HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR Serological Subtypes: HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4: A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred BALB CHLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.Mice, Inbred C57BLHLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.HLA-DQ alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.HLA-DP Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.HLA-DP beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
"HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Dutch blood donors". Tissue Antigens. 48 (5): 562-74. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1996. ... A2-B44-DR4-DQ8). The full haplotype is (for relative distances) see Human leukocyte antigens: A*0201 : C*0501 : B*4402 : DRB1* ... Before this revision, HLA-A*02 was also referred to as HLA-A2, HLA-A02, and HLA-A*2. HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major ... HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ...
Pollack MS, Gold J, Metroka CE, Safai B, Dupont B (1984). "HLA-A,B,C and DR antigen frequencies in acquired immunodeficiency ... Type 1 diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4. Some DR3 also react with HLA-DR17 and/or HLA-DR18. The ... HLA-DR3 is composed of the HLA-DR17 and HLA-DR18 split 'antigens' serotypes. DR3 is a component gene-allele of the AH8.1 ... Mann DL, Murray C, O'Donnell M, Blattner WA, Goedert JJ (1990). "HLA antigen frequencies in HIV-1-related Kaposi's sarcoma". J ...
HLA-DR13 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52 and HLA-DQ5 (HLA-DQ1) serotypes. derived from IMGT/HLA DR1404 - 3% DR4 - 25% ... DR14 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR6 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR13 antigens. ... Song EY, Park H, Roh EY, Park MH (2004). "HLA-DRB1 and -DRB3 allele frequencies and haplotypic associations in Koreans". Hum. ... HLA-DR14(DR14) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1401 to *1408, *1410 to *1418, and other *14 gene products. ...
"HLA-A and B antigen frequencies in Welsh coalworkers with pneumoconiosis and Caplan's syndrome". Tissue Antigens. 14 (2): 165-8 ... the association appears not to extend beyond the HLA-B locus. A recent study of DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 phenotype found that A1-cw7-B8 ... "HL-A antigens in congenital rubella and the role of antigens 1 and 8 in the epidemiology of natural rubella". Tissue Antigens. ... HLA-A1 (A1) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A "A" serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ...
"Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... DQ8 increases the risk for rheumatoid arthritis and is linked to the primary risk locus for RA, HLA-DR4. DR4 also plays an ... HLA-DQ8 (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Welinder L, Graugaard B, Madsen M (2000). "HLA antigen and gene frequencies in Eskimos of East Greenland". Eur J Immunogenet. ...
... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ... HLA-DR3 has been consistently observed at high frequencies in inclusion body myositis in caucasians.[37] DR3 was found to ... "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... HL-A8 the second refined B-serotype to be uncovered became HLA-B8. Because of the frequency of the haplotype, homozygotes are ...
"Strong association between IgA nephropathy and HLA-DR4 antigen". Kidney Int. 22 (4): 377-82. doi:10.1038/ki.1982.185. PMID ... The DR4 serogroup is large and has a number of moderate frequency alleles spread over large regions of the world. The ... HLA-DR4 (DR4) is an HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*04 gene products. ... "HLA-DR antigens in pemphigus among Japanese". Tissue Antigens. 17 (2): 238-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1981.tb00689.x. PMID ...
... (A11) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A "A" serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... In autoimmune hepatitis, A11 has a synergistic effect, acting together with DR4 and DR3 to increase the odds of disease to over ... Oddly, in Africa A11 is at very low frequencies, and homozygotes are rare, suggesting that other genetic susceptibilities may ... "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 ...
There frequency of DR4-DQ8 haplotypes reach extreme nodal levels. Arthritis has been identified in a precolumbian remains from ... "HLA-DR antigens in rheumatoid arthritis. A Swiss collaborative study; final report. Swiss Federal Commission for the Rheumatic ... 2005). "Association of rheumatoid arthritis with HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 in Hungary". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1051: 263-270. doi: ... HLA-DR1 is not genetically linked to DR51, DR52 or DR53, but is linked to HLA-DQ1 and DQ5 serotypes. Fernández MM, Guan R, ...
The DR4-DQA1*0303:DQB1*040X can be found at high frequencies in PNG highland groups but not DQ4.24. The DR*0405 and DR*410 are ... "Combination of HLA-A and HLA class II alleles controls the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis". Tissue Antigens. 58 (6): ... HLA-DQ4 and HLA-DQB1*04 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ4 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... Birol A, Anadolu R, Tutkak H, Gürgey E (2002). "HLA-class 1 and class 2 antigens in Turkish patients with pemphigus". Int J ...
Sirén M, Sareneva H, Lokki M, Koskimies S (1996). "Unique HLA antigen frequencies in the Finnish population". Tissue Antigens. ... And DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 individuals who have type 1 diabetes (late onset) are often mistaken for type-2 diabetes. DR3-DQ2 is ... HLA-DR3-DQ2 is found in HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype in Northern Europeans (including the British Ilse, Ireland, Iceland). HLA ... Klemola T, Savilahti E, Koskimies S, Pelkonen P (1988). "HLA antigens in IgA deficient paediatric patients". Tissue Antigens. ...
"Increased frequency of HLA-A1 and -B8 in association with total lack, but not with deficiency of serum IgA". Tissue Antigens. ... HLA)-DR3 haplotypes depends on genotypic context: association of DPB1 and HLA class I loci among DR3- and DR4-matched Italian ... HLA A1-B8 (Also:HL A1,8; HL A1,A8; HLA A1-Cw7-B8; HLA A*01-B*08, HLA A*0101-B*0801, HLA A*0101-Cw*0701-B*0801; HLA A*01:01-C*07 ... Müller C, Ehninger G, Goldmann S (2003). "Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci hLA-A, hLA-B, and hLA-DR based on over ...
The haplotype HLA-DR4-DQ3 appears to play a role in the pathogenic AAHA production. The alleles primarily recognized are HLA- ... 2003). "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a ... sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): 296-307. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00103.x. PMID 12974796. ... HLA-DR7 may also be associated with these antibodies and the common haplotype association is the HLA-DR53 serotype. Viard JP, ...
RA is strongly associated with genes of the inherited tissue type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen HLA-DR4 is the ... Technical advances in ultrasonography like high-frequency transducers (10 MHz or higher) have improved the spatial resolution ... Positive serum RF findings Positive serum anti-CCP autoantibodies Carriership of HLA-DR4 "Shared Epitope" alleles Family ... with most of them involving the HLA system (particularly HLA-DRB1) which controls recognition of self versus nonself molecules ...
"Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... HLA-DR3 and. -DR4 combined. Diabetes mellitus type 1. 15[4]. HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. Coeliac disease. 7[6]. ... HLA-C. Minor genes are HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G. β2-microglobulin binds with major and minor gene subunits to produce a ... HLA-DR *α-chain encoded by HLA-DRA locus. *4 β-chains (only 3 possible per person), encoded by HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 loci ...
The HLA antigen frequency among patients exceeds more than that among a healthy population. This is evaluated by δ {\ ... has a strong association with DR4 even with a low relative risk = 6 {\displaystyle =6} . (2) Discrepancies from expected values ... HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens as MHC of humans. Because HLA genes are located at adjacent loci on the ... alleles at antigen i to be 'x,' and at antigen j to be 'y,' the observed frequency of haplotype xy is o [ h f x y ] = d / N {\ ...
HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... In Mexicans, HLA-DR4 may be a genetic factor that is protective against DHF. Because HLA-DR4 has been positively selected in ... HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with risk of DHF (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.85). HLA-DR4 homozygous individuals were 11.6 ... The human leukocyte antigen DRB1 locus (HLA-DRB1) was typed in genomic DNA extracted from whole blood samples of 34 Mexican ...
... and other antigens in the sera;30-36 the frequency of HLA DR4;26,27 and the improvement after immunosuppressive therapy,1-5 it ... A genetic link between HLA-DR4 antigen and relapsing polychondritis has been described in Caucasians.25,26 The incidence of HLA ... HLA-DRB1*16:02, HLA-DQB1*05:02, and HLA-B*67:01 were associated with susceptibility to relapsing polychondritis, suggesting a ... Susceptibility to relapsing polychondritis is associated with HLA-DR4. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36(5):660-664. ...
The frequency of HLA risk alleles DR3 and DR4 (0602 excluded) was greater than 93% (Table 1). The prevalence of participants ... At the Joslin Diabetes Center, paraffin sections were microwaved for antigen retrieval and immunostained with guinea pig anti- ... had a high frequency of HLA diabetes risk alleles DR3 and/or DR4 (93%) (21,22). Also consistent with type 1 diabetes, 29.5% of ... had the highest frequency of DR4 risk alleles. Of interest is the higher frequency of the DR3 risk allele among those with ...
The frequency of HLA risk alleles DR3 and DR4 (0602 excluded) was greater than 93% (Table 1). The prevalence of participants ... HLA Class II Antigen Processing and Presentation Pathway Components Demonstrated by Transcriptome and Protein Analyses of Islet ... had a high frequency of HLA diabetes risk alleles DR3 and/or DR4 (93%) (21,22). Also consistent with type 1 diabetes, 29.5% of ... had the highest frequency of DR4 risk alleles. Of interest is the higher frequency of the DR3 risk allele among those with ...
... and DQ antigens. The non-DR group showed higher frequencies of HLA Cw4 (χ2 = 4.027, p = 0.045) and DR4 (χ2 = 4.398, p = 0.036) ... The frequencies of HLA-A, B, and Cw antigens in the control group, the non-DR group, and the PDR group are shown in table 2, ... The PDR group showed higher frequencies of HLA DR4 than the control group (χ2 = 5.937, p = 0.014). ... DR4 may, therefore, be related to the onset of type 2 diabetes, but not to the development of retinopathy. The HLA-DR4 levels ...
... provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens ... provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens ... HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 allele frequencies in Cuban individuals with antecedents of dengue 2 disease: advantages of the Cuban ...
... transglutamination and citrullination of beta cell antigens enhances presentation by the high risk HLA class II alleles DR4 and ... We show CD4+ T cells specific for these epitopes are present at elevated frequencies ex vivo in the peripheral blood of ... CD4 T Cell reactivity to both native and citrullinated-MOG epitopes identified in HLA-DR4 mouse model Of demyelinating disease ... Such neo-antigens can induce distinct T cell specificities, while others cross-react with wild type-specific T cells. In each ...
It causes premature death; there is a genetic cell marker, hla-dr4. ... Genetic reason for rheumatoid arthritis (antigen type HLA-DR4). In the same fashion, there seems to be a genetic predisposition ... Moreover, at a younger age women are affected more often than men with a frequency of 3:1. By the same token, in elderly people ... namely, people with the surface membrane antigen type HLA-DR4 in Caucasians are significantly more prone to develop this ...
MCTD is considered an autoimmune disease to which individuals who express specific HLA antigens such as HLA-DR4 or HLA-DQB1 are ... The frequency of HLA-DR4 in patients with MCTD is estimated to be 52%. Its strong HLA association with MCTD was further shown ... in the significantly increased frequency of the combination of HLA-B15 with HLA-DR4. Thus, the genetic background in patients ... HLA-DR4 is more common in patients with MCTD than in patients with other connective-tissue diseases (see Pathophysiology). A ...
Because of an association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) groups DR3 and DR4 (which occur more commonly in white populations ... Frequency of sub-clinical cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Diabetes. 2006 Apr. 7(2):75-80. [ ...
HLA-DR antigen frequencies in Mexican patients with dengue virus infection: HLA-DR4 as a possible genetic resistance factor for ... Protective and enhancing HLA alleles, HLA-DRB1*0901 and HLA-A*24, for severe forms of dengue virus infection, dengue ... 2A). In fact, the mutation frequency of each nucleotide was proportional to its occurrence in the DENV genome (data not shown ... Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens. PLoS One 4: ...
The MHC HLA-B antigens were first found to have increased frequency in patients with Hodgkins lymphoma in 1967. Other ... analysis of MHC disease associations found that there is shared disease susceptibility to alleles that arise from HLA-DR4 ... MHC and antigen presentation. The MHC controls how the immune system detects and responds to specific antigens. Antigen ... MHC class I molecules present antigens that are intracellular or endogenous, whilst MHC class II molecules present antigens ...
An increased frequency of HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) and HLA-DR1 (DRB1*0101 and DRB1*0102) is found in patients who have had arthritis ... it will be important to determine whether bacterial antigens activate T cells that crossreact with peripheral nerve antigens. ... Steere, AC, Dwyer, E, Winchester, R. Association of chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR2 alleles. N Engl J Med 1990 ... notably HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR1, indicating that CD4+ T cells may be involved in the disease process. Lyme disease occurs worldwide ...
The genotype frequencies of HLA A2, A3, A28, B13, B17, B35, B52, B60, Cw2, Cw6, DR4, and DQ3 were significantly increased, ... HLA A30 (19) split antigen was not identified in immunized women while HLA A23 (9) split antigen was not identified in non ... Further, it is evident that there are significant differences in the observed HLA antigen frequencies and two locus haplotypes ... We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those ...
HLA-DR4 tg mice are a useful model for examining the immune responses against bacterial antigens in the context of human as ... HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in the North American population: the National Marrow Donor Program donor registry. ... all MHC class II-restricted responses in HLA-DR4 tg animals are induced via the human HLA-DR4 molecules. Chlamydia-infected HLA ... HLA-DR4 tg mice were originally generated with HLA-DRA-IEa and HLA-DRB1*0401-IEβ chimeric genes and then backcrossed to MHC-IIΔ ...
Of the latter, 10 (2.8% overall) were persistently positive; they had higher frequencies of HLA DR4 (p , 0.01) and HLA DR3, 4 ( ... Human leukocyte antigen typing and assays for insulin autoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAb) and ... To determine the sequence of development of islet autoantibodies and their relation to HLA genes in infants at risk for Type I ... Infants with high risk HLA-DR alleles and multiple antibodies at high risk for diabetes were identified. A much larger group of ...
Genotyping of HLA-DRB1 alleles was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with sequence-specific ... Thirty percent of RA patients were carrying at least one copy of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) compared to 10% and 14% of ... and to determine the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles (SE) in African patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... but not HLA-DR4 (RR 0.8) [21]. The frequency of SE-containing HLA-DRB1 alleles was 25.2% in African Americans with RA as ...
Hydralazine-induced DILE has been observed with increased frequency in association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4. ... In contrast, SLE affects women with considerably higher frequency than men (female-to-male ratio of 9:1). More whites than ... A second theory is that with decreased T-cell methylation, an overexpression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) ... These theories hold that in SLE, the immune system generates autoantibodies to foreign antigens, and these autoantibodies, in ...
HLA A*0201-restricted PPI-specific and HLA B*2705-restricted VIPR1-specific T-cell clones generated using the optimised ... with low affinity for cognate antigen. This issue is particularly pronounced for anti-cancer and autoimmune T-cells as self- ... presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*0201 or HLA*2402. Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a ... presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*0201 or HLA*2402. Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a ...
With HLA-DR typing, a significant excess of the DR3 antigen and heterozygous DR3/DR4 phenotypes was found in ICA-positive ... which was comparable with the frequencies reported in juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes. ... Correlation of islet cell antibodies and HLA-DR phenotypes with diabetes mellitus in adults.. Gleichmann H, Zörcher B, Greulich ...
HLA extended haplotypes in childhood and adult onset HLA-DR4-associated arthropathies. Tissue Antigens 1990; 35: 56-59. ... 26) and those with a frequency of , 0.5% are shown in bold. The frequency column shows the haplotype frequencies for HLA-BDRDQ ... HLA-DR53 is an HLA class II supertypic antigen expressed at somewhat lower level than the private HLA-DR antigens encoded by ... homozygosity for HLA-DR4 in young males 110;111; HLA-DR4,7 genotype more frequent in males 112; association with ancestral HLA- ...
... and investigate the correlation of such antigens with pulmonary involvement. ... Establishing the frequency of HLA-DR antigens in a group of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ... Human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4) exhibits a strong association with RA in various populations and ethnic groups; in ... followed by HLA-DRB1*0401, HLA-DRB3 and HLA-DRB1*0101, whereas the most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*0901, HLA-DRB4 and HLA- ...
... which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. Our aim was to assess whether HLA ... Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2 ... which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. Our aim was to assess whether HLA ... From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this ...
Relation between histo-compatibility antigen immunogenetics and pregnancy induced hypertension]. , Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi ... The results showed that the frequency of HLA-DR4 was significantly higher in PIH than that in normal pregnancy (P < 0.001). ... The distribution of histo-compatibility antigen D region (HLA-DR) frequency, the frequency of homozygosity and the HLA-DR ... specially obvious in the frequency of DR4 antigen sharing in PIH (P < 0.0001). There was, however, no significant difference in ...
... of patients with RA express either the HLA-DR4 molecule or the equivalent HLA-DR1 molecule, but the frequency of these antigens ... High association of an HL-A antigen W27 with ankylosing spondylitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 288, 704-706 (1973). ... jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the ... The resistance of the B10.S strain was found to be secondary to an antigen-specific defect in the generation of Th 1 cells that ...
  • A strict definition of autoimmunity would exclude such diseases, because T cells or antibodies specific for self-antigens are not responsible for tissue damage. (jci.org)
  • Antenatal sera from 1334 pregnant women attending the Nowrojee B J Wadia Maternity Hospital and KEM Hospital in Parel, Mumbai were collected and screened for anti HLA A and B antibodies to produce an indigenous HLA tissue typing tray. (ias.ac.in)
  • One hundred and sixty three sera (12.2%) were found positive for HLA antibodies. (ias.ac.in)
  • Moreover, the incidence of anti-HLA antibodies was correlated with the allelic frequencies in the Maharastrian population. (ias.ac.in)
  • Standard methods of serological HLA typing, ABO and Rh (D) groups, and screening for Rh D antibodies were used. (ias.ac.in)
  • Upon CPAF-plus-interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccination, HLA-DR4 tg animals exhibited robust CPAF-specific IFN-γ production and elevated titers of anti-CPAF total antibody and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and lower titers of IgG2b and IgG1 antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen typing and assays for insulin autoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAb) and tyrosine phosphatase IA2 (IA2Ab) antibodies were done on cord blood, and venous blood was sampled every 6 months for IAA, GADAb and IA2Ab. (nih.gov)
  • Infants with high risk HLA-DR alleles and multiple antibodies at high risk for diabetes were identified. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular mimicry between antibodies directed against infectious agents (eg, bacteria, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]) and self-antigens has been implicated in SLE. (medscape.com)
  • Correlation of islet cell antibodies and HLA-DR phenotypes with diabetes mellitus in adults. (nih.gov)
  • It is also possible that HLA antigen systems are associated with recurrent fetal miscarriage in patients who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Several reports based on serologic HLA typing have pointed out the positive association between patients with recurrent fetal miscarriage who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies and specific HLA alleles (13, 14). (healthdocbox.com)
  • All people from the endemic areas had anti-p126 antibodies, and the frequencies of anti-Nt47 antibodies were similar in both communities (66% for Colina and 75% for Ribeirinha). (ajtmh.org)
  • OBJECTIVE GAD antibodies (GADA) are more common in type 1 diabetic subjects diagnosed at an older age, whereas insulinoma-antigen 2 antibodies (IA-2A) are more common in subjects with younger onset. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At diagnosis of type 1a diabetes, about 95% of individuals will have one or more autoantibodies, including insulin autoantibodies (IAA), GAD antibodies (GADA), insulinoma-antigen 2 antibodies (IA-2A, also called ICA512), and the recently described zinc transporter protein autoantibodies (ZnT8Ab) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Essentially, 100 percent of women with a history of PG have demonstrable anti-HLA antibodies. (dermaamin.com)
  • Because the only source of disparate HLA antigens is typically the placenta (which is primarily of paternal origin), the universal finding of anti-HLA antibodies implies a high frequency of immunologic insult during gestation. (dermaamin.com)
  • Whether anti-HLA antibodies represent phenomenon or epiphenomenon, remains to be clarified. (dermaamin.com)
  • It is what helps our body identify foreign antigens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) and determine what type of white blood cells and antibodies should be produced. (eupedia.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to address the hypothesis that HLA-DR3-restricted T cell responses to La peptide neoepitopes could be identified in patients with SLE and in those with primary SS, thereby playing a part in the subsequent generation of anti-La antibodies. (edu.au)
  • When Th cells signal B cells, the B cells secrete antibodies that are supposed to be uniquely specific for the antigen responsible for the Th signal. (madisonarealymesupportgroup.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the presence of antibodies to a 65 kD Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase antigen (GAD), Insulinoma-associated protein-2 antibodies (IA-2 orICA512), which is now known as protein- tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), and islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs), in blood that identify the autoimmune process that leads to β cell destruction. (mysteria.cz)
  • Parameters associated with higher random C-peptide were lower hemoglobin A1C, older age of onset, higher frequency of HLA DR3 genotype, and responsiveness to a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this genotype were identified. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, there was no statistically significant association between HLA genotype and the occurrence of human enterovirus gut infections. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Corresponding genotype frequencies in 53 Type 1 diabetic patients were 79%, 21% and 0%, respectively (p less than 0.0005 from chi 2 test). (springernature.com)
  • We published the first molecular HLA association study in childhood ALL and showed a convincing association for a homozygous genotype of the DQA1 locus by RFLP analysis 4 . (dorak.info)
  • This genotype more or less corresponds to homozygosity for HLA-DR53 and the current research specifically examined this genotype by PCR analysis against a newborn control group (as opposed to an adult control group in the previous RFLP study). (dorak.info)
  • You can know your HLA types through a blood test, i.e. serotype (ask your doctor), or checking the raw from your DNA, i.e. genotype, if you tested with 23andMe, and in some cases also with Geno 2.0 or FamilyFinder. (eupedia.com)
  • Samples from ankylosing spondylitis patients were stained with a multimerized epitope from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 (VIPR1) presented by HLA B*27:05. (frontiersin.org)
  • Homozygosity for the HLA-DR1 allele with shared epitope, particularly alleles *0401 and *0404, seems to correlate strongly with severe manifestations of the disease, including the presence of subcutaneous nodules, positive RF and radiological erosion [ 8 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The most convincing association study in leukaemia is the one which used a monoclonal antibody recognising HVR3 epitope of the DR53 antigen 13 . (dorak.info)
  • The serodominant secreted effector protein of Salmonella, SseB, is a strong CD4 antigen containing an immunodominant epitope presented by diverse HLA class II alleles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Of these, peptide 11 (p11) was shown in priming of both HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice to contain an immunodominant CD4 epitope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Epitope mapping was performed by IFN-γ ELISpot screening, confirmed by in vitro MHC binding.RESULTS Activated CD4+ T cell frequencies in bronchoalveolar lavage correlated strongly with local C-X-C motif chemokine 10 levels. (jci.org)
  • We first screened a panel of six epitope peptide candidates selected with the TEPITOPE program and found that all six peptides induced peptide-specific T-cell proliferation from one or more donors with estimated T-cell precursor frequencies of 0-4.17 × 10 −6 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • We then established peptide-specific T-cell clones for five of these six peptides and demonstrated that the T-cell clone specific for the PSMA 459 epitope (NYTLRVDCTPLMYSL) can recognize processed antigens from recombinant PSMA proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eighteen HLA-A*0201-positive subjects with stage III-IV melanoma received three biweekly i.v. or intradermal injections of ex vivo generated myeloid DCs pulsed with MART-1 27-35 epitope. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, analysis of determinant spreading to other melanoma antigens was noted in the only subject with complete response to this single-epitope immunization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes patients were stained with pMHC multimers made with epitopes from preproinsulin (PPI), insulin-β chain, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), or glucose-6-phospate catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) presented by disease-risk allelles HLA A*02:01 or HLA*24:02. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective: This study was designed to investigate the role of HLA-class I and class II antigens in the etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and also assessment of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoantibodies in the patients at the onset of the disease. (iasj.net)
  • The highest diversity of subtypes in found within HLA-DR4, although non-Mediterranean Europeans usually belong to HLA-DRB*0401. (eupedia.com)
  • Our aim was to assess whether HLA genotypes conferring varying degrees of risk for T1D were associated with enterovirus gut infections. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2), were protective (DQB1*06:02), or were neutral (all other genotypes). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies and inflammatory bowel diseases, and there are emerging evidences of correlations between HLA genotypes and renal diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and glomerulonephritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The high frequency of SseB-reactive CD4 T cells and the broad applicability to diverse HLA genotypes coupled with previous observations of serodominance and protective vaccination in mouse challenge experiments, make SseB a plausible candidate for next-generation Salmonella vaccines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have studied the incidence of HLA A, B, C, DR and DQ loci antigen in Rh (D) antigen isoimmunized mothers compared to those nonimmunized isoimmunized Rh negative mothers. (ias.ac.in)
  • Yet most HLA-associated diseases (which include infectious diseases and some forms of cancer) do not reveal a simple Mendelian mode of inheritance, either recessive or dominant, are only partially penetrant, and may involve a number of different HLA alleles in addition to non-HLA loci (3). (springer.com)
  • We show here a novel strategy for the development of recombinant vaccines carrying cyclin D1 cancer antigens that can be targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) via CD40. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most widely used strategies block CTLA-4, which is expressed on activated T cells and binds to B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86), which is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (e.g., dendritic cells). (highwire.org)
  • Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) status has a significant role in immune responses and immunological tolerance and is a factor in the onset of type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • 7, 8 Little is known, however, about the relation between retinopathy with type 2 diabetes and the HLA antigen. (bmj.com)
  • There is a suspected link with HLA-Cw4, DR7, DR11 and DQA1, among others. (eupedia.com)
  • Lupus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemic_lupus_erythematosus) : weakly associated with HLA DR3, DR4, DR15 and DQA1. (eupedia.com)
  • 12 ) reported that 3 of 13 pancreases of people with childhood-onset diabetes for 10 years or longer were positive for insulin, but only 1 of these had either DR3 or DR4 allele. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The HLA System and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • Present knowledge regarding the HLA system and the association between HLA antigens and insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • This work demonstrates the current practicability of HLA typing of recently diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic in a Diabetes Center. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-A, -B and -C specificities in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the Egyptian population. (nih.gov)
  • DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) have been identified. (google.com.au)
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in prostate cancer and thus is a potential target for prostate cancer immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mechanism behind the association between MHC and autoimmune disease has not been fully defined but is potentially reflecting a breakdown in tolerance to self-antigens in abnormal MHC class II molecule antigen presentation. (news-medical.net)
  • Some HLA types are known to attack the body's own cells, causing what is known as autoimmune diseases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_Disease), in other words diseases caused by one's immune system attacking one's own body. (eupedia.com)
  • these women were examined for HLA class II s after informed consent was obtained. (healthdocbox.com)
  • HLA-A*02 appears to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner that inhibits HIV replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of 192 patients, 182 demonstrated a higher frequency of CD25 bright CD4 + T cells in synovial fluid than in peripheral blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Helsloot and Sturgess (3) previously identified a precursor frequency of La-specific T cells of 1:103,000 to 1:230,000 in peripheral blood of patients with primary SS and 1:77,000 to 1:115,000 in controls. (edu.au)
  • The frequency of MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1) antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood increased in all dose levels as assessed by ELISPOT and MHC class I tetramer assays, but without a clear dose-response effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These influences on antigen presentation are key during thymic selection processes and peripheral activation of the immune response. (jci.org)
  • All these diseases have HLA-B27 association, sacroiliitis, peripheral joint involvement, and some extraarticular manifestations in common (1). (docme.ru)
  • However, current understanding implicates a foreign antigen in a cascade of events that under-standing results in arterial inflammation. (mhmedical.com)
  • 2- 4 DR4, DR8, DR9, and several antigens of the DQ region are related to retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Interrogation of autoantibody positive, healthy "non-progressors" revealed an intermediate T cell frequency, representing a break in tolerance without progression to overt diabetes. (jimmunol.org)
  • With HLA-DR typing, a significant excess of the DR3 antigen and heterozygous DR3/DR4 phenotypes was found in ICA-positive patients with secondary oral hypoglycaemic agent failure and in the Type 1 diabetic patients, which was comparable with the frequencies reported in juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Results are reported for HLA typing in 18 cases of known IDDM recently diagnosed and observed at the Karen Bruni Diabetes Center in approximately one year (1981-82). (nih.gov)
  • This international consortium was designed to collect data and samples from families with type 1 diabetes to investigate the contribution of genetics, including HLA type, in the development of type 1 diabetes ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As predisposing genetic factors such as HLA alleles are known, immunological interventions to prevent type 1 diabetes are of great interest. (mysteria.cz)
  • Diabetes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes) : The HLA types DR2, DR6 and DR11 are protective against Type 1 diabetes. (eupedia.com)
  • DR3 is linked to late-onset, whereas carriers of DR4 are at risk for early-onset Type 1 diabetes. (eupedia.com)
  • People who carry both DR3 and DR4 types are at the highest risk and will develop diabetes the youngest. (eupedia.com)