Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.United StatesSimian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.BrazilMacaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.New York CityPatient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)AfricaHuman Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.IndiaHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.San FranciscoProstitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Decision Making, Computer-Assisted: Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.ArtPregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
  • We recruited volunteers with symptoms of insomnia - problems falling asleep, staying asleep or waking too early - to find out what they thought about a few different products designed to improve sleep. (choice.com.au)
  • If you are suffering from insomnia or sleep deprivation, simply can't sleep, or are snoring, you might benefit from these natural sleep aids , which might help you sleep better. (almanac.com)
  • A vital element that obtains also much less focus is the resulting rest loss as well as insomnia, which has a straight wellness influence on the non snoring companion. (sandpointtransitioninitiative.org)
  • Often used to help insomnia, chamomile is found to increase urinary levels of glycine, an amino acid which is known to relieve muscle spasms, especially those that cause menstrual pain. (irishnews.com)
  • If someone is negatively affected by their partner's sleeping habits - be it snoring, insomnia, tossing and turning, etc. - it can create enough resentment to initiate a breakup . (bustle.com)
  • Read our articles to know more about insomnia, sleeping disorders, snoring and sleep apnea. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Find out more about insomnia and how to cope with difficulty sleeping. (mydr.com.au)
  • When it comes to sleep aids, there are several soothing sounds that help you beat insomnia . (rd.com)
  • Conventional physicians often resort to drugs (including antidepressants) and even surgery to treat snoring and sleep apnea, but these come with potentially serious risks to your health. (mercola.com)
  • He looked for exercises that can help treat snoring and sleep apnea. (litrix.com)
  • The company points to a clinical trial with Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital published in SLEEP in 2017 that found the system was able to help people fall asleep 38 percent faster compared to control nights when they were simply exposed to normal noise in the environment. (rd.com)
  • While the Sleeplab anti snoring device is a great product, it might not be for everyone. (zoopy.com)
  • While ZQuiet is a unique anti-snoring device, there are still going to be people who do not like it for what it is. (top10snoringaids.com)
  • On using this device, you will find that the snoring habit does not recur. (potentmuscles.com)
  • This anti snoring device is fast gaining popularity. (potentmuscles.com)
  • A compact self-contained electronic anti-snoring device is adapted to be worn in the outer ear or attached thereto. (google.com)
  • A counter is also provided to record the number of snores during a sleeping period and provide an indication of the effectiveness of the device. (google.com)
  • 2. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the receiving means comprises a transducer combining a microphone and said speaker means. (google.com)
  • 3. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said receiving means comprises an audio filter, a demodulator and a snore duration detector connected in series, said snore duration detector providing an output signal to said signal generating means only in response to snoring sounds exceeding a predetermined duration. (google.com)
  • 4. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said signal generating means includes amplitude control means for varying the amplitude of said audio signal with successive detected snoring sounds. (google.com)
  • 6. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 5, further comprising random generating means connected to said amplitude control means and said duration control means for generating controlling signals to vary randomly the manner in which the amplitude and duration of the audio signal vary with successive detected snoring sounds. (google.com)
  • 7. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 5, further comprising timer means connected to the output of said receiving means for measuring the time delay between detected snoring sounds, said timer means providing an output to reset said amplitude control means and said duration control means when the measured delay exceeds a preset value. (google.com)
  • 8. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 1, further comprising means for counting the number of snores detected, encoding means for encoding said number, and playback means for reproducing the encoded number in an audibly detectable form. (google.com)
  • 9. An anti-snoring device as claimed in claim 5, further comprising cut-out means for terminating the operation of the device when the number of snores detected within a predetermined period exceeds a preset number. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to an electronic anti-snoring device. (google.com)
  • In particular, the invention is directed to a behavioural conditioning device which detects the sound of a snore and provides an aversive stimulus to the sleeper to condition him to sleep without snoring. (google.com)
  • Before you buy a jaw supporter , it is extremely vital that you first learn the way that it works, because this is going to help you in deciding if it's the right device that can help you to stop snoring. (nalag.org.nz)
  • Hence an increasing number of people are inclined to get this uncomplicated snoring device for their everyday use. (nalag.org.nz)
  • My Snoring Solution is actually a chin strap anti-snoring device that is extremely easy to use. (nalag.org.nz)
  • People using this efficient anti-snoring device for the very first time might feel claustrophobic and incredibly uncomfortable. (nalag.org.nz)
  • Some people can feel the snoring device in the mouth when attempting fall asleep which was uncomfortable initially. (nalag.org.nz)
  • When searching for the best stop snoring device look for quality, there are many anti snoring aids such as high quality zyppah snoring device, however there are some devices that are low quality, so keep an eye for the device which will do its job. (nalag.org.nz)
  • Maybe you're ready to stop snoring but are put off by the idea of wearing a device every night. (nutritiongrow.com)
  • Maybe you've tried a device and found it too uncomfortable. (nutritiongrow.com)
  • Find solutions for snoring or sleep apnea, from changing position, losing weight, abstaining from alcohol or using a sleep aid called CPAP to correct breathing problems. (chron.com)
  • The risk of snoring can be exacerbated by a number of factors as well, including the anatomy of the mouth, nasal problems like having a cold or swelling due to an infection, alcohol consumption, and sleep position. (zoopy.com)
  • Consuming alcohol before going to bed can be the reason behind snoring. (asonor.com)
  • Other factors that contribute to snoring, including sedatives such as alcohol, which helps to further relax the palate as well as the uvula (small piece of triangular skin that hangs in the back of the mouth). (oneplanetoneday.co.uk)
  • It recounted that police found photos and messages on Turner's cell phone that indicated extensive drug use, including LSD, ecstasy, marijuana extracts, and excessive alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is another consistent finding: individuals who avoid alcohol in the evening generally sleep better and feel more rested the following morning than when they drink. (drbriffa.com)
  • To consume alcohol or to smoke compulsively worsens the snoring habit of a person. (potentmuscles.com)
  • People who smoke and take alcohol can have snoring. (findhomeremedy.com)
  • In the case of heavy snoring, it becomes really impossible for others to sleep properly. (asonor.com)
  • The most effective ways to do this is to apply anti-snoring devices as essentially heavy snoring should be resolved prior to a single reaches 30 years of age. (articlecube.com)
  • Heavy snoring, on the other hand, may require anti snore aids as they can eventually become a risk factor for other health problems. (craab.org)
  • To prevent heavy snoring, strive to find the main cause of it. (canistopsnoring.com)
  • While sleep apnea is a common cause of sleep loss, heavy snoring (often a precursor to sleep apnea) can also cause disrupted sleep to both the snorer and his or her mate. (smilesbyandrews.com)
  • He himself was once a snorer and he even used a CPAP machine to aid him during sleep. (litrix.com)
  • He successfully eliminated snoring from his life and eventually have to say goodbye to the CPAP machine because of his improvement. (litrix.com)
  • That is why there is no shortage of amazing snoring aids on the market - from pillows to strips to CPAP machines and everything in between. (top10snoringaids.com)
  • If you just suffer from regular snoring not caused by sleep apnea, then read on to see just how the Sleeplab works to help you and your love ones sleep soundly, and soundlessly, though the night. (zoopy.com)
  • It exerts pressure on the throat tissues and start vibrating to develop snoring. (potentmuscles.com)
  • 7 ] The spray helps in lubricating the throat tissues, which reduces the snoring noise. (findhomeremedy.com)
  • Individuals which melt the candle light at both ends, functioning long hrs, partying, etc are more probable to snore since when their physical body does ultimately obtain the remainder that it requires, it's overtired, leading to a further rest as well as once again, the muscular tissues will certainly come to be floppier and that could add to your the reasons why you snore. (nalag.org.nz)