Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Radius FracturesFractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Rib FracturesBone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Intra-Articular Fractures: Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Tibial FracturesColles' Fracture: Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.Bone Diseases, MetabolicOsteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Embolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Periprosthetic Fractures: Fractures around joint replacement prosthetics or implants. They can occur intraoperatively or postoperatively.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Clavicle: A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices: Instruments that generate intermittent forces, uniformed or graduated, to facilitate the emptying of VEINS. These devices are used to reduce limb EDEMA and prevent venous THROMBOEMBOLISM, such as deep vein thrombosis in the legs.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.DislocationsInternal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Heart Massage: Rhythmic compression of the heart by pressure applied manually over the sternum (closed heart massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open heart massage). It is done to reinstate and maintain circulation. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Jaw Fractures: Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Spinal NeoplasmsSkull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.High-Energy Shock Waves: High-amplitude compression waves, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. The mechanical force from these shock waves can be used for mechanically disrupting tissues and deposits.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Gravity Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Humeral FracturesArm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Mice, Inbred C57BLProsthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.AxisMesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
He underwent surgery on 13 November, during which four compression screws were inserted into the leg. A small fragment of bone ... A CT scan found a fracture of the long pastern bone on his near foreleg. ... "The fracture came together well," he said, "and barring any further complications, the prognosis is that he stands a 50/50 ...
Viewed in a lateral radiograph, it appears as a triangular shaped bone fragment, not unlike an anterior lip fracture, but with ... In rare instances, a posterior limbus vertebra has been described causing radiculopathy due to nerve root compression.. ... A limbus vertebra is a bone tubercle formed by bone trauma on a vertebral body, bearing a radiographic similarity to a ... vertebral fracture. The anterior-superior corner of a single vertebra is the common site for this defect although it can also ...
The headless compression screw has advantage over the K-wire as it provides compression across the fracture site and allows ... In the case of an acute Capitate fracture where there is x-ray evidence of excellent alignment of the fracture fragments, the ... A Capitate fracture accounts for 1.3% of all wrist fractures. Isolated fractures of the capitate comprise only 0.3% and are ... If x-rays show that the Capitate fracture fragments are out of alignment, surgery is indicated. A surgeon can use small ...
... typically after fractures. As the name implies, it is designed to exert dynamic pressure between the bone fragments to be ... atrophy of the bone beneath the plate may predispose the bone to fracture. After removal of plates, fractures may occur through ... A dynamic compression plate (DCP) is a metallic plate used in orthopedics for internal fixation of bone, ... The sliding screw plate (dynamic compression screw, dynamic hip screw) may be used to treat intertrochanteric fractures as well ...
... develops when the spinal cord is compressed by bone fragments from a vertebral fracture, a tumor, ... paralysis of limbs below the level of compression, decreased sensation below the level of compression, urinary and fecal ... The most common causes of cord compression are tumors, but abscesses and granulomas (e.g. in tuberculosis) are equally capable ... Surgery is indicated in localised compression as long as there is some hope of regaining function. It is also occasionally ...
The injury is typically caused by compression of the scaphoid bone of the hand against the styloid process of the distal radius ... which is surgical realignment of the bone fragments and fixation with pins, screws, or plates. The name originates from early ... It is also known as a backfire fracture (for the same reason) or a Hutchinson fracture. Greenspan, A: Orthopaedic Imaging: A ... Chauffeur's fracture is a type of fracture of the forearm, specifically the radial styloid process. ...
Accidents and injuries may dislocate the spine and the spinal canal or cause burst fractures that yield fragments of bone that ... "Causes of Spinal Compression Fractures,", WebMD "Spinal stenosis Causes". Mayo Clinic. 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2015-04-17. Wu, ... Spinal ligaments can thicken (ligamenta flava) Bone spurs develop on the bone and into the spinal canal or foraminal openings ... X-ray and MRI scans are typically used to determine the extent and location of the nerve compression. The medical history is ...
In cases of trauma, for example in compound skull fractures where fragments of bone are pushed into the substance of the brain ... An abscess in the cerebellum, for instance, may cause additional complaints as a result of brain stem compression and ... The location and treatment of the primary lesion also crucial, as is the removal of any foreign material (bone, dirt, bullets, ... The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical procedures. Brain abscess is ...
This type of compression along the metacarpal bone is often sustained when a person punches a hard object, such as the skull or ... Unlike the proximal fracture fragment, strong ligaments and muscle tendons of the hand tend to pull this fragment out of its ... Bennett fracture is a fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone which extends into the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint.[1] ... The distal fragment of the first metacarpal bone possesses the majority of the articular surface of the first CMC joint. ...
This type of compression along the metacarpal bone is often sustained when a person punches a hard object, such as the skull or ... Unlike the proximal fracture fragment, strong ligaments and muscle tendons of the hand tend to pull this fragment out of its ... Fractures of the Metacarpal Bones. Dublin Med Sci J. 1882;73:72-75. Soyer, AD (Nov-Dec 1999). "Fractures of the base of the ... Bennett fracture is a fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone which extends into the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. ...
Can be further divided into two subtypes: IIIA Compression Fracture of the lateral tibial plateau IIIB Compression Fracture of ... Low energy fractures are commonly seen in older females due to osteoporotic bone changes and are typically depressed fractures ... It is composed of six condyle fracture types classified by fracture pattern and fragment anatomy. Each increasing numeric ... Type II = Lateral tibial plateau fracture with depression, This is a combined cleavage and compression fracture and involves ...
A fracture caused when bone fragments are driven into each other. *Avulsion fracture: A fracture where a fragment of bone is ... Compression fracture - a collapse of a vertebra, often in the form of wedge fractures due to larger compression anteriorly ... Complete fracture: Is a fracture in which bone fragments separate completely.. *Comminuted fracture: Is a fracture in which the ... Spinal fracture *Cervical fracture *Fracture of C1, including Jefferson fracture. *Fracture of C2, including Hangman's fracture ...
Hyoid bone fractures are classified into three different types: Inward compression fractures with outside periosteal tears ... and/or hyoid bone fragments can be seen. If the hyoid bone is fractured, there is a high likelihood that the larynx, pharynx, ... The hyoid bone fracture is a very rare fracture of the hyoid bone, accounting for 0.002% of all fractures in humans. It is ... Hyoid bones fractures represent 0.002% of all fractures; they are rare because the hyoid bone is well-protected by its location ...
Other commonly associated injuries include chest trauma, abdominal trauma, pelvic fractures, and long bone fractures. Males ... Surgery is also necessary when something is pressing on the cord, such as bone fragments, blood, material from ligaments or ... compression, or stretch injury. It is a major risk of many types of vertebral fracture. Pre-existing asymptomatic congenital ... Another problem lack of mobility can cause is loss of bone density and changes in bone structure. Loss of bone density (bone ...
An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result ... Incomplete fractures are usually treatable with the traditional RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation) method, but complete/ ... The tuberosity avulsion fracture (also known as pseudo-Jones fracture or dancer's fracture is a common fracture of the fifth ... Mallet finger Segond fracture "Avulsion fracture: How is it treated?". Mayo Clinic. April 8, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010. ...
The ligaments can partially or fully tear and can avulse with a small fracture fragment when the finger is forced backwards ... The capsule, extensor tendon, and skin are very thin and lax dorsally, allowing for both phalanx bones to flex more than 100° ... The presence of chondroitin and keratan sulfate in the dorsal and palmar plates is important in resisting compression forces ... Finger bone and joint injuries. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-85317-690-6. Lluch, Alberto (1997). "Interphalangeal joint anatomy ...
A complication of delayed fixation of clavicle fractures". The Bone & Joint Journal. 95-B (1): 106-10. doi:10.1302/0301-620X. ... Additionally, the compression of cords can cause pain radiating down the arm, numbness, paresthesia, erythema, and weakness of ... by thorough release of the tissues from the inferior surface of the clavicle before mobilization of the fracture fragments." By ... "the compression of the fixed brachial plexus between the shoulder pad and the superior medial scapula when the pad is pushed ...
Surgery may be required to remove blood, bone fragments, a tumor or tumors, a herniated disc or an abnormal bone growth. If the ... Various etiologies of CES include fractures, abscesses, hematomas, and any compression of the relevant nerve roots. Injuries to ... Most common causes include iatrogenic lumbar punctures, burst fractures resulting in posterior migration of fragments of the ... The most important of these is the severity and duration of compression upon the damaged nerve(s). Generally, the longer the ...
... it is an open fracture, which increases infection risk. For fractures with significant displacement, the bone end can be ... The distal fragment is angulated anteriorly and maybe displaced anteriorly as well. Non-displaced fracture are treated with a ... of the brachial artery spasm of the artery and compression of the artery relieved by manipulation of the fracture compression ... Gartland Type 1 fractures are non-displaced fractures Gartland Type 2 fractures are angulated fractures, usually "hinged" on ...
A bending fracture can be produced with a hard hammer. Flakes removed in this manner lack a bulb of percussion, and are ... Percussors are traditionally either a stone cobble or pebble, often referred to as a hammerstone, or a billet made of bone, ... This method provides virtually no control over how the toolstone will fragment, and therefore produces a great deal of shatter ... such as the bulb of percussion and compression rings. Soft-hammer percussion involves the use of a billet, usually made of wood ...
The middle third of the tendon is used, with bone fragments removed on each end. The graft is then threaded through holes ... Risk of fracturing the patella during harvesting of the graft. *Increased risk of tendinitis. ... provides cold compression. **Isometric Contraction of Quads. *Quad Sets. - stand against wall, push extended knee against ... Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body). *Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, ...
... of the wrist is used to investigate and treat symptoms of repetitive strain injury, fractures of the wrist and torn ... Many invasive spine procedures involve the removal of bone, muscle, and ligaments to access and treat problematic areas. In ... Heshmat Shahriaree began experimenting with ways to excise fragments of menisci. The first operating arthroscope was designed ... sciatic nerve compression (piriformis syndrome), ischiofemoral impingement and direct assessment of hip replacement. ...
Pre-fragmented bullets such as Glaser Safety Slugs and MagSafe ammunition are designed to fragment into birdshot on impact with ... The struck bone is commonly shattered at the point of impact. High velocity fragmentation can also increase the effect of ... Temporary cavitation may similarly fracture the femur if it is narrowly missed by a bullet. Temporary cavitation can also cause ... Temporary cavitation can emphasize the impact of a bullet, since the resulting tissue compression is identical to simple blunt ...
... compression at the fracture site, lengthening, etc. Connected to a bone by wires or half pins, the attached bone can be ... The taylor spatial frame is general tool for fixating and moving bone fragments in a gradual way. This means that costs can ... Correction of the bone deformity can typically take 3-4 weeks. For simpler fractures where no deformity is present the struts ... The time taken for bones heal (time to union) varies depending on a number of factors. Open fractures take longer to heal, and ...
X-ray can rule out fracture. MRI can assess for space occupying lesions or other causes of nerve compression. Ultrasound can ... Manasseh, N., Cherian, V., & Abel, L. (2009). Malunited calcaneal fracture fragments causing tarsal tunnel syndrome: A rare ... The incision is made behind the ankle bone and then down towards but not as far as the bottom of foot. The Posterior Tibial ... If there is compression in the tunnel, this can be confirmed and pinpointed with this test. Some doctors do not feel that this ...
A sternal fracture is a fracture of the sternum (the breastbone), located in the center of the chest. The injury, which occurs in 5-8% of people who experience significant blunt chest trauma, may occur in vehicle accidents, when the still-moving chest strikes a steering wheel or dashboard or is injured by a seatbelt. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, has also been known to cause thoracic injury, including sternum and rib fractures. Sternal fractures may also occur as a pathological fracture, in people who have weakened bone in their sternum, due to another disease process. Sternal fracture can interfere with breathing by making it more painful; however, its primary significance is that it can indicate the presence of serious associated internal injuries, especially to the heart and lungs. Vehicle collisions are the usual cause of sternal fracture; the ...
The List of ICD-9 codes 800-999: injury and poisoning is one of the ranges International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. (800) Fracture of vault of skull (801) Fracture of base of skull (802) Fracture of face bones (803) Other and unqualified skull fractures (804) Multiple fractures involving skull or face with other bones (805) Fracture of vertebral column without mention of spinal cord injury (806) Fracture of vertebral column with spinal cord injury (807) Fracture of rib(s), sternum, larynx, and trachea (808) Fracture of pelvis (809) Ill-defined fractures of bones of trunk (810) Fracture of clavicle (811) Fracture of scapula (812) Fracture of humerus (813) Fracture of radius and ulna (814) Fracture of carpal bone(s) (815) Fracture ...
A scapular fracture is a fracture of the scapula, the shoulder blade. The scapula is sturdy and located in a protected place, so it rarely breaks. When it does, it is an indication that the individual was subjected to a considerable amount of force and that severe chest trauma may be present. High-speed vehicle accidents are the most common cause. This could be anywhere from a car accident, motorcycle crash, or high speed bicycle crash but falls and blows to the area can also be responsible for the injury. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of other fractures: they include pain, tenderness, and reduced motion of the affected area although symptoms can take a couple of days to appear. Imaging techniques such as X-ray are used to diagnose scapular fracture, but the injury may not be noticed in part because it is so frequently accompanied by other, severe injuries that demand attention. The injuries that usually accompany scapular fracture generally have the greatest ...
A clavicle fracture, also known as a broken collarbone, is a bone fracture of the clavicle. Symptoms typically include pain at the site of the break and a decreased ability to move the affected arm. Complications can include a collection of air in the pleural space surrounding the lung (pneumothorax), injury to the nerves or blood vessels in the area, and an unpleasant appearance. It is often caused by a fall onto a shoulder, outstretched arm, or direct trauma. The fracture can also occur in a baby during childbirth. The middle section of the clavicle is most often involved. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and confirmed with X-rays. Clavicle fractures are typically treated by putting the arm in a sling for one or two weeks. Pain medication such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be useful. It can take up to five months for the strength of the bone to return to ...
The Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal third of the radius with dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. It classically involves an isolated fracture of the junction of the distal third and middle third of the radius with associated subluxation or dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint; the injury disrupts the forearm axis joint. The Galeazzi fracture is named after Ricardo Galeazzi (1866-1952), an Italian surgeon at the Instituto de Rachitici in Milan, who described the fracture in 1934. However, it was first described in 1842, by Cooper, 92 years before Galeazzi reported his results. Galeazzi fractures account for 3-7% of all forearm fractures. They are seen most often in males. Although Galeazzi fracture patterns are reportedly uncommon, they are estimated to account for 7% of all forearm fractures in adults. They are associated with a fall on an outstretched arm. Pain and soft-tissue ...
Treatment of scaphoid fractures is guided by the location in the bone of the fracture (proximal, waist, distal), displacement (or instability) of the fracture, and patient tolerance for cast immobilization.. Non displaced or minimally displaced waist and distal fractures have a high rate of union with closed cast management. The choice of short arm, short arm thumb spica or long arm cast is debated in the medical literature and no clear consensus or proof of the benefit of one type of casting or another has been shown; although it is generally accepted to use a short arm or short arm thumb spica for non displaced fractures.[5] Non displaced or minimally displaced fracture can also be treated with percutaneous or minimal incision surgery which if performed correctly has a high union rate, low morbidity and faster return to activity than closed cast management.[9]. ...
A calcaneal fracture is a break of the calcaneus (heel bone). Symptoms may include pain, bruising, trouble walking, and deformity of the heel. It may be associated with breaks of the hip or back. It usually occurs when a person lands on their feet following a fall from a height or during a motor vehicle collision. Diagnosis is suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by X-rays or CT scaning. If the bones remain normally aligned treatment may be by casting without weight bearing for around eights weeks. If the bones are not properly aligned surgery is generally required. Returning the bones to their normal position results in better outcomes. Surgery may be delayed a few days as long as the skin remained intact. About 2% of all fractures are calcaneal fractures, however, they make up 60% of ...
A femoral fracture is a bone fracture that involves the femur. They are typically sustained in high-impact trauma, such as car crashes, due to the large amount of force needed to break the bone. Fractures of the diaphysis, or middle of the femur, are managed differently from those at the head, neck, and trochanter (see hip fractures). The fracture may be classed as open, which occurs when the bone fragments protrude through the skin, or there is an overlying wound which penetrates to the bone. These types of fracture cause more damage to the surrounding tissue, are less likely to heal properly, and are at much greater risk of infection. Femoral shaft fractures can be classified with the Winquist and Hansen classification, which is based on the amount of ...
In medicine, the Ottawa ankle rules are a set of guidelines for clinicians to help decide if a patient with foot or ankle pain should be offered X-rays to diagnose a possible bone fracture. Before the introduction of the rules most patients with ankle injuries would have been imaged. However the vast majority of patients with unclear ankle injuries do not have bony fractures. As a result, many unnecessary X-rays were taken, which was costly, time consuming and a slight health risk due to radiation exposure. Ankle X-ray is only required if: There is any pain in the malleolar zone; and, Any one of the following: Bone tenderness along the distal 6 cm of the posterior edge of the tibia or tip of the medial malleolus, OR Bone tenderness along the distal 6 cm of the posterior edge of the fibula or tip of the lateral malleolus, OR An inability to bear weight both immediately and in ...
An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament due to the application forces external to the body (such as a fall or pull) or at the tendon due to a muscular contraction that is stronger than the forces holding the bone together. Generally muscular avulsion is prevented due to the neurological limitations placed on muscle contractions. Highly trained athletes can overcome this neurological inhibition of strength and produce a much greater force output capable of breaking or avulsing a bone. If the fracture is small, it is usually sufficient to treat with rest and support bandage, but in more severe cases, surgery may be required. Ice may be used to relieve swelling. Displaced avulsion ...
A patella fracture is a break of the kneecap. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and bruising to the front of the knee. A person may also be unable to walk. Complications may include injury to the tibia, femur, or knee ligaments. It typicals results from a hard blow to the front of the knee or falling on the knee. Occasionally it may occur from a strong contraction of the thigh muscles. Diagnosis is based on symptom and confirmed with X-rays. In children an MRI may be required. Treatment may be with or without surgery, depending on the type of fracture. Undisplaced fracture can usually be treated by casting. Even some displaced fractures can be treated with casting as long as a person can straighten their leg without help. Typically the leg is immobilized in a straight position for the first three weeks and then increasing degrees of bending are allowed. Other types of fractures generally require surgery. Patella ...
A trimalleolar fracture is a fracture of the ankle that involves the lateral malleolus, the medial malleolus, and the distal posterior aspect of the tibia, which can be termed the posterior malleolus. The trauma is sometimes accompanied by ligament damage and dislocation. The three aforementioned parts of bone articulate with the talus bone of the foot. Strictly speaking, there are only two malleoli (medial and lateral), but the term trimalleolar is used nevertheless and as such is a misnomer. Surgical repair using open reduction and internal fixation is generally required, and because there is no lateral restraint of the foot, the ankle cannot bear any weight while the bone knits. This typically takes six weeks in an otherwise healthy person, but can take as much as twelve weeks. Non-surgical treatment may sometimes be considered in cases where the patient has significant health problems or where the risk ...
A Jones fracture is a break between the base and middle part of the fifth metatarsal of the foot. It result in pain near the midportion of the foot on the outside. There may also be bruising and difficulty walking. Onset is generally sudden. The fracture typically occurs when the toes are pointed and the foot bends inwards. This movement may occur when changing direction while the heel is off the ground such in dancing, tennis, or basketball. Diagnosis is generally suspected based on symptoms and confirmed with X-rays. Initial treatment is typically in a cast, without any walking on it, for at least six weeks. If after this period of time healing has not occurred a further six weeks of casting may be recommended. Due to poor blood supply in this area, the break sometimes does not heal and surgery is required. In athletes or if the pieces of bone are separated surgery may be considered sooner. The fracture was first described in 1902 by orthopedic surgeon Robert Jones who ...
Foot fracture treatment is offered by Mr Adam Ajis in London, Croydon, Sussex and Chichester. Get more details on foot injuries ... For more severe fractures, surgery will be required to align, reconstruct or fuse the joints. Bone fragments may be held ... For mild fractures, nonsurgical treatment is advised and includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation of the foot. Your ... Foot Fracture. The foot has 26 bones, and can be divided into 3 parts:. The Hindfoot is comprised of two bones, the talus bone ...
Percutaneous stabilization and endoscopic decompression of a compression fracture at l1 with an extruded bone fragment removed ... Percutaneous stabilization and endoscopic decompression of a compression fracture at l1 with an extruded bone fragment removed ... Intracanal bone fragment was removed from both sides by percutaneous endoscope for decompression. ... it is technically feasible and safe to remove the intracanal bone fragment with percutaneous endoscopic techniques influenced ...
However, the clinical presentation of subtle fractures can be similar to that of ankle sprains, and these fractures are ... Fractures of the talar dome may be medial or lateral, and they are usually the result of inversion injuries, although medial ... These fractures can often be managed nonsurgically with nonweight-bearing status and a short leg cast worn for approximately ... Posterior talar process fractures are often associated with tenderness to deep palpation anterior to the Achilles tendon over ...
... including apparatus for fixing bone fractures, mini-apparatus for fixing bone fractures, extenders and compression devices for ... bone screws and nails; wire and screws for fixing bone plates; components for fixing bone fragments; fixing clamps for bone ... rods for bone prostheses; fracture reducers; paediatric compression devices; surgical drill bits; self-locking handles for bone ... drill bits and reduction nails for bone fractures, metaphyseal clamps; surgical instruments; ...
Compression Fracture of the Back. A compression fracture of the back occurs when the bones of your spine collapse. ... The type of surgery depends on the kind of fracture. In many cases, a surgeon must remove bone fragments. These fragments may ... Two examples are compression fractures and axial burst fractures.. A compression fracture occurs when the front of a vertebra ... Chance Fracture. A Chance fracture is a type of spinal injury. Chance fractures are also known as seat belt fractures because ...
Surgery was performed to remove the bone fragment. A 6-month follow-up showed dramatic improvement in neurologic status. ... Dietary imbalances in a large breed puppy, leading to compression fractures, vitamin D deficiency, and suspected nutritional ... A 5-month-old spayed female mixed breed dog was attacked by another dog causing multiple fractures of the left calvarium with a ... Acute surgical intervention for a depressed skull fracture causing a laceration to the brain parenchyma from a bite wound in a ...
multiple fracture lines and bone fragments. COMPRESSION FRACTURE common in the vertebrae, occurring when a bone is crushed or ... type of pulmonary emboli from the bone marrow resulting from fracture of a large bone like the femur causing pulmonary ... GREENSTICK FRACTURE bone is only partially broken, common is softer bones of children. ... loss of bone density and mass leading to fragile bones and spontaneous fractures. ...
He underwent surgery on 13 November, during which four compression screws were inserted into the leg. A small fragment of bone ... A CT scan found a fracture of the long pastern bone on his near foreleg. ... "The fracture came together well," he said, "and barring any further complications, the prognosis is that he stands a 50/50 ...
Compression: the bone is crushed and flattens in appearance.. *Comminuted: the bone fragments into several different pieces. ... A partial fracture is an incomplete break of a bone.. *A complete fracture is a complete break of a bone, causing it to be ... How is a bone fracture treated?. A bone fracture is usually treated with a cast and/or splint. A cast or splint will immobilize ... What is a fracture?. A fracture, also known as a broken bone, is a condition that changes the contour (shape) of the bone. ...
Tensioning device for a compression plate for use in joining bone fragments under pressure. ... 1. A compression device for pulling two pieces of a fractured bone together with the use of a bone plate attached to one of the ... 7. A compression device for pulling two pieces of a fractured bone together with the use of a bone plate attached to one of ... place a bone plate across the fracture, 3) attach one end of the bone plate to one of the broken pieces of bone :by means of ...
... pathological fracture-dislocation resulting in direct posterior displacement of bone fragments; (4) infectious diseases like ... G. F. G. Findlay, "Adverse effects of the management of malignant spinal cord compression," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery ... and metastatic tumors and pathological fracture-dislocation resulting in direct posterior displacement of bone fragments, disc ... A transthoracic technique," Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 518-522, 1984. View at Google Scholar · ...
What causes vertebral compression fractures (VSFs)? Learn how a VSF can be diagnosed and treated in this neurosurgeon-edited ... Significant compromise of the spinal canal caused by impeding bone fragment or tumor ... Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common fracture in patients with osteoporosis, affecting about 750,000 ... First, two small incisions are made and a probe is placed into the vertebral space where the fracture is located. The bone is ...
Early detection and appropriate treatment of these fractures are critical for minimizing patient disability and reducing the ... fractures of the plateau affect knee alignment, stability, and motion. ... the wedge fragment is not compressed (depressed), because the underlying cancellous bone is strong; this pattern is usually ... Type III - This is a pure compression fracture of the lateral plateau; as a result of an axial force, the depression is usually ...
... typically after fractures. As the name implies, it is designed to exert dynamic pressure between the bone fragments to be ... atrophy of the bone beneath the plate may predispose the bone to fracture. After removal of plates, fractures may occur through ... A dynamic compression plate (DCP) is a metallic plate used in orthopedics for internal fixation of bone, ... The sliding screw plate (dynamic compression screw, dynamic hip screw) may be used to treat intertrochanteric fractures as well ...
Scientists say human bones recovered from the site provide the first hard evidence that the colonists may have resorted to ... and also compression fractures made by a knife point. On the only fragment of leg bone the researchers had, there were more cut ... Bones Tell Tale Of Desperation Among The Starving At Jamestown Bones Tell Tale Of Desperation Among The Starving At Jamestown ... "If I find cut marks showing the defleshing from the long bones, if I see cracking of the long bones, if I see cooking, then I ...
Complicated: bone fragments have damage other organs or tissue. Comminuted: small fragments of bone are broken from fractured ... Buckle: compression of porous bone appears building or raised. Greenstick: bone is angulated beyond limits of bending. ... Incomplete fracture. Complete fractures divide the bone fragments.. patient teaching with casts. keep cast elevated on pillows ... Bone marrow experimental. Bisphosphonate therapy to promote inc bone density & prevent fractures. Prevent positional ...
They call it a burst fracture, because the vertebra explodes. And the bone fragments went into the spinal canal, which causes ... "I had a compression fracture to my L1 vertebra," he says, "which is just above your tailbone. ... In surgery, they had to collapse his lung in order to get at the spine and remove the shattered bone fragments, which they used ...
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures performed to treat vertebral compression fractures (VCF) of ... Fracture fragment or tumor in the spinal canal. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty will not improve old and chronic fractures, nor ... vertebroplasty: a minimally invasive procedure used to treat vertebral compression fractures by injecting bone cement into the ... Figure 1. Side views of a normal spine and a spine with a compression fracture. An osteoporotic compression fracture causes the ...
Impacted - A fracture when bone fragments are driven into each other.. • Crush / Compression - Mostly associated with spinal. ... Week 118 - Fractured Hip: What are the five types of fractures of long bones? Give a brief description of each. ... Week 118 - Fractured Hip: What are the two types of fractures for cancellous bones. Give a brief description of each. ... Displaced intra-articular fractures.. • Fractures with tenuous blood supply.. • Multiple injuries.. • More than one fracture in ...
Add stability Fracture fixation A plate used after osteotomy Replace damaged or diseased part Total joint replacement Healing ... Plate is attached to bone (distal fragment) by screws. *Screw threads designed to allow optimum fracture compression and hold ... articular fractures and non-unions of small bones and small bone fragments - arthrodeses of small joints - bunionectomies and ... Biomechanics of Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP)*Designed to compress the fracture. *Offset screws exert force on specially ...
Most are isolated fractures of the anterior spinal column related to low bone mineral density. Postmenopausal women and ... Osteoporotic spinal compression fractures are associated with significant performance impairments in physical, functional, and ... Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: Burst fracture with large retropulsed fragment in spinal canal; ... Lateral radiograph showing a T12 compression fracture in osteoporotic bonePersonal collection of Nasir A. Quraishi [Citation ...
What is blow-out fracture? Meaning of blow-out fracture medical term. What does blow-out fracture mean? ... Looking for online definition of blow-out fracture in the Medical Dictionary? blow-out fracture explanation free. ... compound fracture. A fracture in which fragments of bone protrude through the skin or in which there is a break in the skin or ... compression fracture one produced by compression.. depressed fracture (depressed skull fracture) fracture of the skull in which ...
... fracture explanation free. What is fracture? Meaning of fracture medical term. What does fracture mean? ... Looking for online definition of fracture in the Medical Dictionary? ... fracture, impacted,. n a fracture in which one fragment is driven into another portion of the same or an adjacent bone. ... Closed fracture, Colles fracture, Comminuted fracture, Complete fracture, Compound fracture, Compression fracture, Dashboard ...
... to identify and correlate neurologic injury to vertebral fractures, to advise the surgeon (who best defines the extent of ... The goals of the diagnostic radiologist in lumbar spine trauma imaging are to identify lumbar spine fractures correctly, ... Note that the bone cement now supports the superior aspect of the compression fracture (double arrow). View Media Gallery ... Sagittal T2-weighted gradient-echo MRI demonstrates a compression fracture of the L1 vertebral body with a small bony fragment ...
... and narrowing of the spinal canal due to bone fragments from the fracture.17 But is the presence or extent of the factors ... They are the result of high-energy axial compression, which generates anterior-posterior comminution of the entire vertebral ... 1. Holdsworth F. Fractures, dislocations, and fracture-dislocations of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1970;52(8):1534-51. [ ... Dural laceration occurring with burst fractures and associated laminar fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1989;71(7):1044-52. [ ...
  • Early detection and appropriate treatment of these fractures are critical for minimizing patient disability and reducing the risk of documented complications, particularly posttraumatic arthritis . (medscape.com)
  • The fracture came together well," he said, "and barring any further complications, the prognosis is that he stands a 50/50 chance for a return to racing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although delayed treatment of a broken bone is rarely fatal, it could lead to adverse complications if prompt medical care is not received. (warlawgroup.com)
  • The variable stepped thread pitch headless design allows for simplified insertion, provides compression, and reduces the risk of profile complications. (arthrex.com)
  • The objective of this study was to compare the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) with the more cost-effective straight-dynamic compression plate (DCP) and wave-DCPs by testing in vitro the effects of plate stiffness on different types of diaphyseal femur fractures (A, B, and C, according to AO classification). (hindawi.com)
  • 6. Berger-Groch J, Rupprecht M, Schoepper S, Schroeder M, Rueger JM, Hoffmann M. Five-Year Outcome Analysis of Intertrochanteric Femur Fractures: A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing a 2-Screw and a Single-Screw Cephalomedullary Nail. (smith-nephew.com)
  • The use of bisphosphonates and glucocorticoids have also been associated with an increased rate of atypical femur fractures. (icjr.net)
  • The use of an antegrade medullary reconstruction nail is an excellent option for treatment of subtrochanteric femur fractures. (icjr.net)
  • He underwent surgery on 13 November, during which four compression screws were inserted into the leg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DCP, designed with oblong holes to provide interfragmentary compression when tightening the screws, was introduced in 1969 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When a bone splinters into multiple sections, the person may have screws or pins implanted to refasten the bone. (warlawgroup.com)
  • A parapatellar approach to the femur is used and the articular surface of the condyle is reconstructed with the use of compression screws to achieve anatomic fixation. (ovid.com)
  • The novel system is particularly suited for use in a surgical procedure for fixing a fracture in the femoral neck with a plurality of parallel cannulated bone screws. (google.com)
  • Commonly, the goal of such a technique is the stabilization and subsequent healing of a fracture across which a plurality of bone prostheses , e.g. screws, nails or pins, are placed, preferably in a mutually parallel relationship. (google.com)
  • Certain of the difficulties mentioned above can be alleviated by the use of cannulated bone screws inserted over previously inserted guide wires (see for example U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • Most of the implants can be obtained in both titanium and in stainless steel from various small fragments orthopedic implants and instruments manufacturers who also manufacture cannulated screws, hip prosthesis etc. (eceurope.com)
  • attaching the bone screws to the elongated member. (google.ca)
  • During surgery, your doctor might put pins, plates, screws, or wire cables in the bone to hold it together while it heals. (healthline.com)
  • However, compression plating requires a longer surgical incision to allow insertion of the tension device and the possibility of refracture after the plate is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surgical appliance for the fixation of fractured bones includes two anchoring members each adapted to be imbedded into a respective segment of a fractured bone. (google.com.au)
  • This invention relates to a surgical appliance for the fixation of fractured bones and, more particularly, to an extramedullary surgical appliance which, when in use, exerts a desirable compressional force on the segments of the fractured bone. (google.com.au)
  • With the properly selected patient and surgical technique, use of a cancellous bone allograft in MOWHTO represents a satisfactory choice in providing bone healing. (ebscohost.com)
  • As opposed to the wide surgical approach required by this technique, it has been suggested that less manipulation of the bone fragments would result in faster bone healing by preserving the fracture site vasculature [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A novel method and system for inserting a surgical wire into a patient's bone is disclosed. (google.com)
  • The novel system includes a novel tool for guiding a surgical wire into the patient's bone at a universally adjustable position in relation to a previously inserted wire, and a novel guide pin-external sleeve. (google.com)
  • The novel system includes a novel tool for guiding a surgical wire into the patient's bone at a universally adjustable position in relation to a previously inserted wire, and a novel guide pin-external sleeve combination whose use greatly facilitates the steps of guide pin insertion and, after the sleeve has been removed, insertion of a cannulated surgical implant over the guide pin. (google.com)
  • A variety of techniques are known in the surgical arts in which a plurality of surgical implants, e.g. bone prostheses, are inserted into the bone of a patient. (google.com)
  • Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are 2 different types of minimally invasive surgical procedures performed to treat vertebral compression fracture. (spineuniverse.com)
  • As an alternative to surgery, a quick and minimally invasive surgical procedure known as kyphoplasty can be performed to stop the pain, repair the bone and restore functionality. (apprhs.org)
  • The use of bone prostheses made of materials that are substantially less rigid than conventional surgical implant alloys has been proposed in order to alleviate problems arising from stress-shielding. (google.com.au)
  • In this article we describe our surgical technique for applying a fine wire circular external fixator for a midshaft tibial fracture. (scielo.org.za)
  • Most of the load transmitted across the knee is medial to the eminence, and therefore, the knee has stronger cancellous bone. (medscape.com)
  • 11 ] studied the influence of the medial cortex on the stress distribution within the bone/plate system. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that fracture sites were experiencing high stresses and plate fatigue failure in the absence of medial support. (hindawi.com)
  • The �double arc� sign as seen above is pathognomonic for a type IV fracture in which there is a coronal shear of the capitellum with medial extension through most of the trochlea. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Computed tomography is often used to fully appreciate the complexity of the fracture and define the medial extent of the fracture, articular impaction, and metaphyseal and condylar comminution. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Plates used for buttressing prevent collapse by supporting an area of thin cortex or cancellous bone graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed the MOWHTO using a cancellous bone allograft in 310 knees in 284 patients between 2000 and 2005. (ebscohost.com)
  • Implanted cancellous bone allografts ≤9 mm healed within 12 weeks in 90% of cases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Such fractures are rarely associated with soft tissue injury and often involve cancellous rather than cortical bone. (britannica.com)
  • More particularly, embodiments of the invention relate to instruments and methods for controllably restoring vertebral body height by controlling the geometry of fill material introduced into cancellous bone. (google.es)
  • introducing an additional volume of fill material into the bone, the additional volume of fill material permeating and interdigitating with cancellous bone causing the periphery formed by the initial volume of curable bone fill material to surround interdigitated cancellous bone. (google.es)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein introducing the additional volume expands cancellous bone. (google.es)
  • 12. The method of claim 1 , wherein introducing the initial volume of curable bone fill material into the bone includes introducing the curable bone fill material so that a majority of the introduced bone fill material controllably interdigitates with the cancellous bone. (google.es)
  • Replacement of a correctly positioned Knowles pin with one of a different length may also be problematic in cancellous bone because of the difficulty in following the existing bore in the spongy bone tissue. (google.com)
  • One cannulated partially-threaded 4.5mm cancellous screw with a washer was inserted into the main fracture fragment, as well as a tension-band-wire to supplement the fixation. (ispub.com)
  • However, the clinical presentation of subtle fractures can be similar to that of ankle sprains, and these fractures are frequently missed on initial examination. (aafp.org)