Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
  • They are taking the risk with our lives, and that I cannot bear - especially in a community that is overburdened with toxic pollutants," she said. (crainsdetroit.com)
  • The EPA is responsible for the spill of the toxic pollutants from the Gold King Mine in Colorado. (cnn.com)
  • Arkema Inc., a subsidiary of a French chemical manufacturer, and three of its senior employees are on trial over charges accusing them of releasing toxic pollutants and injuring two sheriff's deputies. (cbslocal.com)
  • New rules for farmers aimed at reducing the toxic algae in Lake Erie won unanimous approval from the Legislature on Wednesday and were headed to the governor for his expected signature. (agweb.com)
  • This process also provides them with energy, and unlike photosynthesizing plants or algae, sunlight isn't required. (forbes.com)
  • This is an amazing finding that has allowed us to know the physiology of this type of algae better and explain an existing paradox in the field of palaeontology: the lack of these algae in sedimentary rocks of fossil cliffs. (phys.org)
  • In order to find an answer to this phenomenon, the reason why these algae perish with the pass of time and disappear from the fossil record has now been found out. (phys.org)
  • Blue-green algae are actually bacteria that have qualities similar to algae and other plants. (wvmetronews.com)
  • In their toxic form, blue-green algae can cause illness in humans, pets, waterfowl, and other animals that come in contact with the algae. (wvmetronews.com)
  • In late March, researchers found the high levels of usnic acid found in tumbleweed shield lichen (lichens are part fungus, part algae) was the cause of the deaths. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paula Parker, an emergency vet and AVA president, says that although many plants are mild-to-moderate in terms of toxicity and can cause 'mild' symptoms like gastrointestinal upset. (abc.net.au)
  • Symptoms of juglone sensitivity include a progression of leaf yellowing, drooping and eventual plant death. (ehow.com)
  • Symptoms of plant poisoning from daffodils are diarrhea, dizziness, nausea and pain with convulsions and even death if enough of the plant has been ingested. (gardenguides.com)
  • It s a clearwing moth, and you can find similar species near your own location worldwide. (earthtimes.org)
  • Berteroa incana is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family, Brassicaceae . (wikipedia.org)
  • It attacks a wide variety of field, garden, greenhouse, nursery and ornamental plants as well as several weed species. (missouri.edu)
  • Consider carefully if plant species particularly susceptible to spider mite infestations are worth their keep. (missouri.edu)
  • Just recently, NASA found a new species of microbe hiding within the giant gypsum shards contained within Mexico's famous Cave of the Crystals. (forbes.com)
  • We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding for a petition to list the Yosemite toad ( Bufo canorus ) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). (federalregister.gov)
  • For instance, a 60 000-year-old Neanderthal burial site, " Shanidar IV ", in northern Iraq has yielded large amounts of pollen from 8 plant species, 7 of which are used now as herbal remedies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrophleum africanum, the African blackwood, is a legume species in the genus Erythrophleum found in Savannahs of tropical Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The many species of this plant, which can be found in many areas, may actually be varieties of two or three species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broekaert and his colleagues found that the lectin is concentrated in the outer layers of the rhizomes and roots, not in stems or leaves. (newscientist.com)
  • The plant's berries, stems and roots all have toxic parts, with the most potent concentration typically found in its underground, swollen stems including rhizomes, bulbs and corms. (gardenguides.com)
  • Contaminants can be human-induced, as from leaking fuel tanks or toxic chemical spills. (usgs.gov)
  • Nicotine is a naturally occurring toxic chemical found in tobacco plants. (cdc.gov)
  • More than a decade ago, it was found to cause lung damage in popcorn factory workers who breathed in the chemical, Narasimhan said. (upi.com)
  • HOUSTON (CBSDFW.COM/AP) - A company that owns a suburban Houston chemical plant jeopardized public safety when it failed to remove dangerous chemicals ahead of Hurricane Harvey in 2017, resulting in a fire that sent toxic smoke into the air and injured first responders, prosecutors told jurors on Thursday. (cbslocal.com)
  • Two deputies were injured after going into a toxic cloud released when one of the trailers burned after the chemical combusted, he said. (cbslocal.com)
  • The lake is blue, however, due to a chemical reaction between toxic waste elements from a local power station. (ktla.com)
  • Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • During an American Chemical Society symposium this spring, he warned that insects could develop resistance to the natural plant defenses if humans try to use similar chemicals deliberately. (csmonitor.com)
  • Emissions from coal-fired power plants may be an important source of water pollution and fish contamination, say researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health in a study being presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association in Washington, D.C. (innovations-report.com)
  • The standards would require these plants to reduce emissions of such potentially carcinogenic chemicals as vinyl chloride and dioxin. (cnn.com)
  • In an ideal world, industrial plant managers, fearing that their company's toxic emissions might endanger the health of their families and neighbors, would install the best pollution controls they could afford. (chron.com)
  • The Clean Air Act of 1973 requires plants to install state of the art pollution equipment if they are altered in a way that increases toxic emissions. (chron.com)
  • Plant managers in the Houston area assure the public that they have reduced greatly emissions over the years. (chron.com)
  • The act requires pollution controls when plants are modified in a way that increases emissions, and the Environmental Protection Agency cannot interpret the law in way that, while pleasing to industry, would be contrary to the law's clear meaning. (chron.com)
  • Power plant ash ponds also drain into the rivers and lakes the power plants use for cooling water. (treehugger.com)
  • If you do come into contact with the plant, wash off the sap with cold water immediately and get out of the sun. (cbslocal.com)
  • For years, publicly owned treatment plants have received large amounts of fracking waste water that they cannot effectively treat. (naturalnews.com)
  • In 2008 and 2009, towns along the river were instructed to use bottled water, since the water outside their homes and near municipal sewage plants was being poisoned. (naturalnews.com)
  • Large amounts are taken to public treatment plants that are not even capable of filtering the waste water. (naturalnews.com)
  • As the energy sector rushes to dispose of their toxic waste water, and with no incentive to innovate, tons of toxic waste water are going to end up in the environment - irrespective of the EPA's good intentions. (naturalnews.com)
  • Clean Water Action, an environmental group that supports the EPA's new rule, said that oil drilling companies are finding new ways to dump their wastewater, sealing it in underground injection wells, running it through ineffective industrial treatment plants and "recycling" it. (naturalnews.com)
  • How might toxic heavy metals and chemicals from fracking waste water, herbicides, pesticides, along with psychotropic drugs, contribute to mass shootings? (naturalnews.com)
  • The tsunami and earthquake in the year 2011 in Japan crippled the Fukushima nuclear plant and led to power failures as well as water leaks. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Tepco believed that the increased levels of Strontium-90 were a result of leak of contaminated water in April 2011 from one of the reactors of this nuclear plant. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Also called Water Hemlock, this common plant grows in wet places like on riverbanks. (davidwolfe.com)
  • If you come into contact with this plant, immediately wash the area with soap and water, and keep the area away from sunlight for 48 hours. (davidwolfe.com)
  • We believe it is important for fish consumption advisories to take into account industries such as power plants that may be important sources of water pollution, and warn people in these areas about the dangers of consuming local fish. (innovations-report.com)
  • It follows the line of the toxic leaks that were reported in February, when at one point around 100 tons of highly radioactive water leaked from one the plant's tanks. (rt.com)
  • We found lead migrated from the hose into the water and we found lead at a level 18 times higher than the federal drinking water standard,' Gearhart said. (cnn.com)
  • We found BPA in the water at a level 20 times higher than the safe drinking level. (cnn.com)
  • We also found the phthalate DEHP at a level 4 times higher than the federal drinking water standards. (cnn.com)
  • Only one plant still had the bacteria in its fully treated water, researchers found, and that facility did not regularly use chlorination to finish disinfecting its wastewater. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Wash plants with soapy water (2 teaspoons mild detergent per gallon of water) and a soft brush, making sure to wash the undersides of leaves. (missouri.edu)
  • Hosing tough plants with a forceful spray of water knocks off mites and destroys their webs. (missouri.edu)
  • During warm weather, take infested plants outside and hose them off with a stream of water. (missouri.edu)
  • Allelochemicals are secretions that essentially poison some types of nearby plants by inhibiting physiological processes, such as germination, growth and nutrient and water uptake. (ehow.com)
  • A Harvard study has found that the drinking water of millions of Americans contains PFASs, industrial chemicals known to cause cancer and immunodeficiency. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, the actual number of people exposed may be even higher than our study found, because government data for levels of these compounds in drinking water is lacking for almost a third of the U.S. population - about 100 million people. (harvard.edu)
  • The study found that PFASs were detectable at the minimum reporting levels required by the EPA in 194 out of 4,864 water supplies in 33 states across the United States. (harvard.edu)
  • The water intake for the Wheeling water treatment plant, which supplies several other public service districts, was shutdown as a precaution on Thursday afternoon and remained closed on Friday as water testing continued in the bloom area. (wvmetronews.com)
  • The water sampling is what really needs to be done on the Ohio (River), which is in place, before someone can say we're going to go back to the intake and run the plant as normal. (wvmetronews.com)
  • Although blue-green blooms can create nuisance conditions and undesirable water quality, most are not toxic. (wvmetronews.com)
  • Toxic blooms can kill livestock and pets that drink the water. (wvmetronews.com)
  • Explore procedurally generated worlds, face hostile inhabitants, face challenges like extreme weather conditions, toxic atmosphere, lack of water and more. (steampowered.com)
  • Finding food, water or wood to start a fire may be impossible. (steampowered.com)
  • Toxicity of skellysolve F, chloroform, 80% ethanol and water extracts of these aquatic plants were evaluated in a number of animal experiments in Swiss Webster mice. (epa.gov)
  • They found a number of drugs contaminating the water, some in concentrations higher in the water than in patients' blood. (forbes.com)
  • Wastewater may also be used to water plants in parks, aerosolizing and spreading resistant organisms at the same time as water is sprayed, and further dispersing resistance genes throughout the soil. (forbes.com)
  • Multi-drug resistant organisms carrying carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae enzyme (CRE), aka KPC, have been found in the water there). (forbes.com)
  • Japan's nuclear watchdog today dispatched an inspection team to the crippled Fukushima plant after workers found a huge toxic water leak and unexplained radiation hotspots. (hindustantimes.com)
  • They plan to inspect areas particularly near where the water was found escaping," he said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Plant owner Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) has said puddles of water near the holed tank were so toxic that anyone exposed to them would receive the same amount of radiation in an hour that a nuclear plant worker in Japan is allowed to receive in five years. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Plants set too close together compete for sunlight, water, and nutrition and fail to mature. (almanac.com)
  • The results also indicated to the researchers that fish can be used as bio-sensors to locate and find sources of area pollution. (innovations-report.com)
  • Though Sterigenics and its corporate predecessors have operated a sterilization facility in Willowbrook for decades, it remained largely unnoticed until the EPA quietly released an update last summer on the health dangers of toxic air pollution . (chicagotribune.com)
  • The park is affected by many sources of air pollution, including power plants, urban areas, agriculture, and industry. (nps.gov)
  • Since that time, most U.S. power plants and other large sources of air pollution have gone without modifications and pollution controls. (chron.com)
  • It got the Environmental Protection Agency to craft rules that would allow a plant to replace 20 percent of its equipment per year without having to install pollution controls. (chron.com)
  • When Congress passed the Clean Air Act, few predicted that thousands of plants without pollution controls would exist more than 30 years later. (chron.com)
  • Had Congress passed an act that would allow plant changes without pollution controls, the act would have been meaningless.The current Congress is capable of such a thing, unlike the one in office during the Nixon years. (chron.com)
  • Many popular ivy plants, including English ivy and Devil's ivy/Golden Pothos, have moderate toxicity to pets. (abc.net.au)
  • The philodendron family, which includes Swiss cheese plant, heartleaf and fiddle-leaf philodendron, have a toxicity level of mild to moderate for cats and dogs. (abc.net.au)
  • In fact, many of the chemicals found have been linked to birth defects, impaired learning, liver toxicity and other serious health issues. (cnn.com)
  • Regulators have designed toxicity tests on the premise that pesticides are sprayed on plants and kill insects on contact. (rabble.ca)
  • This plant has caused acute toxicity and abortion in cattle, which has also been experimentally induced in goats and sheep. (gc.ca)
  • Consequently, the highest probability of plant toxicity is within the canopy of black walnut trees, where roots, fallen leaves and decaying nut hulls are ever-present and concentrated. (ehow.com)
  • The toxicity of the aquatic plants in general was found to be relatively low. (epa.gov)
  • The stalks feature thorns and the plant produces large white flower blooms -- it's an intimidating plant. (upi.com)
  • A compound derived from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been found effective at alleviating pain, pointing the way to a new nonaddictive analgesic for acute inflammatory and nerve pain, according to UC Irvine pharmacology researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • Taking a page from Chinese herbal medicine, Scottsdale Healthcare and the Translational Genomics Research Institute today initiated the first-in-human clinical trial for pancreatic cancer patients using a compound derived from a plant known as "Thunder God vine. (news-medical.net)
  • Administration of the active compound tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) derived from the Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, reversed both overexpression of α-synuclein, a small protein found in the brain, and its accumulation using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • While the entire plant is highly toxic, especially in its raw state, the most poisonous compound is aconitine. (davidwolfe.com)
  • The toxic compound is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cymarine a compound of the digitalis glycoside type, found in the Strophantus variety of a tropical creeping shrub . (everything2.com)
  • 1983). Carboxyatractyloside: A compound from Xanthium strumarium and Atractylis gummifera with plant growth inhibiting properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Detroit Wastewater Treatment Plant, which converts human waste from the Detroit Wastewater Treatment Plant into marketable fertilizer, opened last year off West Jefferson in southwest Detroit. (crainsdetroit.com)
  • Our findings raise potential public health concerns for wastewater treatment plant workers and individuals exposed to reclaimed wastewater," says Rachel Rosenberg Goldstein, environmental health doctoral student and the study's first author. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Today, NRDC , Friends of the Earth , and the Pesticide Research Institute released a report showing that common bee-friendly flowering plants sold at stores like Home Depot, Lowe's, Walmart, Ace Hardware, and True Value contain bee-killing pesticides. (nrdc.org)
  • The study shows that 23 percent of bee-friendly garden plants sold at top retailers in 14 cities have been treated with neonicotinoid pesticides, the class of pesticides implicated in bee die-offs. (nrdc.org)
  • Neonicotinoids are particularly toxic to bees because they are systemic pesticides. (nrdc.org)
  • In contrast, Chicago-based companies Ace Hardware and True Value have yet to make commitments to take these pesticides out of their plants and off of their shelves. (nrdc.org)
  • Ace Hardware and True Value must step up and make a commitment to take these bee-killing pesticides out of their plants and off of their shelves. (nrdc.org)
  • At least 13 toxic waste sites, all contaminated with petrochemicals, acid compounds, solvents and pesticides, experienced flooding as a result of Hurricane Harvey, according to the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (rt.com)
  • The tests conducted by Tepco unveiled that levels of Strontium-90 at Fukushima plant increased 100 times since end of 2012. (jagranjosh.com)
  • The Fukushima Daiichi plant tragedy with nuclear meltdown of three of the plant's six nuclear reactors was caused by an earthquake-triggered tsunami in March 2011. (rt.com)
  • On March 31, 2011, March 11, 2011, a Magnitude 9.0 earthquake & tsunami in Japan caused several nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to fail. (enenews.com)
  • Terpenes are found in the essential oils of some plants, particularly conifers and citrus. (upi.com)
  • Manufacturers also use terpenes to thin the pure cannabinoids that are being distilled from marijuana plants, he added. (upi.com)
  • Average concentrations detected at eight monitoring locations were between 55 percent and 97 percent lower than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found before the company's sterilization plant was effectively shut down on Feb. 15 , the data show. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The annual global export value of 50,000 to 70,000 types of plants with suspected medicinal properties was estimated to be US$2.2 billion in 2012, and in 2017, the potential global market for botanical extracts and medicines was estimated at several hundred billion dollars. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAT has been shown to be a growth inhibitor in Xanthium and other plants, serving two functions, delaying seed germination and inhibiting the growth of other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the sulfur-containing degradation product that is formed in this first degradation step, dihydroxypropane sulfonate, the researchers found a second bacterium, Desulfovibrio, which can utilize this intermediate for anaerobic respiration, the so-called sulfite reduction. (innovations-report.com)
  • Given these results, we should be concerned about fish caught in areas that are situated close to coal-fired power plants, even if upstream from more heavily polluted areas," said Conrad D. Volz, Dr.P.H., M.P.H., principal investigator, department of environmental and occupational health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. (innovations-report.com)
  • Natural News) In a recently published study, researchers from the Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University and Mehmet Akif Ersoy University in Turkey have found that extracts from the Hypericum perforatum L. (commonly known as St. John's wort) have antibacterial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic (prevents the alteration of a genetic material in a cell) properties. (naturalnews.com)
  • The plant and its extracts are used to treat gout and related inflammatory disorders. (drugs.com)
  • 4 The plant and its extracts have been used for centuries in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, dropsy, prostate enlargement, and gonorrhea. (drugs.com)
  • Ila Hatter, a wildcrafter , gourmet cook and descendant of Pocahontas who lives in Bryson City, North Carolina, is an expert in the culinary and medicinal use of native plants . (mnn.com)
  • The plant is considered a diuretic when used for medicinal purposes. (mnn.com)
  • Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest historical records of herbs are found from the Sumerian civilisation, where hundreds of medicinal plants including opium are listed on clay tablets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal plants are widely used in non-industrialized societies, mainly because they are readily available and cheaper than modern medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal plants face both general threats, such as climate change and habitat destruction , and the specific threat of over-collection to meet market demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ancient Sumeria , hundreds of medicinal plants including myrrh and opium are listed on clay tablets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resistant bacteria have been detected before in wastewater plants in Sweden, but researchers at UM's School of Public Health say this study, conducted in parnership with the University of Nebraska Medical Center, is the first to spot it in US facilities. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Bacteria found in the intestines can produce ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • In a doctoral research project conducted at the Department of Biology, the degradation of the dietary sugar sulfoquinovose by anaerobic bacteria to toxic hydrogen sulfide was described for the first time - increased production of hydrogen sulfide in the human intestinal system has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • As a constituent of green-vegetable diets, for example in spinach and salad, it is also found in the human intestinal system - an environment without oxygen - and therefore doctoral researcher Anna Burrichter wanted to answer the following question: What happens when anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfoquinovose in the absence of oxygen? (innovations-report.com)
  • Fracking wastewater contains a toxic slew of total dissolved solids, organic and inorganic chemicals, and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM), that is very difficult to properly dispose of and filter out. (naturalnews.com)
  • The radioactive isotope tritium was also found at the elevated levels. (jagranjosh.com)
  • Reuters reports that Italian authorities have discovered a ship containing 180 barrels of toxic waste (some of which may be radioactive), which was purposely sunk by the Mafia, off Italy's southern coast. (treehugger.com)
  • In 2004, toxic and radioactive waste washed up on Somali beaches, causing illness in local people. (treehugger.com)
  • Sewage plants are one possible source, because infected people can shed MRSA through their feces, as well as from their nose and skin. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In a striking finding that raises new questions about carbon dioxide's (CO2) impact on marine life, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) scientists report that some shell-building creatures-such as crabs, shrimp and lobsters-unexpectedly build more shell when exposed to ocean acidification caused by elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The study, abstract number 157770, found higher-than-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-recommended levels of mercury and elevated levels of selenium in channel catfish caught in a rural area upstream of Pittsburgh and downwind from a coal-fired power plant. (innovations-report.com)
  • They also found significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium in the Kittanning-caught fish than in the fish caught in the three rivers area. (innovations-report.com)
  • This year the company was revealed to have been concealing reports of dangerously high radiation levels at the plant since September. (rt.com)
  • Researchers for the Ecology Center, a nonprofit environmental group tested nearly 200 common garden products and found two-thirds of them contained significant levels of one or more toxic chemicals they ranked of 'high concern. (cnn.com)
  • In both products, lead and phthalates were found at levels that exceeded standards set by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) . (cnn.com)
  • Aphids, like mealybugs and scale, thrive on plants with overly succulent growth (often due to high nitrogen levels). (missouri.edu)
  • toxic daily levels range from 7 to 10 grams). (healthy.net)
  • High mercury levels found in panthers in Everglades NP have been attributed to a preferred diet of fish-eating wildlife such as raccoons and alligators, rather than of herbivores such as deer. (nps.gov)
  • Detectable levels of mercury in panthers have been evident since 1978, with the highest levels found in panthers from Everglades NP (Roelke et al. (nps.gov)
  • Ricinus communis (castor oil plant) contain the toxin ricin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This striking, cold-hardy plant features long feathery leaves that contain a toxin called cycasin, which causes liver damage. (mnn.com)
  • This publication discusses some of the least-toxic control options you can use for pests of houseplants, home greenhouses and interior plantscapes. (missouri.edu)
  • Neonicotinoids have certainly proven effective in killing plant pests. (rabble.ca)
  • Neonicotinoids do not selectively target plant pests, or even insects. (rabble.ca)
  • In our efforts to combat insect pests, we should take care not to cripple the plants' ability to help themselves. (csmonitor.com)
  • Some domestic animals will avoid consuming the plant if other forage is present, but less discriminating animals, such as pigs, will consume the plants and then sicken and die. (wikipedia.org)
  • He said Arkema's actions were part of a long pattern of reckless behavior in which the company had never removed organic peroxides from the plant in the face of dangerous hurricanes and other storms during the facility's more than 50 year history. (cbslocal.com)
  • During Harvey, the organic peroxides were instead stored inside refrigerated trailers at the plant, located just northeast of Houston. (cbslocal.com)
  • Quinones said Arkema fully cooperated with authorities and shared all information about what was going on at the plant during Harvey, including that some of refrigerated trailers storing the organic peroxides couldn't be monitored and were likely going to combust. (cbslocal.com)
  • Once found only in health food stores, organic food is now a regular feature at most supermarkets. (mayoclinic.org)