Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Calsequestrin: Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Mice, Inbred C57BLIon Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cell SeparationPhenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Caveolin 3: A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Edema, Cardiac: Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
... (Ccna2) is a key protein involved in the direction of mammalian cardiac myocytes to grow and divide, and has been ... Ccna2 has been found to induce cardiac repair in small-animal models following myocardial infarction. Preclinical trials ... Normally, Ccna2 is silenced postnatally in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Because of this gene silencing, adult heart muscle cells ... Delivery of Ccna2 into cardiac tissue invokes a regenerative response and markedly enhances cardiac function. Increased ...
Cardiac myocytes also possess V1R. Additionally V1R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood ... V1Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of ... V1 receptors (V1Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in ...
C10orf71 was found to be highly expressed in cardiac, muscle, and liver tissue (biology). There were 6 possible promoters found ... This promoter had several transcription factors of interest including those involved with myocytes. There is little scientific ... Splice 1 was utilized to analyze and obtain information about as all of the stop codons found in this splice form were found in ... There were three exons found in Splice 1 with a Kozak consensus sequence in the overall sequence as well., The mature C10orf71 ...
... and ultimately sudden cardiac death. Ventricular myocytes are heart muscle cells found in the lower chambers of the heart. ... Lee, J.Y.; M. Gingras; B.R. Lucchesi; A. Arbor (7). "HBI-3000 prevents sudden cardiac death in a conscious canine model. Heart ... Myocytes Ion channels "Efficacy and Safety of Sulcardine Sulfate Tablets in Patients With Premature Ventricular Contractions ... The effect of HBI-3000 on contractility and cardiac conduction requires further investigation. In a canine model, the ...
The electrical depolarizations that trigger cardiac myocytes to contract arise spontaneously within the myocyte itself. The ... Heart rate is measured by finding the pulse of the heart. This pulse rate can be found at any point on the body where the ... The cardiac centers monitor baroreceptor firing to maintain cardiac homeostasis, a mechanism called the baroreceptor reflex. ... Nes et al found HRmax = 211 − (0.64 × age) This relationship was found to hold substantially regardless of gender, physical ...
KATP channels were first identified in cardiac myocytes by the Akinori Noma group in Japan. They have also been found in ... KATP channels are found in the plasma membrane; however some may also be found on subcellular membranes. These latter classes ... Cardiac ischemia, as it slows the oxidation of fatty acids, causes an accumulation of acyl-CoA and induces KATP channel opening ... Cardiac action potential#Major channels Stephan D, Winkler M, Kühner P, Russ U, Quast U (September 2006). "Selectivity of ...
Today are Aschoff cells considered to be derived from cardiac myocytes rather than connective tissue cells. Aschoff cells were ... They are found in Aschoff bodies surrounding centres of fibrinoid necrosis. In comparison with Anitschkow cells their cytoplasm ...
Indeed, FAM98A is expressed moderately high (roughly the 75th percentile) in smooth muscle and cardiac myocytes. GRCh38: ... Phyre2 found the most similar protein to be the human protein NDC80 kinetochore complex component, a nuclear protein that binds ... Changed by Bjoern Kindler to print also the lowest found net charge. Available at EMBL WWW Gateway to Isoelectric Point Service ... Orthologs for FAM98A have been found in vertebrates. In insects and molluscs, there are predicted proteins for a FAM98A gene. ...
These changes impair mitochondrial energy production and drive cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Intralipid (5mL/kg) provided five ... 2014) found that the cardioprotection aspect of Intralipid is initiated by the accumulation of acylcarnitines in the ... 2011) Intralipid-treated rat hearts were found to required more calcium to open mPTP during ischemia-reperfusion. The ... Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac ...
... are required to induce the cardiac myocytes to proliferate. Studies have been done in an attempt to find such a treatment. ... Evidence that human cardiac myocytes divide after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1750-1757. Orlic D, Kajstura J, ... The activation of cardiac progenitor cells (a special type of stem cell with long telomeres located in the storage areas of the ... Neocardiogenesis replaces dead cardiac muscle cells with living cells so that both the structure and function of the heart are ...
... in human cardiac myocytes). similarly, KCNE3 was recently found to inhibit Kv4.2, and it is thought that this regulation ... Kv12.2 channels were found to be inhibited by endogenous KCNE3 (and KCNE1) subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, silencing ... Previously, endogenous oocyte KCNE3 and KCNE1 were also found to inhibit exogenous hERG activity and slow the gating of ... Mazhari R, Nuss HB, Armoundas AA, Winslow RL, Marbán E (Apr 2002). "Ectopic expression of KCNE3 accelerates cardiac ...
Sarcoplasmic reticulum CaATPase (SERCA) is an energy-dependent ion pump found the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac myocytes ... Nitroxyl has also been shown to increase the sensitivity to cardiac myocytes to Ca2+, which in turn enhances the force of ... Therefore, stimulation of SERCA leads to accelerated uptake of Ca2+ from the cytosol of the cardiac myocyte. Secondly, the ... which is the predominant form found in cardiac tissue. Ryanodine receptors are located within the membrane of the sarcoplasmic ...
Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart, allowing it to contract and pump blood round the body. Nervous tissue is composed of ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... The mouth is found at the anterior end of the animal, and the anus at the base of the tail. The defining characteristic of a ... It is found in such organs as sea anemone tentacles and the body wall of sea cucumbers. Skeletal muscle contracts rapidly but ...
MEGF8 is found to be expressed at high levels in cardiac myocytes and fetal brain tissue, according to GeoProfiles, from NCBI. ... It is key to note that ATRNL1 is found in many birds and amphibians, where MEGF8 is not found in any birds, and only one ... The twenty most conserved amino acids, found through a multiple sequence alignment of 20 orthologs, were found to be located in ... One of the key attributes of MEGF8's tertiary structure is its 7-bladed beta propeller which is formed by the kelch motif found ...
... that the pathological impact of these mutations is an impaired ability to control oxidative damage in cardiac myocytes. There ... Furthermore two mutations in the TrxR2 gene are found in patients diagnosed with DCM and not in a control population. It is ... and bound NADPH domain are in close proximity removing the necessity for a 66 degree rotation for electron transfer found in E ...
The MPTP is found in the mitochondrial membrane of cardiac myocytes (heart muscle cells) and moves calcium ions (Ca2+ ) into ... Calcineurin is a Ca2+ -activated phosphatase (enzyme that removes a phosphate group from substrate) that regulates cardiac ... Ciclosporin metabolites have been found to have lower immunosuppressant activity than CsA (approximately ... thus it is recommended that prescribers find the lowest effective dose for people requiring long term treatment. Ciclosporin ...
C20orf111 has been shown to increase in expression in rat cardiac myocytes undergoing ,H,2,O,2,-induced apoptosis, suggesting a ... It was also found to have an increase in expression in cells undergoing hydrogen peroxide(H 2O 2)-induced apoptosis. After ... Clerk A, Kemp TJ, Zoumpoulidou G, Sugden PH (April 2007). "Cardiac myocyte gene expression profiling during H2O2-induced ... C20orf111 a valid, protein coding gene that is found on the minus strand of chromosome 20 at q13.12 by searching the UCSC ...
See review article ). However, it has been recently found that different cAMP pools, located within the cardiac myocyte, ... PDE2 regulates cardiac L-type Ca2+ current in cardiac myocytes, where activation of PDE2 by cGMP lowers cAMP and thereby ... EHNA has been used to study implication of PDE2 in calcium control in cardiac myocytes and has shown to be effective to reverse ... Three splice variants have been found, the PDE2A1, PDE2A2 and PDE2A3 (PDE2A2 has only been found in rats). PDE2A1 is cytosolic ...
... acts in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac myocytes by binding to and stabilizing the ryanodine receptor (RyR2 ... However, the role of calstabin2 has been controversial, as some studies have found it necessary for the effect of JTV-519, ... As research continues, some studies have also found a dose-dependent response; where there is no improvement seen in failing ... Researchers who believe that calstabin2 is necessary for JTV-519 effect, found that this drug may function by inducing the ...
... is a type of uncontrolled cell death (necrosis) unique to cardiac myocytes and thought to arise in ... It is a characteristic histologic finding of a recent myocardial infarction (heart attack) that was partially reperfused. The ... that span the short axis of the myocyte. They can be thought of extra thick striae, typical of cardiac muscle and striated ... name of the histopathologic finding comes from the appearance under the microscope; contraction bands are thick intensely ...
Excess hypertrophy of the cardiac myocytes leads to further dysfunction of the heart by affecting their ability to relax and ... The SERCA2a transporter is found in the membrane of the SR and plays an important role in this cycle by removing cytosolic Ca2+ ... increase in contraction and faster beating of the heart leads to hypertrophy by increasing the size of the cardiac myocytes in ... Excess Ca2+ found in the cytosol leads to asynchronous contractions of cardiomyocytes causing tachyarrhythmias. The unusual ...
The cardiac myocytes do not sufficiently grow in size, indicating that RHEB mTOR function is required. This suggested that RHEB ... RHEB has also been found to interact with effectors upstream in the mTOR pathway. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is upstream in the ... 5' adenosine-monophospate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been found to be an effector for RHEB. AMPK is a protein ... activation becomes indispensable for cardiac hypertrophic growth after early postnatal period". The Journal of Biological ...
Heart cells (cardiac myocytes) contract due to an increase in the charge across the membrane (depolarization), which generates ... Some have provided evidence that these channels are present in human atrial cells, while others have failed to find similar ... The calcium-activated chloride channel is present in cardiac myocytes of many species, such as rabbit and pig, but their ... "Inhibition of the calcium-activated chloride current in cardiac ventricular myocytes by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid ( ...
... and the cardiac myocytes were larger in size. No difference was observed in arterial blood pressure between wild-type and ... A murine DCM study found an increase in apoptosis due to the high levels of CHOP expression. CHOP is a transcription factor ... Upon analysis, it was found that KDEL mutant mice had proliferation in their sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and a narrowing in the ... Furthermore, KDEL D193N transgenic mice had defects in the L-type Ca++ channel current in ventricular myocytes. The basal ...
... found in high concentrations in the ventricular myocytes, open at a membrane potential of −80 mv in typical cardiac rhythm. ... 2] It has a half-life of 8.9 +- 2.3 hrs which may be prolonged to 66 hrs in people with cardiac disease [9]. Cardiac ... "Cardiac Sodium Channel Mutations in Patients with Long QT Syndrome, an Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia." Human Molecular Genetics ... The mode of action and the implications of this finding are not well known. [3] Lorcainide exhibits a prolonged duration of ...
... s are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ...
Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play important roles in mediating cardiovascular diseases, and may cause cardiac ... Lijnen P, Petrov V: Renin-angiotensin system, hypertrophy and gene expression in cardiac myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999, 31 ... It was found that the phosphorylated PI3k (p-PI3k) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) protein levels were greatly decreased by Ang ... Danggui extract reversed the Ang II-reduced cardiac survival pathway in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. H9c2 cells were treated with ...
Furthermore, dysfunction of calcium dynamics also is thought to play a role in cardiac arrhythmias. A combination of ... Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author. ... Furthermore, dysfunction of calcium dynamics also is thought to play a role in cardiac arrhythmias. A combination of ...
We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2) expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D ... Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield ... Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D) or, ... of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. ...
Myocytes, Cardiac. Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC). ... All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryCardiovascular SystemHeartMyocardiumMyocytes, Cardiac. All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy Category ... TissuesMusclesMuscle, StriatedMyocardiumMyocytes, Cardiac. All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryCellsMuscle CellsMyocytes, ... Do not include MeSH terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy. ...
Find this author on PubMed. *Search for this author on this site ... Intracellular calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes.. W H ... Calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes results from the integrated function of transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and efflux ... It may be anticipated that a rapid increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes ...
A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In Cardiac Myocytes.. ... Furthermore we found that CUL4A-mediated degradation is independent of the SP-repeat. ... A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In Cardiac Myocytes. ... A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In Cardiac Myocytes. ...
The major finding of this study is that although long-term VWR tended to promote a physiological pattern of myocyte growth, it ... Cardiac myocyte remodeling in hypertrophy and progression to failure. J Card Fail. 2002; 8: S264-S268. ... Effects of Excessive Long-Term Exercise on Cardiac Function and Myocyte Remodeling in Hypertensive Heart Failure Rats. Rebecca ... They found that trained rats were healthier, lived longer, and demonstrated a more physiological pattern of cardiac remodeling. ...
In cardiac myocytes their roles are not well understood. Effects of fibroblast growth factors on reexpression of fetal actin ... The FGFs were not found in conditioned medium. They were localized, especially in cultured cells, to the nucleus. Cultured ... In freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes, bFGF mRNA was not detectable by in situ hybridization, although the cells ... Expression of fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors by adult cardiac myocytes that survive the shock ...
... in the dog demonstrate that the ventricular and myocyte remodeling in this model, characterized by ventricular dilation and ... Molecular characterization of angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and hyperplasia of cardiac fibroblasts. ... This finding is of particular interest because the heart is a target organ for Ang II, a growth factor for myocytes and ... Cardiac myocyte necrosis induced by angiotensin II. Circ Res 69:1185-1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Cyclin A2 (Ccna2) is a key protein involved in the direction of mammalian cardiac myocytes to grow and divide, and has been ... Ccna2 has been found to induce cardiac repair in small-animal models following myocardial infarction. Preclinical trials ... Normally, Ccna2 is silenced postnatally in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Because of this gene silencing, adult heart muscle cells ... Delivery of Ccna2 into cardiac tissue invokes a regenerative response and markedly enhances cardiac function. Increased ...
Find out more.. Okay, thanks. ... Human Cardiac Myocytes (HCM). Primary Human Cardiac Myocytes ... Primary Human Cardiac Myocytes (HCM) are isolated from the ventricles of the adult heart. They are qualified for in vitro ... Figure 1. Human Cardiac Muscle Cell Culture in phase contrast. Figure 1. Human Cardiac Muscle Cell Culture in phase contrast. ... research on cardiac diseases and for pharmacological studies. Unlike freshly isolated rod-shaped myocytes, cultured HCM can be ...
More than 50 small G proteins have been found to date (see Reference 11 for review). The exchange of bound GDP for GTP converts ... Ang II-induced translocation of RhoA from the soluble to the particulate fractions in cardiac myocytes. A, Cardiac myocytes ... In vivo ADP-ribosylation of Rho in cardiac myocytes. Cardiac myocytes were incubated with the indicated concentrations of C3 ... Colocalization of polymerized actin and troponin T in cardiac myocytes. Cardiac myocytes stimulated with Ang II for 30 minutes ...
... three decades of pharmacological data have clearly implicated PDE3 in cardiac function. Conversely, much less was known about ... Of the 11 families of phosphodiesterases found in the human genome, ... Of the 11 families of phosphodiesterases found in the human genome, three decades of pharmacological data have clearly ... McCahill A, Campbell L, McSorley T, Sood A, Lynch MJ, Li X, Yan C, Baillie GS, Houslay MD (2008a) In cardiac myocytes, cAMP ...
In cardiac muscle the T-tubules are only found at the Z-lines. When an action potential causes cells to contract, calcium is ... These cardiac myocytes normally do not initiate their own electrical potential, although they are capable of doing so, but ... Cardiomyocytes, are considerably shorter and have smaller diameters than skeletal myocytes. Cardiac muscle (like skeletal ... Cardiac muscle tissue has autorhythmicity, the unique ability to initiate a cardiac action potential at a fixed rate - ...
Cardiac Myocytes) are complete and found that a pair of human transcription factors, ETS2 and MESP1, converted human fat stem ... Cardiac Myocytes flies the cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in a Techshot Bioreactor on the ISS and evaluates myocyte maturation ... Conversion of Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Mature Cardiac Myocytes (Cardiac Myocytes) - 09.27.17. Overview , ... Conversion of Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Mature Cardiac Myocytes (Cardiac Myocytes) uses the microgravity ...
Mediates cellular functions not only in skeletal and cardiac muscle development, but also in neuronal differentiation and ... found in numerous muscle-specific genes. Also involved in the activation of numerous growth factor- and stress-induced genes. ... ventricular cardiac myofibril assembly Source: UniProtKBInferred from mutant phenotypei*. "Mitochondrial deficiency and cardiac ... Hyperacetylation by p300 leads to enhanced cardiac myocyte growth and heart failure (By similarity).By similarity ...
Mediates cellular functions not only in skeletal and cardiac muscle development, but also in neuronal differentiation and ... found in numerous muscle-specific genes. Also involved in the activation of numerous growth factor- and stress-induced genes. ... cardiac conduction Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*. "Mitochondrial deficiency and cardiac sudden death in mice ... ventricular cardiac myofibril assembly Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*. "Mitochondrial deficiency and cardiac ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Cardiac transplantation is the ultimate treatment option for patients with end stage heart failure. Cardiac ... Myocytes, Cardiac. Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC). ... Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: The Enduring Enemy of Cardiac Transplantation.. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains a major ... Cardiac Imaging Techniques. Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide ...
Find this author on PubMed. *Search for this author on this site ... Find this author on Google Scholar. *Find this author on PubMed ... Transcriptome and Functional Profile of Cardiac Myocytes Is Influenced by Biological SexCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. Christa L. ... Transcriptome and Functional Profile of Cardiac Myocytes Is Influenced by Biological SexCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE ... Transcriptome and Functional Profile of Cardiac Myocytes Is Influenced by Biological SexCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE ...
Find out more from Community Manager Christos Kyprianou and read the origin story of FocalPlane. ... L-type Ca2+ current in fish cardiac myocytes: effects of thermal acclimation and beta-adrenergic stimulation. ... L-type Ca2+ current in fish cardiac myocytes: effects of thermal acclimation and beta-adrenergic stimulation. ... L-type Ca2+ current in fish cardiac myocytes: effects of thermal acclimation and beta-adrenergic stimulation. ...
Our laboratory recently found that forced expression of GATA-4 enhances the expression of Bcl-xL in cardiac myocytes (Kitta et ... These novel results provide direct evidence linking GATA-4 and suppression of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. Cardiac myocyte ... evidence that GATA-4 controls apoptotic events in cardiac myocytes. Here, we have used primarily the HL-1 cardiac muscle cell ... Tumor necrosis factor α-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes: involvement of the sphingolipid signaling cascade in cardiac ...
... , Ying Zhang, Hong Li, Qin Zhang, Xiao- ... reoxygenation-induced cardiac myocytes death by blocking PKCβ/Egr-1 Pathway. Similar results were found in PKCβ inhibitor group ... and then induce cardiac myocytes damage in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Astragaloside IV treatment could ... we confirmed that hypoxia/reoxygenation could induce cardiac myocytes death in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, ...
A significant finding was the demonstration that FAK becomes a negative effector of ERK activation in the presence of Ang II ... Cardiac myocyte-specific excision of the beta1 integrin gene results in myocardial fibrosis and cardiac failure. Circ Res. 2002 ... and mechanical stretch activate MAP kinases in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we used a neonatal rat ventricular myocyte ( ... Cardiac myocytes were infected for 24 h with each adenovirus diluted in DMEM/medium 199. The medium was replaced with virus- ...
... waveforms recorded from central and peripheral sinoatrial nodes and right atrial and left atrial myocytes from rabbit cardiac ... nature allows accurate reconstruction of action potential waveforms recorded experimentally from a range of cardiac myocytes. ... When the objective minimum has been found along the trajectory, the quadratic form (8) is recomputed, and another search is ... Optimisation of a Generic Ionic Model of Cardiac Myocyte Electrical Activity. Tianruo Guo. ,1 Amr Al Abed. ,1 Nigel H. Lovell. ...
  • In this study, we focused on the IGF-IIR-associated pathway, and investigated whether inhibition of Ang II-induced cell damage can reduce cardiac apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is concluded (1) that the density of sarcolemmal Ca2+ current is not increased after acclimation to cold, (2) that sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels can make a significant contribution to contractile [Ca2+] in both teleost species studied and (3) that ss-adrenergic stimulation of Ca2+ current is more important in modulating cardiac contractility in trout than in carp. (biologists.org)
  • An intricate interconnected network of intracellular signaling molecules participate in regulating the electrical activity, size, and contractility of cardiac myocytes [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This has led to the suggestion that downregulation of Na + -K + -ATPase in the failing heart may be an adaptive response leading to increased contractility by a mechanism similar to that induced by cardiac glycosides ( 8 , 21 , 28 ). (physiology.org)
  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by reduced cardiac contractility due to direct changes in heart muscle function independent of vascular disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cultured myocytes bound fourfold more 125I-FGF than freshly isolated cells and expressed the fibroblast growth factor R-1 (flg) gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 Cardiac hypertrophy is also characterized by the induction of immediate-early genes (eg, c- fos and c- jun ), activation of the fetal gene program (eg, ANF and skeletal α-actin), and increases in protein synthesis and cell size (reviewed in References 7 7 to 11). (ahajournals.org)
  • The gene expression network of ion channels, SR and t-tubules genes was decoded using cutting edge genetic informatics on the ground experiment and found the appearance of many genes involved with calcium handling and myocyte maturation. (nasa.gov)
  • Conclusions- These data support the notion that sex-specific gene expression differences at baseline influence cardiac function, particularly through the protein kinase A pathway, and could potentially be responsible for differences in cardiovascular disease presentation and outcomes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Signals originating from multiple pathways converge intracellularly, leading to altered gene expression and protein synthesis, which result in the hypertrophic growth of cardiac myocytes. (physiology.org)
  • Several lines of evidence support a role for FAK in the regulation of early gene transcription in response to hypertrophic agonists and mechanical stress ( 10 , 22 , 28 , 38 , 39 ), indicating that this kinase may coordinate the convergence of multiple signaling pathways involved in the hypertrophic growth of cardiac myocytes. (physiology.org)
  • The mutation in the dystrophin gene causes the progressive deterioration of skeletal muscles seen in people with MD. But the mutation affects cardiac muscle, too. (news-medical.net)
  • The mutant gene was cloned and transfected into cultured HL-1 mouse cardiac myocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether genetic manipulation of the cardiac myocyte, achieved by gene transfer and overexpression of the human A3 receptor cDNA, renders the myocytes resistant to the deleterious effect of ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
  • We have generated hESC-lines that express the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2, and have found that these cells produce significantly greater amounts of hematopoietic and cardiac cells, because of their increased survival during culturing and sorting. (ca.gov)
  • The field of the invention is gene therapy and cardiac therapy. (google.com)
  • The most common form of CPVT is due to autosomal dominant variants in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RYR2). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that ERRα, PGC-1α, and Bcl3 form a complex on an ERRα-responsive element within the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene promoter in cardiac myocytes. (asm.org)
  • In recent studies, we have demonstrated that depressed levels of SERCA2a can be reconstituted by adenoviral gene transfer in isolated cardiac myocytes, or in SERCA2a transgenic mice submitted to hypothyroidism ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An increasing number of studies have focused on how experimental interventions affect growth of cardiac myocytes in the near-term fetal sheep ( 12 , 34 , 35 , 42 , 48 , 49 , 51 ) and on how growth of the fetal heart influences life-long cardiovascular health in an individual ( 21 , 23 , 33 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • The long-term effects of exercise on cardiac function and myocyte remodeling in hypertension/progression of heart failure are poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that excessive exercise, in the untreated hypertensive state can have deleterious effects on cardiac remodeling and may actually accelerate the progression to heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Research has shown a predictable remodeling of cardiac myocyte shape underlying progression to heart failure (HF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Between the ages of 6 and 12 months in female spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats, after a period of compensated hypertrophy, myocyte length begins to increase without further increase in CSA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in adult rat heart myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that diastolic wall stress activates the cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and that angiotensin (Ang) II and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may play a functional role in the eccentric pattern of hypertrophy observed in the volume overload model of MR in the dog heart. (springer.com)
  • Primary Human Cardiac Myocytes isolated from the ventricles of the adult heart. (promocell.com)
  • A common chemical used in the manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries can repair damage to cardiac muscle cell membranes and prevent heart failure in mice with the genetic mutation that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, according to scientists at the University of Michigan Medical School . (news-medical.net)
  • It's a physiologically relevant test, because it mimics what happens in the heart muscle when myocytes must relax and stretch to make room for incoming blood filling the heart," says Metzger, who is affiliated with the U-M's Cardiovascular Center. (news-medical.net)
  • Find Heart Cell . (reference.com)
  • Cardiac muscle only exists in the heart. (reference.com)
  • Syngene has announced that the G:BOX Chemi XRQ high resolution, multi-application image analysis system is being successfully used at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Academy of Medicine to study molecular mechanisms of cardiac stem cell function which could help in developing stem cell therapies for heart repair. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To study its role at later stages of development, we generated a transgenic mouse line that specifically expresses the rat erbB2 cDNA in the heart under the control of the cardiac-specific alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. (nih.gov)
  • To study the role of erbB2 in the adult heart, we generated conditional mutant mice carrying a cardiac-restricted deletion of erbB2. (nih.gov)
  • Iterations in tissue structure that appear in hypertensive heart disease include a remodeling of intramyocardial coronary arterioles, similar to that found in systemic organs, and a disproportionate accumulation of fibrillar collagen within their adventitia and neighboring interstitial space. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the heart to beat normally, the cardiac muscle must tense (contract) and relax in a coordinated way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anitschkow cell - a large mononuclear cell found in connective tissue of the heart wall in inflammatory conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pathologists can quickly identify samples from the heart by spotting the intercalated discs and distinctive myocytes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucagon also reportedly partially improves blood pressure and heart blockade, but rarely restores cardiac hemodynamics to normal. (medscape.com)
  • It produces systemic arterial vasoconstriction, which, in turn, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure while potentially reducing heart rate and cardiac output. (medscape.com)
  • a type of vertebrate muscle found only in the HEART , which appears to be halfway between INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE and STRIATED MUSCLE in that its fibres are striated, but contain a single nucleus (see Fig. 91 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together we may find novel ways to reduce acute inflammatory pain while also uncovering natural mechanisms how the heart protects itself from cellulr injury such as during a heart attack, cardiac bypass surgeries, or organ transplantation. (stanford.edu)
  • We are currently enriching cardiomyocyte precursors from this population using cardiac-specific genetic markers, and are assaying the putative progenitors using electrophysiological assays and by transplantation into animal hearts (a test for restoration of heart function). (ca.gov)
  • It has also been pointed out ( 28 , 29 ) that the reduced Na + -K + -ATPase of the failing heart may exacerbate toxicity of cardiac glycosides in the diseased heart, because the toxic effects of these drugs are known to be the extension of their therapeutic effects. (physiology.org)
  • The association between sST2 and a primary composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure, hospitalisation, arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or cardiac interventions was investigated using multivariable Cox regression. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Higher sST2 levels are found in patients with severe heart failure (HF) and are associated with an increased mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart. (coursehero.com)
  • Longstanding evidence has linked the stimulation of lysosomal pathways to pathologic cardiac remodeling and a number of cardiac diseases, including heart failure and ischemia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The generation of new myocytes is an essential process of in utero heart growth. (physiology.org)
  • Recent studies of the cellular mechanisms of fetal cardiac growth in response to hemodynamic and hormonal challenges have uncovered the importance of these two myocyte populations in the heart of the large mammal ( 12 , 26 , 35 , 48 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • Nevertheless, basic questions about the growth and maturation of cardiac myocytes in the normal fetal heart remain unanswered. (physiology.org)
  • The extensive development of detailed mathematical models of cardiac myocyte electrophysiology in recent years has led to a proliferation of models, including many that model the same animal species and specific region of the heart and thus would be expected to have similar properties. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We provide several possible explanations for the differences observed in models of the same species and region of the heart and discuss the implications for the applicability of models in addressing questions of mechanism in cardiac electrophysiology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Matters of the Heart: Why Are Cardiac Tumors So Rare? (cancer.gov)
  • Cardiac primary tumors, those originating in the heart itself, are extremely rare. (cancer.gov)
  • According to Dr. Robert J. Cusimano, a cardiac surgeon at Toronto General Hospital, malignant heart tumors are most often metastases from primary tumors in nearby organs, such as the kidneys or lungs. (cancer.gov)
  • If there are metastases to the heart, the prognosis is pretty bad," said Dr. Cusimano, who lightheartedly refers to himself as a "cardiac oncologist," because patients with these tumors are often referred to him. (cancer.gov)
  • With the research group that he leads, Dr. Wagner has invented a series of new biomedical materials focused on biodegradable, elastic polymers that can be used to slow the dilatation of the heart following heart attack as well as in other applications, such as creating cardiac valves. (pitt.edu)
  • Moreover, this class of drug appears to increase circulating endothelial progenitor cell number and has anti-inflammatory properties, both of which improve endothelial dysfunction, the key precursor to the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The objective of this project is to investigate the role of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in preventing the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The primary endpoint will be the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy based on intravascular ultrasound-derived parameters. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the present study, we developed a robust and reproducible exercise training protocol for the development of cardiac hypertrophy in mice. (scielo.br)
  • However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. (osti.gov)
  • The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. (osti.gov)
  • 1 Initially, under hypertensive conditions, there is a marked increase in myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) whereas cell length remains normal. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the number of myocytes in the growing hearts of several species has been estimated ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 36 , 43 ), as has cardiac myocyte cycle activity ( 24 , 28 , 47 ), no attempts have been made to address the following question: How many cardiac myocytes are in the cell cycle, and what proportion of these terminally differentiate? (physiology.org)
  • Biophysically detailed ionic models of cardiac cell electrophysiology are able to accurately reproduce a large range of behaviours, including membrane potential waveforms, specific ionic currents under voltage-clamp protocols, AP membrane current dynamics, and Ca 2+ alternans [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Information » Blogs » Gangadhar Hari's blog » Blog Team » Pharma Philics » CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY! (pharmainfo.net)
  • By introducing an additional variable to this model, the Fenton-Cherry modification was also able to reproduce AP waveforms from pulmonary vein and left atrial myocytes [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With the improvement of genomic technology, new pathways and biomarkers related to cardiac remodelling are discovered. (bmj.com)
  • Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Surprisingly, under nonstressed conditions, mitochondrial size (fragmentation or enlargement) would seem to be a less important determinant of cardiac phenotype or pathology than the impact that dynamic imbalance has via dysregulated mitochondria quality control, as evidenced by alterations in mitophagy or mitogenesis. (portlandpress.com)
  • AV conduction during normal cardiac rhythm occurs through two different pathways: the first "pathway" has a slow conduction velocity but shorter refractory period the second "pathway" has a faster conduction velocity but longer refractory period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brittsan AG, Kranias EG (2000) Phospholamban and cardiac contractile function. (springer.com)
  • As the myocyte is stretched between the carbon fibers, a transmitter on one fiber measures the amount of stretch and a force transducer on the other fiber measures the contractile force of the cell in response to that stretch. (news-medical.net)
  • The partial inhibition of the cardiac myocyte Na + -K + -ATPase that produces a modest increase in intracellular Na + concentration ([Na + ] i ) is sufficient to affect the sarcolemmal Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger to cause significant increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and in the contractile force ( 1 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • The latter in particular has been utilised to provide a more quantitative and integrative understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cardiac electric activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Adenosine can achieve cardioprotection by mediating the effect of ischemic preconditioning and by protecting against myocyte injury when it is present during the infarct-producing ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
  • Overexpressing the adenosine A1 receptor also led to increased protection against ischemia-induced myocyte injury as well as an enhanced preconditioning effect. (garvan.org.au)
  • Astragaloside IV treatment could inhibit the PKCβ/Egr-1 pathway and protect against hypoxia/ reoxygenation-induced cardiac myocytes death, which contributes to improve our knowledge of mechanism in the cardioprotective function of Astragaloside IV. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Thanks to the constantly active MAVS pathway, cardiac myocytes are always making a little interferon beta and so they are always pre-arming themselves. (ncsu.edu)
  • Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: role of NF-kappa B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Using dominant-negative approaches in cardiac myocytes, both the titin Z1-Z2 domains and titin-cap are shown to be required for the structural integrity of sarcomeres, suggesting that their interaction is critical in titin filament-regulated sarcomeric assembly. (rupress.org)