Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalBone Diseases, MetabolicBone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Tibial FracturesMetatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Embolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.OsteomyelitisOsteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Camurati-Engelmann Syndrome: An autosomal dominant form of dysplasia that is characterized by progressive thickening of diaphyseal cortex of long bones. Mutations in the gene that encodes TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA1 are one cause of this disorder.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Chondroblastoma: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lathyrism: A paralytic condition of the legs caused by ingestion of lathyrogens, especially BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE or beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine, which are found in the seeds of plants of the genus LATHYRUS.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Femoral NeoplasmsAdamantinoma: A locally aggressive, osteolytic neoplasm of the long bones, probably of epithelial origin and most often involving the TIBIA.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Osteoblastoma: A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Mice, Inbred C57BLExostoses: Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Xenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital: A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Marrow DiseasesFibroma, Desmoplastic: A extremely rare bone tumor characterized by abundant collagen formation and a fibrous stroma, without evidence of mitosis or pleomorphism. It appears on x-rays as an osteolytic lesion with well-defined margins and must be differentiated from primary fibrosarcoma of bone. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1441)Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic: Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Campomelic Dysplasia: A congenital disorder of CHONDROGENESIS and OSTEOGENESIS characterized by hypoplasia of endochondral bones. In most cases there is a curvature of the long bones especially the TIBIA with dimpling of the skin over the bowed areas, malformation of the pelvis and spine, 11 pairs of ribs, hypoplastic scapulae, club feet, micrognathia, CLEFT PALATE, tracheobronchomalacia, and in some patients male-to-female sex reversal (SEX REVERSAL, GONADAL). Most patients die in the neonatal period of respiratory distress. Campomelic dysplasia is associated with haploinsufficiency of the SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Mandibular DiseasesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic: A condition chiefly characterized by thickening of the skin of the head and distal extremities, deep folds and furrows of the skin of the forehead, cheeks, and scalp, SEBORRHEA; HYPERHIDROSIS; periostosis of the long bones, digital clubbing, and spadelike enlargement of the hands and feet. It is more prevalent in the male, and is usually first evident during adolescence. Inheritance is primarily autosomal recessive, but an autosomal dominant form exists.Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome: A syndrome inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and incompatible with life. The main features are narrow thorax, short ribs, scapular and pelvic dysplasia, and polydactyly.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antley-Bixler Syndrome Phenotype: An inherited condition characterized by multiple malformations of CARTILAGE and bone including CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; midface hypoplasia; radiohumeral SYNOSTOSIS; CHOANAL ATRESIA; femoral bowing; neonatal fractures; and multiple joint CONTRACTURES and, occasionally, urogenital, gastrointestinal or cardiac defects. In utero exposure to FLUCONAZOLE, as well as mutations in at least two separate genes are associated with this condition - POR (encoding P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE)) and FGFR2 (encoding FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2).Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Erdheim-Chester Disease: A rare form of non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (HISTIOCYTOSIS, NON-LANGERHANS-CELL) with onset in middle age. The systemic disease is characterized by infiltration of lipid-laden macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes in the bone marrow, and a generalized sclerosis of the long bones.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Osteoma, Osteoid: Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
This is what they found when they opened the chamber in May 1994. The chamber was 3.8 meters long and 2.5 meters wide, with a ... long bones and teeth inlaid with jade. The archaeologists carefully lifted the lid of the sarcophogus by twenty centimeters, a ... His team removed the masonry and found a narrow corridor six meters long, blocked by debris, leading into the pyramid. That ... Inside they found the remains of a woman lying on her back. Her skeleton was covered and surrounded by a large collection of ...
Their long bones were very strong. We believe their activity level was much higher than we can imagine today. We can hardly ... Burnt stones are found in the Awash Valley, but naturally burnt (volcanic) welded tuff is also found in the area. A site at ... Dubois' 1891 find was the first fossil of a Homo-species (or any hominin species) found as result of a directed expedition and ... Some evidence is found that H. erectus was controlling fire less than 250,000 years ago. Evidence also exists that H. erectus ...
"MOTHER ANGEL'S BODY FOUND.; Bones of Brigham Young's First Mother-in-Law Long Missing". Retrieved 2016-09-22. District, New ...
The frontal bones are elongated, about 70% longer than wide. The outer side of the front branch of the jugal shows a deep ... Among the material found was an about four centimetres long thumb claw. A cast was made of the braincase, showing fine arterial ... The parietal bones at their rear form bony flaps that overlap the supraoccipital but do not touch the sides of the ... The holotype, AEHM 4/1, was found near Akkurgan in a layer of the Bostobinskaya Formation dating from the Santonian-Campanian, ...
Fischler, p. 239-240 Fischler, p. 243-244 "MOTHER ANGEL'S BODY FOUND.; Bones of Brigham Young's First Mother-in-Law Long ... El Reaches the End of Its Long, Noisy, Blighted, Nostalgic Line". New York Times. p. 24. Retrieved 8 November 2016. Brooklyn ...
The long tubular bones are another common site of involvement, with a lower extremity preponderance. Osteoblastoma of the long ... although this finding is not typical of osteoblastoma. Bone scintigraphy (bone scan) demonstrates abnormal radiotracer ... It usually presents in the vertebral column or long bones. Approximately 40% of all osteoblastomas are located in the spine. ... In the US, Osteoblastomas account for only 0.5-2% of all primary bone tumors and only 14% of benign bone tumors making it a ...
A large hyoid bone apparatus was found, in 1977 the most complete discovered for any dinosaur. It is V-shaped with the central ... This bone apparently supported a long tongue. The front skeleton shows some exceptional ossifications and fusions. The front ... Below the first and second metacarpal small disc-shaped sesamoid bones were found. The holotype preserves the front body armour ... The breast bones are fully ossified and connect to form a sternal plate that is split in front and broadly forked at the rear. ...
A nutrient canal is found in long bones, in the mandible and in dental alveoli. In long bones the nutrient canal is found in ... The nutrient canal(foramen)is directed away from the growing end of bone. The growing ends of bones in upper limb are upper end ... and are particularly large in the shafts of the larger long bones, where they lead into a nutrient canal, which extends into ... All bones possess larger or smaller foramina (openings) for the entrance of blood-vessels; these are known as the nutrient ...
Two long bones were found therein, but have not been dated. A full report from the archaeologist is expected towards the end of ... St John Hope reported finding a decayed wooden coffin and bones in this projection. Archaeological exploration in 2015 has ... Not long after the south transept was completed and the two bays of the nave nearest the crossing rebuilt to their current form ... Gilbert Scott found remains of painting behind the wooden stalls during his restoration work in the 1870s. The painting is ...
Hyaline cartilage caps the long bones and the spinal vertebrae. Most childhood limb growth takes place at the ends of the long ... Chondrodystrophy is found in all races and in both females and male and occurs in around one of every 25,000 children. ... If the fetus is suspected of having chondrodystrophy, the parents can be tested to find out if the fetus in fact does have the ... The diagnosis is declared with the help of several x-rays and charted bone growth patterns. Once the child is diagnosed the ...
Their curved hands with long metacarpal bones allows for easy brachiation. They do not have an external thumb, which sets them ... It is found in the north-western Amazon in Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil, ranging as far south as the lower ... These subgroups are brought together with long distance vocalizations. These long distance vocalizations can be up to a ... As far as patterns within the teeth, there is a lot of variation but the following are often found within Ateles. Larger ...
The long toe bones indicate that the toe bones were capable of grasping; distinct anchor attachments for the muscles and ... The specimens were found in the Queso Rallado locality of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, dating to the Aalenian-Early Bathonian ... Fossils have been found from the Cañadon Asfalto Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina, dating to the Bajocian. The type ... Principal component analysis found that the feet of Manidens were most similar to those of tree-perching birds. Argentina ...
Overall there were ten skulls, thirty long bones, and one iron spearhead found. Cycle Three Cycle three encompassed material ... However, this burial area consisted of more selective human bones, mostly long bones and skulls, buried in discrete episodes. ... The majority of the findings, however, consisted of clay sherds, selected bones (long bones and skulls), and human teeth ... There were also some sherds found in one spot, and a secondary burial pit containing: 70 bones, seven turquoise beads, and two ...
... and long parietal bones. With the exception of the 8-meter long Gigantoraptor, they are generally medium-sized and rarely ... but which Witmer found was anatomically different and evolved separately from the pygostyle of birds (a bone which serves as ... They found that the oviraptorosaurs are the sister group to the Therizinosauria and that the two, together, are more basal than ... The hands are long, and tridactyl, with a reduced third finger in Caudipteryx and Ajancingenia. There are between 5 and 8 ...
In actual social life, however, a notable meaning cannot be found. Palaeopathological research based on bone samples and, in ... Growth disorders and vitamin deficiencies can be detected from the long bones. Coproliths (fossilised fecal matter) indicate ... She is meant to have taken leadership when no men could be found due to a famine and to have led her tribe from the old ... Skeletal finds in graves provide the following age statistics for the ancient Celts: The average age at death was 35 years old ...
The bone is 38 mm long. Comparison with the tarsometatarsi of other Aplonis species shows that the Huahine starling was the ... The find of the Huahine starling bone is considered important in paleornithological circles because it has expanded our ... It was found at the archaeological site of Fa'ahia in the north of Huahine and scientifically described by David Steadman in ... second largest Aplonis species (the largest being the Samoan starling Aplonis atrifusca). The bones from the Fa'ahia site are ...
Several artifacts were also found throughout the site. In Ring 1, charcoal flecks and two fragmentary deer-sized long bones ... According to Dormaar, the longer a rock has been in one setting, the lower in the soil it will be. This will affect the "humic ... The finding of the early dated pottery sherd is surprising. Currently, it is thought that a western diffusion of Woodland ... There is not a high amount of Plains Woodland culture in Colorado prior to A.D. 500, which makes the pottery find at the site ...
The jerboas have very long hind legs which, in most species, include cannon bones. They move either by jumping, or by walking ... Different species are found in grassland, deserts, and forests. They are all capable of saltation (jumping while in a bipedal ... rather than long leaps. Both jerboas and jumping mice have long tails to aid their balance. Birch mice have shorter tails and ... long-eared jerboa Long-eared jerboa, Euchoreutes naso Mammals portal Animals portal Qian Li; Yan-Xin Gong; Yuan-Qing Wang (2017 ...
Christoper Long's 1922 exploration reveald more prehistoric reindeer bones, and also those of wolverines. The wolverine bones ... The initial discoverers of the caves found four near-complete reindeer fossils and a smaller skeleton believed to be that of an ... Long claimed that he had also discovered an underground lake, but is said to have sealed its entrance when the caves' owners ... Bison remains have also been found. "Spirits of the lead miners that still stalk Stump Cross". Craven Herald. 3 July 2010. ...
The preserved jaw bone is about 210 millimetres (8.3 in) long. Turner and Calvo found their new genus to be the basalmost ... Pehuenchesuchus (meaning "Pehuenche crocodile", after the Mapuche name for the region in which it was found) is an extinct ... the main tooth-bearing bone of the lower jaw). This animal had a narrow, tall lower jaw, and differed from all other ...
The significant bones in a human body are the backbone and the eight "long bones" of the limbs. The eight long bones are ... The source of living can be found in xh'aséikw, the essence of life. This bears some resemblance to the Chinese concept of qi ... Bones are the hard and dry remains of something which has died, and thus are the physical reminder of that being after its ... The bones of a cremated body must be collected and placed with those of the person's clan ancestors, or else the person's ...
... was longer than the pelvic bones. The tail was relatively long and feather impressions were found near the tip. Additional ... The arms were short, with longer upper arms (humeri) than lower arms (ulna). The legs were long, and the upper leg (femur) ... It is thought to be the basalmost species of oviraptorosaur, based on its long skull and a greater number of teeth in ... Numerous small oval-shaped structures were found in the body cavity of the type specimen, each 10 millimetres (0.39 in) or less ...
The lower jaw bone fragment is, lacking the tip, six centimetres long. The teeth are eroded. It is the only specimen known of ... The holotype, FMNH CUP 2088, was found in the Zhangjiawa Beds of the Lufeng Formation, dating from the Sinemurian. It consists ... Among them was a jaw bone of a herbivorous dinosaur. In 1965 David Jay Simmons named and described it as the type species ...
Characteristic injuries associated with AHT include retinal bleeds, multiple fractures of the long bones, and subdural ... In their words: "Whilst a strong pointer to NAHI [non-accidental head injury] on its own we do not think it possible to find ... small fragments of bone had been torn off where the periosteum covering the bone and the cortical bone are tightly bound ... long bones, and ribs may also be associated with AHT. Dr. John Caffey reported in 1972 that metaphyseal avulsions ( ...
The orbit or eye socket is longer than that of Exaeretodon, as are the palatine bones. Despite the differences, a 2007 study ... Using allometry, paleontologist Jun Liu found I. sudamericanus to be the largest known example of a growth series in E. ... This genus was an herbivore up to 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) long, with a specialized grinding action when feeding. An analysis of ... As the animal grew, the proportions of bones changed. These differing proportions were initially seen as species-distinguishing ...
Bones[86] - picked up for two additional seasons in May 2009, running through its sixth season in 2010/11. ... Law & Order - Canceled on May 13, 2010, after twenty seasons (tying it with Gunsmoke as the longest-running primetime drama). ... Find My Family Winter The Bachelor (21/7.8) Spring Dancing with the Stars (3/12.6) Romantically Challenged ... FOX Digs Up Another Two Years of "Bones", UPI.com, May 17, 2009 ...
A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, with many perinatal fractures, severe bowing of long bones, ... Osteoporotic bones are more at risk of fracture. A chromosomal aberration involving COL1A1 is found in dermatofibrosarcoma ... The involved bones may also appear inflamed, with painful swelling and systemic fever often accompanying the illness. The bone ... by an infantile episode of massive subperiosteal new bone formation that typically involves the diaphyses of the long bones, ...
i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ... We and others reported that mutations in TGFB1 cause Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare bone disorder. Until now, seven ... in which the binding site of the mature peptide for its receptor is no longer shielded by the latency-associated peptide. ... By way of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that in the R218C, H222D, and C225R mutant constructs, this effect is ...
Osteochondroma is frequently located in the metaphysis of the long bones, and it is an ectopic development of cartilage growth ... 1992). The plain radiological finding is usually useful for the diagnosis with the osteochondroma of the extremities. However, ... This tumor constitutes 10-15 % of all bone tumors and 20-50 % of benign bone tumors (Murphey et al. 2000). It typically occurs ... 2000). The most frequent site is the C2 vertebral bone, followed by C3 and C6 (Chatzidakis et al. 2007; Maheshwari et al. 2006 ...
Mocking no longer "the dead bones that lay scattered by": Richard III… found?. Posted on 13 September 2012 by Fr. John ... 31 Responses to Mocking no longer "the dead bones that lay scattered by": Richard III… found?. * Jon. says: ... There was something mentioned in the Forward of the book about the finding of the bones of a little aristocratic girl who was ... They find you a pro-life agent in your area who commits to giving a portion of the fee to a pro-life group! ...
Shop I Found This Humerus Long Sleeve T-Shirt designed by ZoomWear. Lots of different size and color combinations to choose ... Mens Long Sleeve T-Shirts I Found This Humerus Long Sleeve T-Shirt ... Mens Long Sleeve T-Shirts I Found This Humerus Long Sleeve T-Shirt ... These quality long-sleeve crew neck shirts are 100% cotton (pre-shrunk) & are soft and durable to keep you warm ...
Small/Medium Long Lasting Chews Dog Treat - Highly Digestible at PetSmart. Shop all dog bones & rawhide online ... Biscuits & Bakery Bones & Rawhide Chewy Treats Dental Treats Jerky Training Treats *Supplies ...
For a minor bone grafting, the two procedures can... ... depends solely on the condition of the persons jaw bone. ... the wait time required between a bone graft and a dental implant ... How is a dental bone graft performed?. * Q: Where can you find ... A bone graft is only deemed necessary when a the jaw bone is too thin or frail to brace an implant. The purpose of the bone ... How do you know if your dental bone graft is healing properly?. A: A dental bone graft is healing properly if the swelling and ...
An ulna fracture is a break of the ulna bone in the forearm. They are often associated with radius. The ulna (/ˈʌlnə/) or elbow ... longer bone of the forearm The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article. Find something interesting to ... The ulna is a long bone in the forearm. It lies medially and parallel to the radius, the second of the forearm bones. The ulna ... The Ulna is the longest and thinnest of the two long bones located in the forearm. At the elbow, the ulna articulates with the ...
Find the latest research and articles related to COVID-19 for free. View the collection , Find AAP resources here.. Racism and ... An average of 17 long bone lower extremity fracture occurred per year with 65% of long bone fractures involving the tibia and ... Long bone fractures of the lower extremity secondary to youth soccer Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Long bone fractures of the lower extremity secondary to youth soccer. Peter Zaki, Joseph Hess and William Hennrikus ...
What are some of the long bones that are found in the upper and lower extremities? •What are 2 examples of types of flat bones ... What are some of the long bones that are found in the upper and lower extremities?. Within the Discussion Board area, write 400 ... The body has approximately 206 bones. You are asked to explain how nutrition and activity can affect bone health. Answer the ... in the body? •What are some ways to maintain skeletal health and prevent bone loss? •How does weight-bearing exercise affect ...
Long Bones. Have a body and 2 expanded ends. Found in limbs. Short Bones. No long axis. Found in ankle and wrist. Flat. Ribs. ... connects bone to bone. Tendon - connects muscle to bone. Cartilage - cushioning tissue on the ends of bones or between bones in ... Condyle - an articular prominence of a bone. Epicondyle - any of several prominences on the distal part of a long bone serving ... attach muscle to bone. transmit force of muscle on bone. connects bones to form joints. Types of Joints. Diathrodial. ...
How long do vaccines last? The surprising answers may help protect people longer. sciencemag.org - Jon Cohen ... Is Going Solar Worth It for Your Home? Use This Solar Cost Calculator to Find Out. futurism.com - Futurism Creative ... Skeletal stem cells could regrow damaged bones. Engadget - Jon Fingas. It could repair breaks and even fight osteoporosis. ...
Capsaicin, found in chili pepper. (Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3011108/) ... Stem cells regrow legs long bones. New discovery could help calm IBD. ... Long term use of over the counter pain medication can lead to chronic kidney disease. ... Davis now sees chiropractor, Charles Srour, who says there are safer alternatives for treating pain long term. He recommends ...
Download the app and start listening to The Bone Tree today - Free with a 30 day Trial! Keep your audiobook forever, even if ... After finishing The Bone Tree I find myself in a familiar position, not being able to wait to see where Iles and new narrator ... I listened to the first Penn Cage book.... It was so so - Long =0 There is 32 hours of The Bone Tree.... More KKKraziness ... A very long airport paperback What disappointed you about The Bone Tree? ...
Long bones found in the chest. Massages. Cheats. Something to kick up. ... Just For Fun Quiz / Word Ladder: A Bone to Pick. Random Just For Fun or Word Ladder Quiz ... Tags:Anatomy Quiz, Word Ladder Quiz, body, bones, cranial, cranium, osteology, skeleton, skull ...
metaphysis of long bones particularly proximal femur and humerous. can be found in talus or calcaneous ... fibrous malignant primary bone tumours which tend to occur in abnormal bone (eg bone infarcts, fibrous dysplasia and pagets ... metaphsis and epiphysis long bones, often around the knee and distal radius. can occur in pelvis and spine. can involve ... what is the name of the genetic condition which results in lesions of fibrous tissue within bone and immature bone? ...
Specific fibromas include nonossifying fibroma, found in the large long bones; it is relatively common in older children and ... fracture in pathology, a break in a bone caused by stress. Certain normal and pathological conditions may predispose bones to ... often only on one side of the body and primarily in the long bones and pelvis. The disease appears to result from... ... graft-versus-host disease GVHD condition that occurs following a bone marrow transplant, in which cells in the donor marrow ( ...
... dinosaur bones had been found in Alaska. Such bones could never have lasted 70 million years. ... Why then did these bones not decay long ago? Similar perplexing questions can be asked about the frozen forest found even ... Such bones could never have lasted 70 million years, she said. Unlikely or not, it is a fact that such bones have been found. ... Fresh (not permineralized, meaning unfossilized) dinosaur bones had been found in Alaska. Such bones could never have lasted 70 ...
The biological complexity of bone marrow is driven by the diverse array of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells that ... new thoughts and viable improvement and find progress in the field of Epidemiology, Public Health and Medicine in connection to ... Novel Femur Window Chamber Model for Long-Term Optical Access to Bone Marrow Compartment. August 9th, 2016 Iris Kulbatski News ... Long-term optical access to the bone marrow niche is an important advancement that has future applications in studying stem ...
... showcases the bones of extinct critters that dominated Asia ... Lady Lake Couple Find They Dig Excavating Dinosaurs. October 31 ... Scientists At Disney Restore T. Rex Bone By Really Big Bone. September 6, 1999 ... There are also hands-on activities for the kids, including a real dinosaur leg bone that they can touch, lectures, family ... "Dinosaur Dynasty: Discoveries from China" showcases the bones of extinct critters that dominated Asia for 165 million years ...
Learn all about the causes of neck pain, and find out about symptoms and when to see a doctor. This article also looks at ... Longer-term bone and spine problems. Some people have neck pain because of long-term conditions such as arthritis. Another ... Help should be found when someone has a bad neck injury without showing great pain but is not moving or responding - they could ... Longer-term bone and spine problems. Strains and sprains to the muscles or ligaments in the neck may occur after a physical ...
The 25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth. *Bones with Names: Long-Dead Bodies Archaeologists Have Identified ... Related: Bones with Names: Long-Dead Bodies Archaeologists Have Identified. Putting the "helmets" on. The helmets were placed ... Interestingly a "hand phalanx," a type of bone, was found wedged between the infants head and the helmet. They dont know whom ... Lesions were found on the remains of both of the infants (a and d), suggesting the baby suffered some kind of bodily stress, ...
Find out what to expect, get information, practical advice and support, hear from experts and read about other peoples ... Not found what youre looking for?. If youre struggling to find what you need, call our Support line on 0808 808 0000 (Monday ... One line shows bone mass changes over time in women, and the other shows bone mass changes over time in men. The picture shows ... This infographic shows a graph of bone mass at different ages. The upright axis on the left side is labelled bone mass. The ...
We previously found a positive effect of both PS and ES on the bone mineral density and bone strength in paraplegic rats [11]. ... S.-D. Jiang, L.-S. Jiang, and L.-Y. Dai, "Changes in bone mass, bone structure, bone biomechanical properties, and bone ... It is known that the bone macroarchitecture influences bone resistance. The bone size and shape directly affect the bone ... within the macroscopic morphology of the bones. Morphological changes in the long bones caused by muscle contraction have also ...
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, with many perinatal fractures, severe bowing of long bones, undermineralization, and death in the perinatal period due to respiratory insufficiency. (phosphosite.org)
  • A dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and blue sclerae. (phosphosite.org)
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by progressively deforming bones, very short stature, a triangular face, severe scoliosis, grayish sclera, and dentinogenesis imperfecta. (phosphosite.org)
  • 2000 ). It typically occurs in young adolescent patients, because it is a disease of bone growth (Brastianos et al. (springeropen.com)
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