Peroxisome Proliferators: A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Nafenopin: A peroxisome proliferator that is used experimentally to promote liver tumors. It has been used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Fibric Acids: Compounds that either share the structure of fibric acid in their molecular arrangement or are considered variants of the fibric acid structure.Clofibric Acid: An antilipemic agent that is the biologically active metabolite of CLOFIBRATE.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Clofenapate: An oral hypolipemic agent primarily used in DOGS and RATS.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.PPAR delta: A nuclear transcription factor. It is activated by PROSTACYCLIN.PPAR-beta: One of the PPAR nuclear transcription factors.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.ThiazolesPyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.Peroxisomal Bifunctional Enzyme: A monomeric protein found in liver peroxisomes that contains two enzymatically active domains; an enoyl-CoA hydratase/3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase domain, and an (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain. The enzyme is stereospecific with regards to how cis and trans double bonds are metabolized. It is complemented by PEROXISOMAL MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN-2, which has the opposite stereospecificity.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Bezafibrate: An antilipemic agent that lowers CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES. It decreases LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and increases HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.AnilidesMice, Inbred C57BLCaprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Inbred F344Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)PhenoxyacetatesResponse Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Acetyl-CoA Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.PhytolHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Retinoid X Receptor alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.TriglyceridesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Zellweger Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Mediator Complex Subunit 1: A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Yarrowia: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Dipodascaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.PhenylpropionatesPlasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.BenzophenonesAcyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Mitochondrial Turnover: The cellular processes involved in adjustments to the MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME, content, and activity, that depend on the energy demands of the cell.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors also regulate expression; interestingly, PPAR alpha and delta were found to ... Farnesoid X receptor, or FXR, suppresses glycolysis and enhances fatty acid oxidation by increasing PDK4 expression and ... "Hypoxia induces PDK4 gene expression through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ". PLOS ONE. 7 (9): e46324. doi: ... a thiazolidinedione known to activate the glycerol biogenesis pathway, increases PDK4 mRNA transcription in white adipose ...
... has been shown to interact with: Liver X receptor alpha, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and TATA ... Brendel C, Gelman L, Auwerx J (2003). "Multiprotein bridging factor-1 (MBF-1) is a cofactor for nuclear receptors that regulate ... This protein has also been found to act as a transcriptional coactivator by interconnecting the general transcription factor ... Two alternatively spliced transcripts which encode distinct proteins have been found for this gene. ...
"The direct peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF/PGAR/ANGPTL4) is present in ... condition in various cell types and is the target of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The encoded protein is a ... In mice, highest mRNA expression levels of ANGPTL4 are found in white and brown adipose tissue, followed by liver, kidney, ... a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target gene". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (37): 28488-93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004029200 ...
Ferré P (February 2004). "The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and ... promote adipocyte differentiation as agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/retinoid X receptor ... Only occasional trace amounts of TBT were found. These results indicate that organtin exposure to humans, while found to be ... of regulators that is targeted is a group of nuclear hormone receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors ( ...
... , in conjunction with PDK2 and PDK4, are primary targets of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta or beta, with ... The PDK3 protein is primarily found in the kidney, brain, and testis. As the primary regulators of a crucial step in the ... PDK3 having five elements that respond to these receptors. Model organisms have been used in the study of PDK3 function. A ... of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family are direct targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ...
... and found changes in promoter methylation of both the glucocorticoid receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( ... PPAR). Altered expression of these receptors can result in elevated blood glucose levels and affect lipid and carbohydrate ... Compounds found in foods, such as genistein and tea polyphenols, are able to regulate DNA methyltransferases and histone ... Numerous studies have investigated the link between birth weight and risk of disease and have found that low birth weight is ...
VLDLR expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). A 2010 study showed that the ... Here, the receptor can be found on resting or activated microglia that are associated with senile plaques and cortical neurons ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... In addition, the receptor is found in macrophages, endothelial cells of capillaries, and in the brain, where it has a very ...
... distribution and quantification of the expression of mRNAs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver X receptor- ... Liver X receptor alpha has been shown to interact with EDF1 and Small heterodimer partner. In 2016, a study found 70% of ... hormone receptor LXR alpha interacts with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and inhibits peroxisome proliferator ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and liver-X-receptor alpha". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 146 (1-2): ...
Mukherjee R, Jow L, Noonan D, McDonnell DP (1995). "Human and rat peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) ... In rodents, highest mRNA expression levels of PPAR-alpha are found in liver and brown adipose tissue, followed by heart and ... Together with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-alpha ... hormone receptor LXR alpha interacts with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and inhibits peroxisome proliferator ...
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form ... Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in the human and in the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR- ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear ... an orphan nuclear receptor, augments peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transactivation". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2 ...
... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions". Prog. Lipid Res ... The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta (PPAR-β or PPAR-δ), also known as NR1C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 ... "The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling". ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - Retinoid X receptor) and gene expression can be up regulated using synthetic and ... The protein itself belongs to the class B scavenger receptor family which includes receptors for selective cholesteryl ester ... In addition a role for CD36 has been found in the clearance of gametocytes (stages I and II). CD36 has been shown to have a ... On macrophages CD36 forms part of a non-opsonic receptor (the scavenger receptor CD36/alphaV beta3 complex) and is involved[ ...
... proliferator-activated receptor. References[edit]. *^ "Peroxisome". Online DIctionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 19 ... A peroxisome (IPA: [pɛɜˈɹɒksɪˌsoʊm])[1] is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.[2 ... Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... Peroxisome assembly[edit]. Peroxisomes can be derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and replicate by fission.[13] Peroxisome ...
Dang ZC, Audinot V, Papapoulos SE, Boutin JA, Löwik CW (Jan 2003). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ... Emerging evidence shows that some phytoestrogens bind to and transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs ... whereas lignans are the primary source of phytoestrogens found in nuts and oilseeds (e.g. flax) and also found in cereals, ... Other epidemiological studies found that consumption of soy estrogens is safe for patients with breast cancer, and that it may ...
... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, progestins, danazol and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. However, ... A 2016 review found that in those with symptoms of endometriosis and once ovarian cancer has been ruled out, a positive CA-125 ... expression of estrogen receptors in peritoneal fluid macrophages from endometriosis". Annals of the New York Academy of ... As recently as 1995, reports found that over 50% of women with chronic pelvic pain had no organic cause, with women still often ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and Retinoid X receptor alpha. A number of ligands for FXR ... Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a ... FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels. Studies have also shown the FXR to ... Zhang Y, Castellani LW, Sinal CJ, Gonzalez FJ, Edwards PA (Jan 2004). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ...
"Activity and subcellular compartmentalization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha are altered by the centrosome ... CEP350 is a large protein with a CAP-Gly domain typically found in cytoskeleton-associated proteins. It primarily localizes to ... It is also implicated in the regulation of a class of nuclear hormone receptors in the nucleus. Several alternatively spliced ... transcript variants have been found, but their full-length nature has not been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist that is under experimental investigation ... "Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs):tissue distribution of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and - ... but is also found in lesser amounts within cardiac and skeletal muscle. Its function is to initiate the breakdown of ... doi:10.1016/s0952-3278(99)80009-x. Fruchard, J.; Duriez, P.; Steals, B. (1999). "Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ...
Farnesoid X receptor FBXW7 MED1 MED12 MED14 MED17 NRF1 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Retinoid X receptor ... The finding seems to be controversial. Other groups found that PGC-1s inhibit NF kappa B activity. The effect was demonstrated ... "PGC-1 functions as a transcriptional coactivator for the retinoid X receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (6): 3913-7. doi:10.1074/jbc ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Further, in brain tissues, an increase in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and ... Rutin treatment showed upregulation of CB1 receptors in mouse brain tissue demonstrating antifatigue activity and CB1 receptor- ... Rutin is one of the primary flavonols found in 'clingstone' peaches. It is also found in green tea infusions. Approximate rutin ... It is a citrus flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit. Rutin is one of the phenolic compounds found ...
These include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16),[59] peroxisome ... 83]-and two other families have been found that carry a mutated ob receptor.[84][85] Others have been identified as genetically ... is controlled through the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-adrenergic receptor-mediated ... proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), and Early B-Cell Factor-2 (EBF2).[60][61][62] ...
... liver X receptor (LXR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Another example of an orphan receptor site is ... Examples of orphan receptors are found in the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and nuclear receptor families. GPCR orphan ... If an endogenous ligand is found, the orphan receptor is "adopted". An example is the receptor FXR, which is activated by bile ... An orphan receptor is an apparent receptor that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ...
"The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor ... NCOR2 is also referred to as a silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) or T3 receptor-associating ... including the PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha oncoprotein found in human acute promyelocytic leukemia". Molecular and Cellular ... thyroid hormone receptors and activating signal cointegrator-2 as transcriptional coregulators of the orphan nuclear receptor ...
... of selected 3D virtual screening tools for the prospective identification of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ... "Hit finding: towards 'smarter' approaches". Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 9 (5): 589-593. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2009.06.001. ... "Discriminating agonist and antagonist ligands of the nuclear receptors using 3D-pharmacophores". Journal of Cheminformatics. 8 ... Ligand was founded in Maria Enzersdorf, Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) by Prof. Thierry Langer, Gerhard Wolber and Prof. ...
2010). "Murine atopic dermatitis responds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, β/δ(but not γ), and liver-X-receptor ... O'Sullivan, S. E.; Kendall, D. A. (2010). "Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Potential for ... An Italian study published in 2011 found that PEA reduced the raised intraocular pressure in glaucoma. In a spinal trauma model ... "The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of ...
... (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. PPARG is mainly present in adipose tissue, colon and macrophages. Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in the human and in the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR-γ2 (mostly found in adipose tissue and the intestine). PPARG regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear ...
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development, and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein), and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta): α (alpha) - expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and others β/δ (beta/delta) - expressed in many tissues but markedly in brain, adipose tissue, and skin γ (gamma) - although transcribed by the same gene, this PPAR through alternative splicing is expressed in three forms: γ1 - expressed in virtually all tissues, including heart, muscle, colon, kidney, pancreas, and spleen γ2 - expressed mainly in adipose ...
... s are drugs which act upon the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. They are used for the treatment of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, mainly for lowering triglycerides and blood sugar. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are the molecular targets of a number of marketed drugs. The main classes of PPAR agonists are: PPARα (alpha) is the main target of fibrate drugs, a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids (clofibrate, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate, and fenofibrate). They were originally indicated for cholesterol disorders and more recently for disorders that feature high triglycerides. PPARγ (gamma) is the main target of the drug class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), used in diabetes mellitus and other diseases that feature insulin resistance. It is also mildly activated by certain NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen) and indoles, as well as from a number ...
... (INN) is a thiazolidinedione. Developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals in the early 1980s, it is considered the prototypical compound for the thiazolidinedione class. Ciglitazone was never used as a medication, but it sparked interest in the effects of thiazolidinediones. Several analogues were later developed, some of which-such as pioglitazone and troglitazone-made it to the market. Ciglitazone significantly decreases VEGF production by human granulosa cells in an in vitro study, and may potentially be used in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Ciglitazone is a potent and selective PPARγ ligand. It binds to the PPARγ ligand-binding domain with an EC50 of 3.0 µM. Ciglitazone is active in vivo as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in the ob/ob murine model. Inhibits HUVEC differentiation and angiogenesis and also stimulates adipogenesis and decreases osteoblastogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells. Pershadsingh HA, Szollosi J, Benson S, Hyun WC, Feuerstein BG, Kurtz TW (June 1993). ...
... (INN, trade name Lipaglyn) is a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. It is approved for use in India by the Drug Controller General of India. Saroglitazar is indicated for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia with type 2 diabetes mellitus not controlled by statin therapy. In clinical studies, saroglitazar has demonstrated reduction of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol a characteristic hallmark of atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia (ADD). It has also shown favorable Anti-diabetic medication property by reducing the fasting plasma glucose and HBA1c in diabetes patients. The recommended dose of saroglitazar is one tablet of 4 mg once a day. Saroglitazar is novel first in class drug which acts as a dual PPAR agonist at the subtypes α (alpha) and γ (gamma) of the peroxisome ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. TTA acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in vitro.[1] In rodent studies, TTA has been reported to have other activities such as reducing inflammation[2] and preventing high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance.[3] In human clinical study, there have been mixed observations in preliminary studies. One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA attenuates dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[1] ...
PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors important to the regulation of a number of mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative metabolism, directly interacts with MEF2 to synergistically activate selective slow twitch (ST) muscle genes and also serves as a target for calcineurin signaling. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated transcriptional pathway is involved in the regulation of the skeletal muscle fiber phenotype. Mice that harbor an activated form of PPARd display an "endurance" phenotype, with a coordinated increase in oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased proportion of ST fibers. Thus-through functional genomics-calcineurin, calmodulin-dependent kinase, PGC-1α, and activated PPARδ form the basis of a signaling network ...
... (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. PPARG is mainly present in adipose tissue, colon and macrophages. Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in the human and in the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR-γ2 (mostly found in adipose tissue and the intestine). PPARG regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear ...
... s are drugs which act upon the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. They are used for the treatment of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, mainly for lowering triglycerides and blood sugar. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are the molecular targets of a number of marketed drugs. The main classes of PPAR agonists are: PPARα (alpha) is the main target of fibrate drugs, a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids (clofibrate, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate, and fenofibrate). They were originally indicated for cholesterol disorders and more recently for disorders that feature high triglycerides. PPARγ (gamma) is the main target of the drug class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), used in diabetes mellitus and other diseases that feature insulin resistance. It is also mildly activated by certain NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen) and indoles, as well as from a number ...
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development, and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein), and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta): α (alpha) - expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and others β/δ (beta/delta) - expressed in many tissues but markedly in brain, adipose tissue, and skin γ (gamma) - although transcribed by the same gene, this PPAR through alternative splicing is expressed in three forms: γ1 - expressed in virtually all tissues, including heart, muscle, colon, kidney, pancreas, and spleen γ2 - expressed mainly in adipose ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. TTA acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in vitro.[1] In rodent studies, TTA has been reported to have other activities such as reducing inflammation[2] and preventing high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance.[3] In human clinical study, there have been mixed observations in preliminary studies. One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA attenuates dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[1] ...
... (INN, trade name Lipaglyn) is a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. It is approved for use in India by the Drug Controller General of India. Saroglitazar is indicated for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia with type 2 diabetes mellitus not controlled by statin therapy. In clinical studies, saroglitazar has demonstrated reduction of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol a characteristic hallmark of atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia (ADD). It has also shown favorable Anti-diabetic medication property by reducing the fasting plasma glucose and HBA1c in diabetes patients. The recommended dose of saroglitazar is one tablet of 4 mg once a day. Saroglitazar is novel first in class drug which acts as a dual PPAR agonist at the subtypes α (alpha) and γ (gamma) of the peroxisome ...
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I3 gene. CAR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and along with pregnane X receptor (PXR) functions as a sensor of endobiotic and xenobiotic substances. In response, expression of proteins responsible for the metabolism and excretion of these substances is upregulated. Hence, CAR and PXR play a major role in the detoxification of foreign substances such as drugs. Androstenol and several isomers of androstanol, androstanes, are endogenous antagonists of the CAR, and despite acting as antagonists, were the basis for the naming of this receptor. More recently, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also an androstane, has been found to be an endogenous agonist of the CAR. CAR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is a key ...
Interacts with FOXO1 (acetylated form) (By similarity). Heterodimer with other nuclear receptors, such as RXRA. The heterodimer ... Find proteins for P37231 Function. Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty ... Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the ... Interacts (when activated by agonist) with PPP5C. Interacts with HELZ2 and THRAP3; the interaction stimulates the ...
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form ... Find in this Sequence Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; Short=PPAR-gamma... RecName: Full=Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ... RecName: Full=Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; Short=PPAR-gamma; AltName: Full=Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 ...
Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor heterodimer in hepatogastroenterological ... Ferré P. The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity ... There were found two groups-Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala. Baseline evaluation included detailed medical history,socioeconomic status, ... Therapeutic roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists. Diabetes. 2005 Aug;54(8):2460-70. Review. ...
Cross-reaction between a monoclonal antibody and two alpha-beta T cell receptors ... Modeling the interactions of a peptide-major histocompatibility class I ligand with its receptors. II. ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in vascular biology and atherosclerosis: emerging insights for evolving paradigms. ... Interaction between a T cell receptor (TCR) and various ligands, i.e., anti-TCR antibodies, superantigens, peptides, or altered ...
... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions". Prog. Lipid Res ... The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta (PPAR-β or PPAR-δ), also known as NR1C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 ... "The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling". ...
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a superfamily of nuclear receptors. It includes PPAR-δ, a key ... Based on six SNPs, seven haplotypes were found. However, four of them were very uncommon (n = 1-4), and statistical analyses ... Wang YX, Lee CH, Tiep S, Yu RT, Ham J, Kang H, Evans RM: Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor d activates fat metabolism ... The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a superfamily of nuclear receptors. Three different PPAR ...
Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the ... Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. ... "The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and estrogen receptors in genistein-induced regulation of vascular ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the ... Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. ... "Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.". Kliewer S.A., ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Finding the orphan a home GREEN S Mol Cell Endocrinol 100, 149-153, 1994 ... Hepatic regeneration in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null mice after partial hepatectomy RAO M. Sambasiva , ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α mediates the adaptive response to fasting KERSTEN S ... Lack of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in mice enhances methionine and choline deficient diet-induced ...
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Modulate K-Ras-mediated Transformation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells ... Core Concept: Can deep brain stimulation find success beyond Parkinsons disease?. Some researchers are aiming to apply the ... Discrete Roles for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma and Retinoid X Receptor in Recruiting Nuclear Receptor ... to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Response Element and Negatively Interferes with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated ...
It interacts with receptors and transcription factors, such as estrogen-related receptor alpha and NRF-1 [PMID: 20933024]. ... PGC-1alpha is the founding member of the PGC-1 family. It is a transcriptional coactivator involved in a wide range of ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (IPR034625). Short name: PGC-1alpha ... GO:0005102 receptor binding GO:0003712 transcription cofactor activity GO:0008134 transcription factor binding ...
Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Find this author on PubMed. *Search for this author on this site ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is ... Background- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is a lipid-activated nuclear receptor that negatively ... The mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor recognizes a response element in the 5′ flanking sequence of the rat acyl ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors with 3 subtypes (PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ/β) that ... Find this author on PubMed. *Search for this author on this site ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is an ... Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta activates fat metabolism to prevent obesity. Cell. 2003;113:159-170. ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activates fatty acid oxidation in cultured neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. ...
We did not find significant differences in drinking water volume among each group. We observed that the dose of telmisartan or ... Blockade of AT1 receptors protects the blood-brain barrier and improves cognition in dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Am ... Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity. Circulation.2004;109:2054- ... Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Activation With Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade Is Pivotal for the ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoic acid receptors differentially control the interactions of retinoid X ... For example, the finding that TNF-α and NF-κB genes were downregulated on the aortic side relative to the ventricular side in ... The nuclear receptor corepressors NCoR and SMRT decrease peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional ... Chinetti G, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): nuclear receptors at the crossroads ...
PPAR-α antinociception does not require CB2 receptors. A-D, effects of two structurally unrelated CB2 receptor antagonists, ... First, mouse DRG (L4- L8) were found to contain both PPAR-α mRNA (Fig. 4B) and PPAR-α immunoreactivity (Fig. 4C). The latter ... Here we report that agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR-α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) suppress pain ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α; PEA, palmitoylethanolamide; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; Kc, calcium-activated K+ ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent ... and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, are found in life forms without immune systems. Further, SDF-1 and CXCR4 are constitutively ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Citation: Freitag CM and Miller RJ (2014) Peroxisome proliferator-activated ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors also regulate expression; interestingly, PPAR alpha and delta were found to ... Farnesoid X receptor, or FXR, suppresses glycolysis and enhances fatty acid oxidation by increasing PDK4 expression and ... "Hypoxia induces PDK4 gene expression through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ". PLOS ONE. 7 (9): e46324. doi: ... a thiazolidinedione known to activate the glycerol biogenesis pathway, increases PDK4 mRNA transcription in white adipose ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators and members of a nuclear receptor family ... We found that PAPRγ activation markedly decreased the level of active GTP-bound Rac1 and RhoA. The maximal inhibition of Rac1 ... Synthetic ligands that activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have anti-inflammatory properties, and ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ is a new therapeutic target in sepsis and inflammation. Shock 23: 393-399. ...
The thiazolidinediones are agonists for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Such receptors are found in target ... also called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists.. The biguanides enhance insulin action, stimulating glucose ... The sulfonylureas bind to sulfonylurea receptors in β-cells, stimulating insulin secretion at all blood glucose levels. For ... Meglitinides are structurally different from sulfonylureas, but act similarly via a different receptor. The meglitinides that ...
... cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) (Fig. 1). A thorough review of the mechanism of transcriptional activation can be found in the ... Section II: Nuclear Receptors and Islet Function. The Biology of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors. Relationship With ... Wang YX, Lee CH, Tiep S, Yu RT, Ham J, Kang H, Evans RM: Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta activates fat ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of nuclear receptors ...
Immunolocalization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoid X receptors in the adult rat CNS. Neuroscience. ... The upregulation of PPARβ/δ expression was found in SAH+Ad-PPARβ/δ group (P,0.01 versus SAH group and P,0.05 versus control ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptoractivates endothelial progenitor cells to induce angio-myogenesis through matrix ... Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Zhipeng ...
Pioglitazone is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). PPAR receptors are found in tissues ... In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have abnormal liver tests (ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of the ... Patients who have liver test abnormalities prior to initiation of Duetact or who are found to have abnormal liver tests while ... Sulfonylureas bind to the sulfonylurea receptor in the pancreatic beta cell plasma membrane, leading to closure of the ATP- ...
The present study investigates the changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ) expression and troponin ... Actually, we found that a 3-day treatment with GW0742 at the dose sufficient to activate PPARδ reverses the cardiac performance ... L. Cheng, G. Ding, Q. Qin et al., "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ activates fatty acid oxidation in cultured ... Z.-C. Chen, L.-J. Chen, and J.-T. Cheng, "Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) by agonist named ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a transcription factor that controls lipid metabolism via interaction ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors(PPARs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as targetreceptors for environmental ... AZA-1 was found to cause increased mortality in zebrafish embryos exposed to doses of 100 pg AZA-1 per egg and above.AZA-1 ... Key regulators in consumption and storage of energy are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, NR1C), members ...
  • Natural and synthetic ligands for both receptors have been identified. (pnas.org)
  • Recent data using MHC/peptide tetramers and dimers suggests that the T cell coreceptors, CD4 and CD8, although important for T cell activation, do not play a direct role in facilitating T cell receptor (TCR) binding to multivalent MHC/peptide ligands. (psu.edu)
  • Interaction between a T cell receptor (TCR) and various ligands, i.e., anti-TCR antibodies, superantigens, peptides, or altered peptide ligands in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules can trigger different T helper cell (Th) effector functions. (psu.edu)
  • Their natural activating ligands are fatty acids and lipid-derived substrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. (nih.gov)
  • They also bind to CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and ERRalpha (estrogen-related receptor alpha). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide from vascular endothelial cells, 6 is also synthesized and secreted by cardiomyocytes 6 and induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes 6,7 through activating phospholipase C, protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and ERK2, and upregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Upregulation of preproET-1 mRNA expression is induced by several stimuli that activate protein kinase C, such as angiotensin II, ET-1 itself, phorbol ester, and stretch. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fer is a member of a distinct subclass of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases with homology to a family of adaptor proteins that regulate membrane-cytoskeletal remodeling events, including receptor endocytosis. (queensu.ca)
  • In a new study in rats, researchers find glutamate receptors containing a specific protein subunit are required for working memory, with the loss of these receptors linked to working memory impairments. (eurekalert.org)
  • At the protein level, in human and mouse blood plasma, FIAF was found to be present both as the native protein and in a truncated form. (tudelft.nl)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Background Scavenger receptors play a significant role in clearing aged proteins from the plasma, including the large glycoprotein coagulation factors von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). (queensu.ca)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptoractivation by telmisartan may help with protection against cognitive decline by preserving the integrity of the BBB. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment with a TZD, rosiglitazone, induced cardiac hypertrophy in both littermate control mice and CM-PGKO mice and activated distinctly different hypertrophic pathways from CM-PGKO. (ahajournals.org)
  • CM-PGKO mice were found to have increased expression of cardiac embryonic genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain) and elevated nuclear factor κB activity in the heart, effects not found by rosiglitazone treatment. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a new study using brain tissue from mice and rats, researchers find the communication between the brain and blood vessels is a two-way street during normal, resting conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • 6 We have reported that the production of ET-1 is markedly increased both in the hypertrophied heart and the failing heart 11-14 and that chronic treatment with ET type A receptor antagonists significantly inhibited the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, activation may be achieved by oxidized low-density lipoprotein via the CD36 scavenger receptor ( 14 , 15 ), which has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Farnesoid X receptor, or FXR, suppresses glycolysis and enhances fatty acid oxidation by increasing PDK4 expression and inactivating the PDH complex. (wikipedia.org)