Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.TriglyceridesFatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.EstersFatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).GlycogenLactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Lauric Acids: 12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Coenzyme ACarnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Arachidonic AcidsStearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.KetonesFatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.TritiumFatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.

*Neonatal jaundice

Third, an enzyme in breast milk called lipoprotein lipase produces increased concentration of nonesterified free fatty acids ... This substance inhibits the action of the enzyme uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) glucuronyl transferase responsible ... Most infants develop visible jaundice due to elevation of unconjugated bilirubin concentration during their first week. This is ... 9 and 12 in 50 infants who were divided into two groups equally depending upon bilirubin concentrations. Of the 50 infants, 43 ...

*Atrial natriuretic peptide

Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids ... ANP is a 28-amino acid peptide with a 17-amino acid ring in the middle of the molecule. The ring is formed by a disulfide bond ... When the cells are stimulated, pro-ANP is released and converted to the 28-amino-acid C-terminal mature ANP on the cell surface ... In atrial myocytes, ANP is made as a precursor form, i.e. prepro-ANP, a polypeptide of 151 amino acids. After the signal ...

*Brain natriuretic peptide

Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids ... The 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP is secreted attached to a 76-amino acid N-terminal fragment in the prohormone called NT- ... BNP is synthesized as a 134-amino acid preprohormone (preproBNP), encoded by the human gene NPPB. Removal of the 25-residue N- ... into NT-proBNP and the biologically active 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP-32, which are secreted into the blood in equimolar ...

*Blood lipids

As a result, the blood concentration of fatty acid stabilizes again after a meal. After a meal, some of the fatty acids taken ... which triggers adipocytes to release stored fatty acids into the blood as free fatty acids, in order to supply e.g. muscle ... particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, the relatively few LDL ... After a meal, when the blood concentration of fatty acids rises, there is an increase in uptake of fatty acids in different ...

*Phytosterol

They can be present in the free form and as esters of fatty acid/cinnamic acid or as glycosides, respectively. The bound form ... Esterification of the hydroxyl group at carbon 3 with fatty/organic acids or carbohydrates results in plant sterol esters, i.e ... and consequently blood phytostanol concentration is generally lower than phytosterol concentration. Phytosterols are under ... The FDA also concluded that a daily dietary intake of 2 grams a day of phytosterols (expressed as non-esterified phytosterols) ...

*Exercise physiology

... which increases non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release. By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps ... During exercise, despite decreased insulin concentrations, muscle increases GLUT4 translocation of and glucose uptake. The ... which removes a phosphate group from glucose-6-P to release free glucose. In order for glucose to exit a cell membrane, the ... Glucose is then oxidized to pyruvate and under anaerobic condition is reduced to lactic acid. This reaction oxidizes NADH to ...

*Pantothenate kinase

... tricarboxylic acid cycle) and fatty acid metabolism. Consequently, pantothenate kinase is a key regulatory enzyme in the CoA ... Free CoA has an optimal fit, but when an acyl group is attached to CoA, the steric hindrance makes it difficult for the ... PanK1α and PanK1β are both encoded by the PANK1 gene and have the same catalytic domain of 363 amino acids, encoded by exons 2 ... Interestingly, nonesterified CoA has more potent inhibition than its thioesters. This phenomenon is best explained by the tight ...

*Serum protein electrophoresis

Increased anodic mobility results from the binding of bilirubin, nonesterified fatty acids, penicillin and acetylsalicylic acid ... Transferrin and beta-lipoprotein (LDL) comprises the beta-1. Increased beta-1 protein due to the increased level of free ... Stevenson, FT; Greene, S; Kaysen, GA (January 1998). "Serum alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 concentrations are ... The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. Proteins are applied to a ...

*Pyruvate carboxylase

"Metabolic consequences of long-term exposure of pancreatic β-cells to free fatty acid with special reference to glucose ... Concurrently adipose tissue develops insulin resistance causing accumulation of triaglycerols and non-esterified fatty acids in ... However, during starvation when cytosolic NADH concentration is low and mitochrondrial NADH levels are high oxaloacetate can be ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid The reaction it catalyzes is: pyruvate + HCO− 3 + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP + P It is an important ...
Definition of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay? Meaning of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay as a legal term. What does plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay mean in law?
Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but ...
In conclusion, contrary to the classical mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance as proposed by Randle et al. (2, 27, 28) in which free fatty acids exert their effect through initial inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, we found that elevation in plasma free fatty acid concentration causes insulin resistance by inhibition of glucose transport and/or phosphorylation with a subsequent reduction in rates of glucose oxidation and muscle glycogen synthesis. This reduction in insulin inducible glucose transport/phosphorylation is similar to what is observed in patients with NIDDM (20) and their normoglycemic-insulin-resistant offspring (24) and suggests that alterations in intramuscular FFA metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance observed in patients ...
We, China Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Manufacturers, China Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Suppliers, provide quality Fatty Acid Methyl Ester product and the products related with China Fatty Acid Methyl Ester - avfchem
The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each ...
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern ...
We have measured the carbon isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids isolated from the adipose tissue of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from the island of Svalbard on the Spitsbergen archipelago to examine whether dietary sources can be distinguished in the fatty acid isotopic signature. The diets of Svalbard arctic foxes are unusual in that some members of the population are believed to feed largely in the terrestrial food chain while others feed mainly from the marine food chain. Isotopic data were obtained for the five major fatty acids present (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, and 20:1). A wide range in δ13C values for specific fatty acids in Arctic foxes is observed and the mixing lines produced by the correlation in δ13C of the 16- and 18-carbon fatty ...
This paper reports the retention data of fatty acid methyl esters on a novel ionic liquid column, SLB-IL111, which has higher polarity than commercially available columns for gas chromatography (GC). The fatty acids analyzed using GC include branched-chain saturated fatty acids, C16-C22 monounsaturated fatty acid cis/trans and positional isomers, and polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in natural products. Fatty acids of sardine oil were also analyzed using GC. GC was carried out on a 100-m column under isothermal conditions within the range 120-170°C, using helium as a carrier gas. The retention data of fatty acid methyl esters were represented by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects received a 7-h euglycemic insulin (100 mU·m-2·min-1) clamp, and a 75-g OGL was ...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...
Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B ...
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. AU - Prisco, Domenico. AU - Filippini, Monica. AU - Francalanci, Isa. AU - Paniccia, Rita. AU - Gensini, Gian Franco. AU - Serneri, Gian Gastone Neri. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either four 1-g capsules of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ethyl esters or four 1-g capsules of olive oil (as placebo) for a period of 4 months, followed by a 3-month wash-out period. Fatty acids of platelet phospholipid fractions, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation were analyzed at 0, 2, and 4 months of treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months of wash-out. During n-3 PUFA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Normal fatty acid concentrations in young children with phenylketonuria. AU - LaVoie, Stacey M.. AU - Harding, Cary. AU - Gillingham, Melanie. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine whether children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine-restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in 21 subjects (≤6 years of age) with PKU and 23 control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated fat intake than controls. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid of the sum of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. AU - Mather, Kieren J.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R. PY - 2016/1/21. Y1 - 2016/1/21. N2 - Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection ...
Global Fatty Acid Ethoxylate Market 2017 Research Report proffers an acknowledged and extensive analysis of the immediate state of Fatty Acid Ethoxylate Market 2017.. In the first part, Fatty Acid Ethoxylate Industry study deals with the complete overview of the Fatty Acid Ethoxylate market, which consists of definitions, a wide range of statements, kinds and an entire Fatty Acid Ethoxylate industry chain structure. The global Fatty Acid Ethoxylate business analysis moreover consists of the ambitious landscape of Fatty Acid Ethoxylate industry, Fatty Acid Ethoxylate market expansion history and important ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+−ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum Tb in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at ...
The effect of gamma radiation processing on the lipid content, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profile in frozen lamb meat was investigated. Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle from lambs fed lucerne basal diets either un
Numerous studies have established that elevated FFAs can cause insulin resistance (5-10). However, as pointed out by Frias et al. (14), the effects of gender on the response to FFAs has been less well defined. The current experiments indicate that in the presence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, elevated FFAs impair glucose metabolism in women. Glucose disposal was lower and splanchnic glucose production was higher in women during IL/hep than glycerol infusion. The lower rates of glucose disposal appear to be due to a decrease in muscle glucose uptake, since leg but not splanchnic glucose uptake was lower on the IL/hep than glycerol study days. These data indicate that alterations in fat metabolism potentially can contribute to alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in women.. The results of the current study and those of Frias et al. (14) differ in that the latter concluded that in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and euglycemia, elevated FFAs decreased whole-body glucose disposal in men ...
Abstract: Total content of unesterified fatty acids and activity of ATPases/latent, stimulated by Mg2+, 2,4-DNP, Mg2+ and 2,4-DNP/were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rabbits with decompensated mitral valvular disease. The activities of Mg2+, DNP-, Mg2+ and DNP-stimulated ATPases were decreased in heart mitochondria. At the same time, content of unesterified fatty acids was increased. Content of the fatty acids was decreased in liver mitochondria and activity of ATPase was unaltered. Possible mechanisms of the alterations observed are discussed ...
Abstract The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components, and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties. Embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype × environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents, F1 and F2, of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin, China. The interaction effects of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects, while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content. Among all kinds of genetic main effects, the embryo effects were the largest ...
Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help Services | Live Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Tutors | Online Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Tutors | Online Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Tutors | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Services | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations ...
Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce ...
The present invention is concerned with an edible plant oils from which saturated fatty acids were removed and manufacturing process thereof. In order to remove saturated fatty acids from the edible plant oils; 1) Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids bound on same triglyceride molecules of edible plant oils were segregated each other as alkylesters of fatty acids by conventional transesterification reaction in which edible plant oils were treated with large excess of absolute C.sub.1.about.C.sub.8 alkanol under the presence of catalytic amount of alkali- or alkali-earth metal-C.sub.1.about.C.sub.8 alkoxide. 2) The alkyl-esters of mixed fatty acids were treated with C.sub.1.about.C.sub.8 alkanol solution of urea to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids by C(sp3)−C(sp3) Cross-Coupling Reaction and Formal Synthesis of α-Mycolic Acid. AU - Iwasaki, Takanori. AU - Terahigashi, Shohei. AU - Wang, Yufei. AU - Tanaka, Arisa. AU - Zhao, Hanqing. AU - Fujimoto, Yukari. AU - Fukase, Koichi. AU - Kambe, Nobuaki. PY - 2018/10/4. Y1 - 2018/10/4. N2 - An iterative Ni-catalyzed C(sp3)−C(sp3) cross-coupling reaction of a novel cis-cyclopropane containing bifunctional building blocks with alkyl halides and alkyl Grignard reagents enabled the introduction of a cyclopropane ring into the desired position(s) of saturated carbon frameworks, providing a straightforward synthetic route to cyclopropane fatty acids. The present method creates a direct route for the construction of saturated carbon frameworks, and can avoid the tedious multistep operations based on unsaturated functional group manipulations that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: Time for a new approach?. AU - Astrup, Arne. AU - Bertram, Hanne C.S.. AU - Bonjour, Jean Philippe. AU - De Groot, Lisette C.P.. AU - De Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.. AU - Feeney, Emma L.. AU - Garg, Manohar L.. AU - Givens, Ian. AU - Kok, Frans J.. AU - Krauss, Ronald M.. AU - Lamarche, Benoît. AU - Lecerf, Jean Michel. AU - Legrand, Philippe. AU - McKinley, Michelle. AU - Micha, Renata. AU - Michalski, Marie Caroline. AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush. AU - Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.. PY - 2019/7/3. Y1 - 2019/7/3. N2 - The 2018 WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids recommend reducing total intake of saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The recommendations ...
A role for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the peripheral signaling cascade of leptin, adiponectin and insulin has recently been proposed from animal studies but has not been investigated in humans. Children with trifunctional protein (TFP, including deficiency of long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, lack an ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy. They have increased levels of body fat and circulating leptin and a high incidence of obesity. Current therapy for children with these disorders is based on frequent meals and consuming a low fat, very high carbohydrate diet. Despite treatment, exercise induced rhabdomyolysis is a common complication of TFP and VLCAD deficiency that frequently leads to exercise avoidance. The ...
Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. These fractions differed in density and were enriched for galactosyltransferase activity, a Golgi-membrane marker. Ca2+ binding was highest in the Golgi subfraction with the least density, as were the concentrations of both non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids; galactosyltransferase activity was distributed differently. The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D-deficient animals, the yield of protein in the lightest subfractions was decreased, but Ca2+ binding per mg of protein was further decreased to about 60%. In Golgi fractions from vitamin ...
The only conclusion here is that high serum FFA reduces energy expenditure. THIS is also able to explain why we get insulin resistant during high serum FFA. Ofcourse one could argue that perhaps its the affect of Niacin acting on the GPR109A receptor. I also get very energetic in deep ketosis, which is associated with activation of this receptor ...
To examine the mechanism by which lipids cause insulin resistance in humans, skeletal muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were measured every 15 min by simultaneous 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nine healthy subjects in the presence of low (0.18 +/- 0.02 mM [mean +/- SEM]; control) or high (1.93 +/- 0.04 mM; lipid infusion) plasma free fatty acid levels under euglycemic (approximately 5.2 mM) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 400 pM) clamp conditions for 6 h. During the initial 3.5 h of the clamp the rate of whole-body glucose uptake was not affected by lipid infusion, but it then decreased continuously to be approximately 46% of control values after 6 h (P , 0.00001). Augmented lipid oxidation was accompanied by a approximately 40% reduction of oxidative glucose metabolism starting during the third hour of lipid infusion (P , 0.05). Rates of muscle glycogen synthesis were similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of regional adipose tissue lipolysis ...
Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF ...
Although transport of long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) into cells is often analyzed in the same way as glucose transport, we argue that the transport of the lipid-soluble amphipathic FFA molecule must be viewed differently. The partitioning of FFAs into phospholipid bilayers and their interfacial ionization are particularly relevant to transport. We summarize new data supporting the diffusion hypothesis in simple lipid bilayers and in plasma membranes of cells. Along with previous supporting data, the new data indicate that transport of FFAs through membranes could occur rapidly by flip-flop of the un-ionized form of the FFA. It appears that, at least for the adipocyte, passive diffusion guarantees fast entry and exit of FFAs at both low and high concentrations. Although there are several candidate proteins for the membrane transport of FFAs, most of these proteins have other established functions. Thus, unlike the glucose ...
Reference: Gaevskaia M.S., Belitskaia R.A., Nonesterified fatty acid content of the blood plasma in hypobiosis, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(3), 263-266 ...
Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder in diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) production from endothelium plays the primary role in endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation and other endothelial functions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of elevated free fatty acids (FFA) on the stimulation of NO production by phospholipase C (PLC)-activating receptor agonists (potent physiological endothelium-dependent vasodilators) and defined the possible alterations of signaling pathways implicated in this scenario. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to high concentrations of a mixture of fatty acids (oleate and palmitate) for 5 or 10 days significantly reduced NO production evoked by receptor agonists (bradykinin or ATP) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Such defects were not associated with alterations of either endothelial NO synthase mass or inositol ...
To date, there are no medications with US Food and Drug Administration indication for use in prediabetes. There are, however, clinical trials showing safety and benefit of several classes of antidiabetic therapies in the setting of prediabetes and insulin resistance. Metformin has long been the frontline medical treatment for diabetes, and has been shown repeatedly to slow or prevent progression to diabetes in prediabetics by enhancing insulin sensitivity. 36,37 Quick-release bromocriptine, a newly approved antidiabetic therapy with unique mechanism of action (a dopamine agonist), may also be effec tive in the setting of insulin resistance and prediabetes, as it helps correct the dyslipidemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acids, and effects due to increase in sympathetic tone.38,39 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have proved to be very effective insulin sensitizers, and several large trials have shown reductions in progression ...
In the present study, we have directly demonstrated that overexpression of PKC-β2 in endothelial cells inhibits insulin signaling and insulin action and increases expression of ET-1, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These findings may help explain the elevated risk for atherosclerosis in diabetic and insulin-resistant states because PKC activation, especially the β-isoform, has been shown to be induced by hyperglycemia or elevated free fatty acids in many vascular tissues.26 The inhibiting role of PKC-β on insulin activation of eNOS clearly has been shown in endothelial cells from diabetic patients.15 At the cell signaling level, the vasotropic effects of insulin, such as the activation of eNOS, induction of heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulation of VCAM-1, are mediated through activation of the IRS/PI3K/Akt pathway.6,27,28 PKC activation, especially β-isoform, has ...
Insulin resistance is associated with increased circulating lipids and skeletal muscle lipid content. Chronic nicotinic acid (NA) treatment reduces insulin sensitivity and provides a model of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the reduction in insulin sensitivity occurs via elevation of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and an increase in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL). A total of 15 nondiabetic males (mean age 27.4 +/- 1.6 years) were treated with NA (500 mg daily for 1 week, 1 g daily for 1 week). Insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate [GIR]) was determined pre- and post-NA by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Substrate oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Skeletal muscle lipid was assessed by estimation of long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA) and triglyceride (TG) content and by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification of IMCL (n = 11). NA reduced GIR (P =.03) and nonoxidative glucose ...
The objective of this study was to determine some metabolic and other factors predicting the risk of postpartum uterine disease (PUD), and the effects of puerperal metritis (PM) on metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield were analysed. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included, and sampled on day , −14 prepartum and days 4, 10-14, 28-35 and 56-63 postpartum for metabolic tests. From day 4 the development of PUD, and from days 28-35 the ovarian activity was monitored. When grade ≥ 1 + ketonuria was present on day 4 postpartum, this indicated a higher probability of PUD [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; P , 0.05] including PM occurring on days 10-14 (OR: 2.65; P , 0.05). Plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations , 0.200 mmol/l on days , −14 prepartum indicated a higher risk of uterine diseases (OR: 3.44; P , 0.05). The odds of PUD increased, depending on whether a body condition score (BCS) loss of ≥ 1.0 ...
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater ...
Looking for online definition of free fatty acid receptor 3 in the Medical Dictionary? free fatty acid receptor 3 explanation free. What is free fatty acid receptor 3? Meaning of free fatty acid receptor 3 medical term. What does free fatty acid receptor 3 mean?
The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy periparturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined ...
The Nonesterified Fatty Acids (Free Fatty Acids) assay is useful in evaluating lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Nonesterified Fatty Acids may be useful in evaluating patients with hypoglycemia and for nutritional assessment. ...
Elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels may influence insulin secretion and contribute to the development of Type 2 DM. We investigated the effects of acute NEFA elevation in controls (n = 6) and subjects predisposed to Type 2 DM (n = 6) on basal insulin levels, and following glucose and arginine stimulation. Each subject had one study with a triglyceride (TG) plus heparin infusion (elevated NEFA levels) and another with normal saline. Twenty minutes after the TG or saline infusion began a glucose bolus was given and 10 min later a 90-min hyperglycaemic clamp (approximately 9 mmol l(-1)) was started. Intravenous arginine was given at 110 min. Elevated NEFA levels (approximately 4000 micromol l(-1)) did not enhance basal or first phase glucose stimulated insulin levels. During hyperglycaemia, NEFA elevation further increased insulin levels in both groups by 20-44% (p | 0.05) and C-peptide levels by 17-25% (p | 0.05). The post-arginine insulin levels ...
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed ...
We found that neither well-controlled HIV nor metabolic complications appeared to affect myocardial blood flow, MVO2, or myocardial fatty acid metabolism. This contrasts with findings from HIV-negative obese and non-obese women where these parameters increased with increasing BMI and/or peripheral insulin resistance [27]. The current findings are mostly consistent with those from HIV-negative men where there was no difference in myocardial blood flow and MVO2 between obese and non-obese, insulin resistant men [28]. In that study, myocardial fatty acid utilization was slightly higher in the obese men; this was primarily driven by higher serum free fatty acid levels in the obese, insulin resistant men [28]. We did not find significantly higher free fatty acid levels in men ...
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the crosstalk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking. Therefore, we have addressed the analysis of the relationship among gut microbial populations, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, FFA levels and immune mediators (IFN, IL-6 and MCP-1) in 101 human adults from the general Spanish population. Levels of selected microbial groups, representing the major phylogenetic types present the human intestinal ...
Methods An SIIR rat model was created using daily intraperitoneal injections of clinically relevant doses of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) for 5 days to induce chronic insulin resistance. Thirty-six SIIR rats were randomly divided into the SIIR+EA group (n=18), which received 15 Hz EA at ST36 for 60 min, and the SIIR group (n=18), which remained untreated. Plasma glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured in serial blood samples taken without further manipulation (n=6 per group) and during insulin challenge test (ICT, n=6 per group) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT, n=6 per group). Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 were measured using Western blotting and expressed relative to β-actin. ...
Getting clarity on the true benefit of fish oils first requires some elementary chemistry: When humans eat fish, we consume omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in triglyceride form (the source of SPMs), which are bound to a glycerol backbone. This is how fatty acids are stored in nature since free fatty acids oxidize quickly. To make fish oil supplements, fatty acids derived from marine fish are chemically detached from the glycerol backbone. These free fatty acids are then concentrated as ethyl-esters (how most synthetic fish oils are sold) or triglycerides. The main difference between natural and synthetic fish oils is how they are absorbed in the human intestinal tract - fish oil fatty ...
Dairy cows with greater subcutaneous fat stores release greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) into the blood during the periparturient period. Large quantities of circulating NEFA alter circulating phospholipids (PL) fatty acid (FA) profile. Modified cellular FA profile effects immune cell function. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated lipid mobilization during the periparturient period on serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) NEFA and PL fraction and milk fatty acid (FA) profile, PBMC and PMN gene expression of selected markers of inflammation and production measures. Thirty-four cows were blocked by parity; treatment group received a high-energy prepartum ration. Control group received a normal-energy ration and monensin. In ...
Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS) formation. The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR). The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), fatty acid (FA) of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effect of clock mutation on triglyceride contents in the ICR mouse liver under a high-fat diet. AU - Kudo, Takashi. AU - Tamagawa, Toru. AU - Kawashima, Mihoko. AU - Mito, Natsuko. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Energy homeostasis is subjected to a circadian control that synchronizes energy intake and expenditure. The transcription factor CLOCK, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, controls many kinds of rhythms, such as those for locomotor activity, body temperature, and metabolic functions. The purpose of the present study is to understand the function of the Clock gene during lipid metabolism in the liver using Clock-mutant mice. Clock-mutant mice with an ICR background were fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and liver triglyceride, serum triglyceride, and serum free fatty acid levels were examined. Triglyceride content in the liver was significantly less increased in ...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H) and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. ...
Obese children and adults display lower spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion. It is presumed that dysregulation of some of the factors normally involved in controlling GH secretion underlies the hyposomatotropinemia of obesity, given that GH production usually normalizes after weight loss. Free fatty acids (FFA) are one factor thought to be involved in regulation of GH secretion. Niacin is a nicotinic acid derivative that inhibits lipolysis and lowers circulating FFA concentrations. Nicotinic acid derivatives have been used in several adult studies examining GH secretion. Specifically in obese adults, inhibition of lipolysis has been found to increase spontaneous and stimulated GH production, presumably due to direct effects of FFA on hypothalamic GH-regulating neurons. Thus far no pediatric studies have examined the effects of niacin on GH secretion, and there is only ...
The pathophysiology of fat embolism syndrome has not yet been definitively characterized. A mechanical theory holds that the embolization event results from a transient rise in pressure in a fat-containing cavity in association with torn blood vessels, allowing escape of marrow or adipose fat cells into the circulation.Two alternative biochemical theories posit explanations for fat embolism syndrome, both of which could account for the observation of the syndrome in nontraumatic settings. In one, fat droplets already in the circulation are broken down at distal sites to free fatty acids, which then exert a local toxic effect on the tissues. This theory explains the appearance of petechiae and the histologic changes in pneumocytes in association with fat-embolism-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The obstructive explanation for fat embolism syndrome proposes that free fatty ...
The role of plasma glucose in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans, independent of associated changes in hormone concentrations, is controversial. Therefore we examined the role of glucose in the regulation of lipolysis and free fatty acid (FFA) reesterification in six healthy lean male volunteers. Blood glucose concentration was clamped at either 5 or 10 mM during 2-h pancreatic-pituitary clamps. Glycerol and palmitate turnover were measured by isotope dilution ([1-14C]palmitate and [2H5]-glycerol). All hormone concentrations were the same during the euglycemic and hyperglycemic studies. FFA turnover, which represents the difference between lipolysis and FFA reesterification, was reduced 30% by hyperglycemia (29 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 3 mumol.kg fat mass-1.min-1, P less than 0.05). Glycerol turnover, which represents lipolysis only, was reduced to a similar extent (9.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.7 mumol.kg fat ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid effects on the atrial myocardium. T2 - Membrane ionic currents are remodeled by the disruption of T-tubular architecture. AU - OConnell, Ryan P.. AU - Musa, Hassan. AU - Gomez, Mario San Martin. AU - Avula, Uma Mahesh. AU - Herron, Todd J.. AU - Kalifa, Jerome. AU - Anumonwo, Justus M.B.. AU - Talkachova, Alena. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - Background: Epicardial adiposity and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are elevated in atrial fibrillation, heart failure and obesity, with potentially detrimental effects on myocardial function. As major components of epicardial fat, FFAs may be abnormally regulated, with a potential to detrimentally modulate electro-mechanical function. The cellular mechanisms underlying such effects of FFAs are unknown. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying electrophysiological effects of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vivo interaction between gliclazide and glibenclamide and insulin on glucose disposal in the rat. AU - Tanira, Musbah O M. AU - Furman, Brian L.. PY - 1999/5. Y1 - 1999/5. N2 - Many reports suggest that extrapancreatic actions contribute to the antidiabetic effect of sulphonylurea drugs (SUs). In this work, the ability of two SUs, namely, gliclazide and glibenclamide, to augment insulin action was studied in vivo. Both drugs elevated the plasma concentration of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and lowered the plasma concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in normal intact rats. These changes were not reproduced in alloxan-diabetic or eviscerated rats. The actions of insulin on plasma glucose and NEFA were not augmented by gliclazide in alloxan-diabetic rats. Neither gliclazide nor glibenclamide (given acutely and for 30 days) augmented the actions of exogenously administered insulin in reducing ...
Title:Free Fatty Acids: Circulating Contributors of Metabolic Syndrome. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chase Suiter, Santu K. Singha, Rozita Khalili and Zia Shariat-Madar*. Affiliation:Department of Biomolecular Sciences Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, Mississippi 38677-1848, Department of Biomolecular Sciences Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, Mississippi 38677-1848, Department of Biomolecular Sciences Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, Mississippi 38677-1848, Department of Biomolecular Sciences Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, Mississippi 38677-1848. Keywords:Cardiovascular disease, free fatty acids, metabolic syndrome, morbidity, mortality, monosaturated fatty acids.. Abstract:Metabolic syndrome induces an increased ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term ...
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increases after meal intake and a failure to regulate ATBF in the postprandial period seems to be a feature of insulin resistance and obesity. ATBF can be measured quantitatively by the (133)Xe washout technique, but the microdialysis ethanol escape method has also been employed to detect relative changes in ATBF. METHODS: We compared (133)Xe washout and the recovery of exogenous ethanol and endogenous urea by microdialysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, after physiological stimulation of ATBF by ingestion of oral glucose (75 g) in eight healthy people (age 23-52 y, body mass index (BMI) 19.4-29.6 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: The ATBF response was heterogeneous. In subjects responding vigorously to the stimulus as measured by (133)Xe washout, the microdialysis ethanol escape was increased (indicating an increase in ATBF). An increased recovery of urea was observed, also indicating an increase in ATBF. The recovery of both small molecules was delayed
Composition of follicular fluid to which the preovulatory follicle is exposed may be one of the major factors determining subsequent fertility, as fatty acids are a precursor of hormones involved in dominance, ovulation and atresia mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to observe fatty acid profiles in various lipid classes according to estrogenic activity of follicles. For each of the 18 cows, we analysed plasma and follicular fluid fatty acid profiles of phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), cholesteryl esters and triglycerides fractions. Follicles were classified as active (ratio oestrogen to progesterone E2/P4 , 1) and inactive (E2/P4 , 1). For seven cows, we get both types of follicles, six had only one active follicle and five cows had only one inactive follicle. The NEFA profile for ...
Other than the glucose from carbohydrates, fatty acids from fats are our second source of energy. My favourite fat-rich choices are macadamias and walnuts - perfect on a big cheese board together with camembert, gruyere, and gorgonzola.. So what happens as we digest all this delicious food?. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, proteins into amino acids, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.1. Youll remember that an increase in blood glucose levels tells our body to release insulin.. When this happens, your body begins converting the new, incoming fatty acids into triglycerides and storing them in your fat cells.. Your body also stops breaking down your existing fat storage. In other words, it stops turning triglycerides back into fatty acids. (These ...
Stable isotope infusion protocol. Following a 14-h overnight fast, an IV will be inserted into a superficial vein in each forearm, one for infusion and one for sampling. At 7 am, a fasting blood sample will be drawn and the subject will begin to ingest the first of 15 identical small hourly meals, each equivalent to 1/15th of their daily food intake. This will be achieved by giving the patient the drink BOOST (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Ottawa, On) and, using the Harris Benedict Equation (HBE) to determine the number of total energy requirements. This is based on height, weight, age and activity factors. The subject will have nothing else to eat until the end of the study. At the same time an IV infusion with either heparin plus intralipid or saline or glycerol as indicated above will be started. At 10 am (3 hours after starting the ingestion of hourly feeds), a primed-constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine ([D3]L-leucine 98%, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, MA) will be started, as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and ...
Rancidification, the product of which can be described as rancidity, is the process which causes a substance to become rancid, that is, having a rank, unpleasant smell or taste. Specifically, it is the hydrolysis and/or autoxidation of fats into short-chain aldehydes and ketones which are objectionable in taste and odor. When these processes occur in food, undesirable odors and flavors can result. In some cases, however, the flavors can be desirable (as in aged cheeses). In processed meats, these flavors are collectively known as warmed-over flavor. Rancidification can also detract from the nutritional value of food, and some vitamins are highly sensitive to degradation. Akin to rancidification, oxidative degradation also occurs in other hydrocarbons, e.g. lubricating oils, fuels, and mechanical cutting fluids. Three pathways for rancidification are recognized: Hydrolytic rancidity refers to the odor that develops when triglycerides are hydrolyzed and free ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are quite beneficial for human health. These play a vital role in lowering blood cholesterol, blood triglycerides and, hence, blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids are helpful in preventing heart diseases, skin diseases and auto immune disorders. The daily intake of 0.5 to 1.0 gram omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for an individual for a healthy life. The food industry is taking steps to return these healthful fatty acids to the human diets. In this regards, poultry meat and eggs can serve the purpose if enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Laying hens have the ability to absorb and deposit dietary fatty acids without considerable modification in the composition. Thus, the lipid metabolism ...
Free fatty acids are like the gasoline that drives a lot of metabolic functions. This is of interest because it is unrelated to caffeine, which many people used to think was the culprit in the coffee heart disease controversy," Superko told Reuters Health. On the other hand, he noted, caffeinated coffee but not decaf increased blood pressure ...
0159]1. Cynthia Q Sun et al (Chemico-Biological Interactions 140 (2002), pp 185-198). [0160]2. R. Corinne Sprong et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, April 2001, pp 1298-1301). [0161]3. Schuster et al (Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 5: pp 25-33; 1980) [0162]4. Gudmundur Bergsson et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, November 2001, pp 3209-3212). [0163]5. Yong-Ching Yang et al. J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Engrs., Vol 34, No 6, 617-623. A Process for Synthesis of High Purity Monglyceride [0164]6. Catrienus DeJong and Herman T. Badings 1990. Determination of free fatty acids in milk and cheese, procedures for extraction, clean up and capillary gas chromatographic analysis. Journal of high resolution chromatography, Vol. 13, February 1990. Pages 94-98. [0165]7. Halldor Thormar et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; January 1987, pp 27-31) This author reports the growth inhibitory properties of various ...
The vast Max skills do say five benefits which is the free Fatty Acids in Health Promotion of difficulty Academy und has you over the resistant field---making. Knowles( 1950) Informal Adult Education. A free Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and for recipes, Probiotics and ios, New York: Association Press( 272 duffles) for an long but not popular Check of advice Salary and tradisi within an NGO( Chicago YMCA).
Heres a bit of an aside: The process is physiological. It involves a careful titration of cellular insulin resistance to the cellular energy needs. This is no blanket insulin blocking drug. The responsiveness to insulin is carefully adjusted to just allow enough glucose in to cells to meet their needs. This applies to adipocytes as well as well as to muscle cells. With the number of GLUT4s being translocated by the residual insulin sensitivity, in an environment of 588microIU/ml of insulin, you dont need much of a blood glucose level to supply glucose needs. Table 1 suggests the body settles to a plasma glucose of about 71mg/dl, as opposed to 148mg/dl in the control rats. Metabolism is still largely glucose based, with some responsiveness to insulin preserved despite the need for resistance to survive at 588microIU/ml. Transplanting tissues to a petri-dish allows you to pick up this responsiveness. Free fatty acid release from adipocytes is ...
Szabo Z, Arnqvist H, Hakanson E, Jorfeldt L, Svedjeholm R: Effects of high-dose glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial metabolism after coronary surgery in patients with type II diabetes. Clin Sci 101:37-43, 2001. Findings. Szabo et al. investigated the use of a glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK) on myocardial substrate utilization after coronary surgery in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomly allocated to either postoperative high-dose GIK or standard postoperative care, including insulin infusion, if necessary, to keep blood glucose ,10 mmol/l. Myocardial substrate utilization and hemodynamic status were studied using coronary sinus catheters and Swan-Ganz catheters, respectively. Infusion of GIK caused a shift toward carbohydrate utilization, with significant lactate uptake throughout the study period and significant uptake of glucose after 4 h. Arterial levels of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric ...
1. Nerve cell bodies were isolated in bulk from cerebral cortices of 15 day-old rabbits after intrathecal injections of [3H]plamitate, [3H]oleate or [3H]arachidonate and [14C]glycerol. 2. Nuclear, microsomal and two mitochondrial fractions were isolated from homogenates of the radioactively labelled nerve cell bodies by using differential and discontinuous-gradient centrifugation. 3. After 7.5min in vivo, a high percentage (,80%) of the total 3H-labelled fatty acid radioactivity was found in the membrane fractions of the nerve cell bodies, whereas after 60min in vivo 50% of the total [14C]glycerol radioactivity was found in the high-speed supernatant. 4. The specific radioactivities of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, and the radioactivity in neutral lipid and non-esterified fatty acid fractions were determined in the four subfractions, as were the distributions of ...
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated ...
Essential fatty acids are necessary to make cell membranes and for many of the important hormones and other chemical messengers that tell your body what to do. There are twenty different needed fatty acids in your body These are all made from two linoleic acid linolenic acid. Another name for linoleic fatty acid family is omega-6 fatty acids The linolenic fatty acids are often called omega-3 fatty acids. USE : Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids are especially important for making prostaglandins in your body. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that regulate many activities in your body including inflammation, ...
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance.. ...
Postprandial lipemia and fatty acid fluxes occur several times daily, resulting in very efficient absorption of dietary fat and redistribution to various tissues. Absorbed dietary lipids are incorporated into chylomicrons to distribute triglycerides either for storage in adipose tissue or for immediate use in muscle. Commonly, the dietary sources of fat exceed the actual needs and the tissues are faced with dealing with the excess. Under these circumstances, the removal process of dietary triglycerides and fatty acids becomes overloaded, resulting in excessive postprandial lipemia and accumulation of chylomicrons, remnant particles and non-esterified fatty acids. These particles are associated with disruptions in lipoprotein metabolism and changes in inflammatory factors, thus their association with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes is ...
To determine the acute effects of ingesting a thermogenic drink (Celsius, Delray Beach, FL) (TD) on changes in metabolism and lipolysis. Healthy college-aged male (23.2 ± 4.0 y, 177.2 ± 6.1 cm, 81.7 ± 11.3 kg, 22.8 ± 7.3 % fat; n = 30) and female (23.4 ± 3.1 y, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm, 62.1 ± 9.9 kg, 28.3 ± 7.4 % fat; n = 30) participants were matched according to height and weight to consume 336 ml of the TD or a non-caloric, non-caffeinated placebo (PLA). After a 12 h fast, participants reported for pre-consumption measures of height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), glycerol and free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. REE and RER were determined at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption. Serum glycerol and FFA concentrations were determined at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-consumption. When compared to PLA, TD significantly increased REE at 60, 120 ...
Coconut fatty acid Regular Buyers, Coconut fatty acid Importers, Coconut fatty acid Distributors, Coconut fatty acid Wholesalers, Coconut fatty acid Agents, Coconut fatty acid Businesses - Global B2B marketplace, portal. International Business to Business Marketplace. Send targeted trade leads, post trade offers, find new business partners. Thousands of companies, trade offers. Product Showrooms, Suppliers, Business News, Business Keywords, More. Get a free Business Website at Global B2B Directory.
In order to predict omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of humans, seventy-three pork back fat adipose tissue samples were measured with Raman spectroscopy directly on adipose tissue and on melted fat. Melted fat samples were, in addition, measured with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Gas chromatography analyses were conducted as the reference analysis. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to calibrate and validate all models predicting omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents from spectra. Omega-6 fatty acids in melted fat measured with FT-IR was predicted with a correlation coefficient (,i,R,/i,) of 0.93 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.61% of the total amount of fatty acids. Raman spectra measured on melted fat gave a prediction of omega-6 ...
To investigate the effect of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose on the endogenous levels of lipids in the normoxic, ischemic, and reperfused myocardium, isolated working rat hearts were exposed to various grades of ischemic insult (15, 30, or 45 minutes). Glucose was present as the basal substrate in the perfusion medium, and lactate (5 mM) or pyruvate (5 mM) was added as the cosubstrate. Lipid metabolism was evaluated by fatty acid accumulation, triacylglycerol turnover, and phospholipid homeostasis. Exogenous lactate significantly increased fatty acid content above preischemic levels after 45 minutes of ischemia. In glucose-perfused hearts, fatty acid levels were even slightly higher than in lactate-perfused hearts, whereas pyruvate-perfused hearts demonstrated less accumulation of fatty acids. By reperfusion, ...
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are triglycerides whose fatty acids have an aliphatic tail of 6-12 carbon atoms. The fatty acids found in MCTs are called medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Like all triglycerides, MCTs are composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. In the case of MCTs, 2 or 3 of the fatty acid chains attached to glycerol are of medium length. Rich sources for commercial extraction of beneficial MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil. With regard to MCFAs, apart from the above listed straight chain (unbranched chain) fatty acids, side chain (branched chain) fatty acids also exist. Molecular weight analysis of milk from ...
RESULTS The mean 24-h free insulin concentrations were similar in both studies (150 ± 12 vs. 162 ± 12 pM, daytime versus nocturnal insulin infusion). The mean 24-h free fatty acid concentration was 18% lower in the nocturnal than in the daytime (309 ± 30 vs. 376 ± 30 μM, P , 0.001) insulin infusion study. The mean 24-h C-peptide concentration was less suppressed if insulin was infused overnight than during the day (1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 nM, P , 0.01). The mean 24-h plasma glucose concentrations were identical in both studies (11.1 ±0.6 vs. 11.4 ± 0.7 mM, daytime versus nocturnal insulin infusion). We also searched for factors predicting the decrease in the blood glucose concentration during the nocturnal insulin infusion. The best predictors were a high initial blood glucose concentration at 2200 and a low fasting C-peptide concentration. These factors explained, independent of each other, ...
Fatty acids: Molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. (Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH.) Fatty acids come from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Fatty acids play roles outside the body; they are used as lubricants, in cooking and food engineering, and in the production of soaps, detergents, and cosmetics. Related terms include the following: Essential fatty acid: An essential fatty acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid needed by the body that is synthesized by plants but not by the human body and is therefore ...
Taken together, these observations may be interpreted to suggest a change in the structure [and/or] function of the plasma membrane of adipocytes and/or interstitial space in RO subjects. Theoretically, an alteration which allowed more rapid mixing of outgoing and incoming FFA, would produce a decrease in the re-esterification of lipolyzed FFA. This model suggests that the surface of the adipocyte functions as a mixing pool for FFA fluxing in and out of the cell, resulting in a reciprocal relationship between lipolysis rate and FFA uptake (see above). This concept is consistent with recent work regarding mechanisms of uptake and release of FFA from adipocytes, in that uptake and release appear to occur at physically separate sites (25, 26). Whether significant mixing of incoming and outgoing FFA occurs intracellularly has been a point of contention, with some investigators reporting little (27) or no (28) evidence for this in rats, and others suggesting that substantial mixing does occur in ...
in the control diet were substituted by fish oil, but in the 4th, and 5th group beef fat substituted the carbohydrate in a ratio of 20% and 40% respectively. After two weeks of feeding, the animals were sacrificed, the plasma and liver samples were obtained and kept at -20 till analysis. PLasma levels of glucose, free fatty acids [FAAs] , total lipids and insulin were measured, moreover, liver FFAS and total lipids were measured. The results indicated that the plasma glucose level was increased by 73% in groups [4 and 5] fed on diets containing 20% and 40% beef fat, while [FFAs] in plasma significantly increased in the same groups. On the other hand, plasma [FFAs] level revealed 40% and 50% decrease in the animal groups fed on the diets containing 20% and 40% fish oil respectively. The plasma insulin levels were significantly increased by 109% and 135% in the same respective groups. In the animals fed on the diet containing 40% fish oil, the ...
Omega-3 fatty acids provide many health benefits, from reducing cardiovascular disease to improving mental health, and consumer interest in foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is increasing. Formulating a product enriched with these fatty acids that is stable and has an acceptable flavour is challenging. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids provides an overview of key topics in this area. Part one, an introductory section, reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits. Chapters in part two explore the stabilisation of both fish oil itself and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Part three focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 ...
Diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been investigated in humans and animals as a potential therapy for hypertriglyceridemia and related disorders. DAG oil was evaluated in healthy cats and in a feline model of hypertriglyceridemia as a result of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency. In the first study, eight adult cats were offered a commercial dry diet enriched with either DAG or triglyceride (TAG) oil (48% metabolizable energy [ME] from fat) in a two-bowl palatability feeding trial. After 14 days, total food intakes were similar (DAG diet 470 ± 52 g, TAG diet 380 ± 88 g, P = 0.4). Both diets were well-accepted and no changes in health or fecal quality were observed. In the second study, eleven adult LPL-deficient male cats were fed a semipurified diet containing either DAG or TAG oil as the sole fat source (25% ME) in a crossover design for 8 days each after a 21-day acclimation period. Serum concentrations of TAG, cholesterol, and nonesterified ...
en] The effects of weight loss on hormonal and biochemical blood parameters were measured monthly [carnitine, creatinine, urea, free T4 (fT4), total T4 (TT4), plasma alkaline phosphatases (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), potassium and total proteins] or bimonthly [cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), glucose, insulin] in eight obese Beagles dogs fed either a high protein dry diet, DP (crude protein 47.5%, on dry matter basis) or a commercial high fibre diet, HF (crude protein 23.8%, crude fibre 23.3%). The dogs were allotted to two groups according to sex and body weight (BW) and they were respectively fed with the DP or the control HF diet during 12-26 weeks, until they reach their optimal BW. The plasma basal triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were decreased by the two diets but the difference was only ...
Short chain fatty acids C6, C8 and C10 are used as a raw material for the production of surfactants, acid chlorides, flavor and fragrances, lubricants, biocides, coating resins and solvents. Radiacid® and Nouracid® fractionated long chain fatty acids contain a high percentage of C22 fatty acids. The Radiacid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of behenic (C22) acid in the range of 85%. Main applications are detergents and surfactants, wax emulsifiers and foam control additives, high melting esters and soaps. The Nouracid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of erucic (C22:1) acid in the range of 90%. ...
I also think there is a CNS interaction in the middle of all this, where insulin induced transient crushed FFA oxidation , is perceived by the brain, drives the hunger of reactive hypoglycemia. Glucose numbers widely reported as normal during patients with reactive hypoglycemia, although subjective hunger/weakness of the pt. What is not seen is a mitochondrial energy drop from abrupt insulin surges interfering with FFA oxidation and likely swift suppression of available FFA. I gained insight into a likely FFA driven mechanism of reactive hypoglycemia when I had it occur to me eating MCTs (cocohnut) while low carb. My glucose numbers shifted only slightly, my ketones ROSE, but likely what my meters could not tell me is the insulin produced from exogenous ketones inhibited FFA level/fat oxidation to produce the hallmark weakness/hunger of hypoglycemia as known by patients. As a leptin insufficient weight reduced person with very sensitive WAT tissue, trivial insulin elevations can suppress ...
2014 · The High Price of Low Testosterone As a man ages, his hormones slacken, and that can drain his energy, sex drive, and muscle-building ability. In the study, men ages 70 to 88 with higher. 09. Know the risk factors high testosterone and belly fat of testosterone decline, as well as methods that can help improve your testosterone levels naturally, like hormone replacement therapy Treatment. Lose Weight. Buck homotaxial spellbind his slave and fizzes without hesitation! 16. Contact National HRT® for more information about high, normal, and low testosterone levels in women 21. When production of testosterone drops or ceases, a range of symptoms can occur. 06. Though. High prolactin levels is capable of causing infertility in women and men. If you are overweight, losing as little as 5 to 10 percent in body. 2016 · High Cortisol Level Symptoms. 2016 · High or high free testosterone levels symptoms low testosterone levels in men can cause symptoms and signs of weight gain, osteoporosis, ...
Despite increasing recognition of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, the pathophysiology of this syndrome, particularly the absence of ketoacidosis (KA), remains obscure. Thirty-two episodes were studied in 30 patients; in 16 of these determinations were made of plasma free fatty acid (FFA), growth hormone (HGH), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), ketones, osmolity (Osm), and blood glucose. FFAs were determined by the method of Dole, HGH and IRI by radioimmunoassay, ketones by Acetest tablets, and Osm by freezing-point depression. In all cases the plasma acetone was , 2 + at a 1:1 dilution; blood sugar, , 600 mg/100 ml (av 1173 ± 306); and serum ...
The role of free fatty acids (FFA) on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progression has been studied extensively with prior studies suggesting that individuals with shared familial genetic predisposition to metabolic-related diseases may be vulnerable to dysfunctional plasma FFA regulation. A harmful cycle arises when FFA are not properly regulated by insulin contributing to the development of insulin resistance, a key indicator for T2DM, since prolonged insulin resistance may lead to hyperglycemia. We introduce a hypothesis-driven dynamical model and use it to evaluate the role of FFA on insulin resistance progression that is mathematically constructed within the context of individuals that have genetic predisposition to dysfunctional plasma FFA. The dynamics of the nonlinear interactions that involve glucose, insulin, and FFA are modeled by incorporating a fixed-time delay with the corresponding delay-differential equations being studied ...
The effect of low-salt diet on phospholipid composition and remodeling was examined in rat colon which represents a mineralocorticoid target tissue. To elucidate this question, male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt diet and drank distilled water (LS, low-salt group) or saline instead of water (HS, high-salt group) for 12 days before the phospholipid concentration and fatty acid composition of isolated colonocytes were examined. The dietary regimens significantly influenced the plasma concentration of aldosterone which was high in LS group and almost zero in HS group. Plasma concentration of corticosterone was unchanged. When expressed in terms of cellular protein content, a significantly higher concentration of phospholipids was found in LS group, with the exception of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) accounted for more than 70% of total phospholipids in both groups. A comparison of ...
1. Arterial concentrations and leg exchange of carbohydrate substrates and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were examined together with concentrations of intramuscular metabolites at rest and during exercise in six patients with Parkinsons disease and in a group of five healthy control subjects.. 2. Heart rate, pulmonary oxygen uptake and ventilatory exchange ratio were all significantly higher in the group of patients during exercise. The release of lactate by the exercising leg in the patients exceeded that of the control subjects and was associated with a significantly elevated arterial lactate concentration. Glucose uptake by the leg was greater in the patients during exercise. Arterial NEFA was higher and fractional NEFA turnover lower in the patients both at rest and during exercise, whereas oxidation of NEFA by the leg muscles during exercise was similar in the two groups.. 3. ATP, creatine phosphate and glycogen ...
Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), ...

Obesity Increases Free Thyroxine Proportionally to Nonesterified Fatty Acid Concentrations in Adult Neutered Female Cats |...Obesity Increases Free Thyroxine Proportionally to Nonesterified Fatty Acid Concentrations in Adult Neutered Female Cats |...

... free T(4) (FT(4)) by direct dialysis, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and leptin were measured, and FT(4) fraction (FFT(4)) ... Obesity Increases Free Thyroxine Proportionally to Nonesterified Fatty Acid Concentrations in Adult Neutered Female Cats. by ... Fatty acids oleate and palmitate were shown to inhibit T(4) binding to pooled cat serum in vitro, suggesting the possibility ... The implications for thyroid hormone (TH) action are not yet clear, but fatty acids have been proposed to inhibit the cellular ...
more infohttps://www.avmi.net/information/hyperthyroid-hints/obesity-increases-free-thyroxine-proportionally-to-nonesterified-fatty-acid-concentrations-in-adult-neutered-female-cats/

Plus itPlus it

... had no deleterious effects on the suppression of lipolysis and circulating concentrations of nonesterified free fatty acids or ... Since nonesterified free fatty acid levels were low with each of the infusion regimens, it is possible that a near-maximal ... nonesterified free fatty acids, and glycerol, were also similar. Receptor binding to CHO-T cells transfected with human insulin ... nonesterified free fatty acids (Wako Chemicals, Neuss, Germany), and glycerol (Randox Laboratories, Crumlin, U.K.). ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/2/492

Neonatal jaundice - WikipediaNeonatal jaundice - Wikipedia

Third, an enzyme in breast milk called lipoprotein lipase produces increased concentration of nonesterified free fatty acids ... This substance inhibits the action of the enzyme uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) glucuronyl transferase responsible ... American Academy of Pediatrics has issued guidelines for managing this disease, which can be obtained for free.[1] ... Most infants develop visible jaundice due to elevation of unconjugated bilirubin concentration during their first week. This is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neonatal_jaundice

Effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with high fat diet‑induced obesityEffects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with high fat diet‑induced obesity

... and the hepatic FFA concentration was detected using a Nonesterified Free Fatty Acid assay kit (cat. no. FA115; Randox ... FFA levels were determined using a Non-Esterified Free Fatty Acids assay kit (cat. no. FA115; Randox Laboratories, Ltd., ... label (or @symbol) needed for fn[@id=tfn11-mmr-16-01-0109] } HFD, high-fat diet; TG, triglyceride; FFA, free fatty acids. ... HFD, high-fat diet; FFA, free fatty acid; TG, serum triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2017.6586

Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced ObesityHighlights |...Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced ObesityHighlights |...

B, Plasma NEFA (nonesterified free fatty acids) concentrations before and after stimulation with a β3-specific adrenergic ... There was no significant difference in plasma nonesterified free fatty acid levels before and after β3-agonist stimulation ... CE indicates cholesteryl ester; FA, fatty acid; FC, free cholesterol; and PL, phospholipid. ... However, if fatty acid flux into adipose tissue exceeds the ability of adipocytes to store the excess energy as triglyceride, ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/38/4/733

Plus itPlus it

Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol, β- ... GTDF enhanced mRNA and protein levels of factors associated with fatty acid transport (CD36 and fatty acid binding protein 3 [ ... fatty acid-free BSA/[14C]palmitate at 2 µCi/mL) for 2 h. After this incubation period, 1 mL of the culture medium was removed ... Fatty Acid Oxidation. C2C12 myotubes plated in 12-well plates were treated with vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or 0.01 µmol/L GTDF for 2, ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/10/3530

Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes ... Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / analysis*. Food Handling / methods*. Geotrichum / isolation & purification*. Kluyveromyces / ... 25451557 - A method for long term stabilisation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in dried.... 3512557 - The hla-d- ... 18576417 - Citric acid production using immobilized conidia of aspergillus niger tmb 2022.. 7683207 - Sulfonic acid polymers ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Controlled-production-camembert-type-cheeses/17291387.html

Plus itPlus it

Nonesterified (free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in serum were determined with Wako NEFA C Kits and an enzymatic ... and elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) can augment synthesis of PAI-1 in vitro through interactions with the PAI-1 promoter (15, ... pathways mediating increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in HepG2 cells exposed to free fatty acids or ... Chen Y, Billadello JJ, Schneider DJ: Identification and localization of a fatty acid response region in the human plasminogen ...
more infohttps://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/12/2123

Atrial natriuretic peptide - WikipediaAtrial natriuretic peptide - Wikipedia

Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids ... ANP is a 28-amino acid peptide with a 17-amino acid ring in the middle of the molecule. The ring is formed by a disulfide bond ... When the cells are stimulated, pro-ANP is released and converted to the 28-amino-acid C-terminal mature ANP on the cell surface ... In atrial myocytes, ANP is made as a precursor form, i.e. prepro-ANP, a polypeptide of 151 amino acids. After the signal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atrial_natriuretic_peptide

Plus itPlus it

Serum free fatty acids (FFA) were measured enzymatically using a Wako NEFA (nonesterified fatty acid) Test Kit (Wako Chemicals ... and free fatty acid concentrations (P , 0.05). Furthermore, basal insulin concentrations were higher during hydrocortisone than ... Nocturnal C-peptide (A), free fatty acid (FFA, B), and glucagon (C) concentrations during cortisol (○) or saline (▪) infusion. ... 66 ± 8 pg/ml, P = 0.85) concentrations did not differ on the two study days (Fig. 6). Basal FFA concentrations (0.34 ± 0.04 vs ...
more infohttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/286/1/E102

Increasing EPA and DHA Concentrations in Blood to Modify Diabetes Risk - 02 - 2015 - TalkingNutrition - DSMIncreasing EPA and DHA Concentrations in Blood to Modify Diabetes Risk - 02 - 2015 - TalkingNutrition - DSM

Increasing EPA and DHA Concentrations in Blood to Modify Diabetes Risk. TalkingNutrition provides perspectives on the exciting ... muscle and fat cells releases free fatty acids, also known as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which serve as a fuel source. ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Muscle Function *11 *People Want Gluten-Free Products *No need for panic: folic acid is still essential ... n-3 fatty acids attenuate the risk of diabetes associated with elevated serum non-esterified fatty acids: the Multi-Ethnic ...
more infohttps://www.dsm.com/campaigns/talkingnutrition/en_US/talkingnutrition-dsm-com/2015/02/increasing_EPA_and_DHA.html

Detection of differentially expressed candidate genes for a fatty liver QTL on mouse chromosome 12 | BMC Genetics | Full TextDetection of differentially expressed candidate genes for a fatty liver QTL on mouse chromosome 12 | BMC Genetics | Full Text

The SMXA-5 genome consists of the SM/J and A/J genomes, and the A/J allele of Fl1sa is a fatty liver-susceptibility allele. The ... These results demonstrated that Fl1sa on the proximal region of chromosome 12 affected fatty liver in mice on a high-fat diet. ... The major QTL for fatty liver, Fl1sa on chromosome 12, was identified in a SM/J × SMXA-5 intercross. ... existence of the responsible genes for fatty liver within Fl1sa was confirmed in A/J-12SM consomic mice. The aim of this study ...
more infohttps://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12863-016-0385-2

Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets.  - PubMed - NCBIShort-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets. - PubMed - NCBI

Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate ... and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of ... 7TM receptors; GPCR; free fatty acids; inflammation; metabolic diseases; short-chain fatty acids; type 2 diabetes ... Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets.. Ulven T1. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060857

Serum free fatty acid concentration in patients with acute pancreatitis.  - PubMed - NCBISerum free fatty acid concentration in patients with acute pancreatitis. - PubMed - NCBI

... and for palmitic acid (only group IIB: p , 0.005). The ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly ... Serum free fatty acid concentration in patients with acute pancreatitis.. Sztefko K1, Panek J. ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic and arachidonic, may be involved in the development of complications in acute ... Serum levels of total FFA (by enzymatic method) and the individual fatty acids of the FFA pool (by gas-liquid chromatography) ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12120200

Home Diabetes Cure - Pharmacological SciencesHome Diabetes Cure - Pharmacological Sciences

... and elevated nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations resulting from high levels of glucose and insulin. ... An increase in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) was found in healthy subjects when free fatty acids (FFA) ... free fatty acid, corticosterone, or leptin concentrations. However, constitutive 5-HT2CR - Y mice older than 9 months are much ... free fatty acid, corticosterone, and leptin concentrations. A separate study revealed no phenotypic differences in hepatic ...
more infohttps://www.pharmacologicalsciences.us/diabetes.html

Membrane incorporation of non-esterified fatty acids and effects on the sodium pump of human erythrocytes | Clinical Science |...Membrane incorporation of non-esterified fatty acids and effects on the sodium pump of human erythrocytes | Clinical Science |...

More than 88% of the fatty acid incorporated could be extracted with a 50 μmol/l fatty-acid-free albumin solution and was, ... therefore, in a non-esterified form in the erythrocyte membrane. The concentrations of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic ... Membrane incorporation of non-esterified fatty acids and effects on the sodium pump of human erythrocytes J. F. St. J. Dwight J ... 2. For palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, up to 1000 nmol of the fatty acid/ml of packed cells can be incorporated without ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/clinsci/article-abstract/82/1/99/75476/Membrane-incorporation-of-non-esterified-fatty?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Pegvisomant improves insulin sensitivity and reduces overnight free fatty acid concentrations in patients with acromegaly.  -...Pegvisomant improves insulin sensitivity and reduces overnight free fatty acid concentrations in patients with acromegaly. -...

Acromegaly, Adult, Circadian Rhythm, Fatty Acids, Nonesterified, Female, Glucose, Hormone Antagonists, Human Growth Hormone, ... Pegvisomant improves insulin sensitivity and reduces overnight free fatty acid concentrations in patients with acromegaly. ... Pegvisomant improves insulin sensitivity and reduces overnight free fatty acid concentrations in patients with acromegaly. J ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/822172/

PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Relation to Free Fatty Acids Concentration and Composition in Lean Healthy Czech...PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Relation to Free Fatty Acids Concentration and Composition in Lean Healthy Czech...

FFA plasma concentration and composition may represent one of the factors accounting for high heterogeneity of conclusions ... Free fatty acids (FFAs) are natural ligands of the PPARgamma2 receptor. ... Fasting plasma free fatty acid concentrations and Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR ... Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=34093

Impact of humic acid as an organic additive on ruminal fermentation constituents, blood parameters and milk production in goats...Impact of humic acid as an organic additive on ruminal fermentation constituents, blood parameters and milk production in goats...

Impact of humic acid (HA) on ruminal fermentation characteristics, blood parameters and milk yield in goats and growth rate of ... non-esterified free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were stated. Milk, fat, lactose and protein yields ... Effect of humic acid on fermentation and ciliate protozoan population in rumen fluid of sheep in vitro. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89 ... Impact of humic acid (HA) on ruminal fermentation characteristics, blood parameters and milk yield in goats and growth rate of ...
more infohttp://www.jafs.com.pl/Impact-of-humic-acid-as-an-organic-additive-on-ruminal-fermentation-constituents,92074,0,2.html

Frontiers | The Distinct Effects of Palmitic and Oleic Acid on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function: The Elucidation of Associated...Frontiers | The Distinct Effects of Palmitic and Oleic Acid on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function: The Elucidation of Associated...

... triglyceride and it does not stimulate insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets at physiologically glucose concentrations ... Our findings have shown the protective action of oleic acid against palmitic acid on beta cell lipotoxicity through promotion ... The supplementation of saturated palmitic acid with the monounsaturated oleic acid reversed the negative effects of palmitic ... Oleic acid alone had opposite effects due to its different capacity of controlling these metabolic pathways, in particular by ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01554/full

Distribution of Fasting Plasma Insulin, Free Fatty Acids, and Glucose Concentrations and of Homeostasis Model Assessment of...Distribution of Fasting Plasma Insulin, Free Fatty Acids, and Glucose Concentrations and of Homeostasis Model Assessment of...

Plasma free fatty acid levels and the risk of ischemic heart disease in men: prospective results from the Quebec Cardiovascular ... High plasma nonesterified fatty acids are predictive of cancer mortality but not of coronary heart disease mortality: results ... Distribution of Fasting Plasma Insulin, Free Fatty Acids, and Glucose Concentrations and of Homeostasis Model Assessment of ... Distribution of Fasting Plasma Insulin, Free Fatty Acids, and Glucose Concentrations and of Homeostasis Model Assessment of ...
more infohttp://clinchem.aaccjnls.org/content/49/4/644.full

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and...

Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). ... Figure 3. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations of mice in the ume fiber (UF) and cellulose (CF) groups. ... Chuda, Y; Ono, H; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Matsumoto, K; Nagata, T; Kikuchi, Y. Mumefural, citric acid derivative improving blood ... Figure 3. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations of mice in the ume fiber (UF) and cellulose (CF) groups. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/12/4/2088/htm

Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows. - Free Online...Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows. - Free Online...

Analysis Physiological aspects Dairy industry Dairy products industry Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Enzymes Fatty acids ... Free Online Library: Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows ... Associations of elevated nonesterified fatty acids and [beta]-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with early lactation reproductive ... Table 3. Influence of body condition score on the levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) of ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Prepartum+body+condition+score+affects+milk+yield%2C+lipid+metabolism%2C...-a0612031033

Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean,...Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean,...

Retain copyright - authors retain the copyright to their own article; you are free to disseminate your work, make unlimited ... Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean, ... Open Access - Food & Nutrition Research is free from all access barriers, allowing for the widest possible global dissemination ...
more infohttps://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3437/9156

Caloric restriction or telmisartan control dyslipidemia and nephropathy in obese diabetic Zücker rats | Diabetology & Metabolic...Caloric restriction or telmisartan control dyslipidemia and nephropathy in obese diabetic Zücker rats | Diabetology & Metabolic...

Male Zücker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats received a low-calorie diet, vehicle or telmisartan for 9 weeks. Blood samples were ... The obese Zücker diabetic fatty male rat (ZDF:Gmi™-fa) is an animal model of type II diabetes associated with obesity and ... Total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (corrected for free glycerol) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were ... The low calorie diet lowered total serum cholesterol, although no dietary manipulations were made in fatty acid content that ...
more infohttps://dmsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1758-5996-6-10
  • To address this problem, the oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, apoptosis and their mediator molecules have been investigated in the insulin releasing beta cells exposed to palmitic and/or oleic acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oleic acid alone had opposite effects due to its different capacity of controlling these metabolic pathways, in particular by reduction of the ROS levels and MMP-2 activity, down-regulation of BiP, eIF2α, ATF6, XBP1u, CHOP, IL6, IL8 and by SOD2 and PTP-1B overexpression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Impact of humic acid (HA) on ruminal fermentation characteristics, blood parameters and milk yield in goats and growth rate of their kids was determined. (jafs.com.pl)
  • ANP is a 28-amino acid peptide with a 17-amino acid ring in the middle of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANP is closely related to BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide), which all share a similar amino acid ring structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In atrial myocytes, ANP is made as a precursor form, i.e. prepro-ANP, a polypeptide of 151 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cells are stimulated, pro-ANP is released and converted to the 28-amino-acid C-terminal mature ANP on the cell surface by the cardiac transmembrane serine protease corin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative stress is mainly derived from an imbalance between reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidants and the concentration of some oxidative status indices such as malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher in cows with higher BCS before calving . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • SCFAs and other small carboxylic acid modulators of FFA2 and FFA3. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of administration of humic acid on somatic cell count and total bacteria in Saanen goats. (jafs.com.pl)
  • In association with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and increased insulin, PAI-1 concentrations increase in blood in vivo in normal human subjects and in experimental animals ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was designed to determine whether FFA chain length, saturation, or both affect agonist properties and whether agonist properties are mediated by activated, thioesterified FFA (fatty acyl-CoA). (uab.edu)
  • Epidemiological evidence has implicated one such factor, increased concentration of plasminogen-activated inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as a marker or predictor of accelerated coronary atherosclerotic disease ( 9 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Jouven X, Charles M-A, Desnos M, Ducimetiere P. Circulating nonesterified fatty acid level as a predictive factor for sudden death in the population. (dsm.com)
  • Finally, many environmental substances (as well as drugs and alcohol) are metabolized in our body, generating free radicals through cytochrome P450-mediated oxidations. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)