Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Characiformes: An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Cypriniformes: An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Metacercariae: Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freshwater Biology: The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Arguloida: An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Spirurida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Characidae: A family of fresh water fish in the order CHARACIFORMES, which includes the Tetras.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flavobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.RNA Virus InfectionsCichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Edwardsiella ictaluri: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its nonmotility. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oligohymenophorea: A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Neisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.LaosPalaemonidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.BrazilKorea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Novirhabdovirus: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Fishes, PoisonousEnvironmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Atlantic OceanZebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Aquabirnavirus: A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Mediterranean SeaGreat Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oncorhynchus: A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Metalloids: A class of nonmetals such as arsenic that have some of the chemical properties of a metal.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.North SeaKillifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Metals, Light: Metals with low specific gravity, typically smaller than 5, characterized by a single valence (1, 2, or 3), a simple spectrum, strong electromotive force (positive), and colorless compounds. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.AnguillaMicrocystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Burkholderiaceae: A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
  • From gills fish developed swim bladders, which then gave rise to lungs, allowing creatures to walk onto the land. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Infected fish often exhibit external lesions on the body surface, gills and fins [ 2 ], but during some outbreaks bacteria can be isolated from moribund fish that exhibit no external signs of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most fish have scales and breathe with gills. (visitflorida.com)
  • The gills are the breathing apparatus of fish and are highly vascularized, which gives them their bright red color. (visitflorida.com)
  • Surprisingly enough there are fishes without true fins or scales whose respiration does not rely mainly on 'gills', and those that spend a great deal of time out of the water. (northtexasreeffanatics.org)
  • The gills of anaemic fish are pale, unlike those of healthy fish which are bright red. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)
  • The gills, whose function it is as part of the respiratory system is to filter oxygen out of the water for the fish to use to breathe, then oxygenate the blood and it moves from there to the tissues of the organism. (smore.com)
  • and 4) ecology of freshwater fishes was evaluated. (lankalibrary.com)
  • For the vast majority of these species, we know next to nothing about their ecology and population dynamics, or the extent to which changes in the physical environment of Illinois have altered their distributions. (illinois.edu)
  • Thus, biodiversity research at the Survey continues to emphasize inventories of the flora and fauna of Illinois, monitoring changes in the Illinois biota over time, and studies of the ecology of individual species and natural communities, especially those known to be in decline. (illinois.edu)
  • Individual projects varied in scale from detailed studies of the ecology of individual species or populations of special concern (e.g., the eastern massasauga rattlesnake) to statewide monitoring involving many plant and animal taxa (e.g., the Critical Trends Assessment Project). (illinois.edu)
  • For example, the readiness of many fishes to acclimate to captivity has allowed biologists to study behaviour, physiology, and even ecology under relatively natural conditions. (rincondelvago.com)
  • These have altered the ecology of the fish resources with the disappearance of some species and dominance of others. (academicjournals.org)
  • Arius manillensis, commonly known as the Manila Sea Catfish, is an endemic marine fish found off of the coast of Luzon Island in the Philippines. (worldatlas.com)
  • Synchiropus picturatus, commonly known as the picturesque dragonet, is a brightly colored fish of the Dragonet Family. (worldatlas.com)
  • The most commonly kept types of live-bearing fish are guppies, platies, swordtails and mollies. (hubpages.com)
  • The Guppy ( Poecilia reticulata ) is probably the most commonly kept and widely known tropical fish in the world. (hubpages.com)
  • Otocinclus affinis Steindachner 1877, the Golden Otocinclus, is probably the most commonly imported species (out of southeastern Brazil, near Rio de Janiero). (wetwebmedia.com)
  • This fish has the deep and laterally compressed body that is commonly associated with panfish. (calvertmarinemuseum.com)
  • Even though adult nematodes are typically found in fish intestinal tracts, adult and other life stages can be found in almost any organ, as stated earlier, but they are, secondarily, most commonly present in muscle, the liver, and tissues surrounding the internal organs. (ufl.edu)
  • More commonly, the pH fall is gradual, causing fish to secrete excess mucus, evident as a slimy-skin appearance. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)
  • OVAPRIM has been shown to be effective and safe in numerous ornamental finfish species in the refereed scientific literature (II.B.). In addition, OVAPRIM has a 20 year history of safe and effective use in a wide variety of ornamental finfish species, representing groups commonly raised by U.S. ornamental fish producers. (fda.gov)
  • Unlike other loricariids which commonly grow to over a foot long, the bristlenose pleco may only grow to half the size, this makes it a suitable species for the smaller tank. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dwarf gourami is a territorial species that will commonly chase other fish away from its established niche. (petstation.com)
  • Algae eaters are a great addition in a freshwater tank to help control and reduce unsightly and potentially damaging algae prorogation. (homeaquaria.com)
  • Certain algae-eaters prefer certain types of algae, so with a mix of species you can ensure that all or most of the algae presence can be controlled. (homeaquaria.com)
  • The Twig Catfish does need more specialized attention compared with other algae-eaters. (fishtankmaster.com)
  • Because of PCB contamination, the New York State Health Department advises people not to eat some species, like river catfish, and to eat other species, like striped bass, no more than once a month. (nytimes.com)
  • Other fish have less obvious teeth, such as the cardiform teeth in catfish which feel like a roughened area at the front of the mouth, or vomerine teeth that are tiny patches of teeth, for example, in the roof of a striped bass' mouth. (myfwc.com)
  • Undertake lateral migrations from the Mekong mainstream, or other permanent water bodies, to flooded areas during the flood season and returns to the permanent water bodies at the onset of the dry season (Ref. 37770 ). (fishbase.org)
  • However, old specimens of some species are entirely toothless - as in, significantly, the giant pa beuk Pangasianodon gigas of southern Asia's Mekong River. (blogspot.com)
  • Among the 30-odd members of this family is the plant-eating, endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas , one of the largest known freshwater fish. (eol.org)
  • Project members determined that this new catch was 11 pounds heavier than the previous record holder - another Mekong catfish. (blogspot.com)
  • As with a number of other geographically isolated islands, Hawaii has problems with invasive species negatively affecting the natural biodiversity of the islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example of an invasive species introduced in the 19th century is the fire tree, which is a small shrub that was brought from the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands as an ornamental plant or for firewood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive species often carry new diseases for native species. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the strawberry guava tree is one of Hawaii's worst invasive species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive species can change the state of an environment in many ways based on how they feed and interact with their new surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an invasive species is much more abundant than a native relative, they may hybridize so often that the invaders genes "flood" the native species, such that no individuals contain the entire genotype of the native species, thus effectively driving the native species to extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hybridization between Introduced mallards and the native Hawaiian duck (koloa maoli) and between the rarest European duck (the white-headed duck) and the invasive North American ruddy duck may result in the extinction of the native species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chants, ceremonies, hula, and other practices involve the use of plants (both native and Polynesian-introduced), traditional access to places of importance, and other activities that can be directly affected by invasive species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hawaii has a growing invasive species crisis affecting the islands' endangered plants and animals, overall environmental and human health, and the viability of its tourism and agriculture-based economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive species occur globally, but Hawaii is more susceptible to invasive species because it is an island. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is An Invasive Species? (worldatlas.com)
  • Such context will become increasingly important during this century as our global economy increases the potential for introduction of species from all over the world into Illinois [see Invasive & Exotic Species ]. (illinois.edu)
  • It's one of several names used for the giant, invasive fish that, in the last forty years, has become both a plague and a blessing in this remote corner of Bolivia. (believermag.com)
  • Ecological invasions are a common, even mundane phenomenon worldwide-among the many invasive species in the US are starlings, eucalyptus trees, and dandelions-but the paiche inspires a rare degree of fear and uncertainty. (believermag.com)
  • Snakeheads are an invasive species that can breathe air and is known to travel short distances on land to reach new bodies of water. (chesapeakebay.net)
  • In the United States, it is established in Florida and reported in California , Connecticut , Georgia, Massachusetts , and Nevada and regarded as an invasive species. (bassonline.com)
  • Crayfish-imitating crankbaits worked through deep-water bends will attract these hard fighting fish, as will plastic worms, plastic lizards or crayfish. (myfwc.com)
  • Oftentimes the introduced species is better equipped to survive and competes with the native species for food or other resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions along with competition can limit the amount and type of resources for native species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Hawaii, the Hawaiian culture is closely connected to its environment and native species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The country ought to focus on maintaining and protecting the coastline least these native species lose their homes. (worldatlas.com)
  • Survey scientists are working closely with other government and private organizations to document the biota of remnant Illinois prairies and to monitor the effects of management practices, such as prescribed burning and brush removal, on native species. (illinois.edu)
  • It's extended its range over a quarter of Bolivia's vast, nearly seven-hundred-thousand-acre Amazon Basin, driving native species into scarcity and jump-starting local economies in a poor region of South America's poorest nation. (believermag.com)
  • Bluegill, golden shiner, white sucker, and yellow perch exhibited a significant decrease in mortality associated with an increase in fish length. (umass.edu)
  • Sea lampreys are members of an ancient family of "jawless fishes" that were around before the time of the dinosaurs. (lake-link.com)
  • The absence of anal fin further distinguishes P. amphioxus from all other Pygidianops species except P. magoi and the presence of eyes from all except P. cuao . (scielo.br)
  • They are a ray-finned type of fish with the dorsal fin having one coarse and seven soft rays, and the anal fin possessing one coarse and four soft rays. (inlandaquatics.com)
  • The anal fin is very long, and its basal length is about one-third the standard length of the fish. (iowadnr.gov)
  • In most fish it is immediately in front of the anal fin. (visitflorida.com)
  • Another native fish species in the Philippines is the sole species of Chanos chanos belonging to the Chanidae Family. (worldatlas.com)
  • We will deal with these minnow-like fishes (family Cyprinidae) in a separate piece. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Systematic revision of the Asian catfish family Pangasiidae, with biological observations and descriptions of three new species. (fishbase.org)
  • Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00445 - 0.01869), b=2.98 (2.79 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). (fishbase.org)
  • This species' attractive, well-defined black or brown mottling on its gray or tan body distinguishes it from most members of the bullhead family. (outdooralabama.com)
  • Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00437 - 0.01147), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Many of the species of this family are capable of generating electric shocks of up to 350 volts, hence the name. (worldatlas.com)
  • Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00535 - 0.01418), b=3.15 (3.00 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). (mnhn.fr)
  • That lets me fry fish for the whole family or a large group of friends, and it avoids any fishy smell in the kitchen. (usangler.com)
  • In Cocodrie, Louisiana, where my family had a fishing camp, there was no question that the catfish was destined for some hot oil! (usangler.com)
  • 23 species in dry season, it was dominated by tembakang fish Helostoma temminckii from family Helosmatidae, Sepat siam fish Tzmbakan pectoralis from Belontiidae family, and snakehead fish Channa striata of Channidae family. (terra-media.us)
  • The most widely sold in the west, the Hillstream fish of Southeast Asia (family Gyrinocheilidae), Gyrinocheilus aymonieri , is not even close in utility compared with Otocinclus . (wetwebmedia.com)
  • The shark catfishes form the family Pangasiidae . (eol.org)
  • drawing shows typical fish in this Family. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • The fishes of the family Callichthyidae are distinguished and easily recognized by having the body almost completely protected by a bony armor composed of two longitudinal series of dermal plates. (tolweb.org)
  • The Striped Raphael Catfish and other members of the Doradid family of armored catfish are often referred to as "talking catfish. (liveaquaria.com)
  • Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00284 - 0.00808), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). (fishbase.ca)
  • A large heavy-bodied fish of the sea bass family. (wholey.com)
  • Freshwater fish of the salmon family with white, pink, or orange flesh and a delicate flavor. (wholey.com)
  • Fun to catch, and plentiful nearly anywhere east of the Rocky Mountains, bluegill are popular at fish fries from northern Michigan to southern Louisiana. (usangler.com)
  • Check out our bluegill fishing tips ! (usangler.com)
  • My personal favorite way to serve bluegill leaves the bodies intact. (usangler.com)
  • Velocity was a significant factor in predicting the mortality of bluegill, but no other species (see Table below). (umass.edu)
  • The 2 and 3 ft/sec treatments showed significantly more scale-loss than the control, but the 1 ft/sec treatment did not in four of the six species exhibiting a velocity effect: bigmouth buffalo, bluegill, freshwater drum, and white sucker. (umass.edu)
  • For still fishing with a bobber, hook the minnow through the back just above the dorsal fin. (takemefishing.org)
  • Dorsal fin has a radius which turns into a hard serrated catfish and large on the back. (blogspot.com)
  • Fish such as catfish have another fleshy lobe behind the dorsal fin called an adipose (fat) fin that is not illustrated here. (visitflorida.com)
  • Fishes such as catfish have another fleshy lobe behind the dorsal fin, called an adipose (fat) fin that is not illustrated here. (myfwc.com)
  • When the professor and students scrutinised them closely through binoculars, they discovered to their astonishment that they were enormous salmon-like fishes, whose heads, tails, and spiny dorsal rays could all be clearly discerned. (blogspot.com)
  • Strong venomous dorsal and pectoral spines provide protection for the fish (Ref. 43081 ). (fishbase.se)
  • Dahanukar N, Raghavan R, Ali A, Britz R (2016) Amblyceps accari , a new species of torrent catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Western Ghats of India. (springer.com)
  • Humtsoe LN, Bordoloi S (2009) Study on the torrential catfish Amblyceps apangi Nath & Dey 1989 (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from Wokha district, Nagaland. (springer.com)
  • Ng HH, Wright JJ (2010) Amblyceps cerinum , a new catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from northeastern India. (springer.com)