An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
In certain living species, a period of dormancy during the summer months marked by decreased metabolism.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A family of the order Anura, distinguished by the lack of a tongue. It includes four living genera of aquatic "toads". Two of the most familiar pipids are the popularly called Surinam "toad" (Pipa pipa) and XENOPUS LAEVIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
5,5'-Nitrilodibarbituric acid ammonium derivative. Used as an indicator for complexometric titrations.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Sexual activities of animals.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A quantitative description at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Gen. Physiol. 80, 583-611. Zengel J.E., Magleby K.L., Horn J. ... and Sr2+ at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Gen. Physiol. 77, 503-529. Zengel J.E. and Magleby K.L. (1982) Augmentation and ... A process that acts to increase transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. 257, 449-470. Magleby KL ... and depression of transmitter release as a function of repeated synaptic activity at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. ...
The architecture of active zone material at the frog's. neuromuscular junction". Nature. 409: 2001. Siksou; et al. (2007). " ... The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to ... In Drosophilia the intersectin homolog, Dap160, is located in the periactive zone of the neuromuscular junction and mutant ...
Betz W.J.; Sakmann B. (1973). "Effects of proteolytic enzymes on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions". J. ... Betz W.J.; Sakmann B. (1971). "Disjunction" of frog neuromuscular synapses by treatment with proteolytic enzymes". Nature New ...
Betz, W.; Sakmann, B. (1973). "Effects of proteolytic enzymes on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions". The ... Betz, W.; Sakmann, B. (1971). ""Disjunction" of frog neuromuscular synapses by treatment with proteolytic enzymes". Nature New ...
This was shortly after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction was found to induce postsynaptic miniature end- ... Miller, T. M.; Heuser, J. E. (1984). "Endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membrane at the frog neuromuscular junction". The Journal ... Heuser and Reese found that portions of the cellular membrane at the frog neuromuscular junction were taken up by the cell and ... "Evidence for Recycling of Synaptic Vesicle Membrane During Transmitter Release at the Frog Neuromuscular Junction". The Journal ...
"Inositol derivatives modulate spontaneous transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction". Neuropharmacology. 45 (5): ...
studied frog neuromuscular junctions, stimulating them with markers such as horseradish peroxidase to identify endocytosed ... Ceccarelli, B.; Hurlbut, W. P.; Mauro, A. (1973). "Turnover of Transmitter and Synaptic Vesicles at the Frog Neuromuscular ... Ceccarelli, B.; Hurlbut, W. P.; Mauro, A. (1972). "Depletion of Vesicles from Frog Neuromuscular Junctions by Prolonged Tetanic ... "Evidence for recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane during transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction". J. Cell ...
He has also published a series of important papers on neuromuscular transmission in frogs and crabs. Crawford was elected a ...
He is known for his research on neuromuscular junctions in frogs, presynaptic inhibition, and the neurotransmitter GABA. In ...
During the 1950s, Bernard Katz and Paul Fatt observed spontaneous miniature synaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular ... Large chemical synapses (e.g. the neuromuscular junction), on the other hand, have a synaptic release probability of 1. Vesicle ...
These frogs do not engage in wrestling behavior among each other as do many other dart frogs. Males vying for a female will ... I. Effects on the Contractile Mechanism and on Neuromuscular Transmission of Mammalian Skeletal Muscle". The Journal of ... Kokoe dart frogs are highly social frogs that require high humidity, cool temperatures, and larger prey items than many dart ... Although wild frogs are extremely deadly, frogs raised in captivity are generally non-toxic. It has therefore been proposed ...
Distinct neural and neuromuscular strategies underlie independent evolution of simplified advertisement calls. Proc. R. Soc. B ... Rapping, a female receptive call, initiates male/female duets in the South African clawed frog, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 95:1870 ... Auditory and vocal nuclei of frog brain concentrate sex hormones. Science 207. 553 -555. Darcy B. Kelley, Irene H. Ballagh, ... "Androgem Regulation of Neuromuscular Function". Grantome. 1986. Retrieved August 11, 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
... induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of ... 1980) on frogs showed that anatoxin-a is a potent agonist of the muscle-type (α1)2βγδ nAChR. ... Anatoxin-a also shows much less potency in the CNS than in neuromuscular junctions. In hippocampal and brain stem neurons, a 5 ... 2βγδ muscle-type nAchRs that are present at the neuromuscular junction. (Anatoxin-a has an affinity for these muscle-type ...
Application of LY294002 causes a substantial acceleration of MEPP frequency (150 μM) at the frog neuromuscular junction through ...
... that the effects on frog tissue of candicine most closely resembled those of the well-known depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking ... Candicine has also been found in the skin of the frog, Leptodactylus pentadactylus pentadactylus, at a concentration of 45 μg/g ... Initial experiments on frogs, using rectus muscle and nerve-sartorius preparations from Rana nigromaculata nigromaculata, ... Following their experiments on frogs, the Japanese group carried out a series of classical pharmacological investigations of ...
... described a statistical analysis of fluctuations they observed in the membrane potential at the frog neuromuscular junction, ...
He also helped to develop a technique for studying native receptors in frog oocytes for drug development. One of seven children ... factors by taking on neuronal activity and releasing Acetylcholine themselves in order to preserve the neuromuscular junction. ... He developed this technique based on earlier work in which he performed the first electrophysiological recording of a frog ... By studying denervation in frog skeletal muscle, it was discovered that glial cells, particularly Schwann cells, behave as ...
Chemical transmission exhibits synaptic delay-recordings from squid synapses and neuromuscular junctions of the frog reveal a ...
... induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of ... 1980) on frogs showed that anatoxin-a is a potent agonist of the muscle-type α12βγδ nAChR. ... The effects of anatoxin-a on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction ... Anatoxin-a also shows much less potency in the CNS than in neuromuscular junctions. In hippocampal and brain stem neurons, a 5 ...
In the frog each motor nerve terminal contains about 300,000 vesicles, with an average diameter of 0.05 micrometers. The ... Not all species use a cholinergic neuromuscular junction; e.g. crayfish and fruit flies have a glutamatergic neuromuscular ... A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It allows the ... The development of neuromuscular junctions is mostly studied in model organisms, such as rodents. In addition, in 2015 an all- ...
Another milestone in the development of NMBA was done by French Physiologist Claude Bernard when he injected curare into frog ... Neuromuscular Block Monitoring in Patients With Facial Rejuvenation: A Case Report. A A Pract. 2020;14(13):e01334. doi:10.1213/ ... Neuromuscular blocking agents, or in abbreviation, NMBAs, are chemical agents that paralyse skeletal muscles by blocking the ... Neuromuscular blocking agents exert its effect by modulating the signal transmission in skeletal muscles. An action potential ...
The neuromuscular junction of the sciatic nerve fibers of the sartorius muscle of this frog has been the source of initial data ... Frogs portal Southern leopard frog Plains leopard frog Rio Grande leopard frog Lowland leopard frog Relict leopard frog ... The northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens or Rana pipiens) is a species of leopard frog from the true frog family, native ... The northern leopard frog is a fairly large species of frog, reaching about 11 cm (4.3 in) in snout-to-vent length. It varies ...
... in the understanding of neuromuscular function and disease". Neuromuscular Disorders. 12 (6): 600-7. doi:10.1016/s0960-8966(01) ... In 1791, Luigi Galvani learned that frogs' muscles could be made to move by the application of electricity. This finding ... Swammerdam placed severed frog thigh muscle in an airtight syringe with a small amount of water in the tip. He could thus ...
In some frogs, the tongue elongates up to 180% of its resting length. Extra-oral tongues show higher length/width ratios than ... Matzner, H.; Gutfreund, Y.; Hochner, B. (2000). "Neuromuscular system of the flexible arm of the octopus: Physiological ... These mechanisms are seen often in prey capture of shovelnose frogs and chameleons, as well as in the human tongue and many ... Meyers, J. J.; O'Reilly, J. C.; Monroy, J. A.; Nishikawa, K. C. (2004). "Mechanism of tongue protraction in microhylid frogs. ...
The effects of tomatine on frog embryos and frog skin were tested by fluorescence measurements. The membrane permeability of ... If acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, the released acetylcholine cannot be broken down, and stays in the neuromuscular junction ... Effect of α-tomatine and tomatidine on membrane potential of frog embryos and active transport of ions in frog skin.; Food and ... In frog skin, the sodium-active transport decreased by 16%, which may lead to disruption of cell membranes. Direct injection of ...
In 1941 Katz's implementation of microelectrodes in the gastrocnemius sciatic nerve of frogs' legs illuminated the field. It ... of chemical synaptic transmission was gleaned from experiments analyzing the effects of acetylcholine release at neuromuscular ... which is manifested through contractions of the frog legs. One of Katz's seminal findings, in studies carried out with Paul ...
... or perform neuromuscular ultrasound. A more complete listing of disorders and testing can be found under neuromuscular medicine ... Galvani depolarized frog leg muscles by using metal rods to make contact with the leg muscles. The development of the ... Neuromuscular Function and Disease: Basic, Clinical, and Electrodiagnostic Aspects, 2-Volume Set, 1st edition: April 30, 2002; ... The neuromuscular medicine examination includes electrodiagnostic testing as part of the certification examination but also ...
Brunel N, Van Rossum MC (2007). "Lapicque's 1907 paper: from frogs to integrate-and-fire". Biol. Cybern. 97 (5-6): 337-339. doi ... Neuromuscular isochronism and rythmogenic excitability (1947) On reaction times according to races and social conditions (1901 ...
These models include the turtle, cat, frog, dog, and a variety of other vertebrates. In these studies, researchers made use of ... or neuromuscular blockers are used to prevent contractions of muscles in response to motor neuron activity; or the spinal cord ...
α-Bungarotoxin is important for neuromuscular histology, it is known to bind irreversibly to receptors of the neuromuscular ... This species also feeds on rodents, eels, frogs, and occasionally lizards.[16] ...
The black-legged dart frog, a species of poison dart frog whose secretions are used in the preparation of poison darts. ... is a competitive antagonist that blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the post synaptic membrane of the neuromuscular ... Notable examples are the poisons secreted from the skin of the poison dart frog, and curare (or 'ampi'), a general term for a ... The poison is generally collected by roasting the frogs over a fire, but the batrachotoxins in P. terribilis are powerful ...
Neuromuscular junctionsEdit. Main articles: Neuromuscular junction, Acetylcholine receptor, and Cholinesterase enzyme ... Ling G, Gerard RW (1949). "The normal membrane potential of frog sartorius fibers". J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 34 (3): 383-396. ... A special case of a chemical synapse is the neuromuscular junction, in which the axon of a motor neuron terminates on a muscle ... Main articles: Neuromuscular junction and Muscle contraction. The action potential in a normal skeletal muscle cell is similar ...
These birds flew immediately and normally when released, showing that their improvement resulted from neuromuscular maturation ... Frog hearing and communication. *Infrared sensing in snakes. *Caridoid escape reaction. *Vocal learning ...
Neuromuscular junction[edit]. Main article: Neuromuscular junction. Much of our understanding of synapse formation comes from ... the frog Xenopus laevis, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. ... Several motorneurons compete for each neuromuscular junction, but only one survives until adulthood.[34] Competition in vitro ... studies at the neuromuscular junction. The transmitter at this synapse is acetylcholine. The acetylcholine receptor (AchR) is ...
As the horse puts weight onto the hoof, the hoof wall is pushed outwards and the frog compressed, driving blood out of the frog ... "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" (PDF). Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the AAEP ... 1- Heel perioplium, 2-Bulb, 3-Frog, 4-Frog cleft, 5-Lateral groove, 6-Heel, 7-Bar, 8-Seat-of-corn, 9-Pigmented walls 10-Water ... Frog: the highly elastic wedge-shaped mass on the underside of the hoof, which normally makes contact with the ground every ...
"Neuromuscular Disorders. 16 (7): 417-426. doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2006.03.015. PMC 3260054 . PMID 16750368.. ... In small children: adopting of a frog-leg position when sitting (hips abducted and knees flexed) ... Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle ... Dubowitz, V. (2009). "Ramblings in the history of spinal muscular atrophy". Neuromuscular Disorders. 19 (1): 69-73. doi:10.1016 ...
During the 1950s, Bernard Katz and Paul Fatt observed spontaneous miniature synaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular ... Large chemical synapses (e.g. the neuromuscular junction), on the other hand, have a synaptic release probability of 1. Vesicle ...
Speech pathologists commonly diagnose and treat this condition since the speech process uses the same neuromuscular structures ... and in such events as a seagull swallowing a fish or a stork swallowing a frog, swallowing consists largely of the bird lifting ... Like the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, the esophageal phase of swallowing is under involuntary neuromuscular control. However ... Eating and swallowing are complex neuromuscular activities consisting essentially of three phases, an oral, pharyngeal and ...
... such as frog racing in the garden or looking through the lens of a (dissected) sheep's eye." Sir Ralph Kohn FRS who proposed ... at the neuromuscular junction. ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another " ... It is distinguished as the transmitter at the neuromuscular junction connecting motor nerves to muscles. The paralytic arrow- ...
As the horse puts weight onto the hoof, the hoof wall is pushed outwards and the frog compressed, driving blood out of the frog ... Susan J. Holcombe (1998). "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" (PDF). Proceedings of the ... The hoof (including the frog - the V shaped part on the bottom of the horses hoof) is a very important part of the circulatory ... which hangs from between the ears down onto the forehead of the horse Frog: the highly elastic wedge-shaped mass on the ...
Their prey are mainly small mammals, but may include small birds, frogs, other small animals, including other snakes. Although ... ISBN 0-486-26629-X. "Snake Venoms and the Neuromuscular Junction: Spontaneous Activity". Medscape.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved ...
The most abundant venom component is the three-finger toxin mipartoxin-I. The venom acts by blocking the neuromuscular ... frogs, and caecilians (e.g. Caecilia guntheri). It is oviparous; about eight white-colored eggs have been recorded, which are ...
This species feeds predominantly on small mammals, frogs, and even other snakes. Small rodents such as mice and small rats are ... as the neurotoxins interrupt the transmission of nerve signals by binding to the neuromuscular junctions near the muscles. ... However, they will also eat other sizable snakes, small lizards, frogs, eggs, and when the opportunity arises, small birds. ...
This prevents additional toxin from binding to the neuromuscular junction, but does not reverse any already inflicted paralysis ... Botulism has been reported in rats, mice, chicken, frogs, toads, goldfish, aplysia, squid, crayfish, drosophila, leeches, etc. ... After this time, paralysis generally improves as new neuromuscular connections are formed. In some abdominal cases, physicians ... It acts by blocking nerve function (neuromuscular blockade) through inhibition of the excitatory neurotransmitter ...
The shape of the sole, size of the frog, and shape of the bars can indicate overall health of the hoof. Holes in heel bulb ... Shivers: a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle tremors, difficulty picking up the hind feet when asked to lift ... Sensitivity over the middle third of the frog is consistent with navicular syndrome, but can also occur with sheared heels. To ... Lameness is most commonly caused by pain, but may also be the result of neuromuscular disease or mechanical restriction. ...
Frog brain AChE has for example a lower affinity for AzM and a slower rate of phosphorylation than fish brain AChE. The effects ... Cholinergic nerves play an important role in the normal function of the central nervous, endocrine, neuromuscular, ... Nebeker, A.V. (1998). "Impact of guthion on survival and growth of the frog Pseudacris regilla and the salamanders Ambystoma ... the earthworm Eisenia Andrei Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Frog Pseudacris regilla and salamander Ambystoma gracile Toad ...
... venom produced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects when tested in both frog and clam hearts and has a ... spine tissue contains acetylcholine and a toxin that affects neuromuscular transmission". Toxicon. 27 (12): 1367-1376. doi: ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... It is distinguished as the transmitter at the neuromuscular junction connecting motor nerves to muscles. The paralytic arrow- ...
Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frogs neuromuscular ... Depression of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog J Physiol. 1970 Mar;206(3):629-44. doi: 10.1113/ ... 1. Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frogs neuromuscular ...
... were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to characterize the processes underlying ... The effect of repetitive stimulation on facilitation of transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction J Physiol. 1973 ... 1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to ...
TURNOVER OF TRANSMITTER AND SYNAPTIC VESICLES AT THE FROG NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. B. Ceccarelli, W. P. Hurlbut, A. Mauro ... Curarized cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations from frogs were stimulated at 10/s or at 2/s for periods ranging from 20 ...
... in the frog neuromuscular junction. Methods: Frog cutaneous pectoris nerve muscle preparations were prepared. A fluorescent ... Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. dc.contributor. ... Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. en. ... "Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction." Acta ...
The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction. S. L ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction. ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction ...
Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or ... Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or ...
Frog muscle endplates were explored with an extracellular microelectrode. An intracellular microelectrode nearby simultaneously ... Robert Werman; Electrical Inexcitability of the Frog Neuromuscular Synapse . J Gen Physiol 1 January 1963; 46 (3): 517-531. doi ... EQUILIBRIA OF FROG NERVE WITH DIFFERENT EXTERNAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM IONS J Gen Physiol (September,1951) ... Frog muscle endplates were explored with an extracellular microelectrode. An intracellular microelectrode nearby simultaneously ...
Ca2+-dependent recycling of synaptic vesicles at the frog neuromuscular junction. Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular ... CHANGES IN THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION OF THE FROG CAUSED BY BLACK WIDOW SPIDER VENOM ... B Ceccarelli, F Grohovaz, W P Hurlbut; Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of ... Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. I. Effects of black widow ...
Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ...
Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... mobilizing messengers in the release of transmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction. We show, for the first time, that NAADP ...
Frog Neuromuscular Junction - Pre-Lab Prep. 1.20MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is ... Frog Neuromuscular Junction - Lab. 75.00MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with ... Frog Nerve - Pre-Lab Prep. 1.80MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with Windows ... Frog Nerve - Lab. 39.50MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with Windows 7 or ...
PTX-sensitive and -insensitive synaptic modulation at the frog neuromuscular junction. Sugiura, Yoshie; Ko, Chien-Ping ...
"The frog neuromuscular junction is easy to get to and hundreds of microns in length. Its a simple model in which you have a ... Bridges Simulations plus Lab Work on Frog Neuromuscular Junction Sheds Light on Human Diseases. When a nerve cell passes a ... Early researchers studied a synapse called the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) because it is large and easy to work with. But ... But because frogs are amphibians and not mammals, scientists have disagreed about the relevance of the frog NMJ to human ...
"Harlow et al. The architecture of active zone material at the frogs. neuromuscular junction". Nature. 409: 2001.. ... The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to ... is located in the periactive zone of the neuromuscular junction and mutant Dap160 deplete synaptic vesicles during high ...
1988) Disruption of active zones in frog neuromuscular junctions following treatment with proteolytic enzymes. J Neurocytol 17: ... 1974) Functional changes in frog neuromuscular junctions studied with freeze-fracture. J Neurocytol 3:109-131. ... 1979) Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. I. Effects of black ... 2003) Synaptic vesicle pools at the frog neuromuscular junction. Neuron 39:529-541. ...
A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction. / Barrett, Ellen F.; Barrett, J ... title = "A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction", ... T1 - A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction ... A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction. ...
... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. In Eighth Annual ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. in Eighth Annual ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. / Ashford, Michael ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. In Eighth Annual ...
Frog Neuromuscular Junction. p. 491. Mammalian Sperm-Egg Fusion. p. 491. Insulin and Renin Secretion. p. 492. ...
Developing frog neuromuscular junctions The frog developing neuromuscular junctions are labeled with a marker of synaptic ...
Developing frog neuromuscular junctions The frog developing neuromuscular junctions are labeled with a marker of synaptic ...
1972) The kinetics of transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J Physiol (Lond) 227:691-708. ... 1981) Structural changes after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol 88:564-580. ... Normal frog Ringers solution (NFR), consisting of 114 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 10 MOPS, 1.8 CaCl2, and 10d-glucose, pH 7.0, was used to ... 1995) Calcium release and its voltage dependence in frog cut muscle fibers equilibrated with 20 mm EGTA. J Gen Physiol 106:259- ...
Colquhoun, D., Dreyer, F., & Sheridan, R. E. (1979). The actions of tubocurarine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Journal of ... carbachol and suberyldicholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 225, 329-355. [Get ... Colquhoun, D. and Ogden, D.C. (1988). Activation of ion channels in the frog end-plate by high concentrations of acetylcholine ... Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. Journal of ...
2004). How, when, and where to perform visual displays? The case of the Amazonian frog Hyla parviceps. Herpetologica 60, 20-29. ... A model for the neuromuscular control of the wing-snap. Together, our results establish a likely model for the neuromuscular ... 1995). Neuromuscular control and kinematics of intermittent flight in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). J. Exp. Biol. ... To uncover the neuromuscular origins of an athletic courtship display, we used radio-telemetry to record EMG from the main wing ...
Fahim, M. (1989). Rapid neuromuscular remodeling following limb immobilisation. Anat. Rec. 224,102 -109. ... Several species of arid-zone Australian frogs, such as the green-striped burrowing frog Cyclorana alboguttata, survive the ... Withers, P. (1993). Metabolic depression during aestivation in the Australian frogs, Neobatrachus and Cyclorana.Aust. J. Zool. ... Frogs (including our study animal, C. alboguttata) are bradymetabolic organisms whose limb skeletal muscle is predominantly ...
Effects of the ionophore X-537A on acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction KITA H. ... Excitatory and inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in fish red muscle HIDAKA T. , Miyahara Tokuji ... Factors in the inactivation of post junctional membrane receptors of frog skeletal muscle NASTUK WL. ... The electrical activity of the muscle cell membrane at the neuromuscular junction NASTUK WL. ...
Del Castillo, J., & Katz, B. (1956). Localization of active spots within the neuromuscular junction of the frog. The Journal of ... Chapman, R., & Fry, C. (1978). An analysis of the cable properties of frog ventricular myocardium. The Journal of Physiology, ... Bennett, M. (1973). Structure and electrical properties of the autonomic neuromuscular junction. Philosophical Transactions of ...
Recycling and refilling of transmitter quanta at the frog neuromuscular junction.. Van der Kloot W, Colasante C, Cameron R, ... Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or ... IP3 receptors and associated Ca2+ signals localize to satellite cells and to components of the neuromuscular junction in ... Schwann cells sense and control acetylcholine spillover at the neuromuscular junction by α7 nicotinic receptors and ...
a "frog-like" leg position. *breathing problems and frequent respiratory infections. Symptoms associated with the late-onset ... Neuromuscular disorders is a term that encompasses many different medical conditions that impair the functioning of the muscles ... To learn more about some of the causes, symptoms, progression and management of a specific neuromuscular disorder, select the ... In MG, the immune system attacks the body; the acetylcholine (ACH) receptor sites at the neuromuscular junction (point where ...
2001) The architecture of active zone material at the frogs neuromuscular junction. Nature 409:479-484. ... In frog neuromuscular junctions, SVs dock externally to the presumed VGCCs, forming two parallel and external rows of docking ... 1970) Synaptic vesicles and pouches at the level of active zones of the neuromuscular junction. C R Hebd Séances Acad Sci D ... In vertebrate neuromuscular junctions, AZs appear as elongated structures where SVs dock (17). In freeze-fracture replicas, SV ...
Effects of a neurotoxin isolated from the sea anemone, Anemonia sulcata, at frog neuromuscular junction (authors transl)]. ... Effect of scorpion venom (Androctonus australis) on neuromuscular transmission inhibited by botulinum toxin in the frog]. ... Electrophysiological study of Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) at frog neuromuscular junction. ... II isolated from the tentacles of sea anemones on the neuromuscular transmission on normal and botulin toxin inhibited frogs]. ...
  • 1. Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frog's neuromuscular junction.2. (nih.gov)
  • Aim: To investigate the presynaptic effects of propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic, in the frog neuromuscular junction. (harvard.edu)
  • A fluorescent tool (FM1-43) was used to visualize the effect of propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosos in the frog neuromuscular junction. (harvard.edu)
  • Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or decreased. (ula.ve)
  • In the present study, we, have investigated the interaction of NAADP with other Ca2+ -mobilizing messengers in the release of transmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Early researchers studied a synapse called the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) because it is large and easy to work with. (psc.edu)
  • The mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ)-the synapse between a nerve cell that makes a mouse's muscle move and a muscle cell-is similar to many synapses in humans. (psc.edu)
  • The frog neuromuscular junction is easy to get to and hundreds of microns in length. (psc.edu)
  • The interaction between spontaneous miniature end plate potentials and evoked end plate potentials was investigated at the frog neuromusclular junction using focal extracellular recording techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • The actions of tubocurarine at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The fluorescent staining was confined to the neuromuscular junction and consisted of a series of narrow bands (in face views) or dots (in side views) approximately 1 micron apart. (jneurosci.org)
  • Structure and electrical properties of the autonomic neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
  • Frog`s neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a classic and favorite object which have played a leading role in developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of synaptic transmission and secretion of neuromediators. (novapublishers.com)
  • and presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels at the frog neuromuscular junction. (novapublishers.com)
  • Magleby K.L. and Zengel J.E. (1976a) Augmentation: A process that acts to increase transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magleby KL and Zengel J.E. (1976b) Long term changes in augmentation, potentiation, and depression of transmitter release as a function of repeated synaptic activity at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magleby KL and Zengel J.E. (1976c) Stimulation-induced factors which affect augmentation and potentiation of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magleby K.L. and Zengel J.E. (1982) A quantitative description of stimulation-induced changes in transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zengel J.E. and Magleby K.L. (1981) Changes in miniature endplate potential frequency during repetitive nerve stimulation in the presence of Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+ at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A quantitative description at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of Ca" channel blockers on transmitter release and presynaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers and transmitter release at the normal human neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
  • The frog and mouse MCell models of neuromuscular junction and synaptic vesicle release mechanism. (psc.edu)
  • That suggests there is something wrong … at the neuromuscular junction. (alzforum.org)
  • What might go wrong at the neuromuscular junction of fish with mutant TDP-43? (alzforum.org)
  • In frogs, calcium channels are important players in the release of acetylcholine at that junction. (alzforum.org)
  • That allows for a greater number of these acetylcholine vesicles to be … dumped into the neuromuscular junction," he said. (alzforum.org)
  • in similarity with their role in the frog neuromuscular junction ( Robitaille and Charlton 1992 ). (physiology.org)
  • The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a synapse between pre-synaptic motor axons, peri-synaptic Schwann and postsynaptic skeletal muscle cells, has been an excellent model to understand synapse formation and maintenance [ 1 , 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • What is a Neuromuscular Junction? (wisegeek.com)
  • A neuromuscular junction is a place in the body where the axons of motor nerves meet the muscle, allowing them to transmit messages from the brain that cause the muscle to contract and relax. (wisegeek.com)
  • A neuromuscular junction plays an important part in muscle movement. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the instance of a neuromuscular junction, one neuron can control many muscle cells, but each muscle cell only responds to one neuron. (wisegeek.com)
  • The neuromuscular junction is crucial for life, and they begin forming early in fetal development. (wisegeek.com)
  • In line with this possibility, deep-membrane invaginations are not reported or are rarely observed in physiological conditions at synapses such as the frog neuromuscular junction and the calyx-type synapse ( 2 - 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cells (TPSCs) are a perisynaptic glial cell at the neuromuscular junction that respond to nerve-derived substances such as acetylcholine and purines. (elifesciences.org)
  • But there is also a third cell type present at the neuromuscular junction, known as the terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cell (TPSC). (elifesciences.org)
  • Voltage clamp analysis of acetylcholine produced end-plate current fluctuations at frog neuromuscular junction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • nAChR signaling has been most thoroughly studied at the neuromuscular junction ( Sine, 2012 ), which has in turn led to much of the broader mechanistic understanding of synaptic transmission (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • An earlier (PDP) version of this program is what allowed Colquhoun & Sakmann (1985) to fit shut times down to tau = 9 microseconds, in their analysis of channel openings at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Changes around the neuromuscular junction in EAMG rats were investigated by observation of electron micrographs. (asahq.org)
  • Severity of MG influences the relationship between TOFR and T1, together with changes in run-down of endplate potentials and those around the neuromuscular junction in rats. (asahq.org)
  • These results suggest that NO serves to enhance transmitter release at the rat neuromuscular junction (NMJ) via a cGMP pathway and this facilitation of transmitter release can be blocked with adenosine. (tib.eu)
  • Wanting to get back to physiology, Chow switched departments for her doctorate to study neuromuscular junction formation with Monroe W. Cohen . (sdbonline.org)
  • In LEMS, the immune system mistakenly mounts an attack, targeting proteins called "types P and Q calcium channels" located at the neuromuscular junction, the place where motor neurons (nerve cells) and muscles meet. (mda.org)
  • 1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to characterize the processes underlying increased transmitter release during repetitive stimulation.2. (nih.gov)
  • Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. (rupress.org)
  • Black widow spider venom (BWSV) was applied to frog nerve-muscle preparations bathed in Ca2+-containing, or Ca2+-free, solutions and the neuromuscular junctions were studied by the freeze-fracture technique. (rupress.org)
  • The frog developing neuromuscular junctions are labeled with a marker of synaptic vesicles (green) and a. (umass.edu)
  • Caratsch, C.G. and Waser, P.G., 1984, Effects of obidoxime chloride on native and sarin-poisoned frog neuromuscular junctions, Pflügers Arch. (springer.com)
  • Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. (nature.com)
  • He envisions a peripheral treatment targeting neuromuscular junctions early in disease to preserve those synapses as long as possible. (alzforum.org)
  • Blocking peripheral, neuromuscular activity completely rescued MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in erbB3 mutant mice lacking Schwann cells, which normally exhibit profound neurodegeneration. (plos.org)
  • Neuromuscular junctions begin to grow during fetal development. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nerves make contact with muscles at specialized sites called neuromuscular junctions. (elifesciences.org)
  • studied the responses of these cells at the neuromuscular junctions of young mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • To gain insight into the nature of priming, we searched by electron tomography for structural relationships correlated with fusion probability at active zones of axon terminals at frog neuromuscular junctions. (stanford.edu)
  • F-actin is concentrated in nonrelease domains at frog neuromuscular junctions. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In the frog NMJ (A), neurotransmitter-containing packets (vesicles) waiting to be dumped into the synapse are arranged in two rows. (psc.edu)
  • [4] The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to regularly spaced horizontal ribs extending perpendicular to the band and parallel with the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular synapse treated with antiacetylcholinesterase is depolarized due to nonquantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the motor nerve ending. (wiley.com)
  • The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg) hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (60 µ g/mL) in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. (scielo.br)
  • In vivo myotoxic effects and in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade effects of crude venom from the snake Bothrops jararacussu are well known pharmacological methods used to study drugs showing antivenom properties (29, 30). (scielo.br)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the capability of Casearia gossypiosperma hydroalcoholic extract to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom. (scielo.br)
  • Anatoxin-a induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of the frog sartorius muscle, desensitization, and alteration of the action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • With increasing myasthenia gravis severity, train-of-four and the first twitch became less reliable indicators of muscle strength during recovery from neuromuscular blockade, indicating that the evaluation of neuromuscular blockade by train-of-four ratio may overestimate the extent of recovery. (asahq.org)
  • The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf's ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by B. jararacussu venom, which was first demonstrated by Rodrigues-Simioni et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion: Our data suggest that propofol has a dose-dependent presynaptic effect at the neuromuscular transmission which may help to understand some of the clinical effects of this agent on neuromuscular function. (harvard.edu)
  • Presynaptic currents in frog motor endings. (springer.com)
  • FOLDES, F. F.: Presynaptic aspects of neuromuscular transmission and block. (springer.com)
  • Curarized cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations from frogs were stimulated at 10/s or at 2/s for periods ranging from 20 min to 4 h. (rupress.org)
  • Methods: Frog cutaneous pectoris nerve muscle preparations were prepared. (harvard.edu)
  • Nishikawa, KC 1999, ' Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs ', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 354, no. 1385, pp. 941-954. (elsevier.com)
  • Cefepime completely blocked the neuromuscular transmission of frog's rectus abdominis muscle (40 μ g/mL bath) and rat's phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparation (200 μ g/mL bath). (hindawi.com)
  • To make progress, we must consider several aspects of neuromuscular function including: a) muscle properties (e.g. speed, strength), b) skeletal morphology, c) limb architecture (how muscles connect to bones) and d) sensorimotor feedback. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Whether we're trying to restore use of the legs to someone with spinal cord damage, treat a psychiatric condition, or protect nerve cells from a degenerative neuromuscular disease, synapses are likely to play an important role. (psc.edu)
  • Lessons from the work are already being used to design candidate drugs to treat human neuromuscular diseases. (psc.edu)
  • It's also proven a good stand-in for scientists studying human neuromuscular diseases. (psc.edu)
  • The effect of guanidine on neuromuscular transmission was studied in the sciatic-sartorius preparation of the frog, using intracellular electrodes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to its anticoagulant and cytolytic properties, nigexine also affects neuromuscular transmission in vitro. (strath.ac.uk)
  • With Ringer-soaked preparations from frogs kept at 14-18°C for some days before use the minimum interval at which two shocks applied to the nerve could elicit a summated muscular response was about 20% longer than the absolute refractory period of the nerve. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • With Ringer-soaked preparations, during the block of neuromuscular transmission produced by rapid repetitive stimulation of the nerve, the response of the muscle to direct stimulation was reduced. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In experiments on broken cell preparations, type B toxin cleaved synaptobrevin from frog brain synaptosomes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that resistance is due to an absence of cell surface receptors for botulinum toxin type B. The fact that cutaneous-pectoris preparations were sensitive to other botulinum toxin serotypes (A, C, and D), as well as other neuromuscular blocking agents (α-latrotoxin, β-bungarotoxin), indicates that botulinum toxin type B receptors are distinct. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On frog cutaneous pectoris preparations, nigexine caused a transient facilitation of evoked acetylcholine release, followed by a block. (strath.ac.uk)
  • C. Paedophryne amauenis, a newly discovered frog species found in an eastern New Guinea rainforest, is the world's smallest vertebrate (animal with a backbone). (washington.edu)
  • Musculoskeletal biomechanics and neuromuscular control of vertebrate limbs. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Because of their impressive attributes, frogs are exquisite models to understand both the neuro-muscular function and evolution of vertebrate limbs, in general. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • If, however, neuromuscular transmission had been blocked by curarine, stimulation of the nerve did not reduce the response of the muscle to direct stimulation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Like native omega-conotoxin, the fluorescent toxin blocked neuromuscular transmission irreversibly. (jneurosci.org)
  • BOWMAN, W. C., WEBB, S. N.: Tetanic fade during partial transmission failure produced by non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs in the cat. (springer.com)
  • When neuromuscular transmission was blocked with deploarizing agents, guanidine incedased the amplitude of e.p.p. to the point of cliciting a propagated action potential and muscle contraction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Low concentrations of free methyl mercury (1-3 ppm) irreversibly block synaptic transmission in an isolated frog neuromuscular preparation. (cdc.gov)
  • nAchRs are among the most intensively studied ion channel receptors due to their important roles in neuromuscular transmission and signaling in both the central and peripheral nervous system. (rupress.org)
  • In the absence of peripheral neuromuscular activity, neurodegeneration is completely blocked, and expression of prothrombin in muscle is markedly reduced. (plos.org)
  • Fibroblasts that reside in mouse and frog injured peripheral nerves produce apolipoproteins. (bio-protocol.org)
  • While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. (elsevier.com)
  • 3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? (elsevier.com)
  • Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuromuscular disorders is a term that encompasses many different medical conditions that impair the functioning of the muscles. (muscle.ca)
  • Muscle fatigue is a clinically important feature of myopathies such as muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis, or diffuse conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and cachexia ( Katirji, 2002 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • subject read neuromuscular function and disorders is a syntax of category should face involved by a someone of message. (deadbatteries.com)
  • Written by experiences can be using their messages state-owned national read neuromuscular function and disorders cartoons yet at a also unknown format. (deadbatteries.com)
  • People with neuromuscular disorders (nerve-related conditions that affect the muscles) may have difficulty coughing and clearing mucous from the airways, placing them at risk of choking, recurrent chest infections, and ongoing lung disease. (cochrane.org)
  • We carried out a wide database search for studies of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
  • The findings of this review provided insufficient information to make decisions about when and how to use cough augmentation techniques in people with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
  • We are very uncertain about the safety and efficacy of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders and further studies are needed. (cochrane.org)
  • People with neuromuscular disorders may have a weak, ineffective cough predisposing them to respiratory complications. (cochrane.org)
  • To determine the efficacy and safety of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
  • We included trials of cough augmentation techniques compared to no treatment, alternative techniques, or combinations thereof, in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
  • There is currently very low certainty evidence for or against the safety and effectiveness of cough augmentation techniques in people with chronic neuromuscular diseases and more studies are needed. (cochrane.org)
  • At MDA, we take a big picture perspective across the full spectrum of neuromuscular diseases to uncover scientific and medical breakthroughs that accelerate treatments and cures. (mda.org)
  • Reversible, nonlimiting neuromuscular toxicity evidenced as diplopia because of pareses of the external ocular muscles was present in 13 patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However its interactions with ganglionic and neuromuscular nAChRs result in toxicity at doses close to the analgesic ones. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An analysis of the dose-response curve at voltage-clamped frog-endplates. (xenbase.org)
  • The action of gallamine, a classical competitive neuromuscular blocking agent, has been examined on voltage-clamped endplates of frog skeletal muscle fibres. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Background: All frogs "look like frogs", yet they exhibit rich locomotor diversity over thousands of species. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Even a single frog species is able to perform varied tasks with their limbs as they climb, jump, swim or run through their environment. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • However, neurons do not cause the hearts of all species to beat (ie from frogs to humans). (wisegeek.com)
  • Here we explore how air-driven sound production changed upon re-entry to preserve essential acoustic information on species identity in the secondarily aquatic frog genus Xenopus. (xenbase.org)
  • Frog muscle endplates were explored with an extracellular microelectrode. (rupress.org)
  • Kinetics of agonist conductance changes during hyperolarization at frog endplates. (xenbase.org)
  • This is one of the first looks at the neuromuscular mechanisms that underlie the actuation of a dynamic courtship display, and it demonstrates that even complex, whole-body display movements can be studied with transmitter-aided EMG techniques. (biologists.org)
  • However, one of the biggest challenges to studying adaptations for behavioral display centers around assessing the neuromuscular mechanisms that control complex and unusual physical movements. (biologists.org)
  • studies of the mechanisms of power amplification in muscles that produce ballistic movements, including prey capture and jumping in frogs and prey capture in chameleons. (nau.edu)
  • The stochastic computational modeling using MCell can also be used to model and evaluation of a novel treatment for Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS), a neuromuscular disease that is characterized by motor nerve terminal weakness. (psc.edu)
  • But because frogs are amphibians and not mammals, scientists have disagreed about the relevance of the frog NMJ to human biology. (psc.edu)
  • To this end he made electrical recordings, often requiring hours of skilled dissection, to study the functional properties of individual nerve cells and muscle fibers in invertebrates, frogs, and mammals. (nap.edu)
  • Both the organization of the frog and mouse NMJs and their behavior differ. (psc.edu)
  • Homan carried out a series of lab experiments on frog and mouse NMJs. (psc.edu)
  • 1989) to determine the spatial distribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels along frog motor nerve terminals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rockefeller University reconoció sus calidades academicas y científicas con el F. O. Schmitt Award in Neuroscience en 1989. (accefyn.org.co)
  • More recent studies have investigated the neural basis of behavior in amphibians, specifically the swimming behavior of frog tadpoles and the visually guided prey capture behavior of salamanders. (nau.edu)
  • Our aims are 1) to explore how structure-function relationships evolved in early amphibians, 2) to understand how musculoskeletal architecture relates to neuromuscular control (e.g. stability, accuracy, robustness) and, 3) to determine how healthy limb function can diminish with age, disease or injury. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • 1980) on frogs showed that anatoxin-a is a potent agonist of the muscle-type α12βγδ nAChR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frog alkaloid epibatidine is one of the most potent nicotinic agonists (K i ~50 pM for binding to a4b2 nAChR) and is 100-fold more potent than morphine as an analgesic. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • and, from our laboratory, investigations on muscle morphology and locomotor performance in aestivating (burrowing) frogs ( Hudson and Franklin, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • It is concluded that the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on frog motor nerve terminals are concentrated at active zones. (jneurosci.org)
  • Repeated in vivo imaging of target-deprived frog motor nerve terminals. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In particular, we highlight the work we are currently conducting on burrowing frogs, which can remain immobile for longer than 9 months yet still maintain muscle mass and function. (biologists.org)
  • Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Train-of-four ratio (TOFR) is often used to evaluate muscle relaxation caused by neuromuscular-blocking agents (NMBAs). (asahq.org)
  • She used her training with radioactive isotopes to label acetylcholine receptors and study their distribution during development in the frog. (sdbonline.org)