Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Nature: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery: Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 2: A 44-kD stimulatory receptor found on activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mice, Inbred BALB CPopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Receptors, Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering: A subclass of natural killer cell receptors that perform an important role in the recognition of tumor cells by NK CELLS.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Scat found in Cwm Rheidol forest in 2007 was confirmed to be from a pine marten using DNA testing. A male was found in 2012 as ... Scottish Natural Heritage; The Vincent Wildlife Trust (2013), Expansion zone survey of pine marten (Martes martes) distribution ... A scat found at Kidland Forest in Northumberland in June 2010 may represent either a recolonisation from Scotland, or a relict ... All of the martens were fitted with radio-collars and are being tracked daily to monitor their movements and find out where ...
"Ancient ape fossil found". Natural History Museum. 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2007-08-28. Text originally used in this article was ... Previous efforts to find fossils of great ape ancestors in Africa from between 12 and 8 million years ago had been largely ... The only evidence found of this extinct ape is currently nine fossilized teeth of at least three individuals, recovered from ... News related to New fossils from 10 million year old ape found in Ethiopia at Wikinews Data related to Chororapithecus ...
It is found in Turkey. "Elachista melancholica Frey, 18". The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found on Madagascar. De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Exilisia nebulosa de Toulgoët, 1958". Afromoths. Retrieved ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Madagascar. De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Viettesia unipuncta de Toulgoët, 1959". Afromoths. Retrieved ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Madagascar. De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Phryganopteryx convergens de Toulgoët, 1958". Afromoths. ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Brazil. "Ornarantia velatana (Walker)". LifeDesks. Archived from the original April 30, 2014. Retrieved January ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Colombia. LepIndex Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Search results Family: Arctiidae". Butterflies and Moths of ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Guatemala. Savela, Markku. "Pseudohemihyalea carmen (Schaus, 1920)". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in India. Nielsen, Ebbe S.; Robinson, Gaden S.; Wagner, David L. (2000). "Ghost-moths of the world: a global ... inventory and bibliography of the Exoporia (Mnesarchaeoidea and Hepialoidea) (Lepidoptera )" (PDF). Journal of Natural History ...
It is found in Madagascar. De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Eilema tardenota de Toulgoët, 1971". Afromoths. Retrieved ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Australia. LepIndex Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Search results Family: Arctiidae". Butterflies and Moths of ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
"Natural Attractions found in Kibungan". Benguet Province (official government website). Archived from the original on 19 March ... "Natural Attractions found in Buguias". Benguet Province (official government website). Archived from the original on 19 March ... "Natural Attractions found in Kapangan". Benguet Province (official government website). Archived from the original on 19 March ... "Natural Attractions found in Sablan". Benguet Province (official government website). Archived from the original on 19 March ...
It is found in Madagascar. The larvae feed on lichens. De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Eilema quadrangula de Toulgoët, ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Australia. The larvae feed underground, probably on the roots of Leptospermum scoparium. Nielsen, Ebbe S.; ... Journal of Natural History. 34 (6): 823-878. doi:10.1080/002229300299282. Australian Faunal Directory. ...
It is found in Algeria. "Scientific name search". The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History Museum, London. Savela, ...
It is found in Ecuador. "Gen. Paenula Simon, 1897". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-09-07. ...
It is found in Iran. "GlobIZ search". Global Information System on Pyraloidea. Retrieved 2011-09-29. "Swedish Museum of Natural ...
It is found in Australia. "Munychryia periclyta Common & McFarland, 1970". The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History ...
It is found in Brazil. Savela, Markku. "Idalus Walker, 1855". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved November 19, ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
It is found in Palestine. "Scientific name search". The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History Museum. Savela, Markku ...
It is found in China. Yuan, G. X.; Wang, S. X. (2009). "Checklist of the genusEpichostisMeyrick (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae) of ... the world, with descriptions of 11 new species from China". Journal of Natural History. 43: 2141-2165. doi:10.1080/ ...
It is found in Kazakhstan. "Ethmia hiemalis Danilevsky, 1969". The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History Museum, ...
It is found in India. It has been known to feed on humans, as well as a variety of other mammals. "Natural History Museum". The ...
It is found in China. Savela, Markku. "Miltochrista ziczac (Walker, 1856)". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved ... Natural History Museum, London. ...
Find sources: "Ariosa v. Sequenom" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this ... If a method of detecting a natural phenomenon is always "directed to" that natural phenomenon, as the Federal Circuit suggests ... Would innovators find that scope of protection sufficient quid pro quo for disclosing their inventions in their patent ... 1) a researcher is the first to discover a natural phenomenon;. (2) that unique knowledge motivates him to apply a new ...
But when natural gas workers fracture-or "frack"-the shale rock, they use large amounts of silica sand. As Elizabeth Grossman ... Theres not a lot of natural gas drilling in Kentucky, but nearby West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania have become hotbeds as ... Occupational Health and Safety Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are warning natural ...
03 NATURAL GAS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; NATURAL GAS; ENGINE; VEHICLE; CNG; COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS; LNG; LIQUIFIED NATURAL ... Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the ... A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. ... The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) ...
Age of the nearest gas well was found to be negatively correlated with distance (r = -0.325; p , 0.0001): Gas wells , 1 km from ... The process of natural gas extraction. Natural gas extraction of shale gas reserves may involve multiple activities occurring ... 624 active natural gas wells in Washington County. Of these natural gas wells, 95% were horizontally drilled (Pennsylvania ... 1 km from a natural gas well suggests that airborne irritant exposures related to natural gas extraction activities could be ...
Both patients were found to have acute suppurative appendicitis. CT scans were perfomed in both patients by the emergency room ... Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (notes) in the Setting of Acute Abdomen:. OBJECTIVE:. Laparoscopy has provided ... With Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery(NOTES) considered as the next frontier in minimally invasive surgery, our ...
ANGDA stands for Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority. ANGDA is defined as Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority ... How is Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority abbreviated? ... This definition appears frequently and is found in the ... Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority is sponsoring the "Alaska Natural Gas Value-Added Manufacturers Conference," April 28- ... Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (natural gas leak survey; ITT Corporation). *Authenticated Networked Guided Environment for ...
Carry on browsing if youre happy with this, or find out more. ... ESG & Natural Gas Sustainability Initiative (Lacey). PDF - 1.1 ... A report by Alan Krupnick of Resources for the Future (RFF) and Clayton Munnings considers whether natural gas is a promising ... On April 24, 2020, RFF hosted the webinar, "Greening Gas: Creating a Market for Low-Methane Natural Gas." This RFF Live event ... Greening Gas: Creating a Market for Low-Methane Natural Gas. Examining potential opportunities and issues related to the ...
... report found that with the current estimated global leakage rate of 1.7 percent from natural gas production and use, the fuel ... Climate Benefits of Natural Gas. Numerous studies published over the past several years have pointed to natural gas a key ... highly efficient natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, provided that natural ... Activist Funded Report Egregiously Mischaracterizes Climate Benefits of Natural Gas. 6:06pm EST November 9, 2017 by Matt Mandel ...
Necropsy results revealed no abscesses, though gastrotomy site granulomas (n=3) and adhesions (n=1) were sporadically found. ... A Simple and Efficient Technique for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (notes) Gastrotomy Closure Utilizing ...
A substance marketed as a natural stimulant in nutrition and sports supplements has proven to be entirely synthetic, ... DMAA Found Not Natural, Not Geranium. A substance marketed as a natural stimulant in nutrition and sports supplements has ... The basis for the rebranding came from a 1996 report that identified DMAA as a natural compound found in geranium (J Guizhou ... Point out that this study indicates that the DMAA found in commercial supplements is in fact synthetic and was not found in any ...
... naturally occurring form of carbon found in a meteorite fragment. Researchers were polishing a slice of the carbon-rich Havero ... Harder-Than-Diamond Natural Carbon Crystals Found 250 Posted by kdawson on Wednesday February 03, 2010 @05:08AM. from the ... Harder-Than-Diamond Natural Carbon Crystals Found. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ... That allowed them to confirm that they had, indeed, found a new phase or polymorph of crystalline carbon as well as a type of ...
Youve Just Found the most Powerful Natural Solutions to Living Scabie-free.... Products Made from the Highest Quality Tea Tree ...
Museum scientists have found that Osedax worms, which feed on the bones of whale carcasses, can live in shallow Mediterranean ... More to find. Dr Taboadas initial experiments in the Mediterranean failed to find any sign of Osedax activity. He believes ... The team found the Mediterranean Osedax living on mammal bones theyd left near a submarine canyon off the coast of Spain. ... Museum scientists have found that Osedax worms, which feed on the bones of whale carcasses, can live in shallow Mediterranean ...
... By Bret Ellington. See all Articles by Bret EllingtonGet Updates on Back ... 7 Effective Natural Healings That Are Helpful For Back Pain. Useful Tips on How to Find the Most Suitable Body Building ... As debilitating as it can be, relief can be found, and acupuncture and Chinese medicine can be a drug free, natural solution to ... Natural and lasting relief through acupuncture and Chinese medicine is a much better option than a life of pharmaceuticals or ...
Four teens share their experiences with natural disasters and give other teens advice on how to cope after a disaster. Provided ... Coping After a Natural Disaster: Resources for Teensplus icon *Finding a New Normal: Life After a Natural Disaster ... Video Series- Finding a New Normal: Life After a Natural Disaster. Follow four teens-Abby, Alexis, Jaylon, and Mariana-as they ... Finding a New Normal: Life After a Natural Disaster. Video Series and Resources for Teens ...
California Naturel sunscreen is not so natural because it is eight percent dimethicone. The FTC has ordered the company to stop ... "all natural" or "100% natural;" the extent to which a product contains any natural or synthetic ingredient or component; or the ... Naturel sunscreen not so natural, FTC finds. California Naturel is eight percent dimethicone. 12/13/2016 , ConsumerAffairs. , ... For example, the "all natural" claims were prominent on the webpage, while the disclaimer was added to the bottom of the ...
so I thought maybe it was some odd effect that chantix had that they didnt find out about.. I dont know my mind is odd at ... This is the place to talk about your experience with bipolar disorder, learn from others experiences, and find support. ... I found it amazing. Ive been trying to tap my husband all day.... lol.. now that smokes got a dollar tax this wonderful new yr ...
The best natural antidepressants found in foods may help prevent depression, ease symptoms, or improve the effectiveness of ... Natural Antidepressants found in Foods: Complex Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates indirectly help make serotonin. Simple ... This could make amino-acids one of the best natural antidepressants one can find in foods. ... The Best Natural Antidepressants: Foods High in B Vitamins. Most research has focused on folate (or folic acid), B6, and B12 ...
A veteran Memphis firefighter who collapsed after battling a house fire in April died from natural causes, an autopsy report ... Memphis firefighter died of natural causes, autopsy finds. Jody Callahan , The Commercial Appeal Published 12:40 p.m. CT May 23 ... Memphis firefighter died of natural causes, autopsy finds. A veteran Memphis firefighter who collapsed after battling a house ... Memphis firefighter died of natural causes, autopsy finds A veteran Memphis firefighter who collapsed after battling a house ...
Finding Our Natural Space On Earth. Reconnecting with nature is not just beneficial for us and our health; it is beneficial for ... The UK is rich in floral and faunal species, waiting to be found and enjoyed up and down the country. All you have to do, is ... Im fortunate to live just a few miles from the New Forest, in Hampshire; and although it is not totally natural in its make ... We are extremely fortunate here in the UK to have so much natural space, by which point youre thinking - What? The UK is ...
These natural water sources can be found throughout the world, even in deserts, if you search hard enough. ... Whether for survival or if you simply want a free source of water, natural springs are the answer. ... The best way to find a natural spring is with the help of animal life and by observing the natural elevation of the ground. ... These natural water sources can be found throughout the world, even in deserts, if you search hard enough. ...
Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have showed that a natural flavonoid is effective at treating ... Natural compound 2HF treats leishmaniasis infections, study finds. PLOS. Journal. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Keywords. * ... Natural compound 2HF treats leishmaniasis infections, study finds A PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases press release ... 2-Hydroxyflavanone (2HF), part of a class of flavonoids found in citrus fruits, is already being studied for its use in cancer ...
Finding Natural Medicine Even with a rudimentary knowledge of native plant life, anyone can find natural medicine that may be ...
Etsy Find: Shower Treat Natural Laundry Soap March 4, 2008 by Home ... seller Shower Treat Soap helps make your green transition easy by offering a sample pack of three different scents of natural ...
... bringing to two the number of natural quasicrystals ever discovered. Prior to the team finding the first natural quasicrystal ... What we find out could answer basic questions about the materials found in our universe." ... "The finding of a second naturally occurring quasicrystal confirms that these materials can form in nature and are stable over ... This new quasicrystal, which was found in a different grain of the same meteorite, has 10-fold, or decagonal, symmetry. It is ...
As an advanced form of bodywork, Myopractic integrates together the soft tissues and skeleton to achieve deep relaxation and relieve chronic pain. Based on the same system of training as that in the Bowen Technique,
  • Little is known about the environmental and public health impact of unconventional natural gas extraction activities, including hydraulic fracturing, that occur near residential areas. (nih.gov)
  • A report by Alan Krupnick of Resources for the Future (RFF) and Clayton Munnings considers whether natural gas is a promising candidate for such product differentiation, where "green" in this paper indicates a lower rate of methane emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. (rff.org)
  • With Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery(NOTES) considered as the next frontier in minimally invasive surgery, our goal for this project was to examine the role that NOTES may have in the setting of emergency surgery. (sages.org)
  • "GHG emissions from energy supply can be reduced significantly by replacing current world average coal-fired power plants with modern, highly efficient natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, provided that natural gas is available and the fugitive emissions associated with its extraction and supply are low or mitigated (robust evidence, high agreement). (energyindepth.org)
  • Lifecycle assessments indicate a reduction of specific GHG emissions of approximately 50 % for a shift from a current world-average coal power plant to a modern NGCC plant depending on natural gas upstream emissions. (energyindepth.org)
  • Although these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating, and the population studied was limited to households with a ground-fed water supply, proximity of natural gas wells may be associated with the prevalence of health symptoms including dermal and respiratory conditions in residents living near natural gas extraction activities. (nih.gov)
  • Suffice it to say, in order to support a conclusion that calls for dramatically reducing use of the fuel most responsible for the U.S. leading the world in carbon reductions since 2000, the authors of this study had to downplay or flatly ignore the substantial benefits natural gas use and instead perpetuate an irrational "Keep it in the Ground" agenda. (energyindepth.org)
  • Because of this, it's clear that this study is not meant inform on an environmental issue, but instead to blatantly oppose natural gas and fossil fuel use. (energyindepth.org)
  • A new report commissioned by anti-fossil fuel activist group Friends of the Earth Europe (FOEe) and penned by authors from the Tyndall Manchester Climate Change Research Center claims Europe will fail to meet its Paris Climate Agreement goals unless it dramatically reduces natural gas use and ends fossil fuel use altogether by 2035. (energyindepth.org)
  • Natural gas is a fossil fuel composed almost entirely of methane, but does contain small amounts of other gases, including ethane, propane, butane and pentane. (sap.com)
  • India has only limited reserves of natural gas, though further discoveries are being made from recent explorations. (sap.com)
  • Our aim was to assess the relationship between household proximity to natural gas wells and reported health symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a hypothesis-generating health symptom survey of 492 persons in 180 randomly selected households with ground-fed wells in an area of active natural gas drilling. (nih.gov)
  • Natural gas is a combustible, gaseous mixture of simple hydrocarbon compounds, usually found in deep underground reservoirs formed by porous rock. (sap.com)
  • From the gathering system, the natural gas moves into the transmission system, which is composed of about 272,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe ranging from 20 inches to 42 inches in diameter.They move large amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from the producing regions to local distribution companies (LDCs). (sap.com)
  • Compressor stations are located approximately every 50 to 60 miles along each pipeline to boost the pressure that is lost through the friction of the natural gas moving through the steel pipe. (sap.com)
  • In fact, the U.S. Energy Information Administration credits roughly two-thirds of U.S. energy-related CO2 reductions since 2005 to increased natural gas use for electricity generation. (energyindepth.org)
  • Most compressors in the natural gas delivery system use a small amount of natural gas from their own lines as fuel. (sap.com)
  • The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. (osti.gov)
  • Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process. (osti.gov)
  • The process of extraction of natural gas involves making large cavities in the ground. (sap.com)
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