The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Skin Physiological Phenomena
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Rod Cell Outer Segment
Cell Membrane Permeability
Saccule and Utricle
Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Amino Acid Sequence
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Biological Transport, Active
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH Release-Inhibiting Hormone
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
Prince Edward Island
An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Hair Cells, Auditory
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Protozoan Infections, Animal
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A quantitative description at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Gen. Physiol. 80, 583-611. Zengel J.E., Magleby K.L., Horn J. ... and Sr2+ at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Gen. Physiol. 77, 503-529. Zengel J.E. and Magleby K.L. (1982) Augmentation and ... A process that acts to increase transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. 257, 449-470. Magleby KL ... and depression of transmitter release as a function of repeated synaptic activity at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. ...
The architecture of active zone material at the frog's. neuromuscular junction". Nature. 409: 2001. Siksou; et al. (2007). " ... The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to ... In Drosophilia the intersectin homolog, Dap160, is located in the periactive zone of the neuromuscular junction and mutant ...
Sammy Lee (scientist)
Betz W.J.; Sakmann B. (1973). "Effects of proteolytic enzymes on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions". J. ... Betz W.J.; Sakmann B. (1971). "Disjunction" of frog neuromuscular synapses by treatment with proteolytic enzymes". Nature New ...
Betz, W.; Sakmann, B. (1973). "Effects of proteolytic enzymes on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions". The ... Betz, W.; Sakmann, B. (1971). ""Disjunction" of frog neuromuscular synapses by treatment with proteolytic enzymes". Nature New ...
This was shortly after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction was found to induce postsynaptic miniature end- ... Miller, T. M.; Heuser, J. E. (1984). "Endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membrane at the frog neuromuscular junction". The Journal ... Heuser and Reese found that portions of the cellular membrane at the frog neuromuscular junction were taken up by the cell and ... "Evidence for Recycling of Synaptic Vesicle Membrane During Transmitter Release at the Frog Neuromuscular Junction". The Journal ...
"Inositol derivatives modulate spontaneous transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction". Neuropharmacology. 45 (5): ...
studied frog neuromuscular junctions, stimulating them with markers such as horseradish peroxidase to identify endocytosed ... Ceccarelli, B.; Hurlbut, W. P.; Mauro, A. (1973). "Turnover of Transmitter and Synaptic Vesicles at the Frog Neuromuscular ... Ceccarelli, B.; Hurlbut, W. P.; Mauro, A. (1972). "Depletion of Vesicles from Frog Neuromuscular Junctions by Prolonged Tetanic ... "Evidence for recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane during transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction". J. Cell ...
Andrew Crawford (neuroscientist)
He has also published a series of important papers on neuromuscular transmission in frogs and crabs. Crawford was elected a ...
He is known for his research on neuromuscular junctions in frogs, presynaptic inhibition, and the neurotransmitter GABA. In ...
During the 1950s, Bernard Katz and Paul Fatt observed spontaneous miniature synaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular ... Large chemical synapses (e.g. the neuromuscular junction), on the other hand, have a synaptic release probability of 1. Vesicle ...
These frogs do not engage in wrestling behavior among each other as do many other dart frogs. Males vying for a female will ... I. Effects on the Contractile Mechanism and on Neuromuscular Transmission of Mammalian Skeletal Muscle". The Journal of ... Kokoe dart frogs are highly social frogs that require high humidity, cool temperatures, and larger prey items than many dart ... Although wild frogs are extremely deadly, frogs raised in captivity are generally non-toxic. It has therefore been proposed ...
Distinct neural and neuromuscular strategies underlie independent evolution of simplified advertisement calls. Proc. R. Soc. B ... Rapping, a female receptive call, initiates male/female duets in the South African clawed frog, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 95:1870 ... Auditory and vocal nuclei of frog brain concentrate sex hormones. Science 207. 553 -555. Darcy B. Kelley, Irene H. Ballagh, ... "Androgem Regulation of Neuromuscular Function". Grantome. 1986. Retrieved August 11, 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
... induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of ... 1980) on frogs showed that anatoxin-a is a potent agonist of the muscle-type (α1)2βγδ nAChR. ... Anatoxin-a also shows much less potency in the CNS than in neuromuscular junctions. In hippocampal and brain stem neurons, a 5 ... 2βγδ muscle-type nAchRs that are present at the neuromuscular junction. (Anatoxin-a has an affinity for these muscle-type ...
Application of LY294002 causes a substantial acceleration of MEPP frequency (150 μM) at the frog neuromuscular junction through ...
... that the effects on frog tissue of candicine most closely resembled those of the well-known depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking ... Candicine has also been found in the skin of the frog, Leptodactylus pentadactylus pentadactylus, at a concentration of 45 μg/g ... Initial experiments on frogs, using rectus muscle and nerve-sartorius preparations from Rana nigromaculata nigromaculata, ... Following their experiments on frogs, the Japanese group carried out a series of classical pharmacological investigations of ...
... described a statistical analysis of fluctuations they observed in the membrane potential at the frog neuromuscular junction, ...
He also helped to develop a technique for studying native receptors in frog oocytes for drug development. One of seven children ... factors by taking on neuronal activity and releasing Acetylcholine themselves in order to preserve the neuromuscular junction. ... He developed this technique based on earlier work in which he performed the first electrophysiological recording of a frog ... By studying denervation in frog skeletal muscle, it was discovered that glial cells, particularly Schwann cells, behave as ...
Chemical transmission exhibits synaptic delay-recordings from squid synapses and neuromuscular junctions of the frog reveal a ...
... induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of ... 1980) on frogs showed that anatoxin-a is a potent agonist of the muscle-type α12βγδ nAChR. ... The effects of anatoxin-a on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction ... Anatoxin-a also shows much less potency in the CNS than in neuromuscular junctions. In hippocampal and brain stem neurons, a 5 ...
In the frog each motor nerve terminal contains about 300,000 vesicles, with an average diameter of 0.05 micrometers. The ... Not all species use a cholinergic neuromuscular junction; e.g. crayfish and fruit flies have a glutamatergic neuromuscular ... A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It allows the ... The development of neuromuscular junctions is mostly studied in model organisms, such as rodents. In addition, in 2015 an all- ...
Neuromuscular blocking agents
Another milestone in the development of NMBA was done by French Physiologist Claude Bernard when he injected curare into frog ... Neuromuscular Block Monitoring in Patients With Facial Rejuvenation: A Case Report. A A Pract. 2020;14(13):e01334. doi:10.1213/ ... Neuromuscular blocking agents, or in abbreviation, NMBAs, are chemical agents that paralyse skeletal muscles by blocking the ... Neuromuscular blocking agents exert its effect by modulating the signal transmission in skeletal muscles. An action potential ...
Northern leopard frog
The neuromuscular junction of the sciatic nerve fibers of the sartorius muscle of this frog has been the source of initial data ... Frogs portal Southern leopard frog Plains leopard frog Rio Grande leopard frog Lowland leopard frog Relict leopard frog ... The northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens or Rana pipiens) is a species of leopard frog from the true frog family, native ... The northern leopard frog is a fairly large species of frog, reaching about 11 cm (4.3 in) in snout-to-vent length. It varies ...
... in the understanding of neuromuscular function and disease". Neuromuscular Disorders. 12 (6): 600-7. doi:10.1016/s0960-8966(01) ... In 1791, Luigi Galvani learned that frogs' muscles could be made to move by the application of electricity. This finding ... Swammerdam placed severed frog thigh muscle in an airtight syringe with a small amount of water in the tip. He could thus ...
In some frogs, the tongue elongates up to 180% of its resting length. Extra-oral tongues show higher length/width ratios than ... Matzner, H.; Gutfreund, Y.; Hochner, B. (2000). "Neuromuscular system of the flexible arm of the octopus: Physiological ... These mechanisms are seen often in prey capture of shovelnose frogs and chameleons, as well as in the human tongue and many ... Meyers, J. J.; O'Reilly, J. C.; Monroy, J. A.; Nishikawa, K. C. (2004). "Mechanism of tongue protraction in microhylid frogs. ...
The effects of tomatine on frog embryos and frog skin were tested by fluorescence measurements. The membrane permeability of ... If acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, the released acetylcholine cannot be broken down, and stays in the neuromuscular junction ... Effect of α-tomatine and tomatidine on membrane potential of frog embryos and active transport of ions in frog skin.; Food and ... In frog skin, the sodium-active transport decreased by 16%, which may lead to disruption of cell membranes. Direct injection of ...
In 1941 Katz's implementation of microelectrodes in the gastrocnemius sciatic nerve of frogs' legs illuminated the field. It ... of chemical synaptic transmission was gleaned from experiments analyzing the effects of acetylcholine release at neuromuscular ... which is manifested through contractions of the frog legs. One of Katz's seminal findings, in studies carried out with Paul ...
... or perform neuromuscular ultrasound. A more complete listing of disorders and testing can be found under neuromuscular medicine ... Galvani depolarized frog leg muscles by using metal rods to make contact with the leg muscles. The development of the ... Neuromuscular Function and Disease: Basic, Clinical, and Electrodiagnostic Aspects, 2-Volume Set, 1st edition: April 30, 2002; ... The neuromuscular medicine examination includes electrodiagnostic testing as part of the certification examination but also ...
Brunel N, Van Rossum MC (2007). "Lapicque's 1907 paper: from frogs to integrate-and-fire". Biol. Cybern. 97 (5-6): 337-339. doi ... Neuromuscular isochronism and rythmogenic excitability (1947) On reaction times according to races and social conditions (1901 ...
These models include the turtle, cat, frog, dog, and a variety of other vertebrates. In these studies, researchers made use of ... or neuromuscular blockers are used to prevent contractions of muscles in response to motor neuron activity; or the spinal cord ...
α-Bungarotoxin is important for neuromuscular histology, it is known to bind irreversibly to receptors of the neuromuscular ... This species also feeds on rodents, eels, frogs, and occasionally lizards. ...
The black-legged dart frog, a species of poison dart frog whose secretions are used in the preparation of poison darts. ... is a competitive antagonist that blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the post synaptic membrane of the neuromuscular ... Notable examples are the poisons secreted from the skin of the poison dart frog, and curare (or 'ampi'), a general term for a ... The poison is generally collected by roasting the frogs over a fire, but the batrachotoxins in P. terribilis are powerful ...
Neuromuscular junctionsEdit. Main articles: Neuromuscular junction, Acetylcholine receptor, and Cholinesterase enzyme ... Ling G, Gerard RW (1949). "The normal membrane potential of frog sartorius fibers". J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 34 (3): 383-396. ... A special case of a chemical synapse is the neuromuscular junction, in which the axon of a motor neuron terminates on a muscle ... Main articles: Neuromuscular junction and Muscle contraction. The action potential in a normal skeletal muscle cell is similar ...
These birds flew immediately and normally when released, showing that their improvement resulted from neuromuscular maturation ... Frog hearing and communication. *Infrared sensing in snakes. *Caridoid escape reaction. *Vocal learning ...
Development of the nervous system
Neuromuscular junction. Main article: Neuromuscular junction. Much of our understanding of synapse formation comes from ... the frog Xenopus laevis, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. ... Several motorneurons compete for each neuromuscular junction, but only one survives until adulthood. Competition in vitro ... studies at the neuromuscular junction. The transmitter at this synapse is acetylcholine. The acetylcholine receptor (AchR) is ...
As the horse puts weight onto the hoof, the hoof wall is pushed outwards and the frog compressed, driving blood out of the frog ... "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" (PDF). Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the AAEP ... 1- Heel perioplium, 2-Bulb, 3-Frog, 4-Frog cleft, 5-Lateral groove, 6-Heel, 7-Bar, 8-Seat-of-corn, 9-Pigmented walls 10-Water ... Frog: the highly elastic wedge-shaped mass on the underside of the hoof, which normally makes contact with the ground every ...
Spinal muscular atrophy
"Neuromuscular Disorders. 16 (7): 417-426. doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2006.03.015. PMC 3260054 . PMID 16750368.. ... In small children: adopting of a frog-leg position when sitting (hips abducted and knees flexed) ... Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle ... Dubowitz, V. (2009). "Ramblings in the history of spinal muscular atrophy". Neuromuscular Disorders. 19 (1): 69-73. doi:10.1016 ...
During the 1950s, Bernard Katz and Paul Fatt observed spontaneous miniature synaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular ... Large chemical synapses (e.g. the neuromuscular junction), on the other hand, have a synaptic release probability of 1. Vesicle ...
Speech pathologists commonly diagnose and treat this condition since the speech process uses the same neuromuscular structures ... and in such events as a seagull swallowing a fish or a stork swallowing a frog, swallowing consists largely of the bird lifting ... Like the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, the esophageal phase of swallowing is under involuntary neuromuscular control. However ... Eating and swallowing are complex neuromuscular activities consisting essentially of three phases, an oral, pharyngeal and ...
... such as frog racing in the garden or looking through the lens of a (dissected) sheep's eye." Sir Ralph Kohn FRS who proposed ... at the neuromuscular junction. ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another " ... It is distinguished as the transmitter at the neuromuscular junction connecting motor nerves to muscles. The paralytic arrow- ...
As the horse puts weight onto the hoof, the hoof wall is pushed outwards and the frog compressed, driving blood out of the frog ... Susan J. Holcombe (1998). "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" (PDF). Proceedings of the ... The hoof (including the frog - the V shaped part on the bottom of the horses hoof) is a very important part of the circulatory ... which hangs from between the ears down onto the forehead of the horse Frog: the highly elastic wedge-shaped mass on the ...
Their prey are mainly small mammals, but may include small birds, frogs, other small animals, including other snakes. Although ... ISBN 0-486-26629-X. "Snake Venoms and the Neuromuscular Junction: Spontaneous Activity". Medscape.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved ...
The most abundant venom component is the three-finger toxin mipartoxin-I. The venom acts by blocking the neuromuscular ... frogs, and caecilians (e.g. Caecilia guntheri). It is oviparous; about eight white-colored eggs have been recorded, which are ...
This species feeds predominantly on small mammals, frogs, and even other snakes. Small rodents such as mice and small rats are ... as the neurotoxins interrupt the transmission of nerve signals by binding to the neuromuscular junctions near the muscles. ... However, they will also eat other sizable snakes, small lizards, frogs, eggs, and when the opportunity arises, small birds. ...
This prevents additional toxin from binding to the neuromuscular junction, but does not reverse any already inflicted paralysis ... Botulism has been reported in rats, mice, chicken, frogs, toads, goldfish, aplysia, squid, crayfish, drosophila, leeches, etc. ... After this time, paralysis generally improves as new neuromuscular connections are formed. In some abdominal cases, physicians ... It acts by blocking nerve function (neuromuscular blockade) through inhibition of the excitatory neurotransmitter ...
The shape of the sole, size of the frog, and shape of the bars can indicate overall health of the hoof. Holes in heel bulb ... Shivers: a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle tremors, difficulty picking up the hind feet when asked to lift ... Sensitivity over the middle third of the frog is consistent with navicular syndrome, but can also occur with sheared heels. To ... Lameness is most commonly caused by pain, but may also be the result of neuromuscular disease or mechanical restriction. ...
Frog brain AChE has for example a lower affinity for AzM and a slower rate of phosphorylation than fish brain AChE. The effects ... Cholinergic nerves play an important role in the normal function of the central nervous, endocrine, neuromuscular, ... Nebeker, A.V. (1998). "Impact of guthion on survival and growth of the frog Pseudacris regilla and the salamanders Ambystoma ... the earthworm Eisenia Andrei Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Frog Pseudacris regilla and salamander Ambystoma gracile Toad ...
... venom produced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects when tested in both frog and clam hearts and has a ... spine tissue contains acetylcholine and a toxin that affects neuromuscular transmission". Toxicon. 27 (12): 1367-1376. doi: ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... It is distinguished as the transmitter at the neuromuscular junction connecting motor nerves to muscles. The paralytic arrow- ...
Depression of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog
Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frogs neuromuscular ... Depression of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog J Physiol. 1970 Mar;206(3):629-44. doi: 10.1113/ ... 1. Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frogs neuromuscular ...
The effect of repetitive stimulation on facilitation of transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction
... were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to characterize the processes underlying ... The effect of repetitive stimulation on facilitation of transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction J Physiol. 1973 ... 1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to ...
TURNOVER OF TRANSMITTER AND SYNAPTIC VESICLES AT THE FROG NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION | JCB
Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction
... in the frog neuromuscular junction. Methods: Frog cutaneous pectoris nerve muscle preparations were prepared. A fluorescent ... Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. dc.contributor. ... Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. en. ... "Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction." Acta ...
The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frog's nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction |...
The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction. S. L ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction. ... The actions of eserine-like compounds upon frogs nerve-muscle preparations, and the blocking of neuromuscular conduction ...
Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or...
Electrical Inexcitability of the Frog Neuromuscular Synapse | Journal of General Physiology | Rockefeller University Press
Frog muscle endplates were explored with an extracellular microelectrode. An intracellular microelectrode nearby simultaneously ... Robert Werman; Electrical Inexcitability of the Frog Neuromuscular Synapse . J Gen Physiol 1 January 1963; 46 (3): 517-531. doi ... EQUILIBRIA OF FROG NERVE WITH DIFFERENT EXTERNAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM IONS J Gen Physiol (September,1951) ... Frog muscle endplates were explored with an extracellular microelectrode. An intracellular microelectrode nearby simultaneously ...
Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. I. Effects of black widow...
Ca2+-dependent recycling of synaptic vesicles at the frog neuromuscular junction. Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular ... CHANGES IN THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION OF THE FROG CAUSED BY BLACK WIDOW SPIDER VENOM ... B Ceccarelli, F Grohovaz, W P Hurlbut; Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of ... Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. I. Effects of black widow ...
Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs<...
Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ... Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is ...
Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores:...
Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca2+ stores: ... mobilizing messengers in the release of transmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction. We show, for the first time, that NAADP ...
Neuroscience | ADInstruments
Frog Neuromuscular Junction - Pre-Lab Prep. 1.20MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is ... Frog Neuromuscular Junction - Lab. 75.00MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with ... Frog Nerve - Pre-Lab Prep. 1.80MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with Windows ... Frog Nerve - Lab. 39.50MB, Released Friday, May 12, 2017 System requirements. Lt LabStation is compatible with Windows 7 or ...
September 11, 2000 - Volume 11 - Issue 13 : NeuroReport
Function Follows Form
"The frog neuromuscular junction is easy to get to and hundreds of microns in length. Its a simple model in which you have a ... Bridges Simulations plus Lab Work on Frog Neuromuscular Junction Sheds Light on Human Diseases. When a nerve cell passes a ... Early researchers studied a synapse called the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) because it is large and easy to work with. But ... But because frogs are amphibians and not mammals, scientists have disagreed about the relevance of the frog NMJ to human ...
Active zone - Wikipedia
"Harlow et al. The architecture of active zone material at the frogs. neuromuscular junction". Nature. 409: 2001.. ... The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to ... is located in the periactive zone of the neuromuscular junction and mutant Dap160 deplete synaptic vesicles during high ...
Active Zones and the Readily Releasable Pool of Synaptic Vesicles at the Neuromuscular Junction of the Mouse | Journal of...
1988) Disruption of active zones in frog neuromuscular junctions following treatment with proteolytic enzymes. J Neurocytol 17: ... 1974) Functional changes in frog neuromuscular junctions studied with freeze-fracture. J Neurocytol 3:109-131. ... 1979) Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. I. Effects of black ... 2003) Synaptic vesicle pools at the frog neuromuscular junction. Neuron 39:529-541. ...
A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction<...
A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction. / Barrett, Ellen F.; Barrett, J ... title = "A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction", ... T1 - A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction ... A note on the interaction of spontaneous and evoked release at the frog neuromuscular junction. ...
The effect of hydrostatic pressure & octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog...
... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. In Eighth Annual ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. in Eighth Annual ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. / Ashford, Michael ... octanol on the conductance change produced by a quantum of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. In Eighth Annual ...
Fusion of Biological Membranes and Related Problems, Subcellular Biochemistry by Herwig J. Hilderson | 9780306463136 | Booktopia
UMass Amherst: Biology Department: Herbarium: Roberta Poland's Deerfield Collection
UMass Amherst: Biology Department: Graduate Student Directory
Measurement of Action Potential-Induced Presynaptic Calcium Domains at a Cultured Neuromuscular Junction | Journal of...
1972) The kinetics of transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J Physiol (Lond) 227:691-708. ... 1981) Structural changes after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol 88:564-580. ... Normal frog Ringers solution (NFR), consisting of 114 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 10 MOPS, 1.8 CaCl2, and 10d-glucose, pH 7.0, was used to ... 1995) Calcium release and its voltage dependence in frog cut muscle fibers equilibrated with 20 mm EGTA. J Gen Physiol 106:259- ...
Colquhoun, D., Dreyer, F., & Sheridan, R. E. (1979). The actions of tubocurarine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Journal of ... carbachol and suberyldicholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 225, 329-355. [Get ... Colquhoun, D. and Ogden, D.C. (1988). Activation of ion channels in the frog end-plate by high concentrations of acetylcholine ... Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. Journal of ...
Neuromuscular mechanisms of an elaborate wing display in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus) | Journal of...
2004). How, when, and where to perform visual displays? The case of the Amazonian frog Hyla parviceps. Herpetologica 60, 20-29. ... A model for the neuromuscular control of the wing-snap. Together, our results establish a likely model for the neuromuscular ... 1995). Neuromuscular control and kinematics of intermittent flight in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). J. Exp. Biol. ... To uncover the neuromuscular origins of an athletic courtship display, we used radio-telemetry to record EMG from the main wing ...
Maintaining muscle mass during extended disuse: aestivating frogs as a model species | Journal of Experimental Biology
Fahim, M. (1989). Rapid neuromuscular remodeling following limb immobilisation. Anat. Rec. 224,102 -109. ... Several species of arid-zone Australian frogs, such as the green-striped burrowing frog Cyclorana alboguttata, survive the ... Withers, P. (1993). Metabolic depression during aestivation in the Australian frogs, Neobatrachus and Cyclorana.Aust. J. Zool. ... Frogs (including our study animal, C. alboguttata) are bradymetabolic organisms whose limb skeletal muscle is predominantly ...
CiNii Articles - Augmentation and Suppression of the Excitatory and Inhibitory Neuromuscular Transmission Induced by...
Effects of the ionophore X-537A on acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction KITA H. ... Excitatory and inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in fish red muscle HIDAKA T. , Miyahara Tokuji ... Factors in the inactivation of post junctional membrane receptors of frog skeletal muscle NASTUK WL. ... The electrical activity of the muscle cell membrane at the neuromuscular junction NASTUK WL. ...
A computational model of urinary bladder smooth muscle syncytium | SpringerLink
Del Castillo, J., & Katz, B. (1956). Localization of active spots within the neuromuscular junction of the frog. The Journal of ... Chapman, R., & Fry, C. (1978). An analysis of the cable properties of frog ventricular myocardium. The Journal of Physiology, ... Bennett, M. (1973). Structure and electrical properties of the autonomic neuromuscular junction. Philosophical Transactions of ...
Colasante C[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Recycling and refilling of transmitter quanta at the frog neuromuscular junction.. Van der Kloot W, Colasante C, Cameron R, ... Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or ... IP3 receptors and associated Ca2+ signals localize to satellite cells and to components of the neuromuscular junction in ... Schwann cells sense and control acetylcholine spillover at the neuromuscular junction by α7 nicotinic receptors and ...
Types of Neuromuscular Disorders | Muscular Dystrophy Canada
a "frog-like" leg position. *breathing problems and frequent respiratory infections. Symptoms associated with the late-onset ... Neuromuscular disorders is a term that encompasses many different medical conditions that impair the functioning of the muscles ... To learn more about some of the causes, symptoms, progression and management of a specific neuromuscular disorder, select the ... In MG, the immune system attacks the body; the acetylcholine (ACH) receptor sites at the neuromuscular junction (point where ...
Numbers of presynaptic Ca2+ channel clusters match those of functionally defined vesicular docking sites in single central...
2001) The architecture of active zone material at the frogs neuromuscular junction. Nature 409:479-484. ... In frog neuromuscular junctions, SVs dock externally to the presumed VGCCs, forming two parallel and external rows of docking ... 1970) Synaptic vesicles and pouches at the level of active zones of the neuromuscular junction. C R Hebd Séances Acad Sci D ... In vertebrate neuromuscular junctions, AZs appear as elongated structures where SVs dock (17). In freeze-fracture replicas, SV ...
Metezeau P[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Effects of a neurotoxin isolated from the sea anemone, Anemonia sulcata, at frog neuromuscular junction (authors transl)]. ... Effect of scorpion venom (Androctonus australis) on neuromuscular transmission inhibited by botulinum toxin in the frog]. ... Electrophysiological study of Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) at frog neuromuscular junction. ... II isolated from the tentacles of sea anemones on the neuromuscular transmission on normal and botulin toxin inhibited frogs]. ...
JunctionJunctionsSynapseBlockadePresynapticCutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparationsControl of prey capture in frogsFrog'sAspects of neuromuscularSynapsesHuman neuromuscularIntracellularVitroPreparationsVertebrateTransmissionPeripheralBiomechanicsDisordersDiseasesToxicityVoltage-clampedSpeciesEndplatesMechanismsMCellMammalsNMJs1989AmphibiansNAChRToxinLocomotorTerminalsMuscleReceptors
- 1. Depression of transmitter release produced by preceding conditioning stimulation was studied at the frog's neuromuscular junction.2. (nih.gov)
- Aim: To investigate the presynaptic effects of propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic, in the frog neuromuscular junction. (harvard.edu)
- A fluorescent tool (FM1-43) was used to visualize the effect of propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosos in the frog neuromuscular junction. (harvard.edu)
- Vesicle size and transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction when quantal acetylcholine content is increased or decreased. (ula.ve)
- In the present study, we, have investigated the interaction of NAADP with other Ca2+ -mobilizing messengers in the release of transmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Early researchers studied a synapse called the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) because it is large and easy to work with. (psc.edu)
- The mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ)-the synapse between a nerve cell that makes a mouse's muscle move and a muscle cell-is similar to many synapses in humans. (psc.edu)
- The frog neuromuscular junction is easy to get to and hundreds of microns in length. (psc.edu)
- The interaction between spontaneous miniature end plate potentials and evoked end plate potentials was investigated at the frog neuromusclular junction using focal extracellular recording techniques. (elsevier.com)
- The actions of tubocurarine at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The fluorescent staining was confined to the neuromuscular junction and consisted of a series of narrow bands (in face views) or dots (in side views) approximately 1 micron apart. (jneurosci.org)
- Structure and electrical properties of the autonomic neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
- Frog`s neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a classic and favorite object which have played a leading role in developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of synaptic transmission and secretion of neuromediators. (novapublishers.com)
- and presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels at the frog neuromuscular junction. (novapublishers.com)
- Magleby K.L. and Zengel J.E. (1976a) Augmentation: A process that acts to increase transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Magleby KL and Zengel J.E. (1976b) Long term changes in augmentation, potentiation, and depression of transmitter release as a function of repeated synaptic activity at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Magleby KL and Zengel J.E. (1976c) Stimulation-induced factors which affect augmentation and potentiation of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Magleby K.L. and Zengel J.E. (1982) A quantitative description of stimulation-induced changes in transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Zengel J.E. and Magleby K.L. (1981) Changes in miniature endplate potential frequency during repetitive nerve stimulation in the presence of Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+ at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantitative description at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Effects of Ca" channel blockers on transmitter release and presynaptic currents at the frog neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
- Calcium channel blockers and transmitter release at the normal human neuromuscular junction. (springer.com)
- The frog and mouse MCell models of neuromuscular junction and synaptic vesicle release mechanism. (psc.edu)
- That suggests there is something wrong … at the neuromuscular junction. (alzforum.org)
- What might go wrong at the neuromuscular junction of fish with mutant TDP-43? (alzforum.org)
- In frogs, calcium channels are important players in the release of acetylcholine at that junction. (alzforum.org)
- That allows for a greater number of these acetylcholine vesicles to be … dumped into the neuromuscular junction," he said. (alzforum.org)
- in similarity with their role in the frog neuromuscular junction ( Robitaille and Charlton 1992 ). (physiology.org)
- The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a synapse between pre-synaptic motor axons, peri-synaptic Schwann and postsynaptic skeletal muscle cells, has been an excellent model to understand synapse formation and maintenance [ 1 , 2 ]. (plos.org)
- What is a Neuromuscular Junction? (wisegeek.com)
- A neuromuscular junction is a place in the body where the axons of motor nerves meet the muscle, allowing them to transmit messages from the brain that cause the muscle to contract and relax. (wisegeek.com)
- A neuromuscular junction plays an important part in muscle movement. (wisegeek.com)
- In the instance of a neuromuscular junction, one neuron can control many muscle cells, but each muscle cell only responds to one neuron. (wisegeek.com)
- The neuromuscular junction is crucial for life, and they begin forming early in fetal development. (wisegeek.com)
- In line with this possibility, deep-membrane invaginations are not reported or are rarely observed in physiological conditions at synapses such as the frog neuromuscular junction and the calyx-type synapse ( 2 - 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cells (TPSCs) are a perisynaptic glial cell at the neuromuscular junction that respond to nerve-derived substances such as acetylcholine and purines. (elifesciences.org)
- But there is also a third cell type present at the neuromuscular junction, known as the terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cell (TPSC). (elifesciences.org)
- Voltage clamp analysis of acetylcholine produced end-plate current fluctuations at frog neuromuscular junction. (semanticscholar.org)
- nAChR signaling has been most thoroughly studied at the neuromuscular junction ( Sine, 2012 ), which has in turn led to much of the broader mechanistic understanding of synaptic transmission (e.g. (rupress.org)
- An earlier (PDP) version of this program is what allowed Colquhoun & Sakmann (1985) to fit shut times down to tau = 9 microseconds, in their analysis of channel openings at the frog neuromuscular junction. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Changes around the neuromuscular junction in EAMG rats were investigated by observation of electron micrographs. (asahq.org)
- Severity of MG influences the relationship between TOFR and T1, together with changes in run-down of endplate potentials and those around the neuromuscular junction in rats. (asahq.org)
- These results suggest that NO serves to enhance transmitter release at the rat neuromuscular junction (NMJ) via a cGMP pathway and this facilitation of transmitter release can be blocked with adenosine. (tib.eu)
- Wanting to get back to physiology, Chow switched departments for her doctorate to study neuromuscular junction formation with Monroe W. Cohen . (sdbonline.org)
- In LEMS, the immune system mistakenly mounts an attack, targeting proteins called "types P and Q calcium channels" located at the neuromuscular junction, the place where motor neurons (nerve cells) and muscles meet. (mda.org)
- 1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog neuromuscular junctions blocked with high Mg and/or low Ca to characterize the processes underlying increased transmitter release during repetitive stimulation.2. (nih.gov)
- Freeze-fracture studies of frog neuromuscular junctions during intense release of neurotransmitter. (rupress.org)
- Black widow spider venom (BWSV) was applied to frog nerve-muscle preparations bathed in Ca2+-containing, or Ca2+-free, solutions and the neuromuscular junctions were studied by the freeze-fracture technique. (rupress.org)
- The frog developing neuromuscular junctions are labeled with a marker of synaptic vesicles (green) and a. (umass.edu)
- Caratsch, C.G. and Waser, P.G., 1984, Effects of obidoxime chloride on native and sarin-poisoned frog neuromuscular junctions, Pflügers Arch. (springer.com)
- Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. (nature.com)
- He envisions a peripheral treatment targeting neuromuscular junctions early in disease to preserve those synapses as long as possible. (alzforum.org)
- Blocking peripheral, neuromuscular activity completely rescued MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in erbB3 mutant mice lacking Schwann cells, which normally exhibit profound neurodegeneration. (plos.org)
- Neuromuscular junctions begin to grow during fetal development. (wisegeek.com)
- Nerves make contact with muscles at specialized sites called neuromuscular junctions. (elifesciences.org)
- studied the responses of these cells at the neuromuscular junctions of young mice. (elifesciences.org)
- To gain insight into the nature of priming, we searched by electron tomography for structural relationships correlated with fusion probability at active zones of axon terminals at frog neuromuscular junctions. (stanford.edu)
- F-actin is concentrated in nonrelease domains at frog neuromuscular junctions. (bio-protocol.org)
- In the frog NMJ (A), neurotransmitter-containing packets (vesicles) waiting to be dumped into the synapse are arranged in two rows. (psc.edu)
-  The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band between them that is connected to regularly spaced horizontal ribs extending perpendicular to the band and parallel with the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- The postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular synapse treated with antiacetylcholinesterase is depolarized due to nonquantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the motor nerve ending. (wiley.com)
- The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg) hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (60 µ g/mL) in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. (scielo.br)
- In vivo myotoxic effects and in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade effects of crude venom from the snake Bothrops jararacussu are well known pharmacological methods used to study drugs showing antivenom properties (29, 30). (scielo.br)
- Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the capability of Casearia gossypiosperma hydroalcoholic extract to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom. (scielo.br)
- Anatoxin-a induced depolarizing neuromuscular blockade, contracture of the frog's rectus abdominis muscle, depolarization of the frog sartorius muscle, desensitization, and alteration of the action potential. (wikipedia.org)
- With increasing myasthenia gravis severity, train-of-four and the first twitch became less reliable indicators of muscle strength during recovery from neuromuscular blockade, indicating that the evaluation of neuromuscular blockade by train-of-four ratio may overestimate the extent of recovery. (asahq.org)
- The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf's ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). (biomedcentral.com)
- In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. (biomedcentral.com)
- The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by B. jararacussu venom, which was first demonstrated by Rodrigues-Simioni et al. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conclusion: Our data suggest that propofol has a dose-dependent presynaptic effect at the neuromuscular transmission which may help to understand some of the clinical effects of this agent on neuromuscular function. (harvard.edu)
- Presynaptic currents in frog motor endings. (springer.com)
- FOLDES, F. F.: Presynaptic aspects of neuromuscular transmission and block. (springer.com)
Cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations2
Control of prey capture in frogs1
- Nishikawa, KC 1999, ' Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs ', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 354, no. 1385, pp. 941-954. (elsevier.com)
- Cefepime completely blocked the neuromuscular transmission of frog's rectus abdominis muscle (40 μ g/mL bath) and rat's phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparation (200 μ g/mL bath). (hindawi.com)
Aspects of neuromuscular1
- To make progress, we must consider several aspects of neuromuscular function including: a) muscle properties (e.g. speed, strength), b) skeletal morphology, c) limb architecture (how muscles connect to bones) and d) sensorimotor feedback. (rvc.ac.uk)
- Whether we're trying to restore use of the legs to someone with spinal cord damage, treat a psychiatric condition, or protect nerve cells from a degenerative neuromuscular disease, synapses are likely to play an important role. (psc.edu)
- The effect of guanidine on neuromuscular transmission was studied in the sciatic-sartorius preparation of the frog, using intracellular electrodes. (aspetjournals.org)
- In addition to its anticoagulant and cytolytic properties, nigexine also affects neuromuscular transmission in vitro. (strath.ac.uk)
- With Ringer-soaked preparations from frogs kept at 14-18°C for some days before use the minimum interval at which two shocks applied to the nerve could elicit a summated muscular response was about 20% longer than the absolute refractory period of the nerve. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- With Ringer-soaked preparations, during the block of neuromuscular transmission produced by rapid repetitive stimulation of the nerve, the response of the muscle to direct stimulation was reduced. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In experiments on broken cell preparations, type B toxin cleaved synaptobrevin from frog brain synaptosomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- These findings suggest that resistance is due to an absence of cell surface receptors for botulinum toxin type B. The fact that cutaneous-pectoris preparations were sensitive to other botulinum toxin serotypes (A, C, and D), as well as other neuromuscular blocking agents (α-latrotoxin, β-bungarotoxin), indicates that botulinum toxin type B receptors are distinct. (aspetjournals.org)
- On frog cutaneous pectoris preparations, nigexine caused a transient facilitation of evoked acetylcholine release, followed by a block. (strath.ac.uk)
- C. Paedophryne amauenis, a newly discovered frog species found in an eastern New Guinea rainforest, is the world's smallest vertebrate (animal with a backbone). (washington.edu)
- Musculoskeletal biomechanics and neuromuscular control of vertebrate limbs. (rvc.ac.uk)
- Because of their impressive attributes, frogs are exquisite models to understand both the neuro-muscular function and evolution of vertebrate limbs, in general. (rvc.ac.uk)
- If, however, neuromuscular transmission had been blocked by curarine, stimulation of the nerve did not reduce the response of the muscle to direct stimulation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Like native omega-conotoxin, the fluorescent toxin blocked neuromuscular transmission irreversibly. (jneurosci.org)
- BOWMAN, W. C., WEBB, S. N.: Tetanic fade during partial transmission failure produced by non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs in the cat. (springer.com)
- When neuromuscular transmission was blocked with deploarizing agents, guanidine incedased the amplitude of e.p.p. to the point of cliciting a propagated action potential and muscle contraction. (aspetjournals.org)
- Low concentrations of free methyl mercury (1-3 ppm) irreversibly block synaptic transmission in an isolated frog neuromuscular preparation. (cdc.gov)
- nAchRs are among the most intensively studied ion channel receptors due to their important roles in neuromuscular transmission and signaling in both the central and peripheral nervous system. (rupress.org)
- While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. (elsevier.com)
- 3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? (elsevier.com)
- Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species. (elsevier.com)
- Neuromuscular disorders is a term that encompasses many different medical conditions that impair the functioning of the muscles. (muscle.ca)
- Muscle fatigue is a clinically important feature of myopathies such as muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis, or diffuse conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and cachexia ( Katirji, 2002 ). (elifesciences.org)
- subject read neuromuscular function and disorders is a syntax of category should face involved by a someone of message. (deadbatteries.com)
- Written by experiences can be using their messages state-owned national read neuromuscular function and disorders cartoons yet at a also unknown format. (deadbatteries.com)
- People with neuromuscular disorders (nerve-related conditions that affect the muscles) may have difficulty coughing and clearing mucous from the airways, placing them at risk of choking, recurrent chest infections, and ongoing lung disease. (cochrane.org)
- We carried out a wide database search for studies of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
- The findings of this review provided insufficient information to make decisions about when and how to use cough augmentation techniques in people with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
- We are very uncertain about the safety and efficacy of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders and further studies are needed. (cochrane.org)
- People with neuromuscular disorders may have a weak, ineffective cough predisposing them to respiratory complications. (cochrane.org)
- To determine the efficacy and safety of cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
- We included trials of cough augmentation techniques compared to no treatment, alternative techniques, or combinations thereof, in adults and children with chronic neuromuscular disorders. (cochrane.org)
- There is currently very low certainty evidence for or against the safety and effectiveness of cough augmentation techniques in people with chronic neuromuscular diseases and more studies are needed. (cochrane.org)
- At MDA, we take a big picture perspective across the full spectrum of neuromuscular diseases to uncover scientific and medical breakthroughs that accelerate treatments and cures. (mda.org)
- Reversible, nonlimiting neuromuscular toxicity evidenced as diplopia because of pareses of the external ocular muscles was present in 13 patients. (aacrjournals.org)
- However its interactions with ganglionic and neuromuscular nAChRs result in toxicity at doses close to the analgesic ones. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Background: All frogs "look like frogs", yet they exhibit rich locomotor diversity over thousands of species. (rvc.ac.uk)
- Even a single frog species is able to perform varied tasks with their limbs as they climb, jump, swim or run through their environment. (rvc.ac.uk)
- However, neurons do not cause the hearts of all species to beat (ie from frogs to humans). (wisegeek.com)
- Here we explore how air-driven sound production changed upon re-entry to preserve essential acoustic information on species identity in the secondarily aquatic frog genus Xenopus. (xenbase.org)
- This is one of the first looks at the neuromuscular mechanisms that underlie the actuation of a dynamic courtship display, and it demonstrates that even complex, whole-body display movements can be studied with transmitter-aided EMG techniques. (biologists.org)
- However, one of the biggest challenges to studying adaptations for behavioral display centers around assessing the neuromuscular mechanisms that control complex and unusual physical movements. (biologists.org)
- studies of the mechanisms of power amplification in muscles that produce ballistic movements, including prey capture and jumping in frogs and prey capture in chameleons. (nau.edu)
- The stochastic computational modeling using MCell can also be used to model and evaluation of a novel treatment for Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS), a neuromuscular disease that is characterized by motor nerve terminal weakness. (psc.edu)
- But because frogs are amphibians and not mammals, scientists have disagreed about the relevance of the frog NMJ to human biology. (psc.edu)
- To this end he made electrical recordings, often requiring hours of skilled dissection, to study the functional properties of individual nerve cells and muscle fibers in invertebrates, frogs, and mammals. (nap.edu)
- More recent studies have investigated the neural basis of behavior in amphibians, specifically the swimming behavior of frog tadpoles and the visually guided prey capture behavior of salamanders. (nau.edu)
- Our aims are 1) to explore how structure-function relationships evolved in early amphibians, 2) to understand how musculoskeletal architecture relates to neuromuscular control (e.g. stability, accuracy, robustness) and, 3) to determine how healthy limb function can diminish with age, disease or injury. (rvc.ac.uk)
- However, the toxin did not bind to frog nerve membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
- and, from our laboratory, investigations on muscle morphology and locomotor performance in aestivating (burrowing) frogs ( Hudson and Franklin, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
- In particular, we highlight the work we are currently conducting on burrowing frogs, which can remain immobile for longer than 9 months yet still maintain muscle mass and function. (biologists.org)
- Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Train-of-four ratio (TOFR) is often used to evaluate muscle relaxation caused by neuromuscular-blocking agents (NMBAs). (asahq.org)
- She used her training with radioactive isotopes to label acetylcholine receptors and study their distribution during development in the frog. (sdbonline.org)