Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dicrocoeliasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Dicrocoelium.Dicrocoelium: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Dicrocoeliidae which includes the species dendriticum and hospes. It occurs in the biliary passages or liver of many vertebrates including man. The intermediate hosts are mainly mollusks but occasionally ants.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Retinal DiseasesVisual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Vision, Entoptic: Visual sensation derived from sensory stimulation by objects or shadows inside the eye itself, such as floating vitreous fibers, tissues, or blood.Myopia, Degenerative: Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Vitreous Detachment: Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment: The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.

Optical, receptoral, and retinal constraints on foveal and peripheral vision in the human neonate. (1/692)

We examined the properties of the foveal, parafoveal, and near peripheral cone lattice in human neonates. To estimate the ability of these lattices to transmit the information used in contrast sensitivity and visual acuity tasks, we constructed ideal-observer models with the optics and photoreceptors of the neonatal eye at retinal eccentricities of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. For ideal-observer models limited by photon noise, the eye's optics, and cone properties, contrast sensitivity was higher in the parafovea and near periphery than in the fovea. However, receptor pooling probably occurs in the neonate's parafovea and near periphery as it does in mature eyes. When we add a receptor-pooling stage to the models of the parafovea and near periphery, ideal acuity is similar in the fovea, parafovea, and near periphery. Comparisons of ideal and real sensitivity indicate that optical and receptoral immaturities impose a significant constraint on neonatal contrast sensitivity and acuity, but that immaturities in later processing stages must also limit visual performance.  (+info)

Radiotherapy for isolated occult subfoveal neovascularisation in age related macular degeneration: a pilot study. (2/692)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Teletherapy has been proposed as a possible treatment for choroidal neovascular membranes (CNV), secondary to age related macular degeneration (AMD) not amenable to laser photocoagulation. The aim of this prospective study has been to investigate the effect of teletherapy on isolated occult choroidal neovascular membranes of subfoveal location. METHODS: 28 AMD patients presenting with retrofoveal isolated occult CNV demonstrated by fluorescein angiography were treated by external beam radiation. A complete ophthalmological examination, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) were performed within 15 days before treatment and repeated at follow up. A total dose of 16 Gy was applied in four sessions of 4 Gy using a 4 MeV photon beam. Follow up ranged from 6 to 9 months (mean follow up 6.4 months). RESULTS: Visual acuity was found to be stable in 68% of the cases. The decrease in visual acuity was of 3-6 lines in 18% and of more than 6 lines in 10% of the eyes at last examination. On fluorescein angiography the size of the lesion area was found to be stable in 67%, decreased in 13%, and increased in 20% of the cases. On ICG angiography the size of the CNV was stable in 93% and increased in 7% of the cases. All the eyes experiencing a visual acuity decrease showed either no change or an increase in size of the membrane on fluorescein angiography and/or on ICG. CONCLUSION: According to this study with strict inclusion criteria, external beam radiotherapy seems to have a beneficial effect on the evolution of isolated occult subfoveal CNV.  (+info)

Contour integration in the peripheral field. (3/692)

Contour integration was measured in the normal peripheral field to determine if an explanation based solely on the known peripheral positional uncertainty was sufficient to explain performance. The task involved the detection of paths composed of micropatterns with correlated carrier orientations embedded in a field of similar micropatterns of random position and orientation (Field, D. J., Hayes A., & Hess, R. F. (1993). Vision Research, 33, 173-193). The intrinsic positional uncertainty for each eccentric locus was measured with the same stimulus and it did not account for levels of peripheral performance. We show that peripheral performance on this task does not get worse with eccentricity beyond about 10 degrees and that these results can be modeled by simple filtering without any subsequent cellular linking interactions.  (+info)

The effects of temporal noise and retinal illuminance on foveal flicker sensitivity. (4/692)

We measured foveal flicker sensitivity with and without external added temporal noise at various levels of retinal illuminance and described the data with our model of flicker sensitivity comprising: (i) low-pass filtering of the flickering signal plus external temporal and/or quantal noise by the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the retina (R): (ii) high-pass filtering in proportion to temporal frequency by the MTF of the postreceptoral neural pathways (P): (iii) addition of internal white neural noise; and (iv) detection by a temporal matched filter. Without temporal noise flicker sensitivity had a band-pass frequency-dependence at high and medium illuminances but changed towards a low-pass shape above 0.5 Hz at low luminances, in agreement with earlier studies. In strong external temporal noise, however, the flicker sensitivity function had a low-pass shape even at high and medium illuminances and flicker sensitivity was consistently lower with noise than without. At low luminances flicker sensitivity was similar with and without noise. An excellent fit of the model was obtained under the assumption that the only luminance-dependent changes were increases in the cut-off frequency (fc) and maximum contrast transfer of R with increasing luminance. The results imply the following: (i) performance is consistent with detection by a temporal matched filter, but not with a thresholding process based on signal amplitude; (ii) quantal fluctuations do not at any luminance level become a source of dominant noise present at the detector; (iii) the changes in the maximum contrast transfer reflect changes in retinal gain, which at low to moderate luminances implement less-than-Weber adaptation, with a 'square-root' law at the lowest levels; (iv) the changes of fc as function of mean luminance closely parallels time scale changes in cones, but the absolute values of fc are lower than expected from the kinetics of monkey cones at all luminances; (v) the constancy of the high-pass filtering function P indicates that surround antagonism does not weaken significantly with decreasing light level.  (+info)

Eye movements of rhesus monkeys directed towards imaginary targets. (5/692)

Is the presence of foveal stimulation a necessary prerequisite for rhesus monkeys to perform visually guided eye movements? To answer this question, we trained two rhesus monkeys to direct their eyes towards imaginary targets defined by extrafoveal cues. Independent of the type of target, real or imaginary, the trajectory of target movement determined the type of eye movement produced: steps in target position resulted in saccades and ramps in target position resulted in smooth pursuit eye movements. There was a tendency for the latency of saccades as well as pursuit onset latency to be delayed in the case of an imaginary target in comparison to the real target. The initial eye acceleration during smooth pursuit initiation elicited by an imaginary target decreased in comparison to the acceleration elicited by a real target. The steady-state pursuit gain was quite similar during pursuit of an imaginary or a real target. Our results strengthen the notion that pursuit is not exclusively a foveal function.  (+info)

Peripheral vision and oculomotor control during visual search. (6/692)

The present study concerns the dynamics of multiple fixation search. We tried to gain insight into: (1) how the peripheral and foveal stimulus affect fixation duration; and (2) how fixation duration affects the peripheral target selection for saccades. We replicated the non-corroborating results of Luria and Strauss (1975) ('Eye movements during search for coded and uncoded targets', Perception and Psychophysics 17, 303-308) (saccades were selective), and Zelinsky (1996) (Using eye movements to assess the selectivity of search movements. Vision research 36(14), 2177-2187) (saccades were not selective), by manipulating the critical features for peripheral selection and discrimination separately. We found search to be more selective and efficient when the selection task was easy or when fixations were long-lasting. Remarkably, subjects did not increase their fixation durations when the peripheral selection task was more difficult. Only the discrimination task affected the fixation duration. This implies that the time available for peripheral target selection is determined mainly by the discrimination task. The results of the present experiment suggest that, besides the difficulty of the peripheral selection task, fixation duration is an important factor determining the selection of potential targets for eye movements.  (+info)

Contrast dependency of foveal spatial functions: orientation, vernier, separation, blur and displacement discrimination and the tilt and Poggendorff illusions. (7/692)

To examine the effect of reducing luminance contrast in human foveal vision, discrimination thresholds were measured in four tasks and also a numerical measure of two visual illusions were obtained by a nulling technique. The patterns used for all tasks were made very similar to facilitate comparison between them--all featured luminance step edges whose contrast could be varied from near unity down to the detection threshold. Orientation, vernier and blur discrimination thresholds rise on average 5-6-fold when the contrast is reduced from near unity to a Michelson value of 0.03. Jump displacement thresholds are somewhat more robust to contrast reduction, and the curve of separation discrimination versus contrast is much shallower, rising by a factor of about 2. The magnitude of the Poggendorff and tilt illusions changes very little until the inducing contours are barely detectable.  (+info)

Temporal resolution deficits in the visual fields of MS patients. (8/692)

We assessed the relationship between temporal resolution and MS-induced neuropathy. A diagnostic strategy comprising assessments of temporal resolution at 16 points in the extra-foveal visual field up to 12 degrees from the fovea was first compared with foveal temporal resolution and with a standard VEP procedure in the same MS patients. At the group level, foveal temporal resolution was less sensitive to demyelination than the 16-point diagnostic strategy, the detection rate of which was comparable to that of the VEP procedure. Cross-sensitivity of the VEP and the 16-point diagnostic procedure was low. Subsequently, the average severity of MS-induced temporal resolution deficits was studied at three retinal loci of the same size but different eccentricities. Foveal deficits were not significantly greater than more peripheral deficits within the central 12 degrees.  (+info)

  • Fovea Pharmaceuticals SA ( Fovea ) is a privately-held biopharmaceutical company specialized in development and commercialization of drugs for the treatment of ocular diseases (dry eye, age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy), with a special focus on retinal pathologies. (
  • When individuals without vision loss read, their fast saccadic eye movements sequentially shift the characters in a line of text onto the fovea , the retinal area of highest acuity, where they are held in place and visually processed. (
  • On the fovea , the cones are so close together that they can send information about details that are less than a thousandth of an, inch apart. (
  • It has already been discussed that within the retina there is a greater concentration of cones within the fovea than in the peripheral retina, allowing a much more accurate representation of visual information within the fovea than in the periphery. (
  • These blue arcs follow the paths of the nerves arcing away from the edge of the fovea (where the spot of light is focused) to the optic disk and were first described by Purkinje (1825). (
  • Anatomical macula / macula lutea / area centralis (clinical: posterior pole): Diameter = 5.5mm (~3.5 disc-diameters) (about 18 deg of VF) Demarcated by the superior and inferior temporal arterial arcades. (
  • macula lutea , vo všeobecnej anatómii stavovcov tiež area centralis - centrálna oblasť) je miesto na očnej sietnici , kde je najväčšia hustota čapíkov a teda aj najostrejšie videnie . (
  • The part of the eye that provides the most acute vision is the Fovea Centralis (also called the Macula Lutea). (
  • It describes the appearance of a small circular choroid shape as seen through the fovea centralis. (
  • The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called foveal vision), which is necessary in humans for activities where visual detail is of primary importance, such as reading and driving. (
  • Cone cells are next to each other in the fovea centralis of the eye. (
  • The fovea is employed for accurate vision in the direction where it is pointed. (
  • Thus our vision is very sharp, and you can read this from a fair distance away if you look straight on (and the screen falls on your fovea). (
  • This indicates S-cone pathway damage that is sufficiently severe to lead to dichromatic colour vision in the fovea. (
  • 1 An early study showed that the fovea was relatively insensitive to short wavelength light and that colour vision was impaired, colour matching being possible with two primaries instead of the usual three. (
  • A similar tritanopic colour vision deficit was reported for small fields generally, 5, 6 suggesting that the fovea may not be unique in this respect. (
  • A human's fovea is filled with cone photoreceptor cells and helps us with our central and sharp vision skills. (
  • This happens near or at the fovea area of the eye, and results in the loss of central vision. (
  • The fovea centralis, also known as the fovea, is responsible for sharp central vision (foveal. (
  • If a laser burn occurs on the Fovea, you can loose most of you fine (reading and working) vision in an instant. (
  • Die Fovea centralis (Sehgrube) ist allerdings nicht direkt synonym, obwohl sie innerhalb des gelben Flecks liegt. (
  • and the base in the eye lens -the optical correspondent to a cone inside the eye having the same base and the apex in the other focus, the fovea. (
  • Both professors found similarities in how the fovea region in dogs is just as easily affected with the same genetic eye diseases that their owners may be prone to. (
  • With this research, both scientists wanted to see if the fovea region in dogs was similarly affected. (
  • This research demonstrated that cone densities spanned more than 120,000 cells per square millimeter in the fovea-like region of the centralis region of the eye. (