preconditioning task designed to isolate inference-based behavior from responding that can be ...
Working memory is hypothesized to comprise a collection of distinct components or processes, each of which may have a unique neural substrate. Recent neuroimaging studies have isolated a region of the left inferior frontal gyrus that appears to be related specifically to one such component: resolving interference from previous items in working memory. In the present study, we examined working memory in patients with unilateral frontal lobe lesions by using a modified version of an item recognition task in which interference from previous trials was manipulated. In particular, we focused on patient R.C., whose lesion uniquely impinged on the region identified in the neuroimaging studies of interference effects. We measured baseline working memory performance and interference effects in R.C. and other frontal patients and in age-matched control subjects and young control subjects. Comparisons of each of these groups supported the following conclusions. Normal aging is associated with changes to ...
Authors. Janet Grace, PhD, Paul F. Malloy, PhD. Description. The FrSBe, formerly known as the Frontal Lobe Personality Scale (FLoPS), provides a brief, reliable, and valid measure of three frontal systems behavioural syndromes: apathy, disinhibition and executive dysfunction. It also quantifies behavioural changes over time by including both baseline (retrospective) and current assessments of behaviour.. Research has demonstrated that many individuals with frontal lobe damage are capable of normal performance on traditional neuropsychological measures. However, their behaviour in natural settings is often disordered, resulting in severe impairment in social and occupational functioning. The FrSBe fills a gap in the assessment of frontal systems behavioural syndromes by providing a means to identify and quantify these behavioural problems so that they may be targeted for treatment.. The FrSBe includes a Total Score, as well as scores on three subscales related to the three frontal systems ...
Human ventrolateral frontal cortex (vlFC) is identified with cognitive processes such as language and cognitive flexibility. The relationship between it and the vlFC of other primates has therefore been the subject of particular speculation. We used a combination of structural and functional neuroimaging methods to identify key components of human vlFC. We compared how vlFC areas interacted with other brain areas in 25 humans and 25 macaques using the same methods. We identified a core set of 11 vlFC components that interacted in similar ways with similar distributed circuits in both species and, in addition, one distinctively human component in ventrolateral frontal pole. Fundamental differences in interactions with posterior auditory association areas in the two species were also present-these were ubiquitous throughout posterior human vlFC but channeled to different frontal regions in monkeys. Finally, there were some differences in interregional interactions within vlFC in the two species.
Looking for frontal system? Find out information about frontal system. A system of fronts as they appear on a synoptic chart Explanation of frontal system
Common effects of damage to the frontal lobe are varied. Patients who have experienced frontal lobe trauma may know the appropriate response to a situation but display inappropriate responses to those same situations in real life. Similarly, emotions that are felt may not be expressed in the face or voice. For example, someone who is feeling happy would not smile, and the voice would be devoid of emotion. Along the same lines, though, the person may also exhibit excessive, unwarranted displays of emotion. Depression is common in stroke patients. Also common is a loss of or decrease in motivation. Someone might not want to carry out normal daily activities and would not feel up to it.[7] Those who are close to the person who has experienced the damage may notice changes in behavior.[8] This personality change is characteristic of damage to the frontal lobe and was exemplified in the case of Phineas Gage. The frontal lobe is the same part of the brain that is responsible for executive ...
The inferior frontal gyrus makes up the lateral and inferior surface of the frontal lobe, and is separated from the middle frontal gyrus above by the inferior frontal sulcus. It contains the frontal operculum (hiding the anterosuperior part of th...
Question - What does solitary tiny focus of subcortical hyperintensity within the left frontal lobe mean?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Neurologist
Background: Frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a white matter bundle connecting the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) with the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variability of FAT.. Materials and methods: Total number of fibres and the lateralisation index (LI) were calculated. We attempted to find factors contributing to the diversity of FAT regarding IFG terminations to the pars opercularis (IFG-Op) and to the pars triangularis (IFG-Tr). Magnetic resonance imaging of adult patients with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with total number of 98 hemispheres composed a cohort. V-shaped operculum was the most common (60.5%).. Results: Total number of FAT fibres had widespread and unimodal distribution (6 to 1765; median: 160). Left lateralisation was noted in 64.3% of cases and was positively correlated with total number of FAT fibres and the bundle projecting to IFG-Op (p , 0.01). LI correlated with ...
We explain Cerebral Cortex: Frontal Lobes with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will identify, describe and differentiate the primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and association areas of the frontal lobe. The functions and problems that may be associated with the frontal lobes will be discussed. The contribution of Phineas Gages accident to the field of psychology will be explored.|/p|
A 33-year-old woman underwent neurologic and neuropsychological studies 26 years after she sustained damage to the frontal lobe. The findings of the neurologic examination were normal, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in left prefrontal cortex and deep white matter. Cerebral blood fl …
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easy to score. Frontal lesions, regardless of side, tend to For example, the patient conceives the sight of a move- decrease verbal fluency, with left frontal lesions result- ment as an order to imitate (imitation behavior); the ing in lower word production than right frontal le- sight of an object implies the order to use it (utilization sions.18 In this task, subjects need to recall as many behavior); and the sight or sensory perception of the words as they can beginning with a given letter in a examiners hands compels the patient to take them (prehension behavior). In some cases, the patients can 3. Motor programming: Patients with frontal lobe lesions elicit these behaviors even if they have been explicitly are also impaired in tasks requiring temporal organiza- told not to do so. These abnormal behaviors (the sponta- tion, maintenance, and execution of successive ac- neous tendency to adhere to the environment) express tions.12,13,19 In Lurias motor series, such as fist-palm- the lack of ...
Intellectual, Mnemonic, and Frontal Functions in Dementia with Lewy Bodies: A Comparison with Early and Advanced Parkinsons Disease. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This is an application for an NIMH Patient Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23) entitled Contributions of MTHFR Genotype to Frontal Lobe Dys...
Dysexecutive syndrome consists of a number of symptoms which tend to occur together (hence it being described as a syndrome). Broadly speaking, these symptoms fall into three main categories; cognitive, emotional and behavioural. Although many of these symptoms regularly co-occur, it is common to encounter patients who have several, but not all of these symptoms. This is one reason why some researchers are beginning to argue that dysexecutive syndrome is not the best term to describe these various symptoms (see criticisms below). The fact that many of the dysexecutive syndrome symptoms can occur alone has led some researchers to suggest that the symptoms should not be labelled as a syndrome as such. Some of the latest imaging research on frontal cortex areas suggests that executive functions may be more discrete than was previously thought. The argument is that rather than damage to the frontal cortex areas causing dysexecutive functions in general, that damage to multiple frontal cortex areas ...
wholesale jerseys from china24) Cognitive control processes are distributed within a network of distinct regions (Goldman-Rakic - 1988, Posner - 1990, Wager & Smith 2004, Cole & Schneider - 2007). Researchers investigating eye movements and attention recorded from different parts of the primate brain and found several regions showing very similar neural activity. Goldman-Rakic proposed the existence of a specialized network for the control of attention.. This cortical system consists of the lateral frontal cortex (fronto-polar, dorsolateral, frontal eye fields), medial frontal cortex (anterior cingulate, pre-SMA, supplementary eye fields), and posterior parietal cortex. Subcortically, dorsomedial thalamus and superior colliculus are involved, among others.CheapMiamiDolphinsJerseys. Many computational modelers emphasize the emergence of attention from the local organization of sensory cortex (e.g., local competition). However, when a shift in attention is task-driven (i.e., top-down) then it ...
wholesale jerseys from china24) Cognitive control processes are distributed within a network of distinct regions (Goldman-Rakic - 1988, Posner - 1990, Wager & Smith 2004, Cole & Schneider - 2007). Researchers investigating eye movements and attention recorded from different parts of the primate brain and found several regions showing very similar neural activity. Goldman-Rakic proposed the existence of a specialized network for the control of attention.. This cortical system consists of the lateral frontal cortex (fronto-polar, dorsolateral, frontal eye fields), medial frontal cortex (anterior cingulate, pre-SMA, supplementary eye fields), and posterior parietal cortex. Subcortically, dorsomedial thalamus and superior colliculus are involved, among others.CheapMiamiDolphinsJerseys. Many computational modelers emphasize the emergence of attention from the local organization of sensory cortex (e.g., local competition). However, when a shift in attention is task-driven (i.e., top-down) then it ...
A frontal lobe stroke can cause a number of neurological deficits because the frontal lobe, a large part of the brain, has several important functions.
Frontal lobe Brain: Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal
The most common sites of hemorrhagic stroke are the regions of the brain supplied by the middle cerebral artery and its branches. The primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe (Brodmanns area 4) is affected when the rupture occurs in the pre-Rolandic artery, which is one of the main branches of the middle cerebral artery. Secondary motor areas, such as the posterior part of middle frontal gyrus (Brodmanns area 6), pars opercularis (Brocas area), pars triangularis, and other areas of the pre-frontal cortex can be damaged during a stroke; these areas of the frontal lobe are supplied by the Rolandic, the lateral frontobasal, and the pre-frontal arteries. Also post-Rolandic areas of the parietal lobe and the superior temporal gyrus are also afected sometimes. ...
BioAssay record AID 440796 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug level in Wistar rat frontal cortex at 23.7 +/- 2.4 MBq, iv assessed per gram of tissue after 20 mins postinjection by gamma-counting.
These absurd misbeliefs are generally expressed without particular concern, but, less frequently, the patient may be annoyed or demand insistently the removal of the limb (misoplegia). 69-72 These processes include inattention to the left hemibody, reduced sensory feedback, impaired attention resources, defect in body schemata or in selfawareness, internal representation, mental flexibility, and diffuse mental deterioration. 68 Furthermore, none of these theories-either psychological, or denial or emotional changes-adequately explains the more common occurrence of anosognosia with right hemisphere stroke. Empathy loss is probably at the origin of emotional and personality disorders due to frontal lesions. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES RELATED TO IMPAIRMENT OF INSTRUMENTAL FUNCTIONS 37 Emotional and personality disorders in patients with frontal lobe lesions vary from the absence of tact and inhibition, inappropriate familiarity, childish behavior, and sexual disinhibition, to lack of initiative and ...
The research team was able to classify neurons based on chemical modifications in their DNA. Pictured here are clusters of different kinds of stop and go neurons in the human frontal cortex.
Parietal and frontal cortical areas play important roles in the control of goal-oriented behaviour. This review examines how signal processing in the parietal and frontal eye fields is involved in coding and storing space, directing attention and processing the sensorimotor transformation for saccad …
There are many theories on how a healthy brain ages. Some of these ideas contradict conventional wisdom, which holds that aging is synonymous with memory loss. Although the human memory does tend to deteriorate modestly with age, many older people experience far more dramatic declines in cognitive abilities that are not related to memory, such as concentration, problem solving and decision-making. Unlike the ability to remember, which scientists have linked to the medial temporal region of the brain, these other abilities are closely associated with the frontal lobes.. A recent theory called the frontal lobe hypothesis1 proposes that some older people have disproportionate, age-related changes of frontal lobe structures and the cognitive abilities associated with those structures. Several sources of evidence, including neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and functional neuroimaging studies, support this theory.. Following up on the frontal lobe hypothesis, our team of scientists at the ...
Human brain activity with plexus lines.. External cerebral connections in the frontal lobe. Communication, psychology, artificial intelligence or AI, neuronal informations or cognition concepts illustration with copy space ...
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Study Flashcards On Flashcards Due 10/21/06 (Frontal lobes, memory) at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Besides the menengioma I have had MS for 3 years, SLE for 14 years, a arteriorgram to remove a small heart blockage that failed. I have scarring on my lungs from 16 diagnosed cases of pneumonia that ...
THE BOSS BABY @ The Historic Howell Theater! Fri, Mar 31, 2017 - Sun, Apr 9, 2017 Sponsored by: Frontal Lobe Coworking Showtimes: March 31 4:15pm …. ...
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We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal corte
The medial orbitofrontal cortex has given us much to think about recently. So far as I understand, which is not very far, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) helps to explain why the more expensive wine is, the better it tastes. In an era of secular Calvinism, all of human life is predetermined, predestined and biologically fated. Not
Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jan 15;65(2):160-4. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.07.030. Epub 2008 Sep 18. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Betty Part Nine - More Frontal Lobe Damage Issues:
Modified behavioral scale, administered every 12 hours during the study, a standard neurobehavioral rating scale, some experimental tests of dominant frontal lobe function and a control task that we do not expect to be affected ...
A) Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrates a clear U-fibre density reduction in the left frontal area, illustrated by high signal in the colour scale. (B) Three-dimensional reconstructed brain surface created by coregistration of preoperative MRI and post-implantation CT shows placement of intracranial depth electrodes on the left hemisphere. Electrode 1 represents the innermost contact; A1-A12: left superior frontal gyrus (frontobasal, anterior); B1-B8: left superior frontal gyrus (frontobasal); C1-C10: left superior frontal gyrus (medial); D1-D8: left superior frontal gyrus (posterior); E1-E12: left middle frontal gyrus (anterior); F1-F8: left middle frontal gyrus (posterior); G1-G8: left inferior frontal gyrus; H1-H8: left anterior insula; J1-J6: left posterior insula; K1-K8: left anterior temporal lobe; L1-11: right superior frontal gyrus (frontobasal); and M1-12: right middle frontal gyrus. (C) Results of extraoperative electrical stimulation mapping (monopolar stimulation was performed ...
Does frontal lobe dysfunction affect my lifespan or likelihood of getting Alzheimers or dementia. I have obtained epilepsy over the last couple of years and they believe the frontal lobe is linked with my epilepsy. No websites I sought out could tell me a clear answer. I know frontal lobe disorder/dysfunction is often confused with frontal lobe dementia. Can you please give me an answer asap? I am 26 and was diagnosed with epilepsy at age 21.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children. T2 - Meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior. AU - Peltola, Mikko J.. AU - Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.. AU - Alink, Lenneke R.A.. AU - Huffmeijer, Renske. AU - Biro, Szilvia. AU - van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Asymmetry of frontal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in children is influenced by the social environment and considered a marker of vulnerability to emotional and behavioral problems. To determine the reliability of these associations, we used meta-analysis to test whether variation in resting frontal EEG asymmetry is consistently associated with (a) having experienced psychosocial risk (e.g., parental depression or maltreatment) and (b) internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes in children ranging from newborns to adolescents. Three meta-analyses including 38 studies (N=2,523) and 50 pertinent ...
Looking for online definition of frontal lobe in the Medical Dictionary? frontal lobe explanation free. What is frontal lobe? Meaning of frontal lobe medical term. What does frontal lobe mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - The frontal lobes and schizophrenia. AU - Weinberger, D. R.. AU - Aloia, M. S.. AU - Goldberg, T. E.. AU - Berman, K. F.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Many patients with schizophrenia show clinical signs of frontal lobe dysfunction, including blunted affect, difficulty with problem solving, and impoverished thinking. The authors present cytoarchitectural, neuropsychological, and functional neuroanatomical evidence of frontal abnormalities from recent studies of frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia. It is suggested that the failure of intracortical connectivity of the prefrontal cortex accounts for both cognitive and psychotic manifestations of this illness.. AB - Many patients with schizophrenia show clinical signs of frontal lobe dysfunction, including blunted affect, difficulty with problem solving, and impoverished thinking. The authors present cytoarchitectural, neuropsychological, and functional neuroanatomical evidence of frontal abnormalities from recent studies of ...
The present study found that damage to OFC, but not to other areas within PFC, resulted in impaired performance on a probabilistic reversal learning task. This is consistent with two previous neuropsychological studies that reported impaired performance of a complex, gambling-like reversal learning task after OFC damage (Berlin et al., 2004; Hornak et al., 2004). The large cohort studied here allowed VLSM analysis to be applied to much of the PFC. We were able to confirm a regionally specific contribution of OFC, with the effect mainly driven by voxels in bilateral posteromedial OFC and to a lesser extent right lateral OFC, and to reject a critical role for other regions within PFC, notably including dACC (at least of the same effect size and within the anatomical constraints of our sample) in flexible reinforcement learning in a probabilistic environment.. Contrary to the performance of such patients on a simple, deterministic reversal learning task (Fellows and Farah, 2003), the impairment of ...
In two experiments, the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions was examined on implicit and explicit tests of conceptual memory for organized lists of words. Frontal patients exhibited normal levels of conceptual priming on implicit category production and free association tests, but they exhibited impaired memory performance on explicit category- and associate-cued recall tests. The findings of normal performance on implicit conceptual tests suggest that frontal patients do not have a basic deficit in semantic processing of individual items. Impaired performance on explicit cued recall tests may be related to deficits in the use of organizational encoding and strategic retrieval processes.. ...
Lesions to prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans can severely disrupt everyday decision-making, with concomitant effects on social and occupational functioning. Forty-six patients with unilateral lesions to prefrontal cortex and 21 healthy control subjects were administered three neuropsychological measures of decision-making: the Iowa Gambling Task, the Cambridge Gamble Task, and the Risk Task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 40 patients, with region of interest (ROI) mapping of prefrontal subregions. The frontal patients showed only limited damage in medial and orbital prefrontal cortex, but greater damage in lateral prefrontal regions of interest. Patients with right frontal lesions preferred the risky decks on the Iowa Gambling Task, and differed significantly from left frontal and control subjects. Within the right frontal group, the preference for the risky decks was correlated with the total lesion volume and the volume of damage outside of the ventromedial prefrontal region
A significant proportion of patients with presenile dementia due to primary cerebral atrophy do not have Alzheimers disease. One form of non-Alzheimer dementia may be designated as dementia of frontal lobe type (DFT), on the basis of a characteristic neuropsychological picture suggestive of frontal lobe disorder, confirmed by findings on single photon emission tomography. The case histories of seven patients exemplify the disorder: a presentation of social misconduct and personality change, unconcern and disinhibition, in the presence of physical well-being and few neurological signs. Assessment revealed economic and concrete speech with verbal stereotypes, variable memory impairment, and marked abnormalities on tasks sensitive to frontal lobe function. Visuo-spatial disorder was invariably absent. Comparisons of DFT and Alzheimer patients revealed qualitative differences in clinical presentation, neurological signs, profile of psychological disability, electroencephalography, single photon ...
One commenter has made allusion to the importance of Rachel Norths probable frontal lobe impairment which often brings consequences. Even mild concussion in the frontal lobes can cause permanent damage. We print this commenters advice on people with Rachel Norths condition just below.. Impaired strategy formation and planning, especially in unfamiliar situations, there is inappropriate behaviour with difficulty using social cues and information to direct, control, or change personal behaviour. Inhibition impaired. This leads to perseveration (continuing to attempt a task that is obviously failing). They may confabulate. Behavioural changes include breaking rules and taking risks, not following task instructions and gambling. (Gambling involves assessing risk and outcome). Social and sexual behaviour inappropriate or altered from previously. In social reasoning the left lobe is more important than the right. Pseudodepression , while the indifference is like la belle indifference of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relationship between frontal gray matter volume and cognition varies across the healthy adult lifespan. AU - Zimmerman, Molly. AU - Brickman, Adam. AU - Paul, Robert. AU - Grieve, Stuart. AU - Tate, David. AU - Gunstad, John. AU - Cohen, Ronald. AU - Aloia, Mark. AU - Williams, Leanne. AU - Clark, C. AU - Whitford, Thomas. AU - Gordon, Evian. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 823. EP - 833. JO - American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. JF - American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. SN - 1064-7481. IS - 10. M1 - CC. ER - ...
It has been claimed that social behaviour changes after lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, lesions in humans are rarely restricted to a well defined cortical area. Although vmPFC lesions usually include medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), they typically also affect subgenual and/or perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of mOFC in social valuation and decision-making. We tested four macaque monkeys prior to and after focal lesions of mOFC. Comparison of the animals pre- and postoperative performance revealed that, unlike lesions of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg), lesions of mOFC did not induce alterations in social valuation. MOFC lesions did, however, induce mild impairments in a probabilistic two-choice decision task, which were not seen after ACCg lesions. In summary, the double dissociation between the patterns of impairment suggest that vmPFC involvement in both decision-making and social valuation may be
A fundamental issue in neuroscience is the relation between structure and function. However, gross landmarks do not correspond well to microstructural borders and cytoarchitecture cannot be visualized in a living brain used for functional studies. Here, we used diffusion-weighted and functional MRI to test structure-function relations directly. Distinct neocortical regions were defined as volumes having similar connectivity profiles and borders identified where connectivity changed. Without using prior information, we found an abrupt profile change where the border between supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA is expected. Consistent with this anatomical assignment, putative SMA and pre-SMA connected to motor and prefrontal regions, respectively. Excellent spatial correlations were found between volumes defined by using connectivity alone and volumes activated during tasks designed to involve SMA or pre-SMA selectively. This finding demonstrates a strong relationship between structure and function
SEEG recordings of Patient 1. (A) Location of the SEEG electrodes used to investigate the left hemisphere, shown on the sagittal planes of 3D CT/MRI fusion images. Electrode entry points are represented as circles or lines that correspond to orthogonal or to oblique electrode trajectories, respectively. Electrode Y was used to investigate the posterior insula (internal contacts) and hand SI area (lateral contacts); R the superior insula (INS) and face MI area; M the cingulate motor area (CMA) and the premotor part of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG BA6, residual lesion on MRI); S the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor part of the superior frontal sulcus (SFS BA6, residual lesion on MRI) and the premotor part of the middle frontal gyrus; X the anterior insula, as well as the premotor parts of the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS BA6) and of the middle frontal gyrus; G the anterior insula and the frontal operculum (FOp); and H the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) and the premotor ...
Neurons from the mouse frontal cortex, they found, clustered into 16 subtypes based on methylation patterns, while neurons from the human frontal cortex were more diverse and formed 21 subtypes. Inhibitory neurons-those that provide stop signals for messages in the brain-showed more conserved methylation patterns between mice and humans compared to excitatory neurons. The study also identified unique human neuron subtypes that had never been defined before. These results open the door to a deeper understanding of what sets human brains apart from those of other animals.. This study opens a new window into the incredible diversity of brain cells, says Eran Mukamel of the UC San Diego Department of Cognitive Science, a co-senior author of the work. Mukamel is a faculty fellow at the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind at UC San Diego. Next, the researchers plan to expand their methylome study to look at more parts of the brain, and more brains.. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of types of ...
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To our knowledge, this is the first double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation using fMRI to study the effect of a cholinesterase inhibitor on brain function in subjects with MCI. Our results suggest that donepezil, when administered during a 3- to 6-month period to subjects with MCI, may potentially enhance brain activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during memory processing.. The left inferior frontal gyrus has been implicated in an array of attention and memory processes, including encoding and retrieval and long- and short-term memory.12-16 Previous studies have shown this region to be implicated in subjects with MCI, compared with healthy elderly controls, during performance of memory tasks, including picture encoding.17 Moreover, initial studies of cholinergic-based drugs in AD or MCI have reported enhancement of functional activation levels in the frontal lobes, in general, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus.11,18-22 However, none of these studies were conducted in a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current knowledge on the role of the inferior frontal gyrus in Theory of Mind - a commentary on Schurz and Tholen (2016). AU - Hartwright, Charlotte. AU - Hansen, Peter C.. AU - Apperly, Ian A.. N1 - © 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Funding: ESRC (ES/G01258X/1).. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Schurz and Tholen (2016) argue that common approaches to studying the neural basis of theory of mind (ToM) obscure a potentially important role for inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in managing conflict between perspectives, and urge new work to address this question: to gain a full understanding of the IFGs role in ToM, we encourage future imaging studies to use a wider range of control conditions. (p332). We wholeheartedly agree, but note that this observation has been made before, and has already led to a programme of work that provides evidence from ...
In this common form of epilepsy, the seizures stem from the front of the brain. They can produce symptoms that appear to be psychiatric.
Our current findings from the Granger causality analyses showed that the PMC and preSMA are functionally connected with the caudate head and STN. Furthermore, the IFC is connected with the preSMA but not the caudate head or STN. Thus, with strong interconnectivity with the basal ganglia circuitry of motor control, the PMC and preSMA are in a position to engage the com petition of go and stop processes, whereas the IFC indirectly influence the basal ganglia circuitry via projection to the preSMA. These new findings provide evidence differentiating the roles of the IFC and preSMA during stop signal inhibition. In particular, these data are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a hyperdirect pathway from the IFC to STN for motor inhibitory control (Aron and Poldrack, 2006).. The results from PPI analyses further corroborated this hypothesis: the IFC showed greater connectivity with the preSMA during stop success than during stop error trials. A number of other brain regions including the superior ...
As Table 3 shows, Case 1 presented with significant clinical improvement in rule following and working memory overtime, Case 2 presented with significant clinical improvement in cognitive flexibility, and rule following, while Case 3 presented with significant clinical improvement in cognitive flexibility, inhibition response and speed processing. As can be seen in Table 3, Case 1 presented a significant clinical improvement in social skills and behavior regulation, Case 2 presented with significant clinical improvement in emotional regulation and social skills, while Case 3 presented significant clinical deterioration in behavior regulation, emotional regulation and social skills over time.. DiscussionCognitive functions. Cognitive function domains included verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and IQ. Case 1 who had a cavernous angioma on the right frontal lobe showed an improvement followed by a decrease in verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning, the results obtained in the last ...
Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Sex Differences in Gamma Band Functional Connectivity Between the Frontal Lobe and Cortical Areas During an Auditory Oddball Task, as Revealed by Imaginary Coherence Assessment
Manual volumetric measurement of the brains frontal lobe and its subregions from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is an established method for researching neural correlates of clinical disorders or c
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Grant & Berg, 1948; Heaton, Chelune,Talley, & Curtis, 1993) has long been used in Neuropsychology and is among the most frequently administered neuropsychological instruments (Butler, Retzlaff, & Vanderploeg, 1991). The test was specifically devised to assess executive functions mediated by the frontal lobes such as problem solving, strategic planning, use…
The different clinical trajectories of cocaine-dependent men and women may be a consequence of distinct neurobiological substrates. Hypoperfusion of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has previously been reported in individuals addicted to cocaine and ha
Superior frontal sulcus aka Sulcus frontalis superior in the latin terminology and part of structures seen on the lateral views of the brain. Learn more now!
The Amazing Brain Adventure, Amygdala, Frontal Lobes, Tickle Your Amygdala, How To Paint A Car, Make A Kindle, Emotions, Creativity, Intelligence, Pleasure, ESP, Paranormal, Alleviate and Stop Depression and Anxiety
The Amazing Brain Adventure, Amygdala, Frontal Lobes, Tickle Your Amygdala, How To Paint A Car, Make A Kindle, Emotions, Creativity, Intelligence, Pleasure, ESP, Paranormal, Alleviate and Stop Depression and Anxiety
PALEONEUROLOGY AND THE FRONTAL LOBESBrocas area has represented a major issue in evolutionary anthropology since the discovery of its association with language impairment. It was generally presumed that the whole frontal lobes had undergone important changes in our phylogenetic lineage, also because of their involvement in personality and executive functions. Accordingly, plenty of authors have declared so far that the fossil record supplies patent evidence of frontal lobe evolution, despite the fact that the fossil record, to date, has supplied none. In terms of frontal sulcal pattern, all human species display a similar scheme, at least from two million years (Tobias, 1987; Holloway, 1995). In terms of volume, there are still disagreements on whether or not humans and living apes share a similar allometric proportion of frontal cortex, and whether any minor difference may be statistically or functionally significant, (e.g., Semendeferi et al., 1997; Rilling, 2006; Barton and Venditti 2013; Smaers
Lets take the applications for obesity as our most relevant example here. Were there any citations of the literature on neurodegenerative disorders and appetite? Case studies of brain lesions and appetite? Studies of obese vs. lean individuals? Eating disordered vs. normal weight people? No, no, no, and no. Since they didnt cite any papers in these important [and more ecologically valid, if you really want to learn about self-control over food choices] areas of inquiry, heres what I learned from a PubMed search. A voxel-based morphometry study in patients with frontotemporal dementia demonstrated that binge eating was associated with greater degeneration in the right ventral insula, striatum, and orbitofrontal cortex (Wooley et al., 2007). Conversely, tumors in the right lateral frontal cortex have been associated with anorexia in several case reports (Houy et al., 2007; Trummer et al., 2002). In healthy subjects, transcranial direct current stimulation over DLPFC (specifically to increase ...
A toolkit of backward self-therapy to release inhibitors blocking forward self-circuiting into dormant frontal lobes, transcendence into egolessness and finished maturation of whole brain power in the Lifeforce.
Effects of frontal lobe meningiomas may include faint variations in personality, mood swings or hemi-paralysis (paralysis of one side of the body), indicates If a tumor is located...
In our previous blog, Loris discussed the difficult task of navigating sexuality after frontal lobe injury. We continue to discuss Loris relationships.
David Badre and Michael Frank discovered architecture in the frontal lobe that supports a decision-making style based on analysis of uncertainty. Credit: Paul Rochford Jr./Brown UniversityThere has long been a debate about the functional organization of the frontal cortex, Badre said. There has been a notion that the frontal lobe lacks specialization when exercising cognitive control, that its undifferentiated. This study provides evidence that there is a kind of organization. This is an example of how higher-order functions such as decision-making may relate to the frontal lobes more general functional architecture.. Stop the clock. To spot explorer behavior among their 15 participants, Badre and Michael Frank, associate professor of cognitive, linguistic, and psychological sciences, slid them into an MRI scanner and presented them with a game to play. Participants had to stop the sweeping hand of a virtual clock to win points in different rounds. They were told that they could maximize ...
Coutanche, M. N. & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2013). Information Connectivity: Identifying synchronized discriminability of multi-voxel patterns across the brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7. PMID: 23403700. Lupyan, G.,, Mirman, D., Hamilton, R., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2012). Categorization is modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation over left prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 124, 36-49. PMID: 22578885. Hindy, N., Altmann, G., Kalenik, E., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2012). The effect of object state-changes on event processing: Do objects compete with themselves? Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 5795-5803. PMID: 22539841 Thompson-Schill, S. L., Ramscar, M., & Chrysikou, E. G. (2009). Cognition without control: When a little frontal cortex goes a long way. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 259-263. PMID: 20401341. Thompson-Schill, S. L., Swick, D., Farah, M. J., DEsposito, M., Kan, I. P., & Knight, R. T. (1998). Verb generation in patients with focal frontal lesions: A ...
Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In part, because the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is a complex and unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of the pathogenesis associated to it. In this work we applied an automatic white matter bundle segmentation based on the major gyri connected by them. We performed then a hierarchical clustering in order to subdivide some bundles. The method was applied to the data of 10 subjects obtained from high quality HARDI database, for the right and left hemispheres. We obtained three classes of bundles for the connections between the superior frontal and inferior frontal gyri, the precentral and postcentral gyri, the precentral and superior-middle-inferior frontal gyri; and the insula with inferior frontal and with the precental-postcentral gyri.. ...
Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernickes area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.. Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernickes area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe.. ...
People that didnt even know each other, and they began to join hands, automatically. They automatically began to pray with each other, she says. Emergency helicopter crews landed at the scene and transported Patti to the ICU. After an all-night effort, the trauma team was able to sustain Pattis life, but she remained in a coma for six weeks. In addition to multiple other injuries, every lobe of Pattis brain had been severely injured. Her primary injury was to her frontal lobe. Without the frontal lobes functioning, and organizing and directing what we do…without the frontal lobes doing that for us,our brain doesnt really function, Patti knows.. The doctors met with my family sometime during the coma and prepared them for what to expect. They said, Okay, if she lives, she will be a persistent vegetable. As news of Pattis accident began to spread, prayers and support from around the world began to pour in.. People from the radio station, churches, listeners, the girls from the ...
An open brain biopsy from the right frontal cortex revealed CAA with giant cell activation around the amyloid deposition (Fig 1C). The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, 1 g daily for 3 days, followed by corticosteroid treatment with a maximum dose of 60 mg, tapering off within 3 months. During treatment, he improved, and at the 1-month follow-up consultation, he walked without support and was able to care for himself at home. On examination, he rose from the chair and walked across the room without difficulty. T1-weighted MR imaging showed regression of the mass lesion and almost normalization of the ventricle asymmetry, but meningeal contrast enhancement persisted (Fig 1D). Four months later, he relapsed with recurrent weakness of the left leg and unsteady gait. Consequently, we administered intravenous cyclophosphamide, 1200 mg at 3-week intervals for 1 year, which resolved the neurologic deficits. During the treatment period and at 15-month follow-up, he remained ...
Where do you have the headaches? One place or several places? Does it feel where the nose from the air comes in or other signals from the nose, or elseplace? Is there an area (or several) feeling a certain size, and it is (are) always the same? Have you ever looked on brain pictures where those are? If you do not find help, staying off the computer, going a lot for natural walks, quiet, deciding inside you want systems to be healthy and avoiding artifificial energy inputs and longer stress times can be healthy. I once had something in my head, that felt to me like 2 cubic centimeters in the right frontal cortex keeping going for headaches on and off, first just on front of the computer, then when I was not even near a computer. I went off the net back then, went a lot into nature, it was summer, so I went swimming to the lake shore with forest around, relaxed, and on and off grumped that that dont it dare going cancer or whatever it was doing there, and that I want it to transform back healthy ...
After my TBI, I assumed because of my poor decisions, that I had frontal lobe damage only--or maybe a little elsewhere. When I was only a few years out from my TBI, I asked my mother what my CT-scan looked like--where most of the damage was. It was all over your brain, she said. There…
✔️Precentral gyrus contains the primary motor cortex ✔️Premotor cortex lies immediately anterior to Primary motor cortex ( Brodmanns area 6 on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe.) ✔️Premotor cortex is active in response to EXTERNAL visual or somatic sensory cues (e.g. reaching for an object in full view, or identifying an object by touch…
My frontal lobe has absconded'". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2017. Singh, Anita (26 January 2020). "Monty Python frontman ...
Smith EE, Jonides J (March 1999). "Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes". Science. 283 (5408): 1657-61. ... Fuster, Joaquin M. (1997). The prefrontal cortex: anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe. Philadelphia: ... Frontal lobe function and dysfunction. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-19-506284-7. Baddeley, Alan D.; ... synchronizing rhythms in bilateral frontal and left temporal lobe areas. Torkel Klingberg was the first to investigate whether ...
217-229). In H.S. Levin, H.M. Eisenberg & A.L. Benton (Eds.). Frontal lobe function and dysfunction. New York: Oxford ...
Duncan, John; Burgess, Paul; Emslie, Hazel (March 1995). "Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions". Neuropsychologia. 33 ... "A human intracranial study of long-range oscillatory coherence across a frontal-occipital-hippocampal brain network during ...
Nishida, T; Kudo T; Nakamura F; Yoshimura M; Matsuda K; Yagi K (2005). "Postictal mania associated with frontal lobe epilepsy ...
Risk: designed to test the frontal lobe. Naughton, Pete (27 October 2009). "Zoe Ball: 'It'd be nice to get a lass on Radio 2 ... Calculation: designed to test the parietal lobe. Memory: designed to test the temporal lobe. Recognition: designed to test the ... occipital lobe. Co-ordination: designed to test the cerebellum. ...
Stuss, D. T., & Knight, R. T. (Eds.). (2013). Principles of frontal lobe function (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press ... Knight has received numerous scientific awards for his research into the neural mechanisms of frontal lobe function in ... Stuss & Knight (2002 and 2013) Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. "Robert T. Knight". Retrieved April 14, 2017 ...
... suggesting a common pathway of frontal lobe dysfunction. A retrospective study of 117 hospitalized patients with hippus noted ...
Martin, J. P. (23 June 1928). "Tumours of the frontal lobe of the brain". Br Med J. 1 (3520): 1058-1061. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3520 ... "Atrophy of Basal Ganglia Nuclei and Negative Symptoms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 21 (2): 152- ...
Mathalon, D.H. (2008). "Divergent approaches converge on frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia". The American Journal of ... A second hypothesis suggests that disturbance in the brain's frontal circuits, a region that largely constitutes the social ... and found the largest number of brain area expressions include to be in the frontal cortex, associate striatum nucleus, and ...
The central executive is studied through the frontal lobe. It is understood that the frontal lobe is where a person will make ...
L2 is shorter than the frontal glabellar lobe (L3). Thorax unknown. The long and narrow pygidial axis is composed of 10 rings ...
As the medial frontal lobe damage is often linked to lesions of the corpus callosum, frontal variant cases may also present ... Neuroimaging and pathological research shows that the frontal lobe (in the frontal variant) and corpus callosum (in the ... When the frontal lobe damage is bilateral and generally more extensive, the patient completely loses the ability to act in a ... With anteromedial frontal lobe injuries, these movements are often exploratory reaching movements in which external objects are ...
Sep 2009). "Impulsivity, frontal lobes and risk for addiction". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 93 (3): 237-47. doi:10.1016/j.pbb. ... Adult alcoholics who experienced two or more withdrawals showed more frontal lobe impairments than alcoholics who had a history ... and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is similar to that which occurs in individuals suffering from limbic or temporal lobe ...
It has wide spiny frontal lateral lobes. "Porcellio pumicatus Say, 1818". Fauna Europaea. 2.6.2. August 29, 2013. Retrieved ...
... may present itself as a symptom of both frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy, which may actually help in ... It may be subsequently concluded that the EEG is congruent with temporal or frontal lobe seizure. Anxiety and headaches ... Alice in Wonderland syndrome: a clinical presentation of frontal lobe epilepsy. Neuropediatrics, 2002 33: 53-5. Moorhouse D. ... Swash M. Visual perseveration in temporal lobe epilepsy J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1979;42:569-71. Zwijnenburg PJ, Wennink ...
Baird, A; Kagan, J; Gaudette, T; Walz, KA; Hershlag, N; Boas, DA (2002). "Frontal Lobe Activation during Object Permanence: ...
In autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, K-complexes are almost invariably present at the start of seizures. ... "K-complex-induced seizures in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy". Clin Neurophysiol. 119 (10): 2201-4. doi: ... They are generated in widespread cortical locations though they tend to predominate over the frontal parts of the brain. Both K ...
... s are closely linked to sleepwalking and frontal lobe epilepsy. Night terrors typically occur in children between ...
Takukasaki, K (2013). "Neurophysiology of gait: from the spinal cord to the frontal lobe". Movement Disorders. 28 (11): 1483- ...
A Syndrome of Frontal Lobe and Diencephalic Structural Pathogenesis and a Comparison with Medial Temporal Lobe Dementias". ... Frontal lobe damage often disrupts this process, preventing the retrieval of information and the evaluation of its output. ... Confabulation is believed to be a result of damage to the right frontal lobe of the brain. In particular, damage can be ... They are relatively rare, more common in cases of dementia, and may result from the interaction between frontal lobe pathology ...
... may coincide with TMoA if the lesion in the anterior frontal lobe is large enough and extends into the posterior frontal lobe. ... The anterior superior frontal lobe is known as the prefrontal cortex which is responsible for the initiation and ideation of ... The anterior frontal lobes of the language-dominant hemisphere are essential for initiating and maintaining speech. Because of ... This occurs as a result of executive functioning in the frontal lobe. Another form of aphasia related to TMoA is dynamic ...
He also noticed that in the more than 25 patients he examined with aphasia, they all had lesions to the left frontal lobe but ... Broca showed that an area of the left frontal lobe was damaged. As Tan was unable to produce speech but could still understand ... From this he concluded that the function of speech was probably localized in the inferior frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere ... They also realized that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobes, both of the areas removed from Molaison, are the areas ...
The cerebral cortex is generally classified into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes are ... However, in humans, this part of the brain is much smaller and lies underneath the frontal lobe. The olfactory sensory system ... Motor portions of language are attributed to Broca's area within the frontal lobe. Speech comprehension is attributed to ... In cartilaginous and lobe-finned fishes and also in amphibians, a more complex structure is present, with the cerebrum being ...
Drug treatment of OCD may be assumed to affect a proposed functional imbalance between the frontal lobes and other parts of the ... implications for understanding frontal lobe function". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 6 (4): 467-77. ... can be caused by delayed maturation of the frontal striatal circuitry or parts of the brain that make up the frontal cortex, ... The first scan provides data about the activation in the frontal-striatal neural circuit, which is the area involving OCD. The ...
The olfactory bulb is a structure at the base of the frontal lobe. It comprises neurons, nerve fibers, interneurons, microglia ... paranasal sinus disease Toxic chemical exposure Neurological abnormalities Head trauma Nasal surgery Tumors on the frontal lobe ...
ADHD is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities and with the knowledge that UB involves the frontal lobe, researchers have ... Upon treatment, the UB was resolved due to 60-70% shrinkage of the anterior lobe hypodensities. Concerning general frontal lobe ... One category of frontal lobe damage is the exhibition of behaviors that may not be usually displayed. This is the category that ... Patients with frontal lobe injury may have problems in the selection, production, and organization of goal-directed behavior. ...
... the prefrontal area was restricted to the anterior-most part of the frontal lobe (approximately corresponding to the frontal ... Many researchers now include BA45 in the prefrontal cortex because together with BA44 make up an area of the frontal lobe ... Perhaps the seminal case in prefrontal cortex function is that of Phineas Gage, whose left frontal lobe was destroyed when a ... In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe ...
"Motor and Sensory Mapping of the Frontal and Occipital Lobes". Epilepsia. 39: S69-S80. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1998.tb05127.x. ... Carr, Valerie A.; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D. (2010). "Imaging the Human Medial Temporal Lobe with High-Resolution fMRI ...
... is associated with lesions of the parietal lobe (especially the angular gyrus) and the frontal lobe and can be an ... Influence of improved test encoding on arithmetical word problem solving after frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychological ... Studies of patients with lesions to the parietal lobe have demonstrated that lesions to the angular gyrus tend to lead to ... These areas include the third frontal convolution (pronunciation of numbers), the angular gyrus and the fissure interparietalis ...
The frontal lobe and parietal lobe function as integrators of information from multiple sensory modalities. There are some ... "Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: A computational model" (PDF). doi: ...
Since then, both techniques have been applied to numerous disorders of frontal and prefrontal lobe function. Sherrill, R. (2004 ... which combined with symptoms synonymous with impaired executive control make them prime candidates for pre-frontal centric ...
The disorder is associated with bilateral damage to the parietal lobe, an area of the brain linked with spatial shifts of ... the existence of further activations during counting in the right inferior frontal regions, and the anterior cingulate have ... the subitizing and counting range activation occurs bilaterally in the occipital extrastriate cortex and superior parietal lobe ...
Since the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes[11] control inhibition, emotions, mood, judgement, reasoning, and behavior, a ... The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... Frontal lobe tumors may contribute to poor reasoning, inappropriate social behavior, personality changes, poor planning, lower ... Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing,[15] difficulty in language comprehension ( ...
... temporal lobe of the brain), spatial (occipital lobe of the brain) or quantitative information (parietal lobe of the brain).[5] ... located mainly in the frontal and parietal cortex that subserve functions that are central to all cognitive processing, such as ...
In particular, the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary ... posterior sequential activation process beginning in the supplementary motor area on the medial surface of the frontal lobe and ... "Internally Generated Preactivation of Single Neurons in Human Medial Frontal Cortex Predicts Volition". Neuron. 69 (3): 548-62 ...
He concluded that people with some type of frontal lobe damage often "produced not only severe difficulties with expressive ... is a language disorder caused by damage to Broca's area and surrounding regions in the left frontal lobe.[42] Those with non- ...
Cerebral cortex of frontal lobe in the human brain. Identifiers. Latin. Area triangularis. ... Brodmann area 45 (BA45), is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is situated on the lateral surface, inferior to ... This area is also known as the pars triangularis (of the inferior frontal gyrus). In humans, it occupies the triangular part of ... Connections in inferior frontal gyrus[edit]. At least one study demonstrated a high degree of connectivity between the three ...
found that TMS applied to the left frontal lobe disturbs speech but not melody supporting the idea that they are subserved by ... The auditory area is located in the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe deals with the recognition and perception of auditory ... Additionally, the intensity of emotions was differentiated by the pattern of overall frontal EEG activity. Overall frontal ... physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions. Cereb". Cortex. 6: 102-119. doi:10.1093/ ...
Frontal lobe injury. *Nerve injury *Spinal cord injury. *Brachial plexus injury. *Peripheral nerve injury ...
... there is less brain volume in the frontal cortex and temporal lobes, and problems within the corpus callosum, the band of nerve ...
... of the frontal lobe.[38] It has also been found that decreased OFC metabolism was correlated with headaches.[38] People ... Other brain regions regulated by retinoic acid and potentially disrupted by isotretinoin include the frontal cortex and the ...
ললাটীয় খণ্ডক (Frontal lobe). *পার্শ্বকরোটি খণ্ডক (Parietal lobe). *পশ্চাৎকরোটি খণ্ডক (Occipital lobe) ...
... toward the tip of the frontal lobe.[39]. *Cranial (from Greek κρανίον 'skull') or cephalic (from Greek κεφαλή 'head') describes ... The frontal plane, also called the coronal plane, which divides the body into front and back.[2] ...
They also have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians, large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect ... a protective ring of bone created by a connection between the frontal and zygomatic bones.[83] Both living and extinct ...
Though Gage is considered the "index case for personality change due to frontal lobe damage"[3][28][29][17] his scientific ... Stuss, D.T.; Gow, C.A.; Hetherington, C.R. (1992). "'No longer Gage': Frontal lobe dysfunction and emotional changes". Journal ... Debate as to whether the trauma and subsequent infection had damaged both of Gage's frontal lobes, or only the left, began ... Inter-hemispheric connections of the frontal and limbic lobes as well as basal ganglia were also affected."[22] (Quotations ...
... neurons throughout the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain die as well.[35] The pathological hallmark of ALS is the ...
cerebral cortex, particularly that of the frontal lobes;. *dentate nucleus of the cerebellum; ...
... is I believe a cerebellar not a parietal lobe sign. "Frontal lobe" is more accurate than "prefrontal lobe" (you could talk of ... of the frontal lobe but that might be too detailed for this article). Pressured speech does not imply cerebellar dusfunction; " ... "The patient should be able to execute a movement on command" is not specifically extrapyramidal, more frontal if anything. " ...
... compensatory mechanisms are found in other areas of the corpus callosum and frontal lobe. These compensatory mechanisms, ... The anterior commissure (also known as the precommissure) is a tract that connects the two temporal lobes of the cerebral ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is the best understood form of frontal lobe epilepsy but is often ... Other lesions on the frontal lobe such as hamartomas and nodular heterotopias can cause frontal lobe symptoms as well. Birth ... vocal outbursts and cognitive/judgment symptoms displayed during frontal lobe seizures.[21] Frontal lobe seizures also tend to ... and can be further divided into temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Although the exact number of cases of frontal lobe epilepsy ...
... consisting of parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. The term is ambiguous, with some authors[who?] including the ... The limbic lobe is an arc-shaped region of cortex on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere of the mammalian brain, ... Klüver, H; Bucy, PC (1939). "Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys". Archives of Neurology and ... Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the ...
... is characterized by reduced size in specific neuroanatomical regions of the frontal lobes and basal ganglia." I challenged ...
... directly anterior to the central sulcus that divides the frontal and parietal lobes. ...
The majority of contusions occur in the frontal and temporal lobes. Complications may include cerebral edema and transtentorial ... It wasn't until Leborgne, formally known as "tan", died when Broca confirmed the frontal lobe lesion from an autopsy. The ... Ten years later, Paul Broca examined two patients exhibiting impaired speech due to frontal lobe injuries. Broca's first ... Frontal locus - anterior ethmoidal artery Occipital locus - transverse or sigmoid sinuses Vertex locus - superior sagittal ...
Duncan, J.; Burgess, P.; Emslie, H. (1995). "Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions". Neuropsychologia. 33 (3): 261-8. ...
Outputs of the posterior parietal cortex include the spinal cord, brain stem motor pathways, pre-motor and pre-frontal cortex, ... Dysfunction of the vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe) impairs balance and the control of eye movements. This presents ... and rarely in the thalamus or parietal lobe); or vestibular if in the vestibular system (including the vestibular areas of the ... as it represents a disconnection between visual-association cortex and the frontal premotor and motor cortex.[54] ...
அவையாவன, முன் மடல் (frontal lobe), சுவர் மடல் (parietal lobe), பக்க மடல் (temporal lobe), மற்றும் பிடரி மடல் (occipital lobe). ... 1. முன் மடல்(frontal lobe). 2. சுவர் மடல் (parietal lobe). 3. பக்க மடல் (temporal lobe). 4.பிடரி மடல் (occipital lobe) ...
Headaches are progressive and severe,[37] a bitemporal character in the frontal or occipital lobe.[9] ...
Other areas with volume reductions (both white and grey matter) include: Right posterior lobe Right inferior temporal gyrus ... Parahippocampal gyrus Both left and right superior temporal gyri Right cuneus Left medial frontal gyryus and inferior frontal ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is the best understood form of frontal lobe epilepsy but is often ... Other lesions on the frontal lobe such as hamartomas and nodular heterotopias can cause frontal lobe symptoms as well. Birth ... Haut S (2009-05-07). "Frontal Lobe Epilepsy". eMedicine Neurology. Retrieved 2009-10-17. "Frontal lobe seizures: Symptoms". ... and can be further divided into temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Although the exact number of cases of frontal lobe epilepsy ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is an epileptic disorder that causes frequent violent seizures during sleep ... Kuryatov A, Gerzanich V, Nelson M, Olale F, Lindstrom J (1997). "Mutation causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy. ... "Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy: genetic heterogeneity and evidence for a second locus at 15q24". Am J Hum ...
This may in part be due to the attention to detail and rigorous testing strategies required to probe frontal lobe functions. ... The frontal lobe is the largest lobe in the brain, yet it is often not specifically evaluated in routine neurologic ... Frontal Lobe Syndromes) and Frontal Lobe Syndromes What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Frontal ... Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. BMC Neurol. 2013 Nov 16. ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that runs in families. Explore ... Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, type 1 *Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe ... Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, type 3 *Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe ... Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: demonstration of focal frontal onset and intrafamilial variation. Neurology ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Frontal Lobe , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Frontal Lobe via the Trip Database. ... Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge Full Text available with Trip Pro. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A ... The cause of the seizure was found to be a small abscess in her frontal lobe, secondary to frontal sinusitis due to a bony ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Frontal Lobe , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Frontal Lobe via the Trip Database. ... Frontal lobe signs after posterior fossa surgery: Is hypoperfusion ignored? Full Text available with Trip Pro. Frontal lobe ... Frontal lobe tuberculoma Full Text available with Trip Pro. Frontal lobe tuberculoma Tuberculomas are usually infratentorial in ...
... , Cerebral Frontal Lobe, Frontal Lobe Function, Primary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 4, Supplemental Motor Area, ... Brodmann Area 6, Frontal Eye Fields, Brodmann Area 8, Brocas Speech Area, Brodmann Area 44 and 45, Pars Orbitalis, Brodmann ... Frontal Lobes, Frontal Lobe, Lobe, Frontal, Lobes, Frontal, Tissue of frontal lobe brain, Tissue of frontal lobe of brain, ... frontal lobe (brain), frontal regions, frontal lobes, frontal brain lobe, frontal lobe brain, brain frontal lobe, FL, frontal ...
The lateral sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. The frontal lobe can be divided into a lateral, polar, ... The frontal lobe is covered by the frontal cortex. The frontal cortex includes the premotor cortex, and the primary motor ... Common effects of damage to the frontal lobe are varied. Patients who have experienced frontal lobe trauma may know the ... Psychological tests that measure frontal lobe function include finger tapping (as the frontal lobe controls voluntary movement ...
Steroid Metabolism and Frontal Lobes. Br Med J 1949; 1 doi: (Published 08 January 1949) ...
The scholarly consensus now holds that frontal-lobe damage does not lead to memory deficits in consolidation, storage, and ... Damage to the frontal lobes can produce memory impairment and sometimes even severe memory loss, but it has proved difficult to ... Source for information on Frontal Lobes and Episodic Memory: Learning and Memory dictionary. ... FRONTAL LOBES AND EPISODIC MEMORYThe idea that the frontal lobes are implicated in memory has a long and controversial history ...
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is the best understood form of frontal lobe epilepsy but is often ... Other lesions on the frontal lobe such as hamartomas and nodular heterotopias can cause frontal lobe symptoms as well. Birth ... vocal outbursts and cognitive/judgment symptoms displayed during frontal lobe seizures.[21] Frontal lobe seizures also tend to ... and can be further divided into temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Although the exact number of cases of frontal lobe epilepsy ...
Continuum of frontal lobe impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.. Murphy JM1, Henry RG, Langmore S, Kramer JH, Miller BL ...
What is frontal head pain?. A headache can cause pain anywhere in the head, but a frontal lobe headache tends to cause pain in ... In spite of the name, a frontal lobe headache is rarely related to that part of the brain, and it is not a condition in itself ... Pain in the front of the head is sometimes described as a frontal lobe headache. ... Sinusitis may cause frontal head pain.. The sinuses can become inflamed by an infection or allergic reaction, which is known as ...
Of all partial seizures, those of frontal lobe origin (FLPS) are most bizarre and are often mistaken for psychogenic seizures ( ... Frontal lobe partial seizures and psychogenic seizures: comparison of clinical and ictal characteristics.. *Saygi S ... Of all partial seizures, those of frontal lobe origin (FLPS) are most bizarre and are often mistaken for psychogenic seizures ( ...
... Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed ... Frontal+Lobe The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals. Located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere, frontal ... Frontal lobe. Precentral gyrus (Primary motor cortex, 4), Precentral sulcus, Superior frontal gyrus/Frontal eye fields (6, 8, 9 ... The frontal lobe reaches full maturity around age 25. Research by Arthur Toga, UCLA, found increased myelin in the frontal lobe ...
Find Neurologists that treat Frontal Lobe Dementia, See Reviews and Book Online Instantly. Its free! All appointment times are ...
... tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe area, as listed by ... What causes frontal lobe headaches?. A: Eye strain, tension and sinus problems can cause pain in the frontal lobe, according to ... Frontal sinusitis, tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe ... A frontal sinus headache occurs as the result of increased pressure in the sinus cavities located above the eyes within the ...
Alcoholism, Korsakoffs Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes. R. R. Jacobson St. Georges Hospital Medical School, Department of ... the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe ... These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a ... pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal ...
Alcoholism, Korsakoffs Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes. R. R. Jacobson St. Georges Hospital Medical School, Department of ... R. R. Jacobson, "Alcoholism, Korsakoffs Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes," Behavioural Neurology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25-38, 1989 ...
Strokes in the frontal lobe can have detrimental effects on personality, decision-making, language abilities and self-motoring. ... Hodgson and his team tested patients who had suffered a stroke to either the left or the right frontal lobe in a multitasking ... Strokes that affect the prefrontal cortex in the frontal lobes can have a detrimental impact on decision-making, according to ... The left inferior frontal gyrus is one of the most important brain regions for creative language performance. This area shows ...
... each of which is divided into four lobe... ... Lobes of the Brain - Frontal   The frontal Lobe of the brain ... divides the temporal lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes Lobes of the Brain      Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal ... divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe Fissures - deep groves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the brain o ... Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe   The parietal lobe of the brain is located deep to the parietal bone of the skull. It ...
Find frontal lobe syndrome information, treatments for frontal lobe syndrome and frontal lobe syndrome symptoms. ... MedHelps frontal lobe syndrome Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for frontal lobe syndrome. ... Posts on frontal lobe syndrome (363). I Survived the Unsurvivalable - But I was not prepared fpr what my life has become ... 2 years ago my daughter was Dxd with bifocal frontal lobe partial complex myoclonic epilep... ...
It appears to me that the left frontal lobe is being compromised (mashed down) by the lesion. Please tell me if I should be ... Forums>Neurology>Benign Hemangioma/Meningioma causing frontal lobe compression....please help doc ... but can you finish my question by telling me if it looks like my left frontal lobe is being compromised in any way by being ... The liver appears normal in size .In the periphery of the right lobe there is a 1.7cm X 1.7cm X 1.8cm uniformly hyperechic mass ...
2014) suggested that frontal lobe, or a large part of it, may not be necessary for conscious perception per se. Rather frontal ... In particular, one of these studies focused on resolving the role of frontal lobe in conscious perception (Frassle et al., 2014 ... showed that behavioral reports of conscious experiences resulted in increased and more widespread activity of the frontal lobe ... Is the frontal lobe involved in conscious perception? ... the right inferior frontal lobe and right superior frontal lobe ...
... processes with the frontal lobes. In fact, many investigators have used the term "frontal functions" synonymously with " ... Executive function and the frontal lobes: a meta-analytic review Neuropsychol Rev. 2006 Mar;16(1):17-42. doi: 10.1007/s11065- ... Results reveal mixed evidence that does not support a one-to-one relationship between executive functions and frontal lobe ... examine the validity of the executive function construct in terms of its relation to activation and damage to the frontal lobes ...
Frontal lobe damage has been linked to "choice deficits" such as eating disorders, compulsive gambling and abnormal social ... "This study provides a key insight into the biology of our frontal lobes and the neural circuits that underlie decision-making ... Such research might eventually help to explain choice deficits associated with frontal lobe functions. ... damaging his frontal lobes. This area of the brain has also been implicated in drug abuse. ...
In two experiments, the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions was examined on implicit and explicit tests of ... Frontal patients exhibited normal levels of conceptual priming on implicit category production and free association tests, but ... The findings of normal performance on implicit conceptual tests suggest that frontal patients do not have a basic deficit in ...
p class=ltrs-br-ltr-br-title,,span class=bold,Moria: An Unrecognized Frontal Lobe Symptom,/span,,/p, ,p class=ltrs-br-ltr- ... p class=ltrs-br-ltr-br-body-text,In summary, this patient with moria demonstrated clear impairment in frontal lobe tests ... all of them explained by her frontal lobe impairment. She did not have (1) changes in the need for sleep over time, (2) more ... for patients with left and right frontal lobe lesions in the original study) and (2) failed to complete any of the 6 arm ...
Frontal lobe degeneration. Clinical, neuropsychological, and SPECT characteristics. B. L. Miller, J. L. Cummings, J. Villanueva ... The clinical, neuropsychological, and cerebral blood flow characteristics of eight patients with frontal lobe degeneration (FLD ... Previous studies suggest that the neuropathologic findings in patients with FLD are varied; some demonstrate frontal gliosis, ... Neuropsychological testing showed selective impairment of frontal and memory tasks with relative sparing of attention, language ...
Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control. Paul S. Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, ... Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control. Paul S. Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, ... Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control. Paul S. Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang and ... Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
  • A wide range of more specific symptoms arise when different parts of the frontal cortex are affected. (
  • Firstly, thalamocortical loops are important in sleep and the frontal cortex is the origin of ADNFLE seizures. (
  • The frontal lobe is covered by the frontal cortex . (
  • The frontal cortex includes the premotor cortex , and the primary motor cortex - cortical parts of the motor cortex . (
  • The front part of the frontal lobe is covered by the prefrontal cortex . (
  • The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine neurons in the cerebral cortex . (
  • The entirety of the frontal cortex is the action cortex. (
  • In humans, the largest part of the frontal cortex ( PFC ) is responsible for internal, purposeful mental action that we call reasoning or Prefrontal Synthesis . (
  • The frontal cortex is the "action" cortex, much as the posterior cortex is the "sensory" cortex. (
  • Dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex are found primarily in the frontal lobes. (
  • Strokes that affect the prefrontal cortex in the frontal lobes can have a detrimental impact on decision-making, according to University of Southern California neuroscientist Antonio Damasio. (
  • Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions   Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) - Cortical site with controlling movements of the body. (
  • Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions   Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) - site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information. (
  • Occipital Lobe - Cortical Regions   Primary Visual Cortex - this is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight, recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. (
  • that measured directly neural activity in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) using extracellular electrophysiological recordings could help to narrow down the role of frontal activity in conscious perception and exclude the contribution of cognitive or motor consequences in prefrontal neural activity during visual awareness. (
  • The FLD patients showed diminished perfusion in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and temporal cortex relative to controls, while the AD patients showed lower perfusion in temporal and parietal cortex than controls. (
  • The frontal lobes are anatomically represented by those areas of the cortex anterior to the central sulcus, including the main cortical areas fur the control of motor behavior. (
  • The term "prefrontal cortex" is most appropriately used to designate the main cortical target projections for the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, and this area is also sometimes referred to as frontal granular cortex. (
  • On the basis of primate data, Nauta and Domesick (7) suggested that the orbital frontal cortex makes connections with the amygdala and related subcortical structures and can be considered an integral part of the limbic system. (
  • 8) Further links from the frontal cortex are to the hypothalamus (the orbital frontal cortex alone in the neocortex projects to the hypothalamus), the hippocampus, and the retrosplenial and entorhinal cortices. (
  • From the neuropsychiatric point of view, therefore, the most relevant anatomic connections would appear to be frontothalamic, frontostriatal, frontolimbic, and frontocortical, the last deriving from the extensive reciprocal connections of the frontal lobes with sensory association areas, most notably the inferior parietal lobule and the anterior temporal cortex. (
  • A new study reveals, in rodents, some spinal pain begins in the frontal cortex. (
  • Aron AR, Robbins TW, Poldrack RA (2004) Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex. (
  • The frontal lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, which also includes the temporal lobe , the parietal lobe , and the occipital lobe . (
  • The study is among the first to show that specific areas of the frontal cortex are needed for different levels of abstract decision. (
  • It is among the strongest evidence to date for a systemic organization of the frontal cortex," Badre said. (
  • The frontal cortex of brain has been long known to affect the internal control of behavior. (
  • There are two main divisions of the frontal lobes: the cortex and the paralimbic regions. (
  • Together, the cortex and paralimbic divisions of the frontal lobes allow us to perform tasks that are central to how we think of ourselves. (
  • The frontal lobes are large regions at the front of the brain that extend back towards the middle of the brain, taking up approximately 1/3 to 1/2 of the cerebral cortex. (
  • The orbitofrontal cortex of the frontal lobe mediates response inhibition, impulse control, social behavior, emotional regulation and generalized arousal through limbic nuclei, the dorsal medial nuclei of the thalamus, and reticular formation. (
  • 1.(145) What fraction of the whole cortex is commandeered by the dormant frontal lobes? (
  • Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. (
  • Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is a clinical picture caused by damages due to reasons like prefrontal cortex cerebrovascular disease, tumor, infection or head trauma and displaying itself through distinct and permanent personality, social adaptation, and behavior changes. (
  • Selective Partial Ablation of the Frontal Cortex: A Correlative Study of Its Effects on Human Psychotic Subjects. (
  • It is expressed during development in the frontal and temporal lobes, including the frontal cortex and stratum, areas that participate in language and learning. (
  • Major connection of 2 hemispheres- white matter/ axons Monkeys Also connected by smaller anterior commisure Parietal Lobe Has association cortex particularly lateralized- left language, right selective attention Right half: spatial aspects. (
  • While many studies have examined how the hippocampus, pre-frontal cortex, retrieval network, and default network are related to memory retrieval, these studies take into account additional components of the memory retrieval tasks like reaction time and false alarm rate in order to disentangle memory retrieval itself from related components. (
  • The frontal lobe is comprised of two paired lobes known as the left and right frontal cortex. (
  • The frontal lobe is home to the primary motor cortex, a region that controls muscle movement. (
  • These arteries fan out over the insula and exit to the cortex via the medial surface of the frontal operculum . (
  • Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping. (
  • It is the second most common type of epilepsy after temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is related to the temporal form by the fact that both forms are characterized by the occurrence of partial (focal) seizures. (
  • The symptoms and clinical manifestations of frontal lobe epilepsy can differ depending on which specific area of the frontal lobe is affected. (
  • There are many different causes of frontal lobe epilepsy ranging from genetics to head trauma that result in lesions in the frontal lobes. (
  • Although frontal lobe epilepsy is often misdiagnosed, tests such as prolonged EEG monitoring and/or a MRI scan of the frontal lobes can be administered in order to reveal the presence of a tumor or vascular malformation. (
  • Tonic posture and clonic movements are common symptoms among most of the areas of the frontal lobe, therefore the type of seizures associated with frontal lobe epilepsy are commonly called tonic-clonic seizures. (
  • Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is an epileptic disorder that causes frequent violent seizures during sleep. (
  • Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is caused by mutations in the CHRNA4 , CHRNB2 , or CHRNA2 genes. (
  • The severity of autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy can be variable, can include awakening episodes, and can result in impressive dystonic effects. (
  • Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that runs in families. (
  • 38 patients had temporal and 36 extra-temporal lobe epilepsy. (
  • Frontal lobe epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms can be mistaken for psychiatric problems or sleep disorders, such as night terrors. (
  • EEGs are often helpful in diagnosing some types of epilepsy, but results can be normal in frontal lobe epilepsy. (
  • Template:Infobox medical condition/Wikidata Frontal lobe epilepsy , or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping. (
  • I was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy when I was about 20-ish. (
  • An autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy that has_material_basis_in variation in the chromosome region 15q24. (
  • Here, we report a patient with focal epilepsy of the left anterior insula who had isolated monotonous vocalisation elicited by electrical stimulation of the left superior frontal gyrus. (
  • Quantitative analysis of audio signals was performed and compared with a former patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy who had pure ictal vocalisation. (
  • Frontal lobe epilepsy deja vu? (
  • It occurs more commonly in temporal lobe epilepsy . (
  • Might frontal lobe epilepsy be related to asperger's syndrome? (
  • Is numbness in left site of body in a few seconds related to frontal lobe epilepsy? (
  • Frontal lobe epilepsy (fle) refers to epilepsy where the seizure focus is located in the frontal lobes. (
  • See http://www.Epilepsy.Com/epilepsy/epilepsy_frontallobe for more information. (
  • Can I drive if frontal lobe epilepsy? (
  • What is the definition or description of: frontal lobe epilepsy? (
  • In a new finding, 53 percent of women with frontal lobe epilepsy, in which the seizures begin in the front of the brain, experience more frequent seizures during pregnancy, suggests a study being presented at the American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting. (
  • The new study found that those with the frontal lobe type of focal epilepsy were especially likely to experience more frequent seizures while pregnant. (
  • Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) surgery is the second most likely pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy benefitting from surgical treatment secondary to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (
  • This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of frontal lobe epilepsy and analyze the factors associated with the prognosis of surgery. (
  • 27 patients confirmed with frontal lobe epilepsy by surgery from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in this study. (
  • The clinical characteristics of frontal lobe epilepsy and the epileptogenic focus position were analyzed. (
  • The prognosis of frontal lobe epilepsy is overall good. (
  • Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a familial epilepsy with focal seizures beginning most commonly in childhood, although sporadic cases may occur. (
  • Short in duration, frontal lobe seizures are the most common type of epilepsy where partial seizures are experienced. (
  • Seizures that occur in the frontal lobe are characteristic of Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, which may be caused by a number of sources, from head trauma to genetics. (
  • As for genetic causes of the seizures, the primary cause of frontal lobe epilepsy, and therefore frontal lobe seizures, is an autosomal disease known as Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy. (
  • Partial seizures occurring in the frontal lobes can occur in one of two different forms: either simple partial seizures (that do not affect awareness or memory) or complex partial seizures (that affect awareness or memory either before, during or after a seizure). (
  • Due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the functions associated with the frontal lobes, seizures occurring in these regions of the brain may produce unusual symptoms which can often be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, non-epileptic seizure or a sleep disorder. (
  • However, these postictal states are often undetectable and generally do not last as long as the periods of confusion following seizures that occur in the temporal lobes. (
  • Medications such as anti-epileptic drugs can typically control the onset of seizures, however, if medications are ineffective the patient may undergo surgery to have focal areas of the frontal lobe removed. (
  • Due to the massive amount of diversity in both the cognitive and motor functions that occur within the frontal lobes, there is an immense variety in the types of symptoms that can arise from epileptic seizures based on the side and topography of the focal origin. (
  • The seizures associated with ADNFLE begin in areas of the brain called the frontal lobes . (
  • It is unclear why mutations in the CHRNA2 , CHRNA4 , and CHRNB2 genes cause seizures in the frontal lobes rather than elsewhere in the brain. (
  • It's also possible that some seizure effects found in the frontal lobe might be the result of seizures that begin in other parts of the brain. (
  • Brain imaging, usually MRI, might reveal the source of frontal lobe seizures. (
  • Over the past decade, treatment options have increased for frontal lobe seizures. (
  • All anti-seizure drugs seem to work equally well at controlling frontal lobe seizures, but not everyone becomes seizure-free on medication. (
  • If you have surgery for your frontal lobe seizures, you're likely to continue to need anti-seizure medication after the surgery, although possibly at a lower dose. (
  • Frontal lobe partial seizures and psychog. (
  • Frontal lobe partial seizures and psychogenic seizures: comparison of clinical and ictal characteristics. (
  • Of all partial seizures, those of frontal lobe origin (FLPS) are most bizarre and are often mistaken for psychogenic seizures (PS). (
  • Where is the posterior frontal lobe located and can it cause my nocturnal seizures. (
  • Seizures are from the frontal lobe and often involve wild movements of the arms and legs. (
  • We report an adolescent with intractable frontal and occipital lobe seizures, secondary to complications of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia as a young child. (
  • Detailed electro-clinical and imaging studies showed multiple, frontal lobe seizures per day with less frequent and non-debilitating, simple, occipital lobe seizures. (
  • Focal resection of the frontal CCM abolished the socially-disabling seizures with resultant marked improvement in the patient's quality of life at 12 months. (
  • Brief nocturnal frontal seizures with hypermotor, tonic or dystonic motor features are seen. (
  • Here we report a young female GBC patient who presented with an atypical and refractory frontal lobe seizures as the first manifestation of gall bladder cancer. (
  • Here, we report a patient with post infarction encephalomalacia in the left frontal area near frontal eye field leading to very atypical frontal lobe seizures and diagnosed later with gall bladder cancer. (
  • As with other types of seizures, frontal lobe seizures are usually managed with medication. (
  • What are the Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Seizures? (
  • Abnormal brain tissue may trigger some frontal lobe seizures, although there is often no definitive cause. (
  • Most frontal lobe seizures take place during the first half of the day from early morning to early afternoon. (
  • Some car accident survivors who suffered head trauma may experience frontal lobe seizures, likely due to damage in that part of the brain. (
  • While head trauma does play a part in many cases, nearly one-third of cases involving frontal lobe seizures are caused by tumors. (
  • How are Frontal Lobe Seizures Treated? (
  • While the genetic diseases and tumors causing frontal lobe seizures cannot be prevented entirely, the seizures themselves can be controlled and prevented with medication and surgery. (
  • In situations where head trauma may cause seizures, the only way to prevent frontal lobe seizures is to prevent the head trauma itself. (
  • If you believe that you carry a gene for frontal lobe seizures, preventing its occurrence in your child may require genetic counseling and testing. (
  • A stroke in the right frontal region can affect a person's ability to self-monitor during multitasking, says University of Exeter neuroscientist Tim Hodgson. (
  • Hodgson and his team tested patients who had suffered a stroke to either the left or the right frontal lobe in a multitasking exercise, according to a 2007 Medical News Today report. (
  • Hodgson points out that while people with a right frontal stroke may have fewer language difficulties than people with a left frontal stroke, they also tend to have a harder time performing everyday activities that require self-monitoring while multitasking, such as cooking. (
  • There are also functions that are predominantly controlled by the left frontal lobe or the right frontal lobe . (
  • We have a left frontal lobe and a right frontal lobe. (
  • Usually, a frontal lobe stroke involves only the left frontal lobe or the right frontal lobe because each side receives blood from arteries on its own side. (
  • The Purdue Pegboard right-hand scores were higher with increasing NAA/Cr in the left frontal white matter ( P = .047), and Stanford-Binet-IV "Bead Memory" scores improved with increasing NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter ( P = .032). (
  • We further hypothesized hemispheric specificity within these relationships, such that verbal working memory would be associated with left frontal NAA, whereas visuospatial working memory would correlate with right frontal NAA levels. (
  • Similarly, we hypothesized that right motor speed would correlate with left frontal NAA, whereas left motor speed would correlate with right frontal NAA levels. (
  • Spect scan showed moderate-severe decreased areas in both temporal/parietal lobes &right frontal lobe. (
  • His brain tomography revealed fractures in right orbital floor and anterior skull base, subarachnoid hemorrhage, right frontal contusion, left frontal epidural hematoma and pneumocephalus. (
  • Five patients with left-sided visual neglect following focal infarction of the right frontal lobe are presented. (
  • emergency CT scan revealed a right frontal lobe tumor. (
  • Dissociation between Conceptual and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Evidence from Patients with Frontal and Occipital Lobe Lesions The latest neuroimaging studies about implicit memory (IM) have revealed that different IM types may be processed by different parts of the brain. (
  • The Doors and People Test: The Effect of Frontal Lobe Lesions on Recall and Recognition Memory Performance Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. (
  • The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. (
  • Memory loss following frontal-lobe lesions, on the other hand, involves organizational or strategic aspects of memory that are necessary for devising strategies for encoding, for guiding search at retrieval, for monitoring and verifying memory output, for placing retrieved memories in their proper spatial and temporal contexts, and for using mnemonic information to direct thought and plan future actions. (
  • As expected, memory for spatiotemporal context, but not for targets, is impaired after frontal lesions, whereas the reverse is true after hippocampal or midline diencephalic lesions. (
  • Defective memory for sources of facts they had learned has also been observed in patients with frontal lesions or frontal dysfunction. (
  • In two experiments, the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions was examined on implicit and explicit tests of conceptual memory for organized lists of words. (
  • Although personality and behavior disorders have been described following frontal lobe lesions since the mid part of the last century, it is remarkable how frontal lobe pathologic conditions often go unnoticed clinically, and indeed how the relevance of frontal lobe syndromes in man to an understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been neglected. (
  • This is in spite of the pertinent observations of Jacobsen (2) on the effects of frontal lobe lesions in primates, the careful reports of the consequences of head injuries in the World War II, (3) and of patients examined following prefrontal leukotomies, (4) all of which studies lead to the delineation of specific defects in behavior associated with lesions in this part of the brain. (
  • The 2 x 8 Fisher Exact Test revealed significant differences for the clusters of syndromes occurring in the right and left isolated temporal lobe lesions (p = 0.00002). (
  • In the present study, we examined working memory in patients with unilateral frontal lobe lesions by using a modified version of an item recognition task in which interference from previous trials was manipulated. (
  • We found that frontal damage impaired action decisions at a level of abstraction that was dependent on lesion location (rostral lesions affected more abstract tasks, whereas caudal lesions affected more concrete tasks), in addition to impairing tasks requiring more, but not less, abstract action control. (
  • Research by Arthur Toga, UCLA, found increased myelin in the frontal lobe white matter of young adults compared to that of teens, whereas gray matter in parietal and temporal lobes was more fully matured by teen years. (
  • A new SPECT imaging study reveals those with treatment resistant depression have lower cerebral blood flow within the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. (
  • Drugs that help memory in Alzheimer dementia are rarely of benefit for frontal lobe deficits or problems. (
  • A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. (
  • Frontal lobe damage has been linked to "choice deficits" such as eating disorders, compulsive gambling and abnormal social behavior. (
  • Such research might eventually help to explain choice deficits associated with frontal lobe functions. (
  • One of the specific behavior deficits following frontal lobe damage is attention disorder, patients showing distractibility and poor attention. (
  • The research focused on frontal lobe deficiency, a condition resulting in problems with executive function that can manifest itself in memory difficulties, attention deficits and an inability to curb alcohol consumption. (
  • Results of present study reflected that cognitive deficits like memory deficits, language problems, trouble in concentrating and difficulty in planning are the major consequences of traumatic frontal lobe injury. (
  • The researchers noted that many high-functioning alcoholics exhibit both frontal executive dysfunction yet seem to have no major cognitive issues. (
  • The individual with frontal executive dysfunction may also struggle to make urgent decisions. (
  • Much of the frontal lobe complaints she describes are typically thought of as more pure cognitive than frontal lobe dysfunction, but the frontal lobes play a huge role in all cognitive tasks and frontal lobe complaints. (
  • 10 - 12 Understanding the relationship between neuropsychological function and frontal lobe neurochemistry in healthy children may help in the assessment of behavioral manifestations of neuronal dysfunction or impairment associated with pathologic levels of brain neurochemicals. (
  • The grainy, low resolution black and white images of single photon emission tomography in the mid-1980s were a revelation: they provided independent support for our inferences of a distinction between 'frontal' as opposed to 'posterior hemisphere' profiles of cognitive dysfunction. (
  • Principles of Frontal Lobe Function will naturally be of particular interest to researchers and clinicians actively investigating how the frontal lobes operate and to understand dysfunction as a means to design treatment. (
  • The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients. (
  • Herein, we report the first case of acute frontal lobe dysfunction induced by a concurrent administration of LF-rTMS and antidepressant treatment in a TRD patient. (
  • We further discuss the pathophysiological hypothesis of such acute frontal lobe dysfunction, and the specificity of the delivery of rTMS concurrently with the administration of psychotropic medication. (
  • Ocular fixation and saccades in motor neurone disease: markers of frontal lobe dysfunction? (
  • Many patients with schizophrenia show clinical signs of frontal lobe dysfunction, including blunted affect, difficulty with problem solving, and impoverished thinking. (
  • The authors present cytoarchitectural, neuropsychological, and functional neuroanatomical evidence of frontal abnormalities from recent studies of frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia. (
  • It is separated from the parietal lobe by a groove between tissues called the central sulcus , and from the temporal lobe by a deeper groove called the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure). (
  • [2] On the lateral surface of each hemisphere, the central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. (
  • The lateral sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe . (
  • Lateral part: lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus , middle frontal gyrus , inferior frontal gyrus . (
  • Continuum of frontal lobe impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (
  • Frontal lobe syndrome reassessed: comparison of patients with lateral or medial frontal brain Damage. (
  • For the frontal lobe and each subregion (frontal pole, anterior cingulate, dorsolateral, inferior-lateral, and orbitofrontal) we identified reproducible methods for a biologically plausible target ROI. (
  • Lesion location was mid and lateral temporal lobe (n = 2), middle and mesial temporal lobe (n = 1) middle temporal lobe (n = 1) and lateral temporal lobe (n = 1). (
  • temporal lobe a long tongue-shaped process that is the lower lateral portion of each cerebral hemisphere . (
  • Lateral frontobasal (orbitiofrontal): This artery branches out anteriorly, superiorly and laterally to vascularize the inferior frontal gyrus. (
  • There are three secondary fissures upon the lateral surface the superior and inferior frontal and the transverse. (
  • Frontal lob sendromu (FLS) ki ilik, sosyal uyum ve davran ta belirgin ve kal c de i ikliklerle kendini g steren, zellikle prefrontal korteksin serebrovask ler hastal k, t m r, enfeksiyon veya kafa travmas gibi nedenlerle hasarlanmas sonucu ortaya kan klinik bir tablodur. (
  • The brain of each rat was sampled on ice and the prefrontal lobe was isolated and stored at -80°C to detect the expression of SYT-1 and munc-18. (
  • Hama S, Yamashita H, Shigenobu M, Watanabe A, Kurisu K, Yamawaki S. Post-stroke affective or apathetic depression and lesion location: left frontal lobe and bilateral basal ganglia. (
  • It appears to me that the left frontal lobe is being compromised (mashed down) by the lesion. (
  • The current review provides a critical analysis of lesion and neuroimaging studies using three popular executive function measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Phonemic Verbal Fluency, and Stroop Color Word Interference Test) in order to examine the validity of the executive function construct in terms of its relation to activation and damage to the frontal lobes. (
  • behavioral and personality changes usually observed after a neoplastic or traumatic frontal lobe lesion. (
  • BACKGROUND: Right temporal lobe lesion syndrome elicitation presents a clinical challenge. (
  • The common area of lesion overlap was small, being confined to the dorsal aspect of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 44) and the immediate underlying white matter. (
  • Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior. (
  • For example, in the first documented case of brain injury impacting behavior, the infamous railroad construction foreman Phineas Gage became unsociable after a tamping iron passed through his skull in 1848, damaging his frontal lobes. (
  • The frontal lobe plays a substantial role in decision making, self-control, and emotional regulation, providing the ability to behave appropriately in interpersonal situations and to regulate behavior in a socially acceptable manner. (
  • Functions of the frontal lobes include holding onto an idea and letting this notion guide our future behavior. (
  • The structures in the middle and frontal part of the brain (medial frontal structures) are thought to drive behavior. (
  • The frontal lobes are involved with movement of the opposite side of the body, speech production, regulating behavior, maintaining appropriate social inhibitions, and memory and thinking skills. (
  • If focus is in the frontal lobes, may cause strange behavior and special type of initial " aura " that can be very difficult to identify as seizure activity. (
  • Home → Cat Behavior → anxiety → Cat's small frontal lobes have something to do with high levels of OCD? (
  • Some frontal lobe patients experience smaller shifts in behavior, like irritability or impulsiveness. (
  • In most modern theories, frontal neural systems are the pivotal mediators of acculturation and social conduct, flexibility of thought and action, adaptive behavior, and goal attainment. (
  • Yet, despite this celebrated role in complex human behavior, the frontal lobes can sustain damage early in life that appears to have little impact on the organism, at least in terms of standard neuropsychologic and neurologic examinations. (
  • Three horizontally arranged subsections of the frontal gyrus are the superior frontal gyrus , the middle frontal gyrus , and the inferior frontal gyrus . (
  • Medial part: Medial part of the superior frontal gyrus , cingulate gyrus . (
  • A) Spectrogram of Patient 1 showing the electrical stimulation-induced vocalisation of the left superior frontal gyrus. (
  • The cortical distribution of lexico-semantic responses appeared to be located anteriorly (pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus and posterior end of the middle and superior frontal gyrus) compared to motor-speech responses (lower end of the precentral gyrus and pars opercularis). (
  • Near the superior frontal gyrus these arteries anastamose with branches from the pericallosal artery of the anterior cerebral artery. (
  • Radiologist report says bilateral gliosis posterior frontal lobe. (
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were complicated by bilateral, posterior leukoencephalopathy and later an acquired frontal cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). (
  • Pre-Rolandic artery (precentral): The artery extends out on the medial surface of the operculum and supplies the posterior parts of the middle and inferior frontal gyri as well as the lower parts of the pre-central gyrus. (
  • Emerges from the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure and extends first posteriorly, and then anteriorly along the posterior of the parietal lobe. (
  • Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin Mind-Body Training Changes Resting-State Low-Frequency Fluctuations in the Frontal Lobe of Older Adults: A Resting-State fMRI Study Age-related cognitive decline is a significant public health concern. (
  • In humans, the frontal lobe reaches full maturity around the late 20s, [3] marking the cognitive maturity associated with adulthood. (
  • Cognitive maturity associated with adulthood is marked by related maturation of cerebral fibers in the frontal lobes between late teenager years and early adult years. (
  • Manual volumetric measurement of the brain's frontal lobe and its subregions from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is an established method for researching neural correlates of clinical disorders or cognitive functions. (
  • Baaré WF, Hulshoff PHE, Hijman R, Mali WP, Viergever MA, Kahn RS (1999) Volumetric analysis of frontal lobe regions in schizophrenia: relation to cognitive function and symptomatology. (
  • The cognitive changes after a frontal lobe stroke may be subtle. (
  • AIM: Isolated right and left temporal lobe stroke patients were analyzed for the panoply of known temporal and frontal cognitive and neuropsychiatric syndromes. (
  • METHODS: Temporal lobe stroke patients were analyzed, derived from a dedicated cognitive stroke registry. (
  • Patients were screened by a validated bedside cognitive battery and a neuropsychological test battery, including the Bear Fedio Inventory for diagnosis of the Geschwind Gastaut (GG) syndrome, frontal network syndrome testing (FNS), emotional intelligence testing and delusional misidentification syndromes (DMIS). (
  • Because the frontal lobes are involved in so many functions the symptoms of fle can be very varied and can include motor, emotional and cognitive symptoms. (
  • find that there is a hierarchical organization of cognitive control, with rostral (towards top of head) areas of the frontal lobes being required for decisions about more abstract actions and lower caudal areas (towards spinal column or tail) being required for decisions about more concrete actions. (
  • The frontal lobes are necessary for cognitive control at all levels of abstraction. (
  • These five patients, who were felt to have a frontal lobe dementia (FLD), showed SPECT perfusion patterns which differed from the remaining 25 patients, who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 16 healthy control subjects. (
  • A variety of conditions can damage the frontal lobe, including stroke , head trauma, and dementia. (
  • The second-most common cause of dementia in people under 65 is frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a group of disorders affecting the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. (
  • FTD can also be seen during the course of Alzheimer's disease (particularly in a subset of patients with a frontal variant) and in patients with Lewy body dementia . (
  • Some people who repeatedly experience several small strokes involving the frontal lobes of the brain may develop a type of dementia called vascular dementia . (
  • A frontal lobe stroke can produce a variety of symptoms, some of which are clearly related to a stroke (weakness) and some of which can be confused with depression or dementia. (
  • We were seeing a 'frontal' type of dementia, which we assumed was distinct from the more common Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Our clinical observations, described in JNNP in 1990, 2 raised an even more drastic challenge to prevailing opinion: some of our patients with 'frontal-type' dementia showed signs of motor neuron disease (MND). (
  • Yet here was an association between the amyotrophic form of MND and a specific form of dementia: frontal-type dementia. (
  • We evaluated post-mortem brain tissue from frontal and temporal lobes from 20 vascular dementia (VaD), 19 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 31 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) cases and 12 comparable age controls. (
  • Damage to the frontal lobes can produce memory impairment and sometimes even severe memory loss, but it has proved difficult to specify the nature of the disorder. (
  • Neuropsychological testing showed selective impairment of frontal and memory tasks with relative sparing of attention, language, and visuospatial skills. (
  • Constellation of symptoms associated with damage to the frontal lobe of the brain that includes impairment of planning function, lack of inhibition, hypomania, depression, apathy, and neglect of personal appearance. (
  • However, this same individual may struggle to control their drug or alcohol consumption due to frontal impairment. (
  • Each of these regions carries out specific functions, and damage to any of these lobes results in corresponding impairment. (
  • Damage to the frontal lobe causes general disturbance of thinking, impairment of initiative and spontaneity, loss of strength of personality, and, if the rear part of the lobe is affected, paralysis. (
  • Fear is associated with temporal and frontal lobe epilepsies, but in FLE the fear is predominantly expressed on the person's face whereas in TLE the fear is subjective and internal, not perceptible to the observer. (
  • Their increasing significance and clinical relevance is noted by the recent publication of several monographs on frontal lobe syndromes (5,6) and the growing literature on various frontal lobe disorders, for example, frontal lobe dementias and frontal lobe epilepsies. (
  • Pure ictal non-speech vocalisation occurs in frontal and temporal lobe epilepsies. (
  • The second edition of Principles of Frontal Lobe Function is a newly organized, and thoroughly updated, volume divided into 9 different sections, each co-edited by leaders in the specific domain of frontal lobe research. (
  • These are often memories with associated emotions, derived from input from the brain's limbic system, and modified by the higher frontal lobe centers to generally fit socially acceptable norms (see executive functions above). (
  • We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies in English reporting three-dimensional boundaries for manually delineating the brain's frontal lobe or sub-regional ROIs from MRIs. (
  • Although the brain is 80 percent developed at adolescence, new research indicates that brain signals essential for motor skills and emotional maturity are the last to extend to the brain's frontal lobe, which is responsible for many of the skills essential for driving. (
  • The brain's frontal lobe is relatively large and it controls many important functions in everyday life. (
  • Frontal lobes, clinical and anatomic aspects. (
  • Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. (
  • The clinical, neuropsychological, and cerebral blood flow characteristics of eight patients with frontal lobe degeneration (FLD) were studied. (
  • Frontal lobe syndromes may present with different clinical pictures varying according to the affected part of the lobe. (
  • He was found to have bilateral frontal lobe tumors causing significant edema. (
  • Functional brain mapping during awake surgery procedures is the gold standard technique in the management of left frontal lobe tumors. (
  • Although these tumors can be located anywhere in the brain, their most common location is in the frontal lobe. (
  • Frontal lobe brain tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous. (
  • As J. Leon Morales-Quezada, a research associate in the Neuromodulation Laboratory at Harvard Medical School explains, the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that separate humans from others in the animal kingdom. (
  • It is believed that humans' large frontal lobes are responsible for advanced thinking and innovation, as well as the ability to imagine situations. (
  • Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans. (
  • article{Acuna2002FrontalAP, title={Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans. (
  • 1%) had no symptoms of frontal lobe syndrome in the first testing period, ten (13. (
  • Damage to the frontal lobe of the brain causes a range of symptoms, including motor weakness and behavioral problems. (
  • Symptoms of damage to the frontal lobe can vary because there are so many functions carried out by the frontal lobes. (
  • A frontal lobe stroke can cause a variety of symptoms and long-term effects which range from weakness to lack of motivation. (
  • Symptoms of right lacunar infarct of frontal-temporal lobe of brain? (
  • Frontal lobe is the anterior-most of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. (
  • The part of the brain located anterior to the parietal lobes at the front of each cerebral hemisphere. (
  • The most anterior rounded part of the frontal lobe (though not well-defined) is known as the frontal pole, one of the three poles of the cerebrum . (
  • The anterior cingulate gyrus can be considered part of the medial frontal lobe. (
  • frontal lobe the anterior portion of the gray matter of each cerebral hemisphere . (
  • It also supplies blood to the anterior temporal lobes and the insular cortices . (
  • The FLD patients also showed hypoperfusion in both frontal cortical regions relative to AD patients. (
  • We retrospectively analyzed the 49 cortical and the 33 axonal sites of functional language mapping performed in 17 patients operated for a left frontal lobe glioma under awake conditions. (
  • The presence of left frontal sub-cortical hyperintensity could be due to many reasons ( cyst , demyelination , infarcts and may even be a normal presentation). (
  • The goal was to determine the relationship between neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe function and levels of a surrogate neuronal marker, N -acetylaspartate (NAA), in typically developing healthy children and adolescents. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between the proposed neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe function and NAA levels in healthy children and adolescents by using high-resolution 1 H-MR spectroscopic imaging. (
  • The part of the brain (telencephalon) in front of the central sulcus not including the basal ganglia and the cingulate lobe. (
  • subacute infarcts, bilateral frontal lobes, small vessel ischematic changes inthe basal ganglia, periventricular white matter? (
  • We present a 96-year-old-man with acute-onset hemichorea and frontal lobe syndrome with no vascular pathology in the basal ganglia or frontal region. (
  • The first question was whether patients submitted to brain artery aneurysm surgery experienced organic personality changes, especially in terms of frontal lobe syndrome , and what was the course of these changes with regard to the time elapsed from surgery. (
  • That detection led to the diagnosis of frontal lobe syndrome , Olson said. (
  • Isolated right temporal lobe stroke patients present with Geschwind Gastaut syndrome, frontal network syndrome and delusional misidentification syndromes. (
  • RESULTS: Of 2389 patients analyzed, in patients with isolated right temporal lobe (IRT) stroke (n = 5, infarcts n = 3, hemorrhage n = 2), the GG syndrome and FNS were present in all five. (
  • CONCLUSION: The GG syndrome, FNS and DMIS are prominent syndrome constellations in stroke patients involving the right temporal lobe and constitute the neurological deficit without heralding long tract signs. (
  • This article regarding Frontal lobe metastases cause Phinaes Gage syndrome is very interesting and useful, the frontal lobes health issue can affect your sexual activity, and this not only happen to older people as I used to believed, young people can also be affected so you may need to use generic viagra to help yourself on those situations. (
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - A new study of stroke victims has produced evidence that the frontal lobe of the human brain controls decision-making along a continuum from abstract to concrete, from front to back. (
  • The scientific data supports preexisting theories that abstract decisions about action take place in the front of the frontal lobe, the back portion controls the capacity for concrete decisions, and the progression from front to back forms a gradient from abstract to concrete. (
  • Deric's MindBlog: Sites for abstract versus concrete actions in frontal lobes. (
  • abstract = "The frontal lobes have been ascribed many of the psychological processes that underlie the highest forms of human adaptation and achievement. (
  • He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. (
  • Frontal sinusitis, tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe area, as listed by Right Diagnosis. (
  • Pathological diagnosis significantly affected the frontal but not temporal lobe myelin attenuation: myelin density was most reduced in VaD compared to AD and DLB, which still significantly exhibited lower myelin density compared to ageing controls. (
  • Damage to the frontal lobe is most commonly caused by degenerative (worsening) disease or a stroke, and there are other, less common conditions that affect the frontal lobes as well. (
  • This monograph is devoted to the study of a patient after partial bilateral frontal lobectomy. (
  • Other features of frontal lobe syndromes include reduced activity, particularly a diminution of spontaneous activity, lack of drive, inability to plan ahead, and lack of concern. (
  • Comparison with isolated left temporal lobe (ILT) stroke revealed syndromes of aphasia (n = 4), alexia (n = 2), acalculia (n = 2), agnosia (n = 2), verbal amnesia (n = 1), none of which occurred in the IRT patients. (
  • Badre and his collaborators at Berkeley came to their conclusion by studying stroke victims who suffered damage to different parts of the frontal lobe. (
  • Other parts of the frontal lobe also help with language skills. (
  • showed that behavioral reports of conscious experiences resulted in increased and more widespread activity of the frontal lobe compared to a condition without behavioral reports, where spontaneous transitions in the content of consciousness were estimated through the objective measures like optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and pupil dilation. (
  • Sometimes, behavioral changes may develop after a frontal lobe stroke. (
  • These circuits link specific regions of the frontal lobes to subcortical structures and supply technique-specific mechanisms for interaction with the environment. (
  • One can best appreciate the contribution of the frontal lobes to memory by comparing the effects of frontal damage on various memory tests with effects of damage to the hippocampus and midline thalamic nuclei. (
  • Holdings: Effects of frontal lobe damage on interference effects in working memory. (
  • The middle and inferior frontal gyri are divided by the inferior frontal sulcus . (
  • Specifically, the BOLD activity related to rivalry in their experiment is still present in the right inferior frontal lobe and right superior frontal lobe ( Zaretskaya and Narinyan, 2014 ). (
  • Frontal lobe (red) of left cerebral hemisphere. (
  • Orbital surface of left frontal lobe. (
  • The left inferior frontal gyrus is one of the most important brain regions for creative language performance. (
  • When the entire left inferior frontal gyrus is wiped out, the corresponding right brain area takes over. (
  • Located on left frontal lobe. (
  • There are some differences between the right and left frontal lobes. (
  • Minor Musocal thickening within the left frontal sinus, the ethmoid air cells and right maxillary atrium found in MRI scan, have bad frontal headaches? (
  • A) Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrates a clear U-fibre density reduction in the left frontal area, illustrated by high signal in the colour scale. (
  • Recent neuroimaging studies have isolated a region of the left inferior frontal gyrus that appears to be related specifically to one such component: resolving interference from previous items in working memory. (
  • We propose that the left inferior frontal gyrus subserves a general, nonmnemonic function of selecting relevant information in the face of competing alternatives and that this function may be required by some working memory tasks. (
  • Nevertheless, a unified picture of the language subsystems encountered during left frontal lobe mapping is still lacking. (
  • How Boost Pressure In Your Frontal Left Lobe Of The Brain can Save You Time, Stress, and Money. (
  • caudate lobe a small lobe of the liver between the inferior vena cava on the right and the left lobe. (
  • hepatic lobe one of the lobes of the liver, designated the right and left and the caudate and quadrate. (
  • What does solitary tiny focus of subcortical hyperintensity within the left frontal lobe mean? (
  • It says there is a solitary tiny focus of subcortical hyperintensity within the left frontal lobe . (
  • Speech and language The left half of the frontal lobe helps form thoughts into complete sentences. (
  • and a left frontal lobe stroke may impair the right side. (
  • This is particularly common after left frontal lobe strokes, as the left hemisphere is usually the language center of the brain. (
  • MRI brain showed encephalomalacia in the left frontal region on axial T2 and coronal T1 weighted images without any enhancement on gadolinium contrast. (
  • MRI brain axial T2 and coronal T1 weighted images revealed encephalomalacia left frontal area (Fig. 1 ). (
  • Generally a tumor that affects memory would be located in the left frontal lobe of the brain. (
  • Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. (
  • The results indicated that the priming of conceptual IM and EM tasks in patients with frontal lobe injury was poorer than that observed in HC, while perceptual IM was identical between the two groups. (
  • and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. (
  • Recall of categorized lists or of logical stories, however, is impaired in frontal patients, presumably because they cannot take advantage of the organizational structure inherent in that material (Incissa della Rochetta, 1986). (
  • Frontal patients exhibited normal levels of conceptual priming on implicit category production and free association tests, but they exhibited impaired memory performance on explicit category- and associate-cued recall tests. (
  • The findings of normal performance on implicit conceptual tests suggest that frontal patients do not have a basic deficit in semantic processing of individual items. (
  • The thinking of patients with frontal lobe injury tends to be concrete, and they may show perseveration and stereotypy of their responses. (
  • Benson (10) also discusses the "verbal dysdecorum" of some frontal lobe patients. (
  • Researchers report activity in the frontal lobe changes 2 seconds before patients report an alteration in perception, and activity in the medial temporal lobe changes one second prior to them reporting. (
  • Partial frontal lobectomy was formerly performed by some psychosurgeons to reduce drive in extremely disturbed psychotic patients, but the results were highly questionable. (
  • and the subnetwork right intra-hemispheric CPL for the frontal lobe (LIntra-F) was significantly longer in patients than in controls. (
  • We measured baseline working memory performance and interference effects in R.C. and other frontal patients and in age-matched control subjects and young control subjects. (
  • Patients with frontal damage exhibited further declines in working memory but normal interference effects, with the exception of R.C., who exhibited a pronounced interference effect on both response time and accuracy. (