DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Breaks: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.DNA Breaks, Single-Stranded: Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.GuanineModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 126.96.36.199 (ATP) and EC 188.8.131.52 (NAD).Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA Topoisomerases, Type I: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.ThymineBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 184.108.40.206.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.DNA, Cruciform: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 220.127.116.11.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Zinostatin: An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 18.104.22.168.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 22.214.171.124.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.DeoxyriboseDimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA-Induced Silencing Complex: A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 126.96.36.199.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Flap Endonucleases: Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein: A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.UracilOsmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)PolynucleotidesDNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RecQ Helicases: A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.TritiumDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 188.8.131.52.Ficusin: A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Apurinic Acid: Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Beached whale). Jump to navigation Jump to search ... Cetacean stranding, commonly known as beaching, is a phenomenon in which whales and dolphins strand themselves on land, usually ... This was first raised by necrological examinations of 14 beaked whales stranded in the Canary Islands. The stranding happened ... This brought the total number of stranded pilot whales to 656, making this the second-largest whale stranding event ever ...
Histone - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Portstewart Golf Club
"Portstewart (Strand), Northern Ireland". Top 100 Golf Courses of the World. "Portstewart to host Dubai Duty Free Irish Open ... Due to this makeover on The Strand Course left an extra 9 holes from the original layout, which was expanded to 18 holes in ... The late 1980s saw major development of the Strand course with the layout updated and seven new holes added. In 1992 the new ... In 2017, Portstewart hosted the Dubai Duty Free Irish Open, from the 6-9 July for the first time in the club's history, which ...
British Library Sound Archive
Theatre Archive Project Oral History strand. British Library Sounds free online access to over 90,000 sound tracks. Peter ... Playback, the bulletin of the British Library Sound Archive, was published free of charge from 1992 to 2010. All 44 issues are ... Recordings may be listened to free of charge in the British Library Reading Rooms. Copies of recordings can be purchased ... The British Library Sounds service provides free online access for UK higher and further education institutions to over 90,000 ...
The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry
ane = one bed fit = bed foot i.e. foot of the bed grumly = troubled strand - beach or shore. The best known tune today is non- ... "ane". The free dictionary. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Anon. "fit". Dictionary of Scots Language. Scottish Language ... "strand". Scottish National Dictionary (1700-). Scottish Language Dictionaries. Thomson, David. The People of the Sea Elektra ... And when I'm far frae every strand, My home it is in Sule Skerry." "It was na weel", the maiden cried, "It was na weel, indeed ...
Minnesota House of Representatives District 19A special election, 2013
Peter Mayor Strand enters House race". The Free Press. Retrieved February 10, 2013. Kimball, Joe (January 11, 2013). "Allen ... "Rural Nicollet man to run for House seat". The Free Press. January 8, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013. "Results for State ... Ojanpa, Brian (January 7, 2013). "Former St.. Peter councilman to run for House seat". The Free Press. Retrieved February 10, ... Linehan, Dan (December 26, 2012). "Longtime teacher, union leader running for open House seat". The Free Press. Retrieved ...
Rolling circle replication
The initiator protein remains bound to the 5' phosphate end of the nicked strand, and the free 3' hydroxyl end is released to ... DNA as leading strand (template); 5' end is displaced. Displaced DNA is a lagging strand and is made double stranded via a ... which nicks one strand of the double-stranded, circular DNA molecule at a site called the double-strand origin, or DSO. ... displacing the nicked strand as single-stranded DNA. Displacement of the nicked strand is carried out by a host-encoded ...
In part downloadable free of charge from Google eBookstore  (1860). Volumes 1-3 (1860-63) in  British Library catalogue ... Publishers: London, E Thompson, 3 Burleigh Street, Strand; Oxford, W R Bowden. Diocesan Magazine, first issue 1868; favourably ... but it will also be sent free regularly by post to all beneficed clergy of the diocese, together in each case with one copy for ... Catholic Voice of Lancaster free monthly newspaper; no 221 by July 2010; PLYMOUTH: Catholic South West newspaper , launched ...
Fossil fuel divestment
"The Carbon Underground 2015". Fossil Free Indexes. Fossil Free Indexes. Retrieved 24 March 2015. Rusbridger, Alan. "The ... Stranded assets, which are known in relation to fossil fuel companies as the carbon bubble, occur when the reserves of fossil ... Fossil Free ANU formed out of the ANU Environment Collective (EC), a consensus-based and non-hierarchical group of students ... Fossil Free MIT (FFMIT) is a student organization at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology made up of MIT undergrads, ...
Ontario Highway 402
The hospitality of locals in providing shelter for stranded motorists was the primary focus of local media coverage. The ... 402 for Mass Rally Against Wind Turbines". London Free Press. Sarnia/Point Edward. Retrieved April 28, 2014. Ministry of ... CTV.ca News Staff (December 14, 2010). "Altruistic Locals a Saving Grace for Stranded Motorists". Winnipeg. Archived from the ... McArthur, Donald; Kristy, Dylan (December 14, 2010). "Airlift Begins for Motorists Stranded on Hwy. 402 in Lambton County". The ...
In photon therapy, most of the radiation effect is through free radicals. Cells have mechanisms for repairing single-strand DNA ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... However, double-stranded DNA breaks are much more difficult to repair, and can lead to dramatic chromosomal abnormalities and ...
8-Bit Operators: The Music of Kraftwerk
Like all members of the Poxviridae family, they are oval, relatively large, double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxviruses have a ... Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm. Intermediate phase: ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ...
Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm. Intermediate phase: ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... double-stranded segment of DNA. Genomes are linear, around 130-375kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into ...
Transcription (genetics) - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As in DNA replication, only one of the two DNA strands is transcribed. This strand is called the template strand, because it ... The other strand is called the coding strand. Its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA transcript (except for thymine ... The DNA template strand is read 3' → 5' direction by RNA polymerase and the new RNA strand is synthesized in the 5'→ 3' ... The matching RNA strand is a 'pre-messenger RNA'. Next, the non-coding introns are stripped out by a spliceosome. The remaining ...
The Black Fish
"Stranded Humpback Whale Struggles To Free Itself". Associated Press. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2013-03-06. "Rescuers abandon ... On the 5th day after the stranding, The Black Fish deployed a boat and visited the stranding site with Dutch politician ... "The Black Fish free hundreds of endangered bluefin tuna in the Adriatic Sea". The Black Fish. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2013-03-06 ... The young female killer whale had stranded on the Dutch coast in June 2010. Although she regained her strength and was nursed ...
Battle of Rastan (January-February 2012)
They are stranded in a few pockets. They only move forward after they receive reinforcements and the Free Syrian Army is always ... Long live free Syria." A week later, on 16 March, two civilians were killed by government shelling. On 27 March, three members ... "Residents are trying to help deserters fight their way out of Rastan and reach the positions of the Free Syrian Army," added ... This is not the right behaviour of the Syrian Army, and that's why I declare my defection to the Free Syrian Army. ...
1950 in Michigan
"Daring Pilot Saves 13 Stranded on Ice". Detroit Free Press. February 3, 1950. p. 1 - via Newspapers.com. "Banquet Blast Burns ... "Jury Frees James in Slaying". Detroit Free Press. May 20, 1950. p. 1 - via Newspapers.com. "Carson Ready to Enjoy Life Anew in ... "Amendments". Detroit Free Press. November 9, 1950. p. 24. "Margarine History Recalled as Spread Gains New Status". Detroit Free ... "John Bodenstab, Foe of Drys, Dies at 79". Detroit Free Press. March 10, 1950. p. 10. "Jeffries Dies in His Sleep". Detroit Free ...
Rich Hill (pitcher)
He was among the leaders in inherited runners stranded with 51. He became a free agent at the conclusion of the season. Hill ... At the end of the season, he was outrighted to the minors and became a free agent on November 6. The Red Sox re-signed Hill to ... On December 12, Hill was non-tendered, and became a free agent. On December 30, 2011, the Red Sox again re-signed Hill to a ... He was non-tendered on November 30 and became a free agent. On February 7, 2013, Hill signed a minor league deal with an invite ...
List of Singapore MRT disruptions
Free Bridging bus services were provided along the line. Partial Train service was restored on service B from Bukit Panjang to ... Low, Ignatius (16 December 2011). "Singapore's MRT Breakdown Chaos Leaves Thousands Stranded". The Straits Times. Archived from ... SMRT deployed free bridging buses throughout the affected sections. Normal services resumed about two hours after the start of ... Ungku, Fathin (9 November 2017). "Minor train disruption rattles Singapore's reputation for glitch-free services". Reuters. ...
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands. It is named by analogy with the rapidly ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Whole-genome shotgun). Jump to: navigation, search ... To apply the strategy, a high-molecular-weight DNA strand is sheared into random fragments, size-selected (usually 2, 10, 50, ... Two principal methods are used for this: primer walking (or "chromosome walking") which progresses through the entire strand ...
Hydrogen bonds of the RNA-DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand. ... One strand of the DNA, the template strand (or noncoding strand), is used as a template for RNA synthesis. As transcription ... The non-template (sense) strand of DNA is called the coding strand, because its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA ... The forming ribosomal RNA strands are visible as branches from the main DNA strand. ...
Conch - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The three-strand gathered plait includes three sections of hair that are braided together from the crown of the head to the ... In the simplest form of three-strand braid, all the hair is initially divided into three sections, which are then ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search Classic French braid ...
... viruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes. Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... Archived from the original (Full free text) on 11 December 2010.. *. Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and ... On 29 December 2015, 42 days after the last person tested negative for a second time, Guinea was declared free of Ebola ... "UN declares end to Ebola virus transmission in Guinea; first time all three host countries free" (Press release). United ...
Segments with labels on the inside reside on the B strand of DNA, segments with labels on the outside are on the A strand. ... As a result, the chloroplast genome is heavily reduced compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts may contain ... When replication forks form, the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. Therefore ... DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded. ...
Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and ... The cirrate species are often free-swimming and live in deep-water habitats. No species are known to live in fresh water.[ ...
Category:DNA - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
County Hall, London
The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ... The emergence of at least one strand of silk from a given ear of corn is defined as growth stage R1, and the emergence of silk ... Elongation of a corn silk strand stops soon after a grain of pollen is captured, or due to senescence of the silk 10 days after ... Up to 1000 ovules (potential kernels) form per ear of corn, each of which produces a strand of corn silk from its tip that ...
Inferno (Marvel Comics)
He frees her and they rejoin the remaining heroes. Before Strange can summon the Phoenix Force to cleanse the world, the hordes ... A top-notch commander, with great battlefield and command skills that allowed him to lead his forces to survive stranded on ... However, when he learns what happened to his sister Illyana, he concludes that he can only free his fellow X-Men from Inferno's ...
Puck of Pook's Hill
In Inuit creation myths, when 'Big Raven', a deity in human form, found a stranded whale, he was told by the Great Spirit where ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about a marine mammal. For other uses ... Another, unsuccessful, attempt was made by the U.S.  One stranded humpback whale calf was kept in captivity for ... There was one attempt to keep a stranded Sowerby's beaked whale calf in captivity; the calf rammed into the tank wall, breaking ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
In biology, a probe is a single strand of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a nucleotide sequence of interest. ... Probe size is important because longer probes hybridize less specifically than shorter probes, so that short strands of DNA or ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search Multiplex RNA visualization in cells using ViewRNA ...
Devil's Millhopper Geological State Park
Gluten-free. Gluten, the protein found in grains such as wheat, rye, spelt, and barley, contributes to protein aggregation and ... gluten proteins take on an elastic characteristic and begin to form strands and sheets. The gluten matrix that results ... Gluten-free pasta is produced with wheat flour substitutes, such as vegetable powders, rice, corn, quinoa, amaranth, oats and ... These three gluten-related disorders are treated with a gluten-free diet.. ...
Allen, James Sloan, "Condemned to Be Free," Worldly Wisdom: Great Books and the Meanings of Life, Savannah: Frederic C. Beil, ... he removed any strands of authentic content from his character and as a result, Mathieu could "recognize no allegiance except ... As a teenager in the 1920s, Sartre became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergson's essay Time and Free Will: An ... Sartre's primary idea is that people, as humans, are "condemned to be free". This theory relies upon his position that ...
Danto, Elizabeth Ann (2007). Freud's Free Clinics: Psychoanalysis & Social Justice, 1918-1938, Columbia University Press, first ... Marxism started to develop a libertarian strand of thought after specific circumstances. "One does find early expressions of ... Reich became a consistent propagandist for sexual freedom going as far as opening free sex-counselling clinics in Vienna for ...
RNA polymerase - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
single-stranded DNA binding. • double-stranded DNA binding. • single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity. ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Rad51). Jump to: navigation, search ... In this process, an ATP dependent DNA strand exchange takes place in which a template strand invades base-paired strands of ... strand at the DSB to generate a 3' single-strand DNA overhang strand. ...
Gary Padgett; Jack Beven; James Lewis Free; Sandy Delgado (2012-05-23). Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired? ( ... more than 3,000 people were stranded by flooding after dozens of rivers and streams rose above their banks, forcing some ... Rowland Evans; Robert Novak (1966-10-11). "Campaign Contribution Returned to Birchite". The Free Lance-Star. Retrieved 2013-02- ...
USS Edward Luckenbach (ID-1662)
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... fragment-based molecular docking and binding free energy calculations". Carbohydr Res. 378: 133-8. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2013.03 ... Noroviruses (NoV) are a genetically diverse group of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses belonging to the ...
He was signed as a free agent by the Red Wings in 1981 and rebounded with an 18-goal season, followed by 14 goals in 1982-83. ... McKechnie was a regular at The Strand Billiards in London while playing for the Ontario Hockey Association's London Nationals ... London Free Press, February 18, 2006. "Inductees". London Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 15 March 2015. Walt McKechnie career ... who refers to The Strand as "the academy." From 1986 to 2009 he owned and operated "McKeck's", a family-style restaurant on ...
Spinach is an 84-nucleotide-long structure with two helical strands and an internal bulge with a G-quadruplex motif. It is at ... It is believed that the free exchange of bound and unbound ligand allows for this persistence. As the fluorophore of GFP and ... its derivatives are covalently bound to/a part of the protein, free exchange cannot happen and thus photobleaching results. ...
Goldstein D, Laszlo J (Sep 1988). "The role of interferon in cancer therapy: a current perspective" (Free full text). CA: A ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is important for inducing interferons in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA viruses; ... Minks MA, West DK, Benvin S, Baglioni C (October 1979). "Structural requirements of double-stranded RNA for the activation of 2 ...
Single-stranded - definition of single-stranded by The Free Dictionary
... single-stranded translation, English dictionary definition of single-stranded. Adj. 1. single-stranded - having a single strand ... single-stranded RNA Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University,... ... Define single-stranded. single-stranded synonyms, single-stranded pronunciation, ... single-stranded - having a single strand; "single-stranded RNA". Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 ...
Genes | Free Full-Text | RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which ... RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair. Akihiro Kato * and Kenshi Komatsu. ... In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which ... Kato, A.; Komatsu, K. RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair. Genes 2015, 6, 592-606. ...
Dna strands Royalty Free Vector Image - VectorStock
Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions. ID #47870. ... Dna strands Vector Image. Vector DNA Strands. Seamless. Duplicate for lengthening. Download a Free Preview or High Quality ... Were the largest royalty-free, vector-only stock agency in the world. ... https://cdn.vectorstock.com/i/1000x1000/78/70/dna-strands-vector-47870.jpg ...
Sensors | Free Full-Text | A Sensor-Type PC Strand with an Embedded FBG Sensor for Monitoring Prestress Forces
To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC ... This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even ... However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress ... This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and ...
Amplification-free target enrichment for native-strand sequencing using CRISPR/Cas9
... Poster. Date: 22nd May 2019. Cas9 target ... Here, we introduce a PCR-free enrichment method for nanopore sequencing, using Cas9 (Fig. 1). Because native strands are ... 90-minute Cas9 library preparation for PCR-free enrichment of target loci. It is an advantage in many situations to enrich for ... Applying PCR-free enrichment to the investigation of intronic triplet repeat expansion and its associated hypermethylation in a ...
Families of Indians stranded in Libya fear for their safety. - Free Online Library
Families of Indians stranded in Libya fear for their safety. by Asian News International; News, opinion and commentary ... APA style: Families of Indians stranded in Libya fear for their safety.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep 25 ... MLA style: "Families of Indians stranded in Libya fear for their safety.." The Free Library. 2011 Al Bawaba (Middle East) Ltd. ... Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. Families of Indians stranded in Libya fear for their safety.." Retrieved Sep 25 2020 from ...
Free Photo | 3d virus cells attacking a dna strand
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- What is the plot in Death Stranding about? (gamepressure.com)
- On this page of the guide to Death Stranding , we explain the most basic and important elements of the plot , which, traditionally for Hideo Kojima, is very complex and initially incomprehensible. (gamepressure.com)
- Death Stranding takes place in an unspecified future in the former United States . (gamepressure.com)
- Humanity has experienced a cataclysm manifested in a series of explosions that brought supernatural phenomena called Death Stranding. (gamepressure.com)
- Sam Porter Bridges is the main protagonist of Death Stranding - he can be compared to a post-apocalyptic courier. (gamepressure.com)
- Death Stranding at The Game Awards 2017? (vg247.com)
- More than 400 pilot whales beached themselves on Thursday in one of the worst whale stranding New Zealand has ever seen. (newscientist.com)
- Around 100 whales have been refloated so far, according to Project Jonah , an organisation in New Zealand that mobilises stranding rescue operations. (newscientist.com)
- The country's largest-ever mass stranding saw around 470 pilot whales become stuck in a remote harbour on Tasmania's rugged western seaboard last week, sparking a major effort to save the animals. (yahoo.com)
- Cetacean stranding , commonly known as beaching , is a phenomenon in which whales and dolphins strand themselves on land, usually on a beach . (wikipedia.org)
- Three Beached Whales , a 1577 engraving by the Flemish artist Jan Wierix , depicts stranded Sperm Whales. (wikipedia.org)
- Celebrate Marine Mammal Stranding Center's 42nd Anniversary and having responded to over 5,555 stranded whales, dolphins, seals and sea turtles! (mmsc.org)
- The Marine Mammal Stranding Center has responded to over 5,555 strandings of whales, dolphins, seals and sea turtles that have washed ashore, over the years throughout New Jersey. (mmsc.org)
- Once Cas12a encounters a target DNA sequence, also called a trigger, it cleaves the double-stranded DNA and transforms into an enzyme that can slice any single-stranded DNA it encounters. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase plays an important role in repairing DNA strand breaks by catalyzing the restoration of DNA's termini. (wikibooks.org)
- The enzyme PNKP carries 5'-kinase and 3'phosphatase activities that are essential for processing of single and double strand breaks at termini. (wikibooks.org)
- Using topoisomerase, camptothecin prevents resultant strand rejoining, leaving a DNA-enzyme 'dead-end' complex. (wikibooks.org)
- Italian premier Giuseppe Conte has said his country will take some of the migrants on board a rescue ship which has been stranded near Malta for days. (irishexaminer.com)
- The United Kingdom's Maritime and Coastguard Agency announced yesterday (July 9) that it was involved in the afternoon rescue of two horses and their riders who were stranded off shore on a sandbar at Holkham Bay as the tide was rising. (thehorse.com)
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- The filter for the [DELTA]G (free energy) at the 5'-end of the antisense strand (f-dga). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Asymmetric amplification of the antisense strand occurred in 10 [micro]L of 50 mmol/L Tris, pH 8. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Chimeric RNA-DNA duplexes (Patent Pending): These novel RNAi-like compounds, comprised of a RNA antisense strand and a modified DNA sense strand, were designed to provide potential specificity advantages compared with first generation siRNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The first product, now on the market, amplifies the antisense strand of RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The present invention is distinguished from prior art interference in gene expression by antisense or triple-strand methods. (google.com)
- It has been stranded in international waters some 25 miles from the coast of Malta for days after both Italy and Malta refused to allow it to dock. (irishexaminer.com)
- 124 Tower Road , Sliema, Malta Set on Sliema's seafront, Malta's Preluna Hotel & Spa features 3 restaurants, a free gym, and a private beach. (booking.com)
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- The Strand , Sliema, Malta The Waterfront Hotel is set in central Malta, along the sea promenade of Sliema, and features views of Sliema's port, the Manoel Island and Valletta. (booking.com)
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- Researchers have also identified that mutations that have lead to changes in PNKP, similar to mutations in other genes that encode other strand break repair proteins, have been connected to a severe autosomal recessive neurological disorder. (wikibooks.org)
- The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes of several bacilli by binding single-stranded RNA. (rcsb.org)
- Hundreds of passengers may be stranded in India after a cash-strapped airline, which earlier this week forced travellers on one plane to hand over £24,000, cancelled seven flights. (telegraph.co.uk)
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- 2014). The directionality of the template-switching reaction preserves the strand orientation of the original RNA, making it possible to obtain strand-specific sequencing data from the synthesized cDNA. (clontech.com)
- Optimized for synthesis of first-strand cDNA from purified poly(A)+ or total RNA. (fishersci.com)
- Various mechanisms that cause strand breaks include: cleavage by physical and chemicals means such as ionizing radiation (IR) and ROS, and enzymatic processes. (wikibooks.org)
- Sucrose density gradient centrifugation analyses indicated that the reactive radicals react with the phage RNA to cause strand scissions in the RNA. (go.jp)
- NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Strand Life Sciences today said that it is collaborating with El Camino Hospital to establish the Strand Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine at the Genomic Medicine Institute of the El Camino Hospital. (genomeweb.com)
- NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - By profiling tail-less, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses from bacteria in ocean samples, researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Albert Einstein College of Medicine have identified a previously unappreciated family of autolykiviruses capable of killing marine bacteria. (genomeweb.com)
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- This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. (mdpi.com)
- This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. (mdpi.com)
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