Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
"HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Dutch blood donors". Tissue Antigens. 48 (5): 562-74. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1996. ... A2-B44-DR4-DQ8). The full haplotype is (for relative distances) see Human leukocyte antigens: A*0201 : C*0501 : B*4402 : DRB1* ... Before this revision, HLA-A*02 was also referred to as HLA-A2, HLA-A02, and HLA-A*2. HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major ... HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ...
There frequency of DR4-DQ8 haplotypes reach extreme nodal levels. Arthritis has been identified in a pre-Columbian remains from ... "HLA-DR antigens in rheumatoid arthritis. A Swiss collaborative study; final report. Swiss Federal Commission for the Rheumatic ... 2005). "Association of rheumatoid arthritis with HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 in Hungary". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1051 (1): 263-270. ... HLA-DR1 is not genetically linked to DR51, DR52 or DR53, but is linked to HLA-DQ1 and DQ5 serotypes. Fernández MM, Guan R, ...
Pollack MS, Gold J, Metroka CE, Safai B, Dupont B (1984). "HLA-A,B,C and DR antigen frequencies in acquired immunodeficiency ... Type 1 diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4. Some DR3 also react with HLA-DR17 and/or HLA-DR18. The ... HLA-DR3 is composed of the HLA-DR17 and HLA-DR18 split 'antigens' serotypes. DR3 is a component gene-allele of the AH8.1 ... Mann DL, Murray C, O'Donnell M, Blattner WA, Goedert JJ (1990). "HLA antigen frequencies in HIV-1-related Kaposi's sarcoma". J ...
HLA-DR13 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52 and HLA-DQ5 (HLA-DQ1) serotypes. derived from IMGT/HLA DR1404 - 3% DR4 - 25% ... DR14 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR6 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR13 antigens. ... Song EY, Park H, Roh EY, Park MH (2004). "HLA-DRB1 and -DRB3 allele frequencies and haplotypic associations in Koreans". Hum. ... HLA-DR14(DR14) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1401 to *1408, *1410 to *1418, and other *14 gene products. ...
"HLA-A and B antigen frequencies in Welsh coalworkers with pneumoconiosis and Caplan's syndrome". Tissue Antigens. 14 (2): 165-8 ... the association appears not to extend beyond the HLA-B locus. A recent study of DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 phenotype found that A1-cw7-B8 ... "HL-A antigens in congenital rubella and the role of antigens 1 and 8 in the epidemiology of natural rubella". Tissue Antigens. ... HLA-A1 (A1) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A "A" serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ...
"Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... DQ8 increases the risk for rheumatoid arthritis and is linked to the primary risk locus for RA, HLA-DR4. DR4 also plays an ... HLA-DQ8 (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Welinder L, Graugaard B, Madsen M (2000). "HLA antigen and gene frequencies in Eskimos of East Greenland". Eur J Immunogenet. ...
... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ... HLA-DR3 has been consistently observed at high frequencies in inclusion body myositis in caucasians.[37] DR3 was found to ... "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... HL-A8 the second refined B-serotype to be uncovered became HLA-B8. Because of the frequency of the haplotype, homozygotes are ...
"Strong association between IgA nephropathy and HLA-DR4 antigen". Kidney Int. 22 (4): 377-82. doi:10.1038/ki.1982.185. PMID ... The DR4 serogroup is large and has a number of moderate frequency alleles spread over large regions of the world. The ... HLA-DR4 (DR4) is an HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*04 gene products. ... "HLA-DR antigens in pemphigus among Japanese". Tissue Antigens. 17 (2): 238-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1981.tb00689.x. PMID ...
... (A11) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A "A" serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... In autoimmune hepatitis, A11 has a synergistic effect, acting together with DR4 and DR3 to increase the odds of disease to over ... Oddly, in Africa A11 is at very low frequencies, and homozygotes are rare, suggesting that other genetic susceptibilities may ... "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 ...
The DR4-DQA1*0303:DQB1*040X can be found at high frequencies in PNG highland groups but not DQ4.24. The DR*0405 and DR*410 are ... "Combination of HLA-A and HLA class II alleles controls the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis". Tissue Antigens. 58 (6): ... HLA-DQ4 and HLA-DQB1*04 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ4 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... Birol A, Anadolu R, Tutkak H, Gürgey E (2002). "HLA-class 1 and class 2 antigens in Turkish patients with pemphigus". Int J ...
Sirén M, Sareneva H, Lokki M, Koskimies S (1996). "Unique HLA antigen frequencies in the Finnish population". Tissue Antigens. ... And DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 individuals who have type 1 diabetes (late onset) are often mistaken for type-2 diabetes. DR3-DQ2 is ... HLA-DR3-DQ2 is found in HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype in Northern Europeans (including the British Ilse, Ireland, Iceland). HLA ... Klemola T, Savilahti E, Koskimies S, Pelkonen P (1988). "HLA antigens in IgA deficient paediatric patients". Tissue Antigens. ...
"Increased frequency of HLA-A1 and -B8 in association with total lack, but not with deficiency of serum IgA". Tissue Antigens. ... HLA)-DR3 haplotypes depends on genotypic context: association of DPB1 and HLA class I loci among DR3- and DR4-matched Italian ... HLA A1-B8 (Also:HL A1,8; HL A1,A8; HLA A1-Cw7-B8; HLA A*01-B*08, HLA A*0101-B*0801, HLA A*0101-Cw*0701-B*0801; HLA A*01:01-C*07 ... Müller C, Ehninger G, Goldmann S (2003). "Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci hLA-A, hLA-B, and hLA-DR based on over ...
The haplotype HLA-DR4-DQ3 appears to play a role in the pathogenic AAHA production. The alleles primarily recognized are HLA- ... 2003). "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a ... sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): 296-307. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00103.x. PMID 12974796.. ... HLA-DR7 may also be associated with these antibodies and the common haplotype association is the HLA-DR53 serotype. Viard JP, ...
RA is strongly associated with genes of the inherited tissue type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen. HLA-DR4 is ... In RA, physical activity like exercise in the appropriate dosage (frequency, intensity, time, type, volume, progression) and ... Risk alleles within the HLA (particularly HLA-DRB1) genes harbor more risk than other loci. The HLA encodes proteins which ... Positive serum RF findings Positive serum anti-CCP autoantibodies Carriership of HLA-DR4 "Shared Epitope" alleles Family ...
The HLA antigen frequency among patients exceeds more than that among a healthy population. This is evaluated by δ. {\ ... values, among other diseases, juvenile diabetes mellitus (type 1) has a strong association with DR4 even with a low relative ... Example: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles[edit]. HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens also known as the MHC of ... frequency of antigen i. {\displaystyle i}. : p. f. i. =. C. N. =. 0.311. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{i}={\frac {C}{N}}=0.311;}. ...
"Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... HLA-DR3 and. -DR4 combined. Diabetes mellitus type 1. 15[4]. HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. Coeliac disease. 7[6]. ... HLA-C. Minor genes are HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G. β2-microglobulin binds with major and minor gene subunits to produce a ... HLA-DR *α-chain encoded by HLA-DRA locus. *4 β-chains (only 3 possible per person), encoded by HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 loci ...
HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... In Mexicans, HLA-DR4 may be a genetic factor that is protective against DHF. Because HLA-DR4 has been positively selected in ... HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with risk of DHF (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.85). HLA-DR4 homozygous individuals were 11.6 ... The human leukocyte antigen DRB1 locus (HLA-DRB1) was typed in genomic DNA extracted from whole blood samples of 34 Mexican ...
... and other antigens in the sera;30-36 the frequency of HLA DR4;26,27 and the improvement after immunosuppressive therapy,1-5 it ... A genetic link between HLA-DR4 antigen and relapsing polychondritis has been described in Caucasians.25,26 The incidence of HLA ... HLA-DRB1*16:02, HLA-DQB1*05:02, and HLA-B*67:01 were associated with susceptibility to relapsing polychondritis, suggesting a ... Susceptibility to relapsing polychondritis is associated with HLA-DR4. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36(5):660-664. ...
DILE has been observed with increased frequency in association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‒DR4. ... In contrast, SLE affects women with considerably higher frequency than men (female-to-male ratio of 9:1). More whites than ... A second theory is that with decreased T-cell methylation, an overexpression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) ... These theories hold that in SLE, the immune system generates autoantibodies to foreign antigens, and these autoantibodies, in ...
39 Because of the increased frequency of certain HLA-DR4 alleles in these patients, an autoimmune mechanism has been proposed. ... Recipients of the rOspA vaccine have a positive ELISA test result because whole-cell B burgdorferi is used as the antigen. The ... including patients who had had Lyme disease and those who carry the HLA DR4 allele, although the number of such patients was ... The type and frequency of symptoms 30 days or more after the injections did not differ significantly between recipients of ...
High frequency of histocompatibility antigens HLA-DR3 and DR4 in herpes gestations. J Clin Invest. 1981;68:553-555. ... It has been delineated that PG has a strong association with maternal MHC class II antigens haplotypes HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4.27 ... The presence of MHC II-class HLA-antigens DR3 was found in 61%-80% of patients compared to only 22% in controls. DR4 was found ... Abnormal expression of HLA-DR antigen in the placenta of a patient with pemphigoid gestationis. J Reprod Immunol. 1984;6:393- ...
The frequency of HLA risk alleles DR3 and DR4 (0602 excluded) was greater than 93% (Table 1). The prevalence of participants ... At the Joslin Diabetes Center, paraffin sections were microwaved for antigen retrieval and immunostained with guinea pig anti- ... had a high frequency of HLA diabetes risk alleles DR3 and/or DR4 (93%) (21,22). Also consistent with type 1 diabetes, 29.5% of ... had the highest frequency of DR4 risk alleles. Of interest is the higher frequency of the DR3 risk allele among those with ...
It causes premature death; there is a genetic cell marker, hla-dr4. ... Genetic reason for rheumatoid arthritis (antigen type HLA-DR4). In the same fashion, there seems to be a genetic predisposition ... Moreover, at a younger age women are affected more often than men with a frequency of 3:1. By the same token, in elderly people ... namely, people with the surface membrane antigen type HLA-DR4 in Caucasians are significantly more prone to develop this ...
... and DQ antigens. The non-DR group showed higher frequencies of HLA Cw4 (χ2 = 4.027, p = 0.045) and DR4 (χ2 = 4.398, p = 0.036) ... The frequencies of HLA-A, B, and Cw antigens in the control group, the non-DR group, and the PDR group are shown in table 2, ... The PDR group showed higher frequencies of HLA DR4 than the control group (χ2 = 5.937, p = 0.014). ... DR4 may, therefore, be related to the onset of type 2 diabetes, but not to the development of retinopathy. The HLA-DR4 levels ...
... provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens ... provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens ... HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 allele frequencies in Cuban individuals with antecedents of dengue 2 disease: advantages of the Cuban ...
... transglutamination and citrullination of beta cell antigens enhances presentation by the high risk HLA class II alleles DR4 and ... We show CD4+ T cells specific for these epitopes are present at elevated frequencies ex vivo in the peripheral blood of ... CD4 T Cell reactivity to both native and citrullinated-MOG epitopes identified in HLA-DR4 mouse model Of demyelinating disease ... Such neo-antigens can induce distinct T cell specificities, while others cross-react with wild type-specific T cells. In each ...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules DR3 and DR4 are associated strongly with type 1 diabetes mellitus. More than ... The frequency of diabetes development in children with a mother who has diabetes is 2-3%; this figure increases to 5-6% for ... Patients expressing DR4 are usually younger at diagnosis and more likely to have positive insulin antibodies, yet they are ... Frequency and timing of severe hypoglycemia affects spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Oct. ...
The frequency of NIMA encoding HLA-DR4 or the SE was compared to the non-inherited paternal allele (NIPA). DR4-encoding NIMA vs ... Conclusions: Risk of RA was associated with HLA-DR4 encoding NIMA in younger-onset women but not in older-onset women or men. ... Objectives: Some patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lack RA-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Prior ... patients with RA informative for analysis included 176 without HLA-DRB1*04 and 86 without the HLA shared epitope (SE). ...
HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... Protective and enhancing HLA alleles, HLA-DRB1*0901 and HLA-A*24, for severe forms of dengue virus infection, dengue ... 2A). In fact, the mutation frequency of each nucleotide was proportional to its occurrence in the DENV genome (data not shown ... Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens. PLoS One 4: ...
The MHC HLA-B antigens were first found to have increased frequency in patients with Hodgkins lymphoma in 1967. Other ... analysis of MHC disease associations found that there is shared disease susceptibility to alleles that arise from HLA-DR4 ... MHC and antigen presentation. The MHC controls how the immune system detects and responds to specific antigens. Antigen ... MHC class I molecules present antigens that are intracellular or endogenous, whilst MHC class II molecules present antigens ...
An increased frequency of HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) and HLA-DR1 (DRB1*0101 and DRB1*0102) is found in patients who have had arthritis ... it will be important to determine whether bacterial antigens activate T cells that crossreact with peripheral nerve antigens. ... Steere, AC, Dwyer, E, Winchester, R. Association of chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR2 alleles. N Engl J Med 1990 ... notably HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR1, indicating that CD4+ T cells may be involved in the disease process. Lyme disease occurs worldwide ...
HLA-DR4 tg mice are a useful model for examining the immune responses against bacterial antigens in the context of human as ... HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in the North American population: the National Marrow Donor Program donor registry. ... all MHC class II-restricted responses in HLA-DR4 tg animals are induced via the human HLA-DR4 molecules. Chlamydia-infected HLA ... HLA-DR4 tg mice were originally generated with HLA-DRA-IEa and HLA-DRB1*0401-IEβ chimeric genes and then backcrossed to MHC-IIΔ ...
Biswas et al11 found statistically significant higher phenotype frequencies of HLA B5 (B51), DR1, and DR4 in patients with ... Profiling of human leukocyte antigens in Eales disease. Int Ophthalmol 1998;21:277-81. ... It is hypothesised that individuals with the HLA predisposition may develop retinal vasculitis as a result of a cell mediated ... immunological tissue damage triggered by a sequestered Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen in an inactive form and clinically ...
Of the latter, 10 (2.8% overall) were persistently positive; they had higher frequencies of HLA DR4 (p , 0.01) and HLA DR3, 4 ( ... Human leukocyte antigen typing and assays for insulin autoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAb) and ... To determine the sequence of development of islet autoantibodies and their relation to HLA genes in infants at risk for Type I ... Infants with high risk HLA-DR alleles and multiple antibodies at high risk for diabetes were identified. A much larger group of ...
Genotyping of HLA-DRB1 alleles was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with sequence-specific ... Thirty percent of RA patients were carrying at least one copy of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) compared to 10% and 14% of ... and to determine the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles (SE) in African patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... but not HLA-DR4 (RR 0.8) [21]. The frequency of SE-containing HLA-DRB1 alleles was 25.2% in African Americans with RA as ...
HLA A*0201-restricted PPI-specific and HLA B*2705-restricted VIPR1-specific T-cell clones generated using the optimised ... with low affinity for cognate antigen. This issue is particularly pronounced for anti-cancer and autoimmune T-cells as self- ... presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*0201 or HLA*2402. Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a ... presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*0201 or HLA*2402. Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a ...
HLA-A and -B antigens did not show any contribution of progression to ESRD. However, we note that the significance of all these ... The polymorphisms of HLA class I and II antigens in ESRD patients and a healthy control group were retrospectively analyzed. ... Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies and ... In order to standardize the HLA designation of prior low-resolution typings with the more advanced DNA based typings, all HLA-A ...
The genotype frequencies of HLA A2, A3, A28, B13, B17, B35, B52, B60, Cw2, Cw6, DR4, and DQ3 were significantly increased, ... HLA A30 (19) split antigen was not identified in immunized women while HLA A23 (9) split antigen was not identified in non ... Further, it is evident that there are significant differences in the observed HLA antigen frequencies and two locus haplotypes ... We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those ...
... including HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and DPB1. Patients (n = 133) with high-risk genotypes (DR3/DR3, DR3/DR4, DR4/DR4) were selected f … ... HLA)-DR-DQ genotypes for type 1 diabetes (T1D) were compared with HLA-matched controls to evaluate T1D risk for other HLA loci ... Significant allele frequency differences between patients and DR-DQ-matched controls existed for specific alleles at all loci. ... including HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and DPB1. Patients (n = 133) with high-risk genotypes (DR3/DR3, DR3/DR4, DR4/DR4) were selected from ...
Genovese S, Bonfanti R, Bazzigaluppi E et al (1996) Association of IA-2 autoantibodies with HLA DR4 phenotypes in IDDM. ... Humoral responses to islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 are attenuated in patients carrying HLA-A*24 alleles at the onset ... Culina S, Lalanne AI, Afonso G et al (2018) Islet-reactive CD8+ T cell frequencies in the pancreas, but not in blood, ... DR3/DR4) in first-degree relatives. Epitope scanning identified more putative ZnT8 epitopes for HLA-DQ2 than for -DQ8 or -DQ6.4 ...
"HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Dutch blood donors". Tissue Antigens. 48 (5): 562-74. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1996. ... A2-B44-DR4-DQ8). The full haplotype is (for relative distances) see Human leukocyte antigens: A*0201 : C*0501 : B*4402 : DRB1* ... Before this revision, HLA-A*02 was also referred to as HLA-A2, HLA-A02, and HLA-A*2. HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major ... HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ...
HLA extended haplotypes in childhood and adult onset HLA-DR4-associated arthropathies. Tissue Antigens 1990; 35: 56-59. ... 26) and those with a frequency of , 0.5% are shown in bold. The frequency column shows the haplotype frequencies for HLA-BDRDQ ... HLA-DR53 is an HLA class II supertypic antigen expressed at somewhat lower level than the private HLA-DR antigens encoded by ... homozygosity for HLA-DR4 in young males 110;111; HLA-DR4,7 genotype more frequent in males 112; association with ancestral HLA- ...
... and investigate the correlation of such antigens with pulmonary involvement. ... Establishing the frequency of HLA-DR antigens in a group of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ... Human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4) exhibits a strong association with RA in various populations and ethnic groups; in ... followed by HLA-DRB1*0401, HLA-DRB3 and HLA-DRB1*0101, whereas the most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*0901, HLA-DRB4 and HLA- ...
There is an increased frequency of the genetic allele. HLA-DR4 in patients when compared with controls (see hla). This may ... There have been a number of postulated antigens that might initiate the immune response, but none have stood up to further ... However, there are also reports of husbands and wives developing PMR that would support exposure to the same antigen rather ... indicate that patients have a genetically determined way of responding to antigens that predisposes them to getting the disease ...
Relation between histo-compatibility antigen immunogenetics and pregnancy induced hypertension]. , Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi ... The results showed that the frequency of HLA-DR4 was significantly higher in PIH than that in normal pregnancy (P < 0.001). ... The distribution of histo-compatibility antigen D region (HLA-DR) frequency, the frequency of homozygosity and the HLA-DR ... specially obvious in the frequency of DR4 antigen sharing in PIH (P < 0.0001). There was, however, no significant difference in ...
... of patients with RA express either the HLA-DR4 molecule or the equivalent HLA-DR1 molecule, but the frequency of these antigens ... High association of an HL-A antigen W27 with ankylosing spondylitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 288, 704-706 (1973). ... jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the ... The resistance of the B10.S strain was found to be secondary to an antigen-specific defect in the generation of Th 1 cells that ...
  • A pooled analysis of MHC disease associations found that there is shared disease susceptibility to alleles that arise from HLA-DR4 haplotypes, indicating that there is both common and disease-specific associations between MHC and autoimmunity. (
  • Two locus haplotype frequency analysis observed among the responders women revealed that among the significant haplotypes expressed A2-B5, B7-Cw1, DR2-DQ1 were highly significant haplotypes in positive linkage, while A1-B5, and A1-B7 were in significant negative linkage disequilibrium. (
  • In addition, there are several HLA-A*02 haplotypes that appear to contribute heavily to higher or lower viral loads in HIV patients. (
  • HLA-DR53 specificity -encoded by HLA-DRB4 - is exclusively found in association with haplotypes encoding the DR4, DR7 and DR9 broad specificities (i.e., all DRB1*04, *07, *09 alleles). (
  • The null allele DRB4*0103102N has been found on HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:02 and *04:04 haplotypes 13;14 . (
  • The gene encoding the HLA-DR53 antigen is HLA-DRB4 which exists only on DRB1*04, *07 and *09 haplotypes. (
  • There frequency of DR4-DQ8 haplotypes reach extreme nodal levels. (
  • In addition to that, T1DM was significantly associated with DQ2 (33.33 vs.15%) and DQ3 (40.0 vs. 20%) antigens as compared to controls, suggesting that these haplotypes had a role in disease susceptibility, while the frequency of DR2 and DQ1 antigens were significantly lowered in patients compared to controls (6.66 vs. 25% and 6.66 vs. 22.5% respectively). (
  • Abstract Enterovirus infections may be involved in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. (
  • Since the haplotype HLA-A2B12 is the commonest class I part of the DR53 haplotypes, it can be concluded that our finding does not disagree with the HLA class I studies. (
  • Genetic variability , by the presence of specific haplotypes of HLA system (HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4) , influences the response to the vaccination. (
  • 11] A. Spurkland, S. Saarinen, K.M. Boberg, S. Mitchell, U. Broome and L. Caballeria: "HLA class II haplotypes in primary sclerosing cholangitis patients from five European populations", Tissue Antigens, Vol. 53, (1999), pp. 459-469. (
  • The length of the haplotype is remarkable because of the rapid rate of evolution at the HLA locus should degrade such long haplotypes. (
  • T1a diabetes is marked by presence of autoantibodies to islet cell autoantigens (insulin, GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8) and high-risk HLA (human leucocyte antigen) haplotypes (DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2). (
  • The HLA Class II susceptibility haplotypes DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2 are present in 90% of children with type 1 diabetes, whereas DR15-DQ6 is associated with protection. (
  • High risk HLA haplotypes in a child with no family history of disease confer a risk similar to that of having an affected sibling (5-6%), and this risk rises rapidly if one or both haplotypes are shared with the affected sibling. (
  • Two HLA Class II haplotypes, DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2 , are present in about 90% of children with type I diabetes. (
  • The genotype containing both haplotypes ( DR4-DQ8/DR3/DQ2 ) carries the highest risk of diabetes (about 5%), and is most commonly seen in early-onset disease. (
  • [2] HLA susceptibility haplotypes are over-represented in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), but at lower frequency than in type 1 diabetes. (
  • The double-transgenic mice developed moderate CIA when immunized with CII when compared with the severe arthritis observed in DQ8 transgenic mice, much like RA patients bearing both susceptible and nonsusceptible HLA haplotypes. (
  • Both inherited HLA-haplotypes are important in the predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • RESULTS: HLA typing confirmed that the HLA-DR3/DQ2 haplotype is closely associated with the occurrence of anti-Ro/La antibodies, and that the frequency of HLA-DR1 and DR4 haplotypes is reduced among antibody-positive patients. (
  • Categories of consistent predisposing, intermediate ('neutral'), and protective haplotypes were identified and found to correlate with disease prevalence and the marked ethnic differences in DRB1-DQB1 frequencies. (
  • 95% of type 1 diabetes have HLA-DR3 or DR4, or both, and in family studies, sibling pairs affected with type 1 diabetes have a non-random distribution of shared HLA haplotypes. (
  • Some patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lack RA-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. (
  • Prior studies investigated non-inherited maternal HLA alleles (NIMA) in RA risk with conflicting results. (
  • Here we demonstrate that enzymatic transglutamination and citrullination of beta cell antigens enhances presentation by the high risk HLA class II alleles DR4 and DQ8. (
  • We used engineered mice that lack endogenous major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles but express a human HLA allele (HLA-DR4 transgenic [tg] mice) to examine primary immune and CPAF-mediated responses against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic performance of autoantibodies against citrullinated peptides/proteins (ACPA) and to determine the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles (SE) in African patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • Genotyping of HLA-DRB1 alleles was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes on microbeads arrays. (
  • There is extensive evidence that some HLA-DRB1 alleles, including HLA-DRB1*0101, HLA-DRB1*0102, HLA-DRB1*0401, HLA-DRB1*0404, HLA-DRB1*0405, HLA-DRB1*0408, HLA-DRB1*0410, HLA-DRB1*1001, HLA-DRB1*1402 are associated with susceptibility to RA. (
  • These alleles share a common amino acid sequence (QKRAA, QRRAA, or RRRAA), also termed shared epitope (SE), located at positions 70 to 74 within the third hypervariable region of DRB1 , forming part of the antigen-binding site. (
  • Infants with high risk HLA-DR alleles and multiple antibodies at high risk for diabetes were identified. (
  • Although the overall distributions did not differ significantly, allele frequency differences were discovered between the controls from Lazio and controls from northern Italy for some alleles previously determined to affect T1D risk, such as A*3002, DPB1*0301, and DPB1*0402. (
  • Significant allele frequency differences between patients and DR-DQ-matched controls existed for specific alleles at all loci. (
  • Compared with controls, reduced patient frequencies were seen for several alleles, including A*0101, B*0801, and Cw*0701, all on the highly conserved, extended DR3 haplotype known as 8.1 in DR3/DR3, but not DR3/DR4, subgroup. (
  • The latest list of officially recognized HLA-DRB alleles can be found at the ANRC site . (
  • HLA-DRB4*0101 was the most frequently found allele, followed by HLA-DRB1*0401, HLA-DRB3 and HLA-DRB1*0101, whereas the most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*0901, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB1*1201 in the participants with lung affection. (
  • Homozygosity for the HLA-DR1 allele with shared epitope, particularly alleles *0401 and *0404, seems to correlate strongly with severe manifestations of the disease, including the presence of subcutaneous nodules, positive RF and radiological erosion [ 8 ]. (
  • Polymorphisms of the alleles HLA-B40 and B54 are particularly associated with lung abnormalities, fibrosis and bronchiolitis [ 18 , 19 ]. (
  • Since the Dw4, Dw14, Dw15, and DR1 molecules have similar antigen-binding sites and since combinations of these alleles particularly predispose to severe RA, we suggest that synergistic mechanisms are involved. (
  • Several reports based on serologic HLA typing have pointed out the positive association between patients with recurrent fetal miscarriage who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies and specific HLA alleles (13, 14). (
  • A molecular genetic approach for determining HLA class II genes, however, has not yet been taken to analyze the association between the patients and specific HLA alleles. (
  • morphism (RFLP) recently has become available for use in typing HLA class II genes at the nucleotide sequence level, thus enabling us to determine accurately two alleles of HLA class II genes in individuals (15 17). (
  • There was no evidence for association between HLA-DQB1 alleles and antibody response to Nt47. (
  • Individual studies have reported different results regarding the association of HLA alleles with RA in Chinese populations. (
  • It was proven to be associated with (histocompatibility locus antigen) HLA region strongly, especially with HLA-DRB1 alleles [ 3 ]. (
  • HLA-DRB1 alleles encode (70Q(R)K(R)RAA74) encoding the shared epitope (SE) (RAA amino acid pattern in positions 72 to 74 of the third hypervariable region of the DRβ1 chain) are associated with RA susceptibility [ 4 ]. (
  • SE contains HLA-DRB1 alleles representing significant genetic risk factor for RA. (
  • Some have reported that the frequency of the HLA-DRB1*0401 and *0405 alleles are significantly increased in RA patients, whereas others have found no associations [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • This study was performed to systematically summarize the association between Chinese with RA and HLA-DRB1 alleles. (
  • The frequency of HLA-DRB1 alleles varies according to ethnic and racial background, with some alleles being extremely rare. (
  • Yet most HLA-associated diseases (which include infectious diseases and some forms of cancer) do not reveal a simple Mendelian mode of inheritance, either recessive or dominant, are only partially penetrant, and may involve a number of different HLA alleles in addition to non-HLA loci (3). (
  • The serodominant secreted effector protein of Salmonella, SseB, is a strong CD4 antigen containing an immunodominant epitope presented by diverse HLA class II alleles. (
  • HLA-DR/peptide binding studies indicate that this protein encompasses a number of peptides with ability to bind to several different HLA-DR alleles. (
  • You can compare the distribution of HLA-DR alleles by country ( to get a better idea of where each type is more common. (
  • Certain HLA-DR alleles have been associated with predisposition to human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • There is also evidence that certain HLA-DQ alleles may also be important in determining susceptibility to RA. (
  • As predisposing genetic factors such as HLA alleles are known, immunological interventions to prevent type 1 diabetes are of great interest. (
  • The risk alleles are DR3, DR4 and DQ2.5. (
  • The major susceptibility loci associated with susceptibility to RA were identified approximately 30 years ago and consist of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules. (
  • The current work suggests that HLA-DR3 (odds ratio = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.098-3.324, P = 0.024, Pc = 0.312) and HLA-DR11 (odds ratio = 2.06, 95 % CI = 1.133-3.761, P = 0.021, P c = 0.273) may represent susceptibility risk factors for the development of ESRD in Taiwanese individuals. (
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (
  • According to several studies, the presence of HLA-DR4 is more strongly associated with aggressive RA, characterized by the progression of radiological erosion, positive rheumatoid factor (RF) and extra-articular manifestations, than with susceptibility to the disease [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • This study suggested that HLA-DR4 may be related to the genetic susceptibility of PIH. (
  • HLA heterozygosity contributes to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) systems are useful in examining the immunogenetic basis of some diseases because these systems control both the immune response to natural antigens and the susceptibility or resistance to several diseases, especially autoimmune diseases (12). (
  • IDDM susceptibility in association with HLA-B18 was confirmed and resulted significantly higher in our cases in respect to controls. (
  • Can HLA-DRB4 be a susceptibility locus? (
  • As a test of our original hypothesis that the HLA-associated susceptibility to childhood leukaemia is a recessive trait and not a simple allelic association 5;6 , we examined the homozygosity rates. (
  • Well-designed meta-analyses of Caucasian and American populations showed that there was a strong association between HLA-DRB1 and RA susceptibility and severity [ 5 ]. (
  • The HLA complex on chromosome 6 contains more than 200 genes, and contributes about 50% of genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. (
  • HLA-DQ beta gene contributes to susceptibility and resistance to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (
  • 1. A marker DR-beta-I DNA sequence from the HLA class II beta genes associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with DR4-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (
  • 3. The marker DR-beta-I DNA sequence of claim 1 associated with DR4, Dw4-associated susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (
  • 5. Marker DQ-beta DNA sequences from the HLA class II beta genes associated with DRw6-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (
  • 7. A marker DNA sequence from the HLA DQ-beta allele associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, wherein said sequence can be used to detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that mice transgenic for HLA-DQ8, a DQ allele associated with susceptibility to RA, develop severe arthritis after type II collagen immunization. (
  • Determinants of genetic susceptibility in HLA-associated autoimmune disease. (
  • HLA-DR4 subtype frequencies in rheumatoid arthritis indicate that DRB1 is the major susceptibility locus within the HLA class II region. (
  • We reasoned by analogy with a well known disease, where arthritis followed infection : Lyme disease, caused by a spirochete (Borrelia Burgdorferi) and with a known rheumatologic susceptibility marker [the same as for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)] : The occurrence of "treatment-resistant" Lyme arthritis correlated with an increased frequency of rheumatoid arthritis-associated HLA-DR4 (= HLA-DRB1*0401) (Steere A. C., 2003). (
  • Previous work showed an association of the hemorrhagic form with human leukocyte antigens (HLA), suggesting a role of genetic factors in disease susceptibility. (
  • A strict definition of autoimmunity would exclude such diseases, because T cells or antibodies specific for self-antigens are not responsible for tissue damage. (
  • Upon CPAF-plus-interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccination, HLA-DR4 tg animals exhibited robust CPAF-specific IFN-γ production and elevated titers of anti-CPAF total antibody and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and lower titers of IgG2b and IgG1 antibodies. (
  • Antenatal sera from 1334 pregnant women attending the Nowrojee B J Wadia Maternity Hospital and KEM Hospital in Parel, Mumbai were collected and screened for anti HLA A and B antibodies to produce an indigenous HLA tissue typing tray. (
  • One hundred and sixty three sera (12.2%) were found positive for HLA antibodies. (
  • Moreover, the incidence of anti-HLA antibodies was correlated with the allelic frequencies in the Maharastrian population. (
  • Standard methods of serological HLA typing, ABO and Rh (D) groups, and screening for Rh D antibodies were used. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen typing and assays for insulin autoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAb) and tyrosine phosphatase IA2 (IA2Ab) antibodies were done on cord blood, and venous blood was sampled every 6 months for IAA, GADAb and IA2Ab. (
  • Correlation of islet cell antibodies and HLA-DR phenotypes with diabetes mellitus in adults. (
  • The anti-SMA antibodies react with various cytoskeletal antigens, among which F-actin, especially in a polymerized form, is thought to be the most specific for AIH. (
  • It is also possible that HLA antigen systems are associated with recurrent fetal miscarriage in patients who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. (
  • All people from the endemic areas had anti-p126 antibodies, and the frequencies of anti-Nt47 antibodies were similar in both communities (66% for Colina and 75% for Ribeirinha). (
  • OBJECTIVE GAD antibodies (GADA) are more common in type 1 diabetic subjects diagnosed at an older age, whereas insulinoma-antigen 2 antibodies (IA-2A) are more common in subjects with younger onset. (
  • At diagnosis of type 1a diabetes, about 95% of individuals will have one or more autoantibodies, including insulin autoantibodies (IAA), GAD antibodies (GADA), insulinoma-antigen 2 antibodies (IA-2A, also called ICA512), and the recently described zinc transporter protein autoantibodies (ZnT8Ab) ( 1 ). (
  • It is what helps our body identify foreign antigens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) and determine what type of white blood cells and antibodies should be produced. (
  • Essentially, 100 percent of women with a history of PG have demonstrable anti-HLA antibodies. (
  • Because the only source of disparate HLA antigens is typically the placenta (which is primarily of paternal origin), the universal finding of anti-HLA antibodies implies a high frequency of immunologic insult during gestation. (
  • Whether anti-HLA antibodies represent phenomenon or epiphenomenon, remains to be clarified. (
  • Furthermore, 80-90% of patients with these antibodies possess the HLA-DR3/DQ2 major histocompatibility complex haplotype (1), suggesting that T cells responding to peptides presented by these HLA molecules are involved in the generation of these autoantibodies. (
  • The present study was undertaken to address the hypothesis that HLA-DR3-restricted T cell responses to La peptide neoepitopes could be identified in patients with SLE and in those with primary SS, thereby playing a part in the subsequent generation of anti-La antibodies. (
  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the presence of antibodies to a 65 kD Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase antigen (GAD), Insulinoma-associated protein-2 antibodies (IA-2 orICA512), which is now known as protein- tyrosine phosphatase (PTP),[7] insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), and islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs), in blood that identify the autoimmune process that leads to β cell destruction. (
  • Because HLA-DR4 has been positively selected in Latin American populations, these results may apply also to other similar ethnic groups, particularly those with high percentages of admixture with indigenous Amerindian genes. (
  • To determine the sequence of development of islet autoantibodies and their relation to HLA genes in infants at risk for Type I diabetes followed from birth. (
  • HLA genes encode cell surface molecules specialized to present antigenic peptides to T-cell receptors. (
  • Such variability might be partially accounted for by the genetic basis of the investigated population as a function of the influence of genes, such as HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4, on the phenotype of disease. (
  • Background: TIDM is known to be polygenic disease that appears from the interaction of mutation in multiple genes including HLA. (
  • Interestingly, on average across individuals, greater than 50% of these antigen-specific CD4 + T cells were found to be memory T cells based on CD45RO + staining and expression of CD4 + memory T cell-associated genes. (
  • Some 50% of the genetic risk of type 1 diabetes is conferred by genes in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6. (
  • Ultimately, disease association with genetic factors has often been defined in terms of human leukocyte antigens (HLA), particularly those for the highly polymorphic class I and class II genes. (
  • It is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR4, and it appears likely that the incidence in various ethnic groups parallels the frequency of these genes in different populations. (
  • Nine of eleven patients genotyped for HLA-DR and DQ expressed the RA shared motif in their HLA class II genes. (
  • The direct involvement of the human leukocyte antigen class II DR-DQ genes in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well established, and these genes display a complex hierarchy of risk effects at the genotype and haplotype levels. (
  • abstract = "We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DFB in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in 19 patients with primary Sj{\"o}gren's syndrome (primary SS), and healthy Danes. (
  • Establishing the frequency of HLA-DR antigens in a group of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate the correlation of such antigens with pulmonary involvement. (
  • DR1 are associated with rheumatoid arthritis, and while not the strongest association with the highest risk for early onset arthritis is within the DR4-bearing Native American population. (
  • HLA-DR antigens in rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • We have investigated the role of HLA-DR genotypes in 184 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 46 patients with Felty syndrome, to establish the relative contribution of the RA-associated subtypes of DR4 (Dw4, Dw14, and Dw15). (
  • This study was performed to systematically summarize results on the association of HLA-DRB1 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. (
  • Synovial fluid and peripheral blood samples were obtained during relapse from 36 patients with spondyloarthropathies, 21 adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and 135 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and the frequency of CD25 bright CD4 + T cells was determined. (
  • Association between HLA-DR antigens and rheumatoid arthritis in Arabs. (
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis ( : HLA DR1, DR4, DR5, DR8 and DR12 are associated with the disease at various levels. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen DRB1 locus (HLA-DRB1) was typed in genomic DNA extracted from whole blood samples of 34 Mexican dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and 47 dengue fever (DF) patients, by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide reverse dot blot. (
  • For A*02, the α chain is encoded by the HLA-A*02 gene and the β chain is encoded by the B2M locus. (
  • HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele group at the HLA-A locus. (
  • The HLA-DRB4 promoter polymorphism is associated with differential expression of this locus 4 and this occurs at the level of mRNA production 3 . (
  • There was, however, no significant difference in the frequency of homozygosity or heterozygosity between HLA-DR and DR4 locus. (
  • Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. (
  • We published the first molecular HLA association study in childhood ALL and showed a convincing association for a homozygous genotype of the DQA1 locus by RFLP analysis 4 . (
  • Contrary to previous studies, the key T2D risk allele at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) had a significantly lower frequency in LADA cases, suggesting that this locus does not play a role in LADA etiology. (
  • Parameters associated with higher random C-peptide were lower hemoglobin A1C, older age of onset, higher frequency of HLA DR3 genotype, and responsiveness to a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). (
  • Among 620 patients with 1 or both parents having a HLA genotype, patients with RA informative for analysis included 176 without HLA-DRB1*04 and 86 without the HLA shared epitope (SE). (
  • Corresponding genotype frequencies in 53 Type 1 diabetic patients were 79%, 21% and 0%, respectively (p less than 0.0005 from chi 2 test). (
  • HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 Genotype and Frequency of Enterovirus in Longitudinal Monthly Fecal Samples from Healthy Infants. (
  • From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this genotype were identified. (
  • In conclusion, there was no statistically significant association between HLA genotype and the occurrence of human enterovirus gut infections. (
  • This genotype more or less corresponds to homozygosity for HLA-DR53 and the current research specifically examined this genotype by PCR analysis against a newborn control group (as opposed to an adult control group in the previous RFLP study). (
  • You can know your HLA types through a blood test, i.e. serotype (ask your doctor), or checking the raw from your DNA, i.e. genotype, if you tested with 23andMe, and in some cases also with Geno 2.0 or FamilyFinder. (
  • HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with risk of DHF (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.85). (
  • Thirty percent of RA patients were carrying at least one copy of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) compared to 10% and 14% of patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases and healthy individuals, respectively. (
  • HLA-DR1 (DR1) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*01 gene products. (
  • The peptide binding specificities of HLA-DRB1*0401, DRB1*0101, and DRB1*0701 have been analyzed by the use of large collections of synthetic peptides corresponding to naturally occurring sequences. (
  • Result(s): The frequencies of DRB1*0403 and DRB1*0410 were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. (
  • The frequency of DRB1*04 also was significantly higher in the patient group. (
  • HLA-DRB1 genotypes may have a modulating influence on MCTD in Polish patients. (
  • It was found that HLA-DRB1*04, *0401, *0404, *0405 and *0410 are risk factors for RA in Chinese populations. (
  • Many studies have attempted to clarify the relationship between HLA-DRB1 and RA, but there has been no definite consensus to date in Chinese populations. (
  • Ligand motifs of HLA-DRB5*0101 and DRB1*1501 molecules delineated from self-peptides. (
  • Multiple Sclerosis ( : HLA-DRB1*1501 plays a role in the disease. (
  • N.B. : HLA-DR11 is the short spelling for HLA-DRB1*11, just like HLA-C6 is short for HLA-Cw*06. (
  • In lyme disease arthritis, *0101 appears to play a role in presentation of triggering microbial antigens. (
  • HLA-DRB*0101 means essentially the same as HLA-DR1. (
  • This is because the MHC molecules display an antigenic determinant called an epitope that is either self or non-self, with antigens from the transplanted cells recognized as non-self. (
  • Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a multimerized epitope from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 (VIPR1) presented by HLA B*27:05. (
  • The most convincing association study in leukaemia is the one which used a monoclonal antibody recognising HVR3 epitope of the DR53 antigen 13 . (
  • Of these, peptide 11 (p11) was shown in priming of both HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice to contain an immunodominant CD4 epitope. (
  • We first screened a panel of six epitope peptide candidates selected with the TEPITOPE program and found that all six peptides induced peptide-specific T-cell proliferation from one or more donors with estimated T-cell precursor frequencies of 0-4.17 × 10 −6 . (
  • We then established peptide-specific T-cell clones for five of these six peptides and demonstrated that the T-cell clone specific for the PSMA 459 epitope (NYTLRVDCTPLMYSL) can recognize processed antigens from recombinant PSMA proteins. (
  • Epitope mapping was performed by IFN-γ ELISpot screening, confirmed by in vitro MHC binding.RESULTS Activated CD4+ T cell frequencies in bronchoalveolar lavage correlated strongly with local C-X-C motif chemokine 10 levels. (
  • Eighteen HLA-A*0201-positive subjects with stage III-IV melanoma received three biweekly i.v. or intradermal injections of ex vivo generated myeloid DCs pulsed with MART-1 27-35 epitope. (
  • However, analysis of determinant spreading to other melanoma antigens was noted in the only subject with complete response to this single-epitope immunization. (
  • The haplotype frequencies were ≤one when these common hapoltypes were compared with control population. (
  • HLA-DR53 is not expressed on the HLA-B57DR7Dw11DQ9 (DQA1*02:01, DQB1*03:03) haplotype (as in the cell line DBB (IHW 9052) representing the conserved extended haplotype (CEH) 57.1) due to a base substitution at the 3' end of the first intron of the gene 9;10 . (
  • 21 The extended haplotype HLA-A1, B8, DR3 is known to be in linkage disequilibrium with a deletion of C4A (the C4 null allele or C4QO). (
  • Some familial accumulation and the association with the HLA-DR4 haplotype 8, 17, 18 indicate a genetic predisposition. (
  • In combination with autoantibodies to several other islet antigens, including insulin, ZnT8A help predict risk of future type 1 diabetes. (
  • a ) Schematic diagram of the pancreatic islet beta cell illustrating the locations of the major antigens that autoantibodies recognise: GAD65, islet antigen-2 (IA-2), insulin and the zinc transporter ZnT8. (
  • The autoimmune mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells is reflected by the presence of autoantibodies against prominent antigens in the pancreatic β-cells. (
  • Objective: This study was designed to investigate the role of HLA-class I and class II antigens in the etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and also assessment of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoantibodies in the patients at the onset of the disease. (
  • Recognition of the immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide by autoantibodies and HLA-DR2-restricted T cell clones from multiple sclerosis patients. (
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that these are naive T cell responses, and that the identification of T cell epitopes involved in the generation of anti-Ro/La autoantibodies should focus on alternative candidate antigens. (
  • The most likely T cell antigens are those targeted by the autoantibodies or closely linked "carrier" proteins (2). (
  • In the latter form, a uveal component, whether tissue damage or a microbial trigger, stimulates the generation of antigen-specific T cells and/or autoantibodies that are believed to play a pathogenetic role [[ 3 ]], hence the term autoimmune uveitis (AU). (
  • The highest diversity of subtypes in found within HLA-DR4, although non-Mediterranean Europeans usually belong to HLA-DRB*0401. (
  • Lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes patients were stained with pMHC multimers made with epitopes from preproinsulin (PPI), insulin-β chain, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), or glucose-6-phospate catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*02:01 or HLA*24:02. (
  • This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides originating from EBV. (
  • This high affinity increases the probability of CD8+ t-cell recognition of EBV peptides held by HLA-A*02 complexes. (
  • The MHC-peptides assessed included peptides from viral pathogens including HIV-1 (gag p24), CMV (pp65), and HSV (VP16), as well as self-peptides: the melanoma-associated antigen gp100 , the arthritis-associated antigen fibrinogen , and the diabetes-associated antigen preproinsulin . (
  • HIV-1-specific CD4 + memory T cell clones from various individuals showed cross-reactivity to several of these environmental microbial antigens as measured by production of IFNg and IL-2, and proliferation when stimulated with MHC-peptides. (
  • Frequency of molecular mimicry among T-cell peptides as the basis for autoimmune disease and autoantibody induction. (
  • Self-peptides bound to the type I diabetes associated class II MHC molecules HLA-DQ1 and HLA-DQ8. (
  • We show CD4 + T cells specific for these epitopes are present at elevated frequencies ex vivo in the peripheral blood of patients with long standing T1D and are of Th1 phenotype. (
  • Sequencing of the TCR-beta chain from naïve and memory HIV-1-specific CD4 + T cells indicated that the antigen-specific memory phenotype but not naive CD4 + T cell populations had arisen from clonal expansion. (
  • Thus the memory phenotype of these antigen-specific T cells indicates prior antigen experience and subsequent clonal expansion. (
  • HLA-DR phenotype distribution was similar regardless of response to immunosuppressive therapy. (
  • T cells specific for 52-kd Ro have been identified in the salivary glands of Japanese patients with primary SS, although their frequency and activation phenotype are unknown (5). (
  • Their main role is in antigen presentation where MHC molecules display peptide fragments for recognition by appropriate T-cells. (
  • Antigen specificity of T-cell recognition is controlled by MHC molecules with different antigen presentation between MHC class I and class II molecules. (
  • MHC class I molecules present antigens that are intracellular or endogenous, whilst MHC class II molecules present antigens that are extracellular or exogenous. (
  • Cross presentation also occurs where MHC class I molecules present extracellular antigens to CD8+ T-cells. (
  • Degradation through autophagy can cause endogenous antigens to be presented by MHC class II molecules. (
  • Many viruses have evolved proteins that prevent antigen presentation by MHC molecules through the degradation or mislocalization of MHC molecules. (
  • Together, these results demonstrate the importance of human HLA-DR4 molecules in the recognition and presentation of CPAF epitopes, leading to the generation of protective antichlamydial immunity and making these mice a valuable model for mapping HLA-DR4-restricted chlamydial epitopes. (
  • More than 200 different types of HLA class I and class II molecules have already been identified ( 64 , 65 ). (
  • HLA molecules are located in the cell membrane and present processed antigens to cells of the immune system. (
  • HLA Class I molecules are present on most nucleated cells, whereas Class II molecules are found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells or macrophages. (
  • Biochemical characterization of a second family of human la molecules, HLA-DS, equivalent to murine I-A subregion molecules. (
  • HLA-DM Acts as a Molecular Chaperone and Rescues Empty HLA-DR Molecules at Lysosomal pH (1997) Kropshofer Harald et al. (
  • these Trm cells displayed progressive differentiation, downregulation of costimulatory molecules, and elevated CXCR3 expression as infection evolved.CONCLUSIONS Human infection challenge provides a unique opportunity to study the breadth of specificity and dynamics of RSV-specific T-cell responses in the target organ, allowing the precise investigation of Trm recognizing novel viral antigens over time. (
  • It is thought that the initiating self-antigen is presented by MHC class II molecules at the surface of professional APCs 3 within the host tissue. (
  • Patients with high-risk human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-DQ genotypes for type 1 diabetes (T1D) were compared with HLA-matched controls to evaluate T1D risk for other HLA loci, including HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and DPB1. (
  • Patients (n = 133) with high-risk genotypes (DR3/DR3, DR3/DR4, DR4/DR4) were selected from the Lazio (Rome) region of Italy. (
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies and inflammatory bowel diseases, and there are emerging evidences of correlations between HLA genotypes and renal diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and glomerulonephritis. (
  • Our aim was to assess whether HLA genotypes conferring varying degrees of risk for T1D were associated with enterovirus gut infections. (
  • Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2), were protective (DQB1*06:02), or were neutral (all other genotypes). (
  • The high frequency of SseB-reactive CD4 T cells and the broad applicability to diverse HLA genotypes coupled with previous observations of serodominance and protective vaccination in mouse challenge experiments, make SseB a plausible candidate for next-generation Salmonella vaccines. (
  • In the same fashion, there seems to be a genetic predisposition: namely, people with the surface membrane antigen type HLA-DR4 in Caucasians are significantly more prone to develop this disease. (
  • Main Outcome Measure(s): Human leukocyte antigen class II was determined using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen class II control of the immune response to p126-derived amino terminal peptide from Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • To determine the baseline frequencies of pathogen and self-antigen-specific CD4 + T cell populations in naive individuals by flow cytometry, PBMCs were stained with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide tetramers for HLA-DR4 -restricted epitopes. (
  • HLA-DR4 is the predominant allele involved in chlamydial antigen presentation to CD4 + T cells in humans. (
  • The HLA system belongs to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans and it is located on chromosome 6p21.3. (
  • In addition 45 unrelated individuals from the same population were typed for HLA DRB and DQB gene using PCR-SSP kits. (
  • In fact, the null allele of the HLA-DRB4 gene ( DRB4*0103102N ) is transcribed, but it is an aberrant protein due to the lack of splicing out of the first exon 11 . (
  • This correlation is presumably due to a linkage imbalance of susceptible gene of PIH and DR4, but whether DR4 acts directly as an immunodeficient gene remains to be determined. (
  • a study of major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphisms showed the allele frequency of MICA 129 Val was significantly increased in MCTD patients compared with controls and with SLE patients. (
  • The HLA gene ( regulates our acquired immune system ( (
  • Of the 18 genomic intervals implicated for the risk to develop type 1 diabetes, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.31 has been the major contributor estimated to account for 40-50%, followed by 10% frequency of INS-VNTR at 5' flanking region of the insulin gene on chromosome 11p15.5. (
  • HLA types are encoded in the HLA gene on chromosome 6. (
  • We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those nonimmunized isoimmunized Rh negative mothers. (
  • in addition, a heightened frequency of HLA-DR1 among individuals with RA has been found in some populations [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • One hypothesis for the existence of these CD4 + memory T cell populations is development via cross-reactivity to other antigens. (
  • We examined the case-control studies concerned about the relationship between HLA-DRB1and RA and differences of clinical and laboratory parameters between the HLA-DR4 (DR4)+ and DR4- in RA patients in Chinese populations. (
  • ESR, CRP, RF, Anti-CCP are different between the DR4+ and DR4- in RA patients in Chinese populations, while there's no difference for indexes of clinical features. (
  • Other beta-hemolytic streptococci were found with equal frequency in the study and control populations. (
  • Here is a very useful website that gives HLA allelle frequencies in worldwide populations ( (must be registered). (
  • T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. (
  • The inflammatory setting that results from a viral or bacterial infection leads to local activation of antigen-presenting cells and can result in enhanced processing and presentation of self-antigens present at that site. (
  • HLA-A*02-C*16 and HLA-A*02-B*45 have been shown to contribute to significantly increased viral loads (greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter). (
  • Booster vaccinations can include viral vectors that express immunodominant Mtb antigens or fusion proteins of these antigens, combined with adjuvanticity to ensure immunogenicity [ 5 ]. (
  • Furthermore, viral antigen-specific CD45RO + memory T cells secreted IFNg when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin. (
  • Ablation of "tolerance" and induction of diabetes by virus infection in viral antigen transgenic mice. (
  • The results showed that the frequency of HLA-DR4 was significantly higher in PIH than that in normal pregnancy (P (
  • Immunohistochemical studies revealed significantly higher HLA-DR expression in keratinocytes from psoriatics than from controls. (
  • Mechanistically, modification at key binding pockets enhanced peptide binding to HLA class II, creating a stable pMHC that could bind autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (
  • Peptide-MHC (pMHC) multimers have become the "gold standard" for the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T-cells but recent evidence shows that normal use of these reagents can miss fully functional T-cells that bear T-cell receptors (TCRs) with low affinity for cognate antigen. (
  • These CTLs efficiently recognized target cells pulsed with their cognate peptide and cyclin D1 expressing tumor cell lines in an HLA-A*0201-restricted manner. (
  • Thus, naturally exposed people with different HLA class II antigens seem to respond differently to Nt47, indicating that the choice of relevant peptide sequences may have important consequences for subunit vaccine development. (
  • Editing of the HLA-DR-peptide repertoire by HLA-DM. (
  • Among individuals who were HLA-DR3 positive, there was no difference between patients and controls in the proliferative response to the La 49-63 peptide. (
  • Intradermal immunization with MART-1 peptide-pulsed DCs results in an increase in circulating IFN-γ-producing, antigen-specific T cells. (
  • 12 ) reported that 3 of 13 pancreases of people with childhood-onset diabetes for 10 years or longer were positive for insulin, but only 1 of these had either DR3 or DR4 allele. (
  • The HLA System and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. (
  • Present knowledge regarding the HLA system and the association between HLA antigens and insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is reviewed. (
  • This work demonstrates the current practicability of HLA typing of recently diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic in a Diabetes Center. (
  • HLA typing and insulin antibody production in insulin-dependent diabetics]. (
  • HLA-A, -B and -C specificities in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the Egyptian population. (
  • DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) have been identified. (
  • Eighty-eight North Indian patients with type I, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 113 unaffected individuals were typed for HLA-DR antigens from DR1 to DR7. (
  • 2- 4 DR4, DR8, DR9, and several antigens of the DQ region are related to retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. (
  • The MHC HLA-B antigens were first found to have increased frequency in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1967. (
  • The polymorphisms of HLA class I and II antigens in ESRD patients and a healthy control group were retrospectively analyzed. (
  • The information of 141 ESRD patients was obtained from the medical record of the Keelung branch of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and was compared to the HLA type of a control group comprized of 190 healthy unrelated Taiwanese from one of our previous studies. (
  • HLA typing might be a useful clinical method for screening patients with high risk of progression to ESRD. (
  • In this study, HLA class I and II polymorphisms of ESRD patients were compared to a healthy control group in an effort to provide a better understanding of the etiology of this disease. (
  • Among patients with EBV+ HL, only 35.5% of people expressed HLA-A*02 compared to 50.9% in the EBV-HL group and 53% in the control group. (
  • HLA-DR4 in patients when compared with controls (see hla). (
  • This may indicate that patients have a genetically determined way of responding to antigens that predisposes them to getting the disease. (
  • CTLs specific for cyclin D1 were successfully generated from HLA-A2 positive healthy donors and MCL patients. (
  • This suggests that cyclin D1 could be considered as a candidate antigen for immunotherapy despite our limited knowledge on the frequency and profile of cyclin D1-specific T cells in MCL patients. (
  • HLA antigens associated with AIH have been well studied in Western countries and Japan, but there is no HLA typing data of AIH patients in Taiwan. (
  • We therefore investigated HLA phenotypes and their association with AIH patients and compared the results with those of normal subjects and patients with chronic liver disease. (
  • only HLA-DR4 showed a higher rate in our AIH patients (n = 8/22). (
  • This is a preliminary report of our study of HLA antigens in AIH patients. (
  • Further investigation to characterize AIH patients into HLA allelic subgroups is being done. (
  • With HLA-DR typing, a significant excess of the DR3 antigen and heterozygous DR3/DR4 phenotypes was found in ICA-positive patients with secondary oral hypoglycaemic agent failure and in the Type 1 diabetic patients, which was comparable with the frequencies reported in juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes. (
  • Results & Conclusion: At HLA-class I region, T1DM patients showed a significant increased frequency of antigen A9 (40.0 vs.18.75%) and B8 (28.33 vs.8.75%) as compared to control subject. (
  • At HLA-class II region, DR3 and DR4 were significantly increased in patients (53.33 vs.26.25% and 50.0 vs. 12.5% respectively) as compared to controls. (
  • High proportion of GADA was found in the patients carrying HLA-DR3/DR4 heterozygous. (
  • This was done to clarify the role of the HLA class II antigens in patients positive for anticardiolipin antibody who repeatedly have fetal miscarriages. (
  • The specific nature of the HLA associations that occur in patients with MCTD may vary depending on the ethnicity of the population studied. (
  • HLA-DR4 is more common in patients with MCTD than in patients with other connective-tissue diseases (see Pathophysiology). (
  • A conventional analysis would have compared the allele frequencies between all patients and all controls leaving out the supertypes (one of which is DRB4*01). (
  • Given the high frequency of "false Non-Responders" anti-HBsAg Ab should be tested in T1D patients and a booster dose should be administrated in Non-Responders. (
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) frequencies and HLA associations in Finnish PSC and PBC patients. (
  • The relative frequencies of HLA-A,-B, and-DR antigens were compared between patients with PSC (n=50), or PBC (n=89), transplanted due to end-stage liver disease, and healthy members in the Finnish bone marrow donor registry (n=10000). (
  • 4] U. Broomé, H. Glaumann, R. Hultcrantz and U. Forsum: "Distribution of HLA-DR, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ antigens in liver tissue from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis", Scand J. Gastroenterol, Vol. 25, (1990), pp. 54-58. (
  • As to clinical features, there was no difference in duration of morning stiffness, number of swollen joints, number of joint tenderness, X-ray phases and joint function between the DR4+ and DR4- in RA patients. (
  • It was also performed to investigate the differences of clinical and laboratory parameters between the DR4+ and DR4- in RA patients. (
  • AIH patients were divided into HLA-DR4-positive or HLA-DR4-negative groups and further sub-classified into elderly and young-to-middle-aged groups, and differences in clinical and histological features were examined. (
  • HLA-DR4-positive AIH patients were younger than HLA-DR4-negative patients ( P = 0.034). (
  • 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively) in HLA-DR4-positive patients. (
  • However, there was no difference in IgG and IgM levels between HLA-DR4-positive and HLA-DR4-negative patients of the young-to-middle-aged group. (
  • The clinical features of HLA-DR4-positive AIH differed between elderly patients and young-to-middle-aged patients. (
  • In Japan, HLA-DR4 is frequently found in AIH patients, as has been shown in European or North American Caucasoid patients. (
  • In a report on North American patients, the clinical features of HLA-DR4-positive AIH differed from those of HLA-DR4-negative patients [ 11 ]. (
  • A total of 132 patients who had been consecutively diagnosed with AIH, treated, and examined for the HLA-DR antigen at Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital and the Jikei University School of Medicine Katsushika Medical Center (2 of the major hepatology centers in eastern Tokyo district) from the beginning of 2000 till May 2014 were the subjects of this study. (
  • In previous studies screening patient sera against antigen arrays, SseB was noteworthy as a serodominant target of adaptive immunity, inducing significantly raised antibody responses in HIV-seronegative compared with seropositive patients. (
  • Of 192 patients, 182 demonstrated a higher frequency of CD25 bright CD4 + T cells in synovial fluid than in peripheral blood. (
  • There was a predominance of HLA-DR4, which was present in 76% of patients. (
  • Immunogenetic studies reveal an increase in HLA antigens DR3 or DR4, and curiously, nearly 50 percent of patients have the simultaneous presence of both. (
  • Patients and controls - Sixty-four white Brazilian patients, living in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, were serologically typed for HLA class I and II antigens. (
  • METHODS: Molecular techniques were used for HLA typing of 219 white patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 125 white patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. (
  • 31, 32 A high frequency of audiovestibular manifestations (nystagmus and hearing loss), which may be reversible after several days of steroid treatment, has been reported in patients with GCA. (
  • Helsloot and Sturgess (3) previously identified a precursor frequency of La-specific T cells of 1:103,000 to 1:230,000 in peripheral blood of patients with primary SS and 1:77,000 to 1:115,000 in controls. (
  • The frequency of HLA-DR3 was significantly increased in the patients as compared with the controls (78.4% versus 25.7%, corrected P = 1.68 x 10 -12 ), the relative risk (RR) of 10.52 being much higher than that reported in the Western IDDM population. (
  • Therefore, such diagnosis should be considered when confronted with an osteoarticular clinical picture in patients treated with intravesical Calmette-Guérin Bacillus, especially patients with HLA-B27 (+) and B7 (+), as Poncet's disease is a reactive arthritis. (
  • Fisher's exact test showed a direct correlation between patients with class I HLA B27, Cw8, B5 (51, 52), B51, or Cw2 and the presence of AU, whereas among patients with class II HLA, only DQ1 was a predisposing factor for AU. (
  • HLA-DQB1 polymorphism determines incidence, onset, and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in transgenic mice. (
  • HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice are highly susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis: a novel model for human polyarthritis. (
  • In HLA-DRB4, allelic differences occur and are not limited to exon 2 ( b 1 domain) but involve exon 3 ( b 2 domain) too. (
  • Typing of HLA showed that Colina and Ribeirinha groups had no significant differences in HLA antigen frequencies. (
  • These results emphasize the differences in HLA-IDDM associations among different ethnic groups. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in prostate cancer and thus is a potential target for prostate cancer immunotherapy. (
  • The aim of this study is to investigate detailed HLA subtypes in a case-control study of Taiwanese individuals. (
  • There are subtypes for each HLA-DR type, although most of them have only one common subtype in Europe. (
  • HLA-B27), further subdivided in hundreds of sub-subtypes (e.g. (
  • HLA-DR was genotyped by means of polymerase chain reaction amplification. (
  • All three groups were tested for HLA phenotypes (HLAA, B, C, DR, DQ) using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific probe method. (
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen typing by polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of A24/AX, B44, B27, BW4/BW4, DQ7 and DQ5. (
  • these women were examined for HLA class II s after informed consent was obtained. (
  • Risk of RA was associated with HLA-DR4 encoding NIMA in younger-onset women but not in older-onset women or men. (
  • Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) status has a significant role in immune responses and immunological tolerance and is a factor in the onset of type 2 diabetes. (
  • We examined the implications of HLA-DR antigens in Japanese AIH, including the effect of HLA-DR4 on the age and pattern of AIH onset, clinicopathological features, and treatment efficacy. (
  • However, the role of the HLA-DR antigen on the clinical features, including age at onset of AIH and treatment efficacy, has not been extensively studied. (
  • In the present study, we thoroughly examined the role of HLA-DR antigens in Japanese AIH, including how HLA-DR4 influences the age of AIH onset and its clinical features. (
  • DR3 is linked to late-onset, whereas carriers of DR4 are at risk for early-onset Type 1 diabetes. (
  • Upon primary bacterial exposure, HLA-DR4 tg mice developed Chlamydia -specific IFN-γ and antibody production and resolved the infection within 30 days, similar to challenged conventional C57BL/6 animals. (
  • Moreover, C. muridarum -challenged HLA-DR4 tg mice exhibited CPAF-specific antibody and IFN-γ production. (
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of the α2 domain of the HLA-A α-chain. (
  • We investigated the relationships between class II human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and the antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum p126 protein and to its amino-terminal portion (Nt47) in 2 malaria-endemic villages in Brazil, Colina and Ribeirinha. (
  • METHODS: The objective of the study was to evaluate anti-HBs antigen (anti-HBsAg) antibody (Ab) in a group of 201 children (age range: 2 - 18 years), regularly vaccinated against HBV according to the national vaccination schedule. (
  • The frequency of antibody positivity is known to vary with age and to decrease with longer duration of disease. (
  • HLA type is also associated with antibody frequency, with GADA more common in DR3 ( 7 , 8 ) individuals with type 1a diabetes and IA-2A more common in DR4 individuals ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • As for HLA-DQ, the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0501 was significantly lower in the patient group. (
  • As with other connective-tissue diseases, MCTD is considered an autoimmune disease to which individuals who express specific HLA antigens such as HLA-DR4 or HLA-DQB1 are genetically predisposed. (
  • Narcolepsy ( : strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602. (
  • We show here a novel strategy for the development of recombinant vaccines carrying cyclin D1 cancer antigens that can be targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) via CD40. (
  • The most widely used strategies block CTLA-4, which is expressed on activated T cells and binds to B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86), which is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (e.g., dendritic cells). (
  • The mechanism behind the association between MHC and autoimmune disease has not been fully defined but is potentially reflecting a breakdown in tolerance to self-antigens in abnormal MHC class II molecule antigen presentation. (
  • Such neo-antigens can induce distinct T cell specificities, while others cross-react with wild type-specific T cells. (
  • The frequency of HLA antigens B7, B8 (in linkage disequilibrium with DR3), B15 (in linkage disequilibrium with DR4) and B18 was examined in comparison with a Piemontese control group. (
  • The frequency of MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1) antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood increased in all dose levels as assessed by ELISPOT and MHC class I tetramer assays, but without a clear dose-response effect. (
  • These studies support a role for HLA-DQ polymorphism in human RA. (
  • Tissue Antigens, Vol. 70 (2), p. 110-127. (
  • Are they more or less prone to develop autoimmune side effects as their system is exposed to these foreign antigens at a very early stage? (
  • 7, 8 Little is known, however, about the relation between retinopathy with type 2 diabetes and the HLA antigen. (
  • Interrogation of autoantibody positive, healthy "non-progressors" revealed an intermediate T cell frequency, representing a break in tolerance without progression to overt diabetes. (
  • Often, ZnT8A appear later in the pathogenic process leading to type 1 diabetes, suggesting that the antigen is recognised as part of the spreading, rather than the initial, autoimmune response. (
  • Results are reported for HLA typing in 18 cases of known IDDM recently diagnosed and observed at the Karen Bruni Diabetes Center in approximately one year (1981-82). (
  • This international consortium was designed to collect data and samples from families with type 1 diabetes to investigate the contribution of genetics, including HLA type, in the development of type 1 diabetes ( 11 ). (
  • This form of diabetes is strongly inherited, but lacks immunological evidence for β cell autoimmunity and it is not human leukocyte antigen associated. (
  • Diabetes ( : The HLA types DR2, DR6 and DR11 are protective against Type 1 diabetes. (
  • People who carry both DR3 and DR4 types are at the highest risk and will develop diabetes the youngest. (
  • The frequency of HLA-DR phenotypes was compared with that in the healthy Japanese population. (
  • For the alignment of DRB4 allelic sequences, see the IMGT/HLA Sequence Database alignment page . (
  • Significant association of HLA-DQ5 with autoimmune hepatitis in Taiwan. (
  • Notice of retraction of "Significant association of HLA-DQ5 with autoimmune hepatitis in Taiwan", J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(12):1063-8. (
  • Its strong HLA association with MCTD was further shown in the significantly increased frequency of the combination of HLA-B15 with HLA-DR4. (
  • P = 0.000003), this association remains one of the strongest HLA - cancer associations ever reported. (
  • Why, then, in a disease which has attracted much attention for an HLA association since Lilly's original paper on mouse leukaemia in 1964 (Ref.2), and the first HLA association paper in childhood leukaemia 3 , no other strong HLA association has been reported? (
  • We found a strong positive association between PSC and HLA-B8 and-DR3, and a weak positive association between HLA-A1 and PSC. (
  • HLA-DR3 also had a weak positive association with PBC, and a weak negative association between HLA-DR5 and PBC was found. (
  • The association of HLA-DR antigens with the treatment efficacy was also examined. (
  • Nevertheless, data on HLA association with the classical form of the disease is scarce in literature. (
  • The HLA restrictions of these responses mirrored the HLA association data from the cohort study. (
  • HLA-DR2 showed a significant negative association (RR = 0.18, corrected P = 1.03 x 10 -5 ), but DR4 had no relationship with IDDM in the present study (RR = 1.12, P = 0.12). (
  • There is also an association with HLA DR2 and HLA DQ1. (
  • A risk of organ transplantation is the alloresponse, where the histoincompatible antigen is recognized, producing an adaptive immune response via the employment of allospecific T-cells. (
  • In essence, there are indicators, albeit from a small study comparing HLA expression in fertile and infertile couples, that HLA-A*02 may induce increased maternal immune response to the fetus. (
  • There have been a number of postulated antigens that might initiate the immune response , but none have stood up to further investigation. (
  • By binding to its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are expressed on stromal cells, tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells, PD-1 transmits negative signaling events in such T cells and thus promotes inhibition of the immune response ( 2 ). (
  • Post-translational modification (PTM) of self-proteins generates neo-antigens that are clinically relevant to autoimmune disease and are increasingly implicated in T1D. (
  • as of December 2013 there are 456 different HLA-A*02 proteins. (
  • Some HLA types are known to attack the body's own cells, causing what is known as autoimmune diseases (, in other words diseases caused by one's immune system attacking one's own body. (