Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Increasing frequency and severity lead the meteorological and hydrological droughts. Invasive or non-native species are an ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ...
It modifies the frequency and severity of floods and droughts through continuous water abstraction, dams and reservoirs ... Socio-hydrological modeling aims to describe the interactions and feedback between social and hydrological systems. There are ... The increase in human water use in Melbourne in fact doubled the severity of streamflows during the Millennium Drought and also ... In socio-hydrological modeling, the holistic understanding the complete system is the main objective. Socio-hydrological models ...
CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECT ON DROUGHT SEVERITY-DURATION-FREQUENCY RELATION". Hydrological Processes. 27 (19): 2800-2813. doi:10.1002 ... "A multimodel assessment of the climate change effect on the drought severity-duration-frequency relationship: ... Similar to droughts, climate change has also been shown to have the potential to increase the frequency of bigger storm events ... The potential exists for climate change and variability to have a major impact on the frequency of severe droughts. With the ...
The 1980 United States heat wave and drought killed 10,000 people. In 1988 a similar heat wave and drought killed 17,000 ... The end result can be shortages and price spikes for food and with increasing frequency, shortages of drinking water as ... Agricultural practices can also be streamlined to higher levels of hydrological efficiency. Reservoirs should be expanded and ... observed with increasing severity seasonally in China and throughout most of the developing world. From an agricultural ...
Hydrological extremes, such as flood and drought, modify habitats. Droughts lead to not only the loss of habitats, but also to ... the disturbance must be minimal or there must be a drought refuge available. The severity of a disturbance is measured by its ... Decreased time between disturbances increases refuge usage until a certain frequency is reached and the usage declines as a ... Droughts disrupt hydrological connectivity and impact resident species through loss of water and flow from drying, habitat ...
These trends will affect the frequency and severity of floods, droughts, desertification, sand and dust storms, desert locust ... Any changes to the hydrological cycle may have significant effects on river basins of Africa. To improve understanding of past ... The recent drought in many African countries, which has been linked to climate change, adversely affected both energy security ... In 2012, severe drought conditions in the Sahel were reported. Governments in the region responded quickly, launching ...
Climate change is likely to lead to the increasing frequency and severity of Intense rainfall events across Africa. Since the ... By 2030, increased drought and fire is projected to cause declines in agricultural and forestry production over much of ... changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the ... The frequency of peatland fires is projected to increase. In northern Europe, climate change is initially projected to bring ...
It is set to increase the severity and frequency of droughts around much of the world. Due to limitations on how much data is ... changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the ... The higher frequency of droughts seen in the first two decades of the 21st century signal that a tipping point from rainforest ... For example, developed countries will be negatively affected by increases in the severity and frequency of some extreme weather ...
The frequency of extremely hot days in summer would increase. It is not clear how the severity of storms might be affected, ... Increased rainfall could reduce the severity of these effects. The region's inherently variable and unpredictable hydrological ... Due to concerns about climate change in the wake of a 2002 drought, daily water consumption in Las Vegas has been reduced from ... Hotter, drier weather could increase the frequency and intensity of wildfires, threatening both property and forests. Drier ...
Heat and drought[edit]. "The Green Wattle Creek bushfire moves towards the Southern Highlands township of Yanderra in Southern ... There has been a marked increase in the frequency of very wet years in Queensland since the end of the Little Ice Age, a theory ... Hydrological evidence for dryness during glacial maxima can also be seen at major lakes in Victoria's Western District, which ... increased severity and duration of wet and dry seasons as well as reduced numbers of animals in the sea, rivers and creeks.[8] ...
... modulate which areas are more prone to drought. Increased drought frequency and severity is also expected to be one of the ... hydrological and socio-economic impacts on an ongoing basis, to develop drought decision support and simulation tools for ... drought of 2002 was reminiscent of the 1988 drought and was compared to the droughts of the 1930s, the 1983 drought and the dry ... The U.S. Drought Monitor provides a national database to track the duration and severity of droughts in the United States. It ...
The frequency and severity of disturbance determine the way it affects ecosystem function. A major disturbance like a volcanic ... A drought, a colder than usual winter, and a pest outbreak all are short-term variability in environmental conditions. Animal ... These include things like the maintenance of hydrological cycles, cleaning air and water, the maintenance of oxygen in the ...
... the link between climate change and drought in Australia because he "live it". He says that the drought in Australia is already ... Hydrological evidence for dryness during glacial maxima can also be seen at major lakes in Victoria's Western District, which ... It also found that the combined frequencies of days with very high and extreme FFDI ratings are likely to increase 4-25% by ... Other effects include sea level rise, loss of land and hunting ground, changes in fire regimes, increased severity and duration ...
The severity of the problem has yet to be thoroughly quantified. Excerpts drawn from: In Chile, water is safe to drink, with ~ ... While 2008 was one of the worst droughts on record for the central regions, southern regions such as La Araucania, Biobío, and ... This office adds, "glacial melt, shifts in rainfall patterns, expanding deserts, and greater frequency in El Niño will have an ... Chile has three distinct hydrological regions: The dry northern regions, including the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places ...
"Facts are few, opinions plenty… on drought severity again". www.csag.uct.ac.za. Retrieved 30 March 2018.. ... Hydrological poverty[edit]. Hydrological poverty tends to trap people that cannot afford to purchase the food or water ... and to reduce the length and frequency of showers. In order to conserve water, hand sanitizer was provided in offices and ... Severe drought[edit]. The immediate cause of the water crisis was the extreme drought from 2015-2017 that exceeded the planning ...
The multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images allow to assess the hydrological drought and the dynamics of human ... A risk is an integrated assessment of likelihood and severity of an undesired event. In ERA, the undesired event often depends ... which may depend on concentration or amplitude and duration or frequency of exposure. This is the general case for many health ... The exposure of human settlements to multiple hazards (hydrological and agricultural drought, pluvial, fluvial and coastal ...
These changes have resulted in increased frequency of droughts and heatwaves. Because significant portions of the Netherlands ... In addition to hydrological changes, grain crops mature earlier at a higher temperature, which may reduce the critical growth ... These extreme weather changes may increase the severity of diseases in animals as well as humans. The heat waves will increase ... "Turkey drought: Istanbul could run out of water in 45 days". The Guardian. 2021-01-13. "Climate". climatechangeinturkey.com. ...
A 2021 study estimates that the severity of heatwave and drought impacts on crop production tripled over the last 50 years in ... In East Africa, climate change is anticipated to intensify the frequency and intensity of drought and flooding, which can have ... socio-economic and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline due to climate change induced drought". ... The drought reduces the water stream in Victoria falls by 50%. The droughts became more frequent in the region. Climate change ...
In the Northeast, storms take on similar characteristics and patterns as the Midwest, but with less frequency and severity. ... Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, even in the polar regions, with the greatest frequency in tropical rainforest areas, ... but they occur with greater frequency in the inland areas, particularly the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California. ... In areas with a high frequency for cloud-to-ground lightning, like Florida, lightning causes several fatalities per year, most ...
... in climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation and the frequency and severity of extreme events like droughts, ... because they are currently IUCN redlisted species their life cycle is dependent on current hydrological regimes. The effects of ... reducing the potential crop yields It has been found that the frequency and severity of wheat stripe rust epidemics on winter ... Inter-annual variation between wet and dry periods in which abundant rainfall is followed by a drought period have been a ...
Weather forecasters had not predicted the severity of the oncoming storm, and as a result the hunters were not dressed for cold ... Accurate details in Wilder's novel include the blizzards' frequency and the deep cold, the Chicago and North Western Railway ...
... developed countries will be negatively affected by increases in the severity and frequency of some extreme weather events, such ... Droughts and agriculture. Some evidence suggests that droughts have been occurring more frequently because of global warming ... changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the ... Higher growth in anthropogenic GHG emissions will be associated with larger increases in the frequency and severity of ...
It is set to increase the severity and frequency of droughts around much of the world.[82] Due to limitations on how much data ... changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the ... The higher frequency of droughts seen in the first two decades of the 21st century signal that a tipping point from rainforest ... Drought. Climate change affects multiple factors associated with droughts, such as how much rain falls and how fast the rain ...
... the link between climate change and drought in Australia because he "live it". He says that the drought in Australia is already ... There has been a marked increase in the frequency of very wet years in Queensland since the end of the Little Ice Age, a theory ... Hydrological evidence for dryness during glacial maxima can also be seen at major lakes in Victoria's Western District, which ... which may impact the severity of summer bushfires.[100] ... Water (droughts and floods)[edit]. Further information: List of ...
The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from the ... The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type, and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of ... Frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that around 500,000 earthquakes occur each year, detectable with current ... Earthquake forecasting is concerned with the probabilistic assessment of general earthquake hazard, including the frequency and ...
Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index, a 2010 study by the National Center for Atmospheric Research projects increasingly dry ... The increasing frequency of wildfires as a result of climate change will also lead to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the ... Nepal, S. & Shrestha, A. B. (2015). "Impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra ... "Climate change: Drought may threaten much of globe within decades". NCAR (USA). Retrieved 2012-03-23. Coumou, D.; Robinson, A ...
Many major droughts during summer months were recorded while significant freezing events occurred in Winter months. The Ming ... The subjects are less popular after about 1660, but that does not match any recorded reduction in severity of winters and may ... R.J. Nevle et al., "Ecological-hydrological effects of reduced biomass burning in the neotropics after A.D. 1500," Geological ... "Clues to changing WAIS Holocene summer temperatures from variations in melt-layer frequency in the Siple Dome ice core". ...
... and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline in the future due to climate change induced drought". ... Because of the severity of famined, it was a chief concern for governments and other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, ... The frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as ... Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia are known to have happened every 10 to 13 years, with average droughts happening every ...
... but the past 30 plus years have seen a gradual increase in fire frequency and severity as a result of warmer and drier ... With increased drought and higher temperatures, the weakened forest can suffer from multiple tree species loss, along with the ... There are common patterns of hydrological cycles throughout the North American Deserts, but specifics of times and source of ... Frequent low-severity, stand-maintaining fires are thought to have played a key historic role in shaping these ecosystems. Much ...
... and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline in the future due to climate change induced drought". ... Because of the severity of famine, it was a chief concern for governments and other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, ... The frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as ... Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia are known to have happened every 10 to 13 years, with average droughts happening every ...
In the Northeast, storms take on similar characteristics and patterns as the Midwest, but with less frequency and severity. ... Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, even in the polar regions, with the greatest frequency in tropical rainforest areas, ... but they occur with greater frequency in the inland areas, particularly the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California. ... In areas with a high frequency for cloud-to-ground lightning, like Florida, lightning causes several fatalities per year, most ...
... under the same drought recurrence period, the drought duration and severity in the human activity stage were significantly ... human activities had little impact on drought severity in the short duration and low recurrence period, but had a greater ... These results provide scientific guidance for the management, prevention, and resistance of drought; and guarantee sustainable ... drought risk assessment, and attribution quantification. The results show that: (1) the annual runoff sequence of KRB changed ...
However, uncertainties originating from copulas in such frequency analysis have not rece ... Copulas are appropriate tools in drought frequency analysis. ... Copula-based probability of concurrent hydrological drought in ... drought characteristics used here include drought severity (S) and drought areal extent (⁠. ⁠). The severity of drought events ... Derivation of drought severity-duration-frequency curves using drought frequency analysis. . Journal of Korea Water Resources ...
Increasing frequency and severity lead the meteorological and hydrological droughts. Invasive or non-native species are an ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ... Wang, Keyi; Niu, Jun; Li, Tiejian; Zhou, Yang (2020). "Facing Water Stress in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Drought Risk ...
114. Osti, A., Wong, G., Lambert, M.F., and Metcalfe, A. (2006). "Drought severity-area-frequency curves for NSW." Proc. 30th ... 108. Whiting, J.P., and Lambert, M.F. (2008). "Forecasting hydrological variables at a monthly time-scale using hidden Markov ... 62. Lee P., Vítkovský J. Lambert M.F., Simpson A.R. and Liggett J.A. (2005). "Leak location using the pattern of the frequency ... 134. Lee, P.J., Vítkovský, J.P., Lambert, M.F., Simpson, A.R., and Liggett, J.A. (2004) "Frequency Response Leak Detection ...
The severity and frequency of meteorological and hydrological droughts have increased in parts of Europe, in particular in ... Available studies project large increases in the frequency, duration and severity of meteorological and hydrological droughts ... Meteorological and hydrological droughts 20 Dec 2016 Drought has been a recurrent feature of the European climate. From 2006- ... Global warming is projected to intensify the hydrological cycle and increase the occurrence and frequency of flood events in ...
J. T. Shiau and R. Modarres, "Copula-based drought severity-duration-frequency analysis in Iran," Meteorological Applications, ... "Assessment of hydrological droughts for the Yellow River, China, using copulas," Hydrological Processes, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. ... the drought severity is taken to be positive as where is drought severity and starts with the first month of a drought and ... and partial drought duration as where is the average number of drought events per year [18, 29], calculated from Figure 5 for ...
It modifies the frequency and severity of floods and droughts through continuous water abstraction, dams and reservoirs ... Socio-hydrological modeling aims to describe the interactions and feedback between social and hydrological systems. There are ... The increase in human water use in Melbourne in fact doubled the severity of streamflows during the Millennium Drought and also ... In socio-hydrological modeling, the holistic understanding the complete system is the main objective. Socio-hydrological models ...
... as the number of drought variables increases, the joint behavior between these variables needs to be studied. Therefore, this ... Note: Xo; Truncation level, Dd; Drought duration, Ds; Drought severity, Dp; Drought peak, Ld; Inter arrival time, Dn; Non- ... Chebana F, Ouarada T (2011) Multivariate quantiles in hydrological frequency analysis. Environmetrics 22(1):63-78CrossRefGoogle ... Shiau JT, Modarres R (2009) The copula-based drought severity-duration frequency analysis in Iran. J Appl Meteorol 16(4):481- ...
Then, droughts will be characterized by constructing: (a) Severity Duration Frequency curves (SDF), (b) Severity Area Frequency ... for investigating future hydrological drought scenarios. (iii) Understanding of low frequency climate variations in association ... What will be the severity of the 2050 drought? (c) Will the drought of 2050 be more severe than the 2020 or 2080 drought? (d) ... considering it as a hydrological drought? (f) How will drought properties vary, when compared to the past 50 years? This ...
Droughts are one of the most feared natural calamities in India impacting food production, the economy as well as the morale of ... The frequency and severity of hydrological droughts are defined at the watershed or river basin scale and are influenced by ... Agricultural drought usually follows meteorological drought and occurs before a hydrological drought. Agricultural drought can ... This classification of droughts is very useful to measure drought frequency, severity, and duration. ...
The severity and frequency of occurrence of rainfall extremes events (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural) vary for ... Drought: Drought is an insidious hazard of nature. It is often referred to as a "creeping phenomenon" and its impacts vary from ... because what may be considered a drought in, say, Bali (six days without rain) would certainly not be considered a drought in ... In regions where the year-to-year variability is high, people often suffer great calamities due to floods or droughts. Even ...
Projected increases of drought frequency and severity for Central Europe were presented by Prudhomme et al. (2014). In that ... Lehner et al. (2006) found that changes in recurrence of 100-year droughts based on simulations of global hydrological model ( ... Hydrological droughts in the 21st century, hotspots and uncertainties from a global multimodel ensemble experiment ... Similar problems related to hydrological drought were observed in the dry summers of 1976, 1985 and 2003. These problems may ...
... the probabilities of moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought were 22.1%, 18%, and 13.6%, respectively. This ... In this study, the probabilistic relationship between precipitation and meteorological drought in Beijing, China, was ... The copula-based conditional probability indicated that the probability of meteorological drought decreased as monthly ... the occurrence of meteorological drought in Beijing but also provided a quantitative way to analyse the probability of drought ...
The frequency and severity of allergic illnesses, including asthma and hay fever, are expected to increase as a result of a ... long-duration hydrological drought is increasingly possible before the end of this century.. Since 1980, the cost of extreme ... The frequency and severity of landfalling "atmospheric rivers" on the U.S. West Coast (narrow streams of moisture that account ... Expected increases in the severity and frequency of heavy precipitation events will affect inland infrastructure in every ...
... including related increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts." The plaintiffs said that the updated Water ... The plaintiffs contended that the models flaws included a reliance on historical hydrological data that was "inadequate in ... which the petition said could increase the frequency and magnitude of droughts, increase bushfires, and reduce food ... Fish and Wildlife Service indicating that climate change and drought posed threats to endangered fish species. The court found ...
So, in order to further evaluate rainfall observations, frequency analyses of P24h-max for stationary and non-stationary ... In these cases, the typical stationary frequency analysis is unable to capture such a change. ... increasing severity of droughts, floods, tornadoes, and hurricanes, to mention just a few. Hydraulic structures have not been ... Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández has carried out the hydrological and hydraulic simulations. Rainfall frequency analysis has been ...
"Evaluating the Characteristics of Multiyear Extreme Droughts in Semi-Arid Regions, Environmental Processes" on DeepDyve, the ... Changes in drought frequency, severity and duration for the British isles projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models ... Identification of changes in hydrological drought characteristics from a multi-GCM driven ensemble constrained by observed ... Drought severity-duration-frequency curves: a foundation for risk assessment and planning tool for ecosystem establishment in ...
... on drought. Additionally, climate change predictions that there will be increased frequency and severity of such droughts25 ... The four main categories of drought (meteorological, agricultural, hydro-logical and socio-economic) have a direct impact on ... Physiological responses to drought and water stress. Sweet potato exposed to drought stress recorded low photosynthesis by ... Drought as a natural hazard: Concepts and definitions. In: Whilhite DA, editor. Drought volume 1. A global assessment. London: ...
As the frequency and severity of droughts are likely to increase, understanding the connections between drought and mortality ... associations of drought with mortality. Most of the results were null for associations between drought severity and mortality, ... We speculate that some of the estimated negative associations of drought severity with same-year mortality could be consistent ... Our exposure variable was an annual cumulative drought severity score based on the 1-month, county-level Standardized ...
This Atlas seeks to raise awareness of changing characteristics (frequency, location, severity) of weather, climate and water- ... Main themes: Adaptation, Climate change, Communication, Disaster prevention, Disasters, Disease, Drought, Economic impact, ... climatic and hydrological extremes (as categorised by CRED) on people and economi...[Read full description] ... Main themes: Awareness raising, Climate change, Desertification, Disasters, Drought, Drylands, Environment, Floods, Information ...
Recent severe droughts, like the 2018 drought in northwestern Europe, have shown major challenges for water management, not ... Hydrological droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to changing climate in several river basins. ... Hydrological droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to changing climate in several river basins. ... Recent severe droughts, like the 2018 drought in northwestern Europe, have shown major challenges for water management, not ...
Explain the impacts of climate change on the frequency and severity of drought/flood risks. ... Apply a process of hydrological model design, building, calibration and validation to a catchment to meet stated objectives, ... Drought metrics (Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), SPEI, Drought Palmer Severity Index (DPSI), Potential Soil Moisture ... Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of these natural hazards. Thus, we need to improve our ability to ...
... drought frequency, drought duration and drought severity) across all land pixels between using −0.8 and −0.5 as the thresholds ... Probabilistic analysis of hydrological drought characteristics using meteorological drought, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 58, 253-270, ... The persistent time period during a drought event is further defined as the drought duration, while drought severity ( ... where f(d, s) represents the joint probability density function of drought duration and severity, c[FD(d), FS(s)]=dC(FD(d), FS( ...
The consequences of drought have been far reaching both for human consumptive... ... Southeastern Australia is presently experiencing one of the worst droughts observed in the region in the last 200 years. ... drought is determined by the Palmer Drought Severity Index and hydrological drought by the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index ... With the frequency and severity of droughts forecast to increase with climate change in many parts of the globe, including the ...
Drought and water scarcity are important issues in many regions of the Earth. While an increase in the severity and frequency ... With global climate change affecting the frequency and severity of extreme meteorological and hydrological events, it is ... The increasing frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological events such as hurricanes, intense cyclones, or destructive ... 2) Real-time acquisition of hydrological variables;. 3) Remote sensing for hydrological & morphological monitoring;. 4) ...
A copula-based nonstationary frequency analysis for the 2012-2015 drought in California. Water Resour. Bull. 52, 5662-5675 ( ... Improved monitoring would allow for advances in hydrological and statistical modeling, further reducing uncertainties around ... Drought severity was then quantified as the magnitude of flow deficits over the period of each drought event determined by the ... Drought severity during the driest decade of the 13th century drought was positioned over the northern tier of the UMRB while ...
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge. data from ... III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite. Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts ... Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the. assessment of drought risks ... the two drought events were examined. Results showed that drought duration and severity had distinct spatial patterns in. the ...
Frequency. One-time. Specific Threat. Conversion of habitat to other use; fragmentation; modification of hydrological regimes. ... long-term drought or flooding and threats to pollinators. The severity and impact of most of these threats is largely unknown ( ... Severity. Unknown - potentially high. Stress. Increased resource competition by shrubs and other plants (e.g., Typha spp.); ... Frequency. Recurrent. Unknown. Specific Threat. ATV. use; ATV. trails; trampling by naturalists or photographers. Causal ...
All populations need protection from wildfires of high severity and of greater frequency than was known historically and from ... 2014, entire). Recently there has been a decrease in the amount of snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and increased drought severity ... We chose 40 years because this is within the range of available hydrological and climate change model forecasts, is within the ... 2014, entire). Recently there has been a decrease in the amount of snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and increased drought severity ...
  • This study conducted quantitative diagnosis on the impact of climate change and human activities on drought risk. (mdpi.com)
  • The Xi River basin has historically experienced droughts, which are worsening due to climate change and rapid urbanization along with many parts of the river. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major concern arising from climate change is its effect on water resources in terms of droughts and the resultant impact on different sectors. (usgs.gov)
  • ii) Assessment of drought risk under climate change scenarios. (usgs.gov)
  • This objective will also attempt to quantify uncertainties in drought characterization, considering primarily climate change and future water demand in the state. (usgs.gov)
  • Also, the outcomes of the model will serve as an educational and research tool to promote the understanding impact of climate change on streamflow and its relation with hydrological droughts to undergraduate and graduate students. (usgs.gov)
  • The number of studies dealing with analysis of the impact of climate change on droughts in Poland is limited. (iwaponline.com)
  • Climate change is gradually coming to affect all living species by giving rise to new sets of meteorological conditions: record breaking high temperatures, melting glaciers, increasing sea water levels, increasing severity of droughts, floods, tornadoes, and hurricanes, to mention just a few. (mdpi.com)
  • We conclude that the crop has great potential in the light of imminent challenges associated with drought as a negative effect of climate change. (scielo.org.za)
  • Drought impacts, linked to other consequences of climate change (e.g. higher temperatures, less frequent floods) clearly need more attention from scientific and management perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Also a methodology to control the risk of algae growth to reduce health risks, and a series of climate change projections focused on future droughts and algae development were tailored to DWTPs. (europa.eu)
  • Recent analyses have thus established the "fingerprint" of anthropogenic climate change in an increasingly diverse array of meteorological and hydrological phenomena around the world, from heat waves to coastal damages during extreme tides and storms, flooding from more intense precipitation events, and severe drought ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • As part of the effort to understand the influence of climate change on extreme regional events, there has been a robust scientific debate over the role of climate change on California's current drought. (pnas.org)
  • Compounding this existing exposure to natural hazards, climate change is expected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of EWEs. (exponent.com)
  • In the last few months, as the severe California drought has garnered attention among scientists, policymakers, and media, there has been a growing debate about the links between the drought and climate change. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Is the California drought caused by climate change? (scienceblogs.com)
  • So I'm not saying the net influence of climate change on the current California drought is unambiguously for the worse or better, just that the influence is real, and the most definitive and well-understood effect (higher temperatures) has decreased current water availability. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Despite the absence of an overall trend in Europe as a whole, climate change has probably increased the frequency and/or severity of droughts in some regions. (europa.eu)
  • Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in many regions of Europe as a result of higher temperatures, decreased summer precipitation, and more and longer dry spells. (europa.eu)
  • The expected rise in the frequency and severity of such events is well established, and even individual episodes have been linked probabilistically to climate change 1 . (nature.com)
  • The debate about tackling climate change has long revolved around the twin challenges of mitigating global warming and adapting to its more predictable long-term impacts-rising seas, higher peak temperatures, relentless drought. (blogspot.de)
  • Although long-term effects of climate change on drought patterns remain uncertain (Sheffield et al. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of bushfires, as evidenced by the 2019-20 Australian bushfires . (wikipedia.org)
  • Australia is becoming hotter, and more prone to extreme heat, bushfires, droughts, floods and longer fire seasons because of climate change . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Recent climate events such as extremely high temperatures and widespread drought have focused government and public attention on the impacts of climate change in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the coming years, climate change is likely to increase the frequency and severity. (wmo.int)
  • And climate change is making matters even worse, as, every few years, we swing between drought and deluge-making water availability very unpredictable. (nature.org)
  • We are facing the possibility of widespread drought in the coming decades, but this has yet to be fully recognized by both the public and the climate change research community. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The majority of households in SBs, in recent years, have perceived that there have been more frequent incidences of floods, landslides, droughts, livestock diseases and crop pests, and have attributed these to climate change. (paperity.org)
  • The CDI method also revealed the possibility of drought early warning and drought-related climate change analysis in Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • The impacts of climate change on future drought properties in various regions across China are accessed using multiple statistical approaches, based on 20 downscaled global climate models provided by NASA (NEX-GDDP) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. (usda.gov)
  • Taking the Kuye river basin (KRB) in China as the research area, we used variation point diagnosis, simulation of precipitation and runoff, drought risk assessment, and attribution quantification. (mdpi.com)
  • This extreme variation in yearly precipitation patterns exacerbates drought issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drought is a stochastic natural phenomenon that arises from considerable deficiency in precipitation. (iwaponline.com)
  • The objective of this study is to assess the hydrologic drought characteristics from the historical rainfall records of Kuwait with arid environment by employing the criterion of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). (hindawi.com)
  • Drought is a phenomenon, which may affect areas located in wet or dry environments, resulting in insufficient moisture caused by a deficit in precipitation over some time period [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Precipitation anomalies are a naturally recurring feature of global climate [ 10 ], affecting various components of the hydrologic cycle to produce a drought. (hindawi.com)
  • Using run theory, drought duration, severity, peak, and inter-arrival time were abstracted from the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) aggregated at six months, observed in mainland China between 1961 and 2013. (springer.com)
  • Drought-affected areas have remarkably increased over the past 50 years in China as a result of variation in precipitation ( P ) and temperature (Yang et al. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the probabilistic relationship between precipitation and meteorological drought in Beijing, China, was calculated under three different precipitation conditions (precipitation equal to, greater than, or less than a threshold) based on copulas. (hindawi.com)
  • The copula-based conditional probability indicated that the probability of meteorological drought decreased as monthly precipitation increased and that 10 mm can be regarded as the threshold for triggering extreme drought. (hindawi.com)
  • This conditional probability distribution not only revealed the occurrence of meteorological drought in Beijing but also provided a quantitative way to analyse the probability of drought under different precipitation conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Considering the joint analysis of the drought magnitude and the run length, the characteristics of the multiyear drought of extreme magnitude achieved theoretically was found to match well with empirical results obtained after analyzing the simulated and historical precipitation. (deepdyve.com)
  • After truncating the annual rainy season precipitation for Madaba region in Jordan, the 6-year extreme historical drought that occurred in 1958-1963 was a rare event recurring every 226 years. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the semi-arid region of Madaba, meteorological drought events of a short duration, 2-3 years, and a precipitation deficit of 149 mm or less are frequent events with 7-10 years return period, while events of 4 years or more, tested at deficit threshold of 149 mm, are less frequent events regardless of their magnitude. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our exposure variable was an annual cumulative drought severity score based on the 1-month, county-level Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Drought generally occurs as a result of a water deficit for a given area, but the actual definition of drought differs depending on the measures considered, such as precipitation and temperature [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Droughts are commonly divided into four major types based on their environmental and human impacts, including meteorological drought (i.e., abnormally low precipitation), hydrological drought (i.e., precipitation shortages that impact the surface and groundwater levels), agricultural drought (i.e., decreased soil moisture that impacts crops), and socioeconomic drought (i.e., decreased water supply that affects people and supply of goods) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The drought characteristics are identified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) combined with the run theory, with the climate scenarios projected by 13 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) under three representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • Key variables of the hydrological cycle, including temperature, evapotranspiration, precipitation and snow/ice, fluctuate in Alberta per large scale changes in climate like the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, producing the variability that we experience year to year. (albertawater.com)
  • The authors show that the increasing co-occurrence of dry years with warm years raises the risk of drought despite limited evidence of a trend in precipitation itself, highlighting the critical role of elevated temperatures in altering water availability and increasing overall drought intensity and impact. (pnas.org)
  • Increases in amounts and frequencies of precipitation in some regions becomes more probable as atmospheric moisture from evaporation increases with a warming climate. (exponent.com)
  • The increased severity of precipitation has resulted in more costly and damaging flood events-a trend only expected to worsen (Melillo et al. (exponent.com)
  • The current drought, measured by hydrologic variables of precipitation amount, form, location, and timing, is certainly severe, but it does not appear to be statistically significantly different from past droughts in the instrumental or longer-term paleoclimatic record. (scienceblogs.com)
  • That "influence" can take many forms: changes in storm patterns, precipitation frequency or intensity, the form of precipitation, and so on. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In snow-dominated regions, where droughts typically occur in winter, river flow droughts are projected to become less severe because a lower fraction of precipitation will fall as snow in warmer winters. (europa.eu)
  • Increasing temperatures in this region have already been implicated in changes in the nature, intensity and seasonal distribution of precipitation, which in turn has been shown to impact the flow regimes of rivers affecting the frequency and magnitude of floods and the severity of droughts. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • A detailed investigation on the potentially drought-prone regions over India is presented in this study based on the balance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the southwest Asian mid-monsoon season. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • A prolonged drought lasts several months or even years, while the absence or reduction of precipitation creates meteorological droughts. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The Mediterranean region is affected by severe drought episodes, linked to the strong interannual variability of precipitation patterns (Mariotti and Dell'Aquila, 2012). (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • In this study, precipitation records for 21 countries and territories in the Pacific for the period 1951 to 2010 have been examined to identify trends in drought occurrence, duration, and magnitude. (ametsoc.org)
  • While drought affects agriculture productivity on all of the Pacific islands, it is a particular problem on atolls because they have a fragile freshwater resource base that can be quickly depleted when precipitation drops ( Barnett and Campbell 2010 ). (ametsoc.org)
  • Recent severe and prolonged droughts have highlighted the Pacific islands' and Australia's vulnerability to prolonged periods of suppressed precipitation and their persistence and intensity have alerted the general public and governments to the many socioeconomic problems accompanying water storage and the need for drought mitigation measures. (ametsoc.org)
  • I am currently involved in developing a multi-sensor satellite-based gauge adjusted global precipitation data set that can be used for a variety of hydrometeorologic application including drought detection, monitoring and analysis. (clivar.org)
  • Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to assess past, present and projected drought conditions while Mann Kendall trend test and coefficient of variability is used for trend analysis. (ac.ke)
  • Standardized precipitation index, standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), Palmer drought severity index, and water balance runoff (WBR) model output were correlated to water-year runoff for 21 unregulated drainage basins in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. (ametsoc.org)
  • In turn, modified water regimes and hydrological extremes shape societies which respond and adapt spontaneously or through collective strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the projected global temperature increase, scientists generally agree that the global hydrological cycle will intensify and suggest that extremes will become or have already become more common. (usgs.gov)
  • The Atlas compares the reported impacts of meteorological, climatic and hydrological extremes (as categorised by CRED) on people and economi. (zaragoza.es)
  • The limited predictability of these extremes at sufficiently long lead times results in considerable social vulnerability, also in light of the imminent increase in frequency and severity of extreme events in the future. (europa.eu)
  • When India is already vulnerable to hydrological and weather extremes, the combined effect of El Niño and aerosols in increasing drought severity will only subject India to more hydrological stress, while affecting agriculture and the livelihood of millions of people. (gaonconnection.com)
  • We do not know how to relate water-quality extremes, their causes, their severity or their occurrence directly to changes in climate. (nature.com)
  • On the other hand, these weather extremes are more reasonably linked with the distribution and frequency of rainfall over any region. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • We aim to understand long-term trends in community responses to cope with droughts, to explain how many preindustrial societies coevolved with local hydro-climatic dynamics and coped with climate extremes over time. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Following this line of research, we systematically reconstructed past community adaptation practices to recurrent hydro-climatic extremes, specifically droughts, during the early modern period. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • The WCRP Drought Interest Group (DIG) was formed as part of the WCRP Extremes crosscutting activity following a joint GEWEX-CLIVAR meeting in 2008. (clivar.org)
  • DIG will also assess the missing links in drought research and coordinate drought research at an international level in order to advance, in particular, predictive understanding of extremes. (clivar.org)
  • Weather and climate extremes are associated with large impacts on society and environment, and frequency of some of these extremes has increased and/or is projected to increase in a future climate. (cas.cz)
  • Development of point rainfall simulation model for hydrological risk assessment (joint with Associate Professor George Kuczera at the University of Newcastle). (edu.au)
  • It has been shown that the drought SPI series for the time scales examined have no systematic trend component but a seasonal pattern related to rainfall data. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, agricultural droughts have typically a short-time scale of one month when soil moisture and rainfall are inadequate to support crop growth leading to the loss of yield, while hydrologic droughts have intermediate- and long-time scales of 3, 6, and 12 months or higher with marked depletion of surface and subsurface water such as lakes, streams, reservoirs, and groundwater [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There were 26 major droughts during the period of 1871-2015, when the All India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) was found to be lesser than the mean rainfall for the country. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Meteorological droughts occur when there are long gaps in normal rainfall and are measured based on the degree of dryness and the duration of the dry period. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Agricultural drought can be measured through indicators such as lack of rainfall, changes in evapotranspiration, soil water deficits, reduced groundwater or reservoir levels etc. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Hydrological droughts are the result of surface and subsurface water supplies from streams, rivers and lakes becoming scarce due to scanty rainfall. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • So, in order to further evaluate rainfall observations, frequency analyses of P 24h-max for stationary and non-stationary conditions were carried out (by using the generalized extreme value distribution). (mdpi.com)
  • Warming also is expected to lead to more evaporation that may exacerbate droughts and increased atmospheric moisture that can increase the frequency of heavy rainfall and snowfall events. (nap.edu)
  • While we anticipate that the Portal provides useful information to support assessment of drought conditions for a broad range of users, it is important to note that it is currently based on one indicator (rainfall) and therefore does not provide a full picture of drought status or impacts, as considered by the various regulators who have particular triggers and terminology used to declare drought status. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • The another most important climate variation is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which impact the global oceanic and atmospheric circulations which thereby produce droughts, floods and intense rainfall in certain regions. (notrickszone.com)
  • The sampling period coincided with a severe and prolonged period of drought - during the 8th year of a series of thirteen consecutive years of below average rainfall. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Although projected rainfall showed a decreasing trend, the frequency and magnitude of drought events increased under all future scenarios. (ac.ke)
  • It is based on the fact that drought is a natural phenomenon created by a combination of several factors, such as deficiency in rainfall amount, persistence of below average rainfall, temperature excess and soil moisture characteristics. (ac.ke)
  • Many indices were developed to assess and monitor drought characteristics quantitatively. (hindawi.com)
  • We estimate low flow indices for the simulated time series, including annual minima of 7-day mean river flows and number, severity and duration of low flow events. (iwaponline.com)
  • A comparison of indices from the two future periods with the reference period 1971-2000 confirms the trends obtained in previous studies, in the form of a projected decrease in the frequency and intensity of low flow events. (iwaponline.com)
  • Three drought indices were evaluated: SPI, Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) using observed and projected hydroclimatic data. (iwaponline.com)
  • Drought indices are defined that express the socio-economic impacts rather than hydro-meteorological aspects for selected basins in Spain, Italy and Spain. (europa.eu)
  • This study?s primary objective was to evaluate correlations between drought and fire-danger- rating indices representing short- and long-term drought, to determine which had the strongest relationships with large fire occurrence. (usda.gov)
  • Abatzoglou, J. T., R. Barbero, J. W. Wolf, and Z. A. Holden, 2014: Tracking Interannual Streamflow Variability with Drought Indices in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. (ametsoc.org)
  • Drought indices are often used for monitoring interannual variability in macroscale hydrology. (ametsoc.org)
  • Based on these copulas, the drought probabilities and return periods for the occurrence of drought events over the next 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years in each region were hereby comprehensively explained, and the results shown here could be helpful in the appraisal of the adequacies of water supply systems under drought conditions in all regions. (springer.com)
  • Droughts have uncertain frequencies, durations, and severities, and their occurrence is difficult to predict. (hindawi.com)
  • Katkhuda, Hasan 2017-06-14 00:00:00 Following the unconditional definition of drought events, this study presents general mathematical expressions that can be used to evaluate the occurrence probability and the return period of multiyear drought events of extreme magnitude evolved after truncating low order dependent hydrological or meteorological processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2001). However, in the United Kingdom there is no evidence of a significant increase in the frequency of occurrence of low river flows (Hanneford and Marsh, 2006). (europa.eu)
  • The relationship between large fire occurrence and drought has important implications for fire prediction under current and future climates. (usda.gov)
  • These reconstructions reveal the occurrence of past "megadroughts" of unprecedented severity and duration, ones that have never been experienced by modern societies in North America. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Exposure to drought varies spatially and there is little, if anything, that we can do to alter drought occurrence. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
  • There were significant, heterogeneous-direction associations in subpopulation-stratified models, after controlling for multiple comparisons, suggesting that the impacts of drought on mortality may not be monolithic across the United States. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. (ac.ke)
  • Globally, agricultural irrigation is a widespread tool for mitigating negative impacts of drought where available (Ozdogan and Gutman 2008, Wada et al. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Because California's land-use legacies - of rapid urbanization, wetland and floodplain development and more-dense forests - have exacerbated the environmental impacts of drought, over the past century, natural habitats have shrunk and been deprived of water diverted to meet human needs. (nature.com)
  • The bivariate probability distribution for these two drought characteristics is constructed by using Clayton copula. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, a number of studies have focused on constructing multivariate distributions of drought characteristics, such as the intensity, duration, frequency, and recurrence [ 15 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When using copulas for drought analysis, a joint probability distribution has commonly been used between different characteristics of drought. (hindawi.com)
  • This Atlas seeks to raise awareness of changing characteristics (frequency, location, severity) of weather, climate and water-related hazards and other challenges to collecting and analysing disaster risk information. (zaragoza.es)
  • The FRIDA tool uses machine learning to calibrate impact-oriented drought conditions to local basin characteristics. (europa.eu)
  • We have produced the Portal primarily as a near-real-time tool to aid the monitoring and early warning of drought and as a way of allowing users to explore past drought characteristics in an area of interest. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • Agglomerative hierarchical clustering based algorithms were used to search for regions with similar hydrological characteristics. (ac.ke)
  • Hydrological data employed were from 180 gauged catchments and several physical characteristics in order to regionalise 365 identified catchments. (ac.ke)
  • We begin with a general discussion of drought and its impacts on streams and rivers before discussing some of the more specific management issues and response strategies that have arisen in response to the current drought in Australia. (springer.com)
  • This subtle difference is often lost: when a scientist says the current drought doesn't look much different from some past extreme droughts, this says nothing about causality of the current drought. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Anyone with an interest in current drought status. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • DIG aims to identify and leverage current drought research activities already underway within WCRP, especially under CLIVAR and GEWEX, through the activities of the VAMOS panel, the US CLIVAR Drought Working Group, and the GEWEX-Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observations Project (CEOP), etc. (clivar.org)
  • Recent severe droughts, like the 2018 drought in northwestern Europe, have shown major challenges for water management, not only in terms of water quantity, but also water quality. (cdc.gov)
  • This study therefore shows the impacts of the 2018 drought on the water quality of the Rhine and Meuse rivers (Western Europe) focusing on a selection of water quality parameters relevant to multiple sectoral water uses and ecosystem health, i.e. water temperature, salinity and four pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, metoprolol, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole). (cdc.gov)
  • Surface water quality data of six monitoring stations (mainly in the Netherlands) were analyzed for the 2018 drought in comparison to the reference period 2014-2017. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results show that low flow combined with high temperatures resulted in a general deterioration of surface water quality of both the Meuse and Rhine rivers during the 2018 drought. (cdc.gov)
  • 2018) or explicitly modeling the frequency and duration of dry spells (Vicente-Serrano and Beguería-Portugués, 2003). (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • 2018. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss. (ornl.gov)
  • It modifies the frequency and severity of floods and droughts through continuous water abstraction, dams and reservoirs construction, flood protection measures, urbanization, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate Variability and Change Hydrological Impacts. (europa.eu)
  • McGree, S., S. Schreider, and Y. Kuleshov, 2016: Trends and Variability in Droughts in the Pacific Islands and Northeast Australia. (ametsoc.org)
  • However, a recent IPCC report (IPCC 2001) affirms that the warming will be in the range of 1.4 to 5.8 °C. Associated with climate warming are increased variability and more frequent extreme phenomena, droughts and floods. (eco-web.com)
  • Climate warming mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions has altered the global hydrological cycle and resulted in more frequent and persistent natural hazards such as droughts, which have imposed considerable economic, societal, and environmental challenges across the globe (Handmer et al. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • A widely used approach for estimating actual evapotranspiration (AET) in hydrological and earth system models is to constrain potential evapotranspiration (PET) with a single empirical stress factor (Ω = AET/PET). (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite being mostly of anthropogenic origin, the influence of the expected rise of temperature and evapotranspiration in the near future will contribute to increasing the frequency and severity of wildfires in the region [ 8 , 9 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Areas of research in socio-hydrology include the historical study of the interplay between hydrological and social processes, comparative analysis of the co-evolution and self-organization of human and water systems in different cultures, and process-based modelling of coupled human-water systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrological Processes 16 , 1235-1245. (publish.csiro.au)
  • We present an approach to estimate intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves based on max-stable processes. (springer.com)
  • These findings suggest there may be important contextual differences in the effects of drought severity on mortality, motivating further work focused on local mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parallels and contrasts in the effects of drought on stream macroinvertebrate assemblages. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Boulton, A. J., and Lake, P. S. (2008) Effects of drought on stream insects and its ecological consequences. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • The regions most prone to an increase in drought hazard are southern and south-eastern Europe, but minimum river flows will also decrease significantly in many other parts of the continent, especially in summer. (europa.eu)
  • Although dry spells cannot be used to determine drought severity, as a consequence of climatological differences, they are highly useful for assessing spatial differences in the drought hazard probability (Lana et al. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • Recent droughts in developing and developed countries and the concomitant impacts and personal hardships that resulted have underscored the vulnerability of all societies to this natural hazard , ttis appears to be a clear sign of increasing societal vulnerability resulting from unsustainable resource use and growing pressures on natural resources. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
  • The extent of the damage caused by a hazard is related not just to its severity, but also to the capacity of people living in disaster-prone areas to prepare for and resist it. (scidev.net)
  • However, existing assessments targeting global droughts under 1.5 and 2.0 ∘ C warming levels usually neglect the multifaceted nature of droughts and might underestimate potential risks. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • The consequences of drought have been far reaching both for human consumptive uses and for aquatic ecosystems, and serve to highlight several important aspects of the nature of droughts, their ecological impacts, and how humans respond to them. (springer.com)
  • How is catchment biogeochemistry being affected by any climatic and hydrological change and is water quality changing significantly as a result? (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The reduced surface and subsurface water amounts due to hydrologic droughts increase the risk of water shortage, especially when the water demand increases in all major use sectors due to growth in population and economic activities. (hindawi.com)
  • While drought severely impacts natural aquatic ecosystems, its effects have been and are exacerbated by direct and indirect anthropogenic modifications to streams and their catchments. (springer.com)
  • Despite the relative frequency of drought in Australia we have failed to develop long-term management strategies capable of contending with droughts and their impacts, particularly in catchments where human disturbances have reduced the natural resistance and resilience of aquatic ecosystems, and where the demand for consumptive water use is high and rising. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the Portal allows users to explore more localised and customised information than the selection of catchments and regions presented in the Hydrological Summaries. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • CAMELS-CL provides a catchment dataset in Chile, including 516 catchment boundaries, hydro-meteorological time series, and 70 catchment attributes quantifying catchments' climatic, hydrological, topographic, geological, land cover and anthropic intervention features. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • The United States and many other heavily populated countries face a growing threat of severe and prolonged drought in coming decades. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Studying meteorological droughts is necessary by itself, and also because they act as antecedents to the longer-lasting and more significant agricultural and hydrological droughts (Haslinger et al. (springer.com)
  • However, when prolonged meteorological droughts reduce the ground water level severely then hydrological droughts occur. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The popular method of assessing drought risk requires the calculation of the probability that a specific value of drought variable will be exceeded, which is equal to the evaluation of the recurrence interval (Prohaska et al. (springer.com)
  • 2 In this report "probability" and "frequency" are used synonymously. (nap.edu)
  • Morphological attributes and biochemical compounds influence the probability and severity of grazing by affecting tissue accessibility and palatability. (tamu.edu)
  • Studies show that droughts will be more frequent in India! (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Have droughts in Europe become more severe or frequent? (europa.eu)
  • However, there is no evidence that river flow droughts have become more severe or frequent over Europe in general in recent decades (Hisdal et al. (europa.eu)
  • As a result, droughts are frequent and vary between a couple of weeks and more than six months [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Field conveniently neglected in his testimony to mention that one place where droughts have gotten less frequent, less intense or shorter is … the United States. (climateaudit.org)
  • As pressure on finite water supplies and other limited natural resources continues to build, more frequent and severe droughts are cause for concern in both water-short and water-surplus regions where conflict between water users has increased dramatically. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
  • A thorough review of drought definitions was provided by Wilhite and Glantz [ 2 ] who classified drought into six overall categories of meteorological, climatological, atmospheric, agricultural, and hydrologic and water management aspects. (hindawi.com)
  • A team of atmospheric scientists from India, USA and Canada have found that aerosols in the atmosphere can increase the severity of droughts over the Indian subcontinent by as much as 17% during El Nino years. (gaonconnection.com)
  • Its severity may not decrease despite the growing global temperature, due to changes in atmospheric circulation in a future climate. (cas.cz)
  • Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The study will help evaluating the risk of future droughts in the region, assessing their consequences on economy, environment, and society, and adopting measures for mitigating the effect of droughts. (hindawi.com)
  • Given the increased threat of destructive cyclones, incorporating changes in storm intensity and frequency into decision-making is critical for minimizing business risk. (exponent.com)
  • The increased intensity and frequency of extreme cyclone events translates into an increased likelihood of coastal flooding due to storm surge. (exponent.com)
  • The observed frequency, intensity, and duration of some extreme weather events have been changing as the climate system has warmed. (nap.edu)
  • Species composition is altered when a particular intensity, frequency and/or seasonality of grazing shifts the competitive advantage from one group of species to another. (tamu.edu)
  • Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. (ac.ke)
  • This assessment is based on several lines of evidence, including simulations with different hydrological models as well as PDSI and CDD estimates (Alexander et al. (climateaudit.org)
  • The 3-day conference will include presentations on drought prediction at multiple time-scales, drought impact assessment, the application of advance climate information to decision-making, the development of innovative Early Warning Systems, and methods for disseminating drought information to relevant stakeholders. (clivar.org)
  • The Xi River is facing some ecological challenges such as drought, invasive species, and pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sweet potato is one crop that has a wide ecological adaptation, drought tolerance and a short maturity period of 3 to 5 months. (scielo.org.za)
  • As drought has taken hold, the Golden State is slowly becoming a more arid, brown state, where constraints on water availability threaten a large and growing population (up nearly 80% since the severe drought of 1976-77), unique ecological resources, a major source of agricultural produce, and one of the largest economies in the world. (pnas.org)
  • 2009): much more severe and longer droughts occurred in the past centuries with widespread ecological, political, and socioeconomic consequences. (climateaudit.org)
  • Europe has been affected by several major droughts in recent decades, such as the catastrophic drought associated with the summer 2003 heatwave in central parts of the continent and the 2005 drought in the Iberian Peninsula. (europa.eu)
  • Over the past 30 years, Europe has been affected by a number of major droughts, most notably in 1976, 1989, 1991, and more recently, the prolonged drought over large parts of the continent associated with the 2003 summer heatwave. (europa.eu)
  • More recent droughts, in 1976-77, 1988-92 and 2007-09, led to aggressive urban conservation programmes and greater use of water markets, such as the Emergency Drought Water Banks of the 1990s that facilitated the purchase, sale and transfer of water. (nature.com)
  • From a paleoclimate perspective recent droughts are not unprecedented, with severe 'megadroughts' reported in the paleoclimatic record for Europe, North America, and Australia (Jansen et al. (climateaudit.org)
  • Some studies ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ) have argued that we cannot yet discern a link between storm tracks (and the Pacific Ocean surface temperature patterns that influence their behavior) and drought in the western United States. (pnas.org)
  • 2014), historical and projected patterns suggest increasing drought in food producing regions with major population centers, including areas of the U.S. Midwest, central/southern Europe, southeast Asia, and much of Africa (Briffa et al. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • iii) Understanding of low frequency climate variations in association with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Nino indexes: These variations affect Texas and their understanding will help provide improved streamflow forecasting needed for reservoir operations and will aid water management decisions. (usgs.gov)
  • The hydrological functioning of western African headwater wetlands remains poorly understood, despite their potential for small-scale farming and their role in streamflow production. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • However, the spatial extent of drought is also very important in drought assessments. (iwaponline.com)
  • Therefore, taking both severity and areal extent into account is very necessary for better understanding drought from both a temporal and spatial scale, and it would be valuable for drought-based decision-making. (iwaponline.com)
  • The Drought Portal was first launched in July 2015, allowing users to explore and understand the severity and magnitude of drought at different spatial scales across the UK over a 50-year period from 1961-2012. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • Drought refuges, spatial scale and recolonisation by invertebrates in non-perennial streams. (publish.csiro.au)
  • These higher temperatures worsen the drought through extra soil moisture loss, altered timing of snowmelt, and decreased reservoir levels from extra evaporation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Scientific understanding of extreme storms, droughts and rising sea levels has improved markedly over the past decade. (nature.com)
  • Our results indicate that in the long term, SWE penetration creates beneficial feedback for the WFE nexus: SWE enhances drought resilience and benefits groundwater sustainability, and in turn, maintaining groundwater at a sustainable level increases the added value of SWE to energy and food production. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several questions will be addressed: (a) How much percentage of a basin will undergo a drought in year 2050? (usgs.gov)
  • The frequency and severity of hydrological droughts are defined at the watershed or river basin scale and are influenced by factors such as land degradation or land use changes, construction of dams etc. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • In this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • 2010). Additionally, while the overall frequency of cyclones in the Atlantic basin will likely decrease, the frequency of Category 4 and 5 cyclones is predicted to nearly double by the end of the century. (exponent.com)
  • There is a need to downscale GCM on a basin scale and couple them with relevant hydrological models considering all components of the hydrological cycle. (hausarbeiten.de)
  • Do users benefit from additional information in support of operational drought management decisions in the Ebro basin? (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • Following the increased hydrological challenges due to human-induced changes, hydrologists started to overcome the limitation of traditional hydrology by accounting for the mutual interactions between water and society and by advocating for greater connection between social science and hydrology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building dams and reservoirs is one of the most common approaches to cope with drought and water shortage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-reliance on reservoirs can increase the potential damage caused by drought and water shortage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drought occurrences can trigger temporary reductions of water availability, often leading to water shortage when water demand cannot be satisfied by the available water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementation of adequate measures to assess and monitor droughts is recognized as a major matter challenging researchers involved in water resources management. (hindawi.com)
  • Among them is the Palmer Drought Index [ 5 ], which is based on the concept of water balance. (hindawi.com)
  • 2016 ). Consequently, droughts are of prominent concern in the outlining and control of water resources. (springer.com)
  • Like other western states, Texas is a water deficient state and is highly vulnerable to droughts, and its vulnerability is being compounded by rapidly growing population. (usgs.gov)
  • According to the Water Plan developed by Texas Water Development Board, water shortages during droughts could cost businesses and workers in the state about $9.1 billion by 2010 and $98.4 billion by 2060 and about 85 percent of the states projected population would not have enough water by 2060 (in drought conditions), if an additional 8.8 million acre-feet of water supplies are not developed. (usgs.gov)
  • Changes in the magnitude and frequency of droughts will have extensive impacts on water management, agriculture and aquatic ecosystems. (usgs.gov)
  • e) How much will be the water deficit in a river in 2050, considering it as a hydrological drought? (usgs.gov)
  • Socioeconomic droughts occur when water shortage starts to affect people's lives , individually and collectively. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Drought risk analysis is essential for regional water resource management. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on these factors, drought analysis has been a challenging topic in water resource management. (hindawi.com)
  • UNSD coordinated the preparation of SEEA-Water in collaboration with the London Group on En. (zaragoza.es)
  • Droughts, floods, poor water quality and uneven water provision have social, economic and environmental consequences. (cranfield.ac.uk)
  • However, these water quality impacts have received far less attention, and limited understanding exists, in particular regarding concentration responses of emerging chemicals, such as pharmaceutical in surface waters under droughts. (cdc.gov)
  • Running water ecosystems are the dominant form of freshwater ecosystem in Australia, yet, despite the high frequency of drought we lack a basic understanding of the consequences of long-term droughts (as distinct from seasonal droughts) as an ecosystem disturbance, and more is known about drought effects on flowing than on standing waters. (springer.com)
  • The study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations, issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and other facilities. (ac.ke)
  • At the peak of the drought farms received only 60% of their allocated water (D. Sauchyn & Kulshreshtha, 2008). (albertawater.com)
  • Present day water management in many sectors has to be able to cope with extreme hydrological conditions. (europa.eu)
  • There are growing concerns about whether California can continue to meet its tremendous demand for water for industrial use, growing food, sustaining ecosystems, and expanding cities in the face of drought ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • That is no coincidence: climate and the hydrological cycle are tightly coupled, and water is essential to ecosystems and societies. (nature.com)
  • In North American regions as diverse as the Great Lakes, the east coast's Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, the severity of summer hypoxia has been linked to the effects of weather on nutrient loading, water-column structure and water circulation. (nature.com)
  • Whilst such changes in the quantity and quality of water resources have obvious implications for society (flood and drought management, drinking water treatment, etc.), they will also affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Although similar to aridity in many ways, droughts are mainly temporary in nature and thus they should not be confused with water scarcity due to excess of water demand over available supply. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Finally, all of the first three droughts with a deficit in water availability are named as socioeconomic drought. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • There are many other sources of information that can be used for drought monitoring, notably the Hydrological Summaries produced by the National Hydrological Monitoring Programme, the Water Situation Reports produced by the Environment Agency and similar products developed by Natural Resources Wales (NRW) and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). (ceh.ac.uk)
  • Although it is aimed primarily at drought monitoring at present, the Portal can also be used to assess water status more generally. (ceh.ac.uk)
  • Ensuring global food and water security requires a detailed understanding of how coupled socio-environmental systems respond to drought. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Whereas drought prompted an increase in well installations and expansion of water-intensive crops, e.g., corn, in the agricultural sector, outdoor water use restrictions rapidly curtailed water withdrawals in the urban sector, where water conservation has gradually decoupled total withdrawals from population growth. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • We conclude that, rather than exacerbating intersectoral conflict, cities may introduce a high-value and flexible water use that can be rapidly curtailed during drought. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • The ability to rapidly reduce urban water use and thereby avoid limiting agricultural irrigation during drought enables cities to provide adaptive capacity in mixed urban-agricultural watersheds, particularly where crops are highly reliant on irrigation. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • 2014). Within this context, managing water resources during drought and preventing intersectoral conflict is a major challenge. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Through this confluence of factors, food and water resources face heightened stress, increasing the likelihood that urban and agricultural users will come into conflict during drought (Kendy et al. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Water sources in the southeastern areas of Australia have depleted due to increasing population in urban areas coupled with persistent prolonged drought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequently asked questions relating to hydrological and water resources. (wmo.int)
  • California's current extreme drought must be a lesson for managing water in a warmer, more densely populated world, say Amir AghaKouchak and colleagues. (nature.com)
  • Despite the current drought's severity, urban water supplies have been managed and had few major interruptions. (nature.com)
  • Water scarcity brings tremendous challenges to achieving sustainable development of water resources, food, and energy security, as these sectors are often in competition, especially during drought. (bvsalud.org)
  • [4] [5] The water crisis occurred at the same time as the still ongoing, as of 2021, Eastern Cape drought located in a separate region nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Good rains in 2020 effectively broke the drought and resulting water shortage when dam levels reached 95 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The susceptibility of the region to drought conditions is thus expected to increase conflicts due to limited water resources, pasture and food insecurity in the region and thus limit achievement of Kenya's long term development envisioned in the Vision 2030. (ac.ke)
  • Since drought variables are usually reliant on one other, a proper frequency analysis of droughts should consider such dependencies within a suitable multivariate framework. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this project is therefore threefold: (i) Analysis of multivariate hydrologic droughts: Drought is characterized by severity, areal extent, and duration. (usgs.gov)
  • Regarded as a complex hydrologic event, drought is a type of multivariate event that is characterized by a few correlated random variables. (hindawi.com)
  • Whether California's drought is linked to the potential of rising greenhouse-gas emissions to increase the frequency of extreme weather is being debated 4 . (nature.com)
  • Adding to the concern regarding increasing societal vulnerability is distress over how the threat of global warming may increase the frequency, severity, and duration of extreme climate events in the future. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
  • One explanation for this is provided by Guttman [ 7 ] and Ray and Shewale [ 8 ], who suggested that in humid areas this index represents more of agricultural drought, whereas in semiarid and arid areas it represents hydrologic drought. (hindawi.com)
  • Agricultural drought usually follows meteorological drought and occurs before a hydrological drought. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • On the other hand, short-term (few weeks) dryness in the surface layer could result in an agricultural drought (Heim, 2002). (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • There are many reasons why we see more droughts in India these days. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • India will see more droughts in the future. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Droughts are one of the most feared natural calamities in India impacting food production, the economy as well as the morale of millions of farmers in a country where agriculture is the livelihood of 60 percent of the population . (indiawaterportal.org)
  • While many of these droughts have negatively affected agricultural output and caused immense suffering to people, recent studies show that the risk of droughts over India is predicted to increase further , particularly so in the northeastern and western parts of India! (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Why is India vulnerable to droughts? (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Noting that in recent decades there has been an increase in the frequency of El Niño events and the frequency of droughts over India, the researchers warned against any further increase in industrial emissions and thus aerosols from both East and South Asia. (gaonconnection.com)
  • Hydrological droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to changing climate in several river basins. (cdc.gov)
  • The most severe droughts in the 20th century have occurred in the 1930s and 1950s, where the 1930s Dust Bowl was most intense and the 1950s drought most persistent (Andreadis et al. (climateaudit.org)
  • Droughts with either intense severity or a long persistence could both lead to substantial impacts such as infrastructure failure and ecosystem vulnerability, and they are projected to occur more frequently and trigger intensified socioeconomic consequences with global warming. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • The results are used to perform univariate and bivariate frequency analyses for the drought events. (hindawi.com)
  • This study, within a bivariate framework, quantifies the change in global drought conditions and corresponding socioeconomic exposures for additional 1.5 and 2.0 ∘ C warming trajectories. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • The copula functions and the most likely realization are incorporated to model the joint distribution of drought severity and duration, and changes in the bivariate return period with global warming are evaluated. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • The results show that within the bivariate framework, the historical 50-year droughts may double across 58 % of global landmasses in a 1.5 ∘ C warmer world, while when the warming climbs up to 2.0 ∘ C, an additional 9 % of world landmasses would be exposed to such catastrophic drought deteriorations. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • Drought is a recurrent extreme climate event that affects every aspect of the natural environment, as well as human lives [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Drought is a natural and recurrent phenomenon which occurs in all forms of climate. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Drought is a recurrent climate feature of the Pacific Islands and northeast Australia with meteorological and socioeconomic impacts documented from early European settlement. (ametsoc.org)
  • Determining the effects of catchment moisture conditions on flood frequency distributions. (edu.au)
  • The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that. (usda.gov)
  • Flood frequency estimation by continuous simulation (with uncertainty). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Approaches to address such problem exist, but widely used techniques such as flood frequency regionalisation is often not subjected to performance evaluation. (ac.ke)
  • Inside each region, variations in at-site flood frequency distribution were modelled by regression of the mean annual maximum peak flow (MAF) versus catchment area. (ac.ke)
  • This study aims to develop a drought severity-areal extent-frequency (SAF) curve with copula theory and to evaluate the uncertainties in the curve. (iwaponline.com)
  • Pre- and post-fire measurements of fire effects help ecologists, fire scientists, and managers determine how the severity of wildfires affects plants, animal habitat, and ecosystem services. (usgs.gov)
  • Russia and its neighbours suffered a record-shattering multi-month heatwave which caused 15,000 deaths, wildfires, drought, and crop failures. (skepticalscience.com)
  • Overcoming these challenges requires balancing trade-offs between sectors and improving resilience to drought impacts. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2016 ). In fact, a noticeable extreme winter-spring droughts events occurred in southwest China from August 2009 to May 2010 (Lu et al. (springer.com)
  • California is experiencing extreme drought. (pnas.org)
  • Extreme disturbance events are Keywords Disturbances Extreme events complex and require disaggregation to improve Hurricanes Landslides Drought Economic collapse understanding of their effects. (deepdyve.com)
  • The severity or effects of extreme events on the functioning of island harshness of a disturbance event on a system depends forests. (deepdyve.com)
  • Extreme risk' cities may see an increase in frequency and severity of key hydrological and meteorological events. (preventionweb.net)
  • Extreme droughts tend to occur every century or so. (nature.com)
  • Drought and floods are recurring extreme climate events. (climateaudit.org)
  • This report analyses impacts of four extreme weather events (a heat wave in Russia, flooding in Pakistan, drought in East Africa, and a typhoon in the Philippines) on food security. (scribd.com)
  • Scenarios of the plausible impacts of increased extreme weather severity on food security and other socioeconomic parameters are presented for each case. (scribd.com)
  • Previous literature has been most concerned with the severity and the duration of drought due to their ability to characterize drought from the temporal scale (e.g. (iwaponline.com)
  • now add weight to the accumulating evidence that anthropogenic climatic changes are already influencing the frequency, magnitude, and duration of drought in California ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Risk analysis based on observed data showed that north and central region of Tana River county were susceptible to intense droughts conditions and projected shift northwards under all scenarios. (ac.ke)
  • As these drought variables showed significant dependence properties and followed different marginal distributions, we employed and compared six four-variate symmetric and asymmetric Archimedean copulas (i.e. (springer.com)
  • Three major action items came out of the workshop, which were to 1) develop a drought cataglogue, 2) define case studies, and 3) develop a drought early warning system. (clivar.org)
  • to develop a drought early warning system. (clivar.org)
  • Intermittent streams, which provide rearing and breeding habitats for river biota, are especially vulnerable to drought 7 . (nature.com)
  • The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment statistics. (ac.ke)
  • Agricultural droughts occur when there is insufficient soil moisture to meet the needs of a crop at a particular time. (indiawaterportal.org)
  • Drought is a prolonged dry period in the natural climate cylce that can occur anywhere in the world. (wmo.int)
  • Although there are no generally accepted definitions for drought, the American Meteorological Society has categorized it into four types: meteorological or climatological, agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomic (Heim, 2002). (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The results were compared with available official records of drought events (impacts), showing a very good positive relationship between the two. (ac.ke)
  • An attempt to detect the long-term trends of drought events using the CDI indicates that there is an increasing trend of drought events in the country, while the drought severity is not necessarily getting worse in all stations. (ac.ke)
  • This in no way diminishes the threat of natural occurring droughts worsened by anthropogenic global warming, which NCAR's Dai lays out in his new study . (discovermagazine.com)