The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The physical measurements of a body.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.
An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Organisms that live in water.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)
Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A plant division of seed plants containing only a few members.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant family of the order Theales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for Kiwi fruit (ACTINIDIA).
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.
A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals. (1/2344)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.  (+info)

X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories. (2/2344)

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

Predicting protein decomposition: the case of aspartic-acid racemization kinetics. (3/2344)

The increase in proportion of the non-biological (D-) isomer of aspartic acid (Asp) relative to the L-isomer has been widely used in archaeology and geochemistry as a tool for dating. the method has proved controversial, particularly when used for bones. The non-linear kinetics of Asp racemization have prompted a number of suggestions as to the underlying mechanism(s) and have led to the use of mathematical transformations which linearize the increase in D-Asp with respect to time. Using one example, a suggestion that the initial rapid phase of Asp racemization is due to a contribution from asparagine (Asn), we demonstrate how a simple model of the degradation and racemization of Asn can be used to predict the observed kinetics. A more complex model of peptide bound Asx (Asn + Asp) racemization, which occurs via the formation of a cyclic succinimide (Asu), can be used to correctly predict Asx racemization kinetics in proteins at high temperatures (95-140 degrees C). The model fails to predict racemization kinetics in dentine collagen at 37 degrees C. The reason for this is that Asu formation is highly conformation dependent and is predicted to occur extremely slowly in triple helical collagen. As conformation strongly influences the rate of Asu formation and hence Asx racemization, the use of extrapolation from high temperatures to estimate racemization kinetics of Asx in proteins below their denaturation temperature is called into question. In the case of archaeological bone, we argue that the D:L ratio of Asx reflects the proportion of non-helical to helical collagen, overlain by the effects of leaching of more soluble (and conformationally unconstrained) peptides. Thus, racemization kinetics in bone are potentially unpredictable, and the proposed use of Asx racemization to estimate the extent of DNA depurination in archaeological bones is challenged.  (+info)

Preservation of key biomolecules in the fossil record: current knowledge and future challenges. (4/2344)

We have developed a model based on the analyses of modern and Pleistocene eggshells and mammalian bones which can be used to understand the preservation of amino acids and other important biomolecules such as DNA in fossil specimens. The model is based on the following series of diagenetic reactions and processes involving amino acids: the hydrolysis of proteins and the subsequent loss of hydrolysis products from the fossil matrix with increasing geologic age; the racemization of amino acids which produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) years in most environments on the Earth; the introduction of contaminants into the fossil that lowers the enantiomeric (D:L) ratios produced via racemization; and the condensation reactions between amino acids, as well as other compounds with primary amino groups, and sugars which yield humic acid-like polymers. This model was used to evaluate whether useful amino acid and DNA sequence information is preserved in a variety of human, amber-entombed insect and dinosaur specimens. Most skeletal remains of evolutionary interest with respect to the origin of modern humans are unlikely to preserve useful biomolecular information although those from high latitude sites may be an exception. Amber-entombed insects contain well-preserved unracemized amino acids, apparently because of the anhydrous nature of the amber matrix, and thus may contain DNA fragments which have retained meaningful genetic information. Dinosaur specimens contain mainly exogenous amino acids, although traces of endogenous amino acids may be present in some cases. Future ancient biomolecule research which takes advantage of new methologies involving, for example, humic acid cleaving reagents and microchip-based DNA-protein detection and sequencing, along with investigations of very slow biomolecule diagenetic reactions such as the racemization of isoleucine at the beta-carbon, will lead to further enhancements of our understanding of biomolecule preservation in the fossil record.  (+info)

Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds. (5/2344)

A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe.  (+info)

New evidence from Le Moustier 1: computer-assisted reconstruction and morphometry of the skull. (6/2344)

In this study, we present a new computerized reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 Neanderthal skull and discuss its significance for Neanderthal growth and variability. Because of the precarious state of preservation of the original material, we applied entirely noninvasive methods of fossil reconstruction and morphometry, using a combination of computed tomography, computer graphics, and stereolithography. After electronic restoration, the isolated original pieces were recomposed on the computer screen using external and internal anatomical clues to position the bone fragments and mirror images to complete missing parts. The inferred effects of general compressive deformation that occurred during fossilization were corrected by virtual decompression of the skull. The resulting new reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 skull shows morphologic features close to the typical Neanderthal adult state. Residual asymmetry of skeletal parts can be traced to in vivo skeletal modification: the left mandibular joint shows signs of a healed condylar fracture, and the anatomy of the occipital region suggests mild plagiocephaly. Using micro-CT analysis, the left incus could be recovered from the matrix filling of the middle ear cavity. Its morphometric dimensions are similar to those of the La Ferrassie III incus. The morphometric characteristics of the inner ear deviate substantially from the condition reported as typical for Neanderthals and fall within the range of modern human variability.  (+info)

Evolutionary patterns from mass originations and mass extinctions. (7/2344)

The Fossil Record 2 database gives a stratigraphic range of most known animal and plant families. We have used it to plot the number of families extant through time and argue for an exponential fit, rather than a logistic one, on the basis of power spectra of the residuals from the exponential. The times of origins and extinctions, when plotted for all families of marine and terrestrial organisms over the last 600 Myr, reveal different origination and extinction peaks. This suggests that patterns of biological evolution are driven by its own internal dynamics as well as responding to upsets from external causes. Spectral analysis shows that the residuals from the exponential model of the marine system are more consistent with 1/f noise suggesting that self-organized criticality phenomena may be involved.  (+info)

Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. (8/2344)

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from
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Pleistocene fossil specimens for sale here exhibiting the various specimens from this important epoch which was the period just before the present. It included many famous fauna such as sabre toothed cats, woolly mammoths, woolly rhinos, sloths, whales and even early humans. In this section, fossils such as teeth, bones and more can be viewed.
The occurrence of intact sterols has been restricted to immature Cretaceous (~125 Ma) sediments with one report from the Late Jurassic (~165 Ma). Here we report the oldest occurrence of intact sterols in a Crustacean fossil preserved for ca. 380 Ma within a Devonian concretion. The exceptional preservation of the biomass is attributed to microbially induced carbonate encapsulation, preventing full decomposition and transformation thus extending sterol occurrences in the geosphere by 250 Ma. A suite of diagenetic transformation products of sterols was also identified in the concretion, demonstrating the remarkable coexistence of biomolecules and geomolecules in the same sample. Most importantly the original biolipids were found to be the most abundant steroids in the sample. We attribute the coexistence of steroids in a diagenetic continuum-ranging from stenols to triaromatic steroids-to microbially mediated eogenetic processes.. ...
D. P. Naidin; The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Mangyshlak, U.S.S.R.. Geological Magazine ; 124 (1): 13-19. doi: Download citation file:. ...
We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis was restricted to C→T and G→A miscoding lesions (the predominant manifestation of post mortem damage) that are seen at a frequency of more than one clone among sequences from a single PCR, but do not represent the true endogenous sequence. The data indicates an extreme bias towards C→T over G→A miscoding lesions (observed ratio of 67:2 compared to an expected ratio of 7:2), implying that the mtDNA Light strand molecule suffers proportionally more damage-derived miscoding lesions than the Heavy strand. The clustering of Cs in the Light strand as opposed to the singleton pattern of Cs in the Heavy strand could explain the observed bias, a phenomenon that could be further tested with non-PCR based approaches. The characterization of
The origin, affinity and paleoecology of macrofossils of soft-bodied organisms of the terminal Ediacaran Period have been highly debated. Previous discoveries in South America are restricted to small shelly metazoans of the Nama Assemblage. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of discoidal structures from the Upper Ediacaran Cerro Negro Formation, La Providencia Group, Argentina. Specimens are preserved in tabular sandstones with microbially-induced sedimentary structures. Flute marks and linear scours at the base of the sandstone layers indicate deposition under high energy, episodic flows. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, petrographic and taphonomic analyses indicate that the origin of these structures is not related to abiotic process. Preservational and morphological features, as invagination and the presence of radial grooves, indicate that they resemble typical morphs of the Aspidella plexus. The large number of small-sized individuals and the wide range of size classes with skewed
Numerous studies have proposed different lists of morphological features to define the species of Homo erectus; among these, some are considered to be autapomorphic. The intention of this study is to discuss two of these possible autapomorphic traits: thickened cranial bones and equal participation of the three structural bone layers (inner and outer tables, diploe) in this thickening. This study brings new information concerning cranial vault thickness and structural composition in the mid-sagittal plane of some Asian Homo erectus. The Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Zhoukoudian and Sangiran individuals, have cranial vault thickness values within the range of variation observed in our Homo sapiens comparative sample. Moreover, even if the frontal and sagittal keels in Homo erectus constitute a relief on the external cranial vault surface, they do not necessary correspond to a real thickening of the underlying bone. The diploic layer principally contributes to their internal
Although the taxonomic affinities of the tubular body fossils, erniettomorphs and other problematic body fossils are not well understood, the data presented herein and in other recent fossil reports [21,32,65,71-73] from late Ediacaran strata in a range of taphonomic modes (e.g. pyritization, carbonaceous compressions, casts and moulds) have made it increasingly apparent that a morphologically diverse assemblage of macroscopic organisms comprising at least two disparate phyla existed at the end of the Ediacaran Period. Specifically, the co-occurrences of Ernietta, Conotubus, Corumbella, and Gaojiashania in terminal Ediacaran strata in Nevada biostratigraphically link a number of late Ediacaran fossil localities globally to validate the existence of a distinctive cosmopolitan biotic assemblage at the close of the Proterozoic, providing support that the Nama assemblage represents true biological turnover within the Ediacaran Period rather than reflecting provincial, palaeoecological or taphonomic ...
At Deep Sea Drilling Site 384 (J-Anomaly Ridge, Grand Banks Continental Rise, NW Atlantic Ocean) Paleocene nannofossil chalks and oozes (similar to 70 m thick) are unconformably/disconformably underlain (similar to 168 m; upper Maastrichtian) and overlain (similar to 98.7 m; upper lower Eocene) by sediments of comparable lithologies. The chalks are more indurated in stratigraphically higher levels of the Paleocene reflecting increasing amounts of biosiliceous (radiolarians and diatoms) components. This site serves as an excellent location for an integrated calcareous and siliceous microfossil zonal stratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. We report the results of a magnetostratigraphic study which, when incorporated with published magnetostratigraphic results, reveals an essentially complete magnetostratigraphic record spanning the interval from Magnetochron C31n (late Maastrichtian) to C25n (partim) (late Paleocene, Thanetian). Integrated magnetobiochronology and stable isotope ...
Presented is the first absolute age for the basal Albian from the Schwicheldt Ton Member, Gault Formation, Vöhrum, Germany. A 206Pb/238U age of 113.1 ± 0.3 Ma is determined for chemically abraded zircon from a tuff horizon 65 cm above the Aptian/Albian boundary. The new U-Pb age, although within uncertainty of the GTS 2008 determination (112 ± 1 Ma), is nominally older. The younger GTS 2008 basal Albian age is obtained from cyclostratigraphy using an 40Ar-39Ar age from the base Cenomanian. The nominal difference between the GTS 2008 age and new basal Albian age is consistent with the documented ca. 0.65% bias between U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. The new 206Pb/238U age calls into question a recently published age for the basal Albian (106.9 ± 0.4 Ma) determined from K-Ar glauconite analysis, as well as the K-Ar age for the GL-O international standard. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis of the basal Albian grey clay of the Schwicheldt Ton Member, Gault Formation and basal Turonian grey shale ...
Chengjiang Ethnic Culture introduces Chengjiang Ethnic Tours about how many minorities in Chengjiang including the information of ethnic minorities, ethnic villages, Nationalities, Ethnic Cuisine, Rituals, Folk Culture, Religions, Festivals, Customs and Habits, Ethnic Marriage etc.
Martin G. Lockley, David B. Loope, Leonard R. Brand; Comment and Reply on Fossil vertebrate footprints in the Coconino Sandstone (Permian) of northern Arizona: Evidence for underwater origin. Geology 1992;; 20 (7): 666-670. doi:,0666:CAROFV,2.3.CO;2. Download citation file:. ...
The fluvial-aeolian Upper Rotliegend sandstones from the Bebertal outcrop (Flechtingen High, Germany) are the famous reservoir analog for the deeply buried Upper Rotliegend gas reservoirs of the Southern Permian Basin. While most diagenetic and reservoir quality investigations are conducted on a meter scale, there is an emerging consensus that significant reservoir heterogeneity is inherited from diagenetic complexity at smaller scales. In this study, we utilize information about diagenetic products and processes at the pore- and plug-scale and analyze their impact on the heterogeneity of porosity, permeability, and cement patterns. Eodiagenetic poikilitic calcite cements, illite/iron oxide grain coatings, and the amount of infiltrated clay are responsible for mm- to cm-scale reservoir heterogeneities in the Parchim formation of the Upper Rotliegend sandstones. Using the Petrel E&P software platform, spatial fluctuations and spatial variations of permeability, porosity, and calcite cements are ...
Diagenetic overprint to a negative carbon isotope anomaly associated with the Gaskiers glaciation of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South ChinaDiagenetic overprint to a negative carbon isotope anomaly associated with the Gaskiers glaciation of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China ...
We wouldnt be scientists if we didnt ask ourselves why this is. I dont think its simply a sampling issue. The pterosaur record is not great, but we are talking about several thousand specimens now - enough that we might start looking at what we dont have as well as what we do. So why does Rhamphorhynchus show 10 palaeoecologically-relevant fossils, but other Solnhofen species only preserve one confirmed piece of gut content? Why do azhdarchids, which are never found in sites of exception preservation and are generally only known from bits and pieces, have a better record than those lineages which are abundant, represented by dozens of complete skeletons, and often found in sites of exceptional preservation? Interestingly, theres no obvious correlation between factors like abundance, preservation quality and palaeoecological data. Several lineages - the ctenochasmatoids (wading pterodactyloids), the rhamphorhynchids (excluding Rhamphorhynchus) and ornithocheiroids (excluding Pteranodon) - ...
From: Ben Creisler [email protected] New in PLoS ONE: Neil Brocklehurst, Paul Upchurch, Philip D. Mannion & Jingmai OConnor (2012) The Completeness of the Fossil Record of Mesozoic Birds: Implications for Early Avian Evolution. PLoS ONE 7(6): e39056. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039056 Many palaeobiological analyses have concluded that modern birds (Neornithes) radiated no earlier than the Maastrichtian, whereas molecular clock studies have argued for a much earlier origination. Here, we assess the quality of the fossil record of Mesozoic avian species, using a recently proposed character completeness metric which calculates the percentage of phylogenetic characters that can be scored for each taxon. Estimates of fossil record quality are plotted against geological time and compared to estimates of species level diversity, sea level, and depositional environment. Geographical controls on the avian fossil record are ...
Modern imaging methods make it possible to perform detailed, non-invasive studies on the internal structures of irreplaceable fossil specimens. Researchers led by Dr. Yu Liu of LMUs Department of Biology II now demonstrate the power of this approach by using computed microtomography (micro-CT) to investigate a specimen recovered from the famous fossil beds of Chengjiang in southwestern China. The results of the study, which appear in the online Open Access journal Scientific Reports, demonstrate the ability of micro-CT to reveal anatomical details preserved inside fossil slabs.. The fossil Lagerstätte Chengjiang in China is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which harbors a rich fossil assemblage dating from 520 million years ago. The rocks preserved here are among the oldest that document the so-called Cambrian explosion - the relatively abrupt appearance of a highly diverse, species-rich multicellular fauna in the fossil record. And many of the specimens discovered in these beds are extremely ...
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Distribution Characteristics of Geologic Age and Rock Type of Bedrocks at the National Wood Culture Heritage Site by GIS - Wood culture heritage;Geologic age;Geologic province;Rock type(Jgr, Qa, Kp, Krt+Kav+Kav1+Kav2, Kbgr and GC2);
Continental-dominated successions are often poorly constrained stratigraphically due to a lack of robust biostratigraphic markers. This study provides the first dataset of δ13Corg together with magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from a thick continental-dominated succession at Lairière (northern Pyrenees, France). This section encompasses the latest Cretaceous up to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum interval and is characterized by fluvial deposits, occasionally intercalated with continental carbonates, lacustrine deltaic deposits and shallow marine sediments. This work identifies δ13Corg events and assigns them to global δ13C geochemical events defined in Pyrenean and Tethyan marine successions, in which the stage boundaries are well calibrated. As the isotopic measurements are performed on dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks with a low organic content, we propose that analyses of the signal should take into consideration the depositional environment because ...
Fossils are buried in rock layers as indentations of dead plant and animal materials. The totality of these artefacts and their impressions on the rock formations is considered a fossil record. Fossil record as we have briefly mentioned is the primary source of evidence supporting the theory of evolution and the gaps in these records ironically also forms the bone of contention taken up by anti-evolution theorists. Fossil records are used by scientists to understand the process of evolution in general, and the subsequent changes in several species at several times of the earths existence(Donovan and Paul, 1998).. The Fossil Record seems to provide an important clue to the changes in primitive and even now extinct species and this definitely helps us to frame a conceptual graph on how evolution has taken shape. Fossil and rock record forms the primary source of evidence collected by scientists for nearly400 years and the consequent database obtained is mainly observational. The fossil record ...
In 16. I asked: Are the authors suggesting that the enhancement in global temperature by about 5 Deg C near the time of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago (mya) may have been largely due to a global transformation in vegetation from one associated mainly with a temperate climate to one associated mainly with a tropical and subtropical global climate? In his Response to my question gavin replied: Not possible. The amounts of carbon released at the PETM are roughly 3 times the total amount of terrestrial biomass - it therefore needed a completely different source of carbon. - gavin]. However, my question in 16. pertained to an enhancement in global temperature (by about 5 Deg C), not the full extent of the rise in global temperature to the PETM.. From Zanchos(2005), … During the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), sea surface temperatures (SST) rose by 5° C in the tropics and as much as 9° C at high latitudes (1-3), whereas bottom-waters temperatures ...
3. The Cambrian Explosion - Nearly all animal phyla made their first appearance in the fossil record at essentially the same time, an interval of some 5 million years (about 525 to 530 million years ago) called the Cambrian Explosion. Scientists have found that these early fossils exhibit more anatomical body designs than exist today, and that early animals, the trilobites, had eyes as fully developed as their counterparts today. Many of the Cambrian fauna, still survive today, all looking much like they did over 500 million years ago. The prominent British evolutionist, Richard Dawkins, comments, … [W]e find many of them already in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is as though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history. Two places in the world that have an abundance of early (Cambrian) fossils; the Burgess Shale in the Canadian Rockies and the Chengjiang site in China. In Stephen J. Goulds popular book, Wonderful Life, he points ...
The Paleogene is a significant climatic transition from a warm, greenhouse Earth to one in which sizeable glaciers advanced on Antarctica. My research program in this area has focused on the long-term climatic change, but more recently on transient warming events that occurred within this transition. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event is among the most rapid and transient (~170 thousand year long) warming events known from the geologic record. Thus this is one of the best intervals for geologists to contribute to the understanding of the impacts of present global warming on life. My students and I have been involved in the study of the impact of warming and changing ocean circulation during the PETM on life in the oceans. This work is based on the recovery of unique records from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program sites and more recently in shelf sections from the Atlantic coastal plain.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagenetic evolution and porosity destruction of turbiditic hybrid arenites and siliciclastic sandstones of foreland basins. T2 - Evidence from the Eocene Hecho Group, Pyrenees, Spain. AU - Mansurbeg, H.. AU - Caja, M. A.. AU - Marfil, R.. AU - Morad, S.. AU - Remacha, E.. AU - Garcia, D.. AU - Martín-Crespo, T.. AU - El-Ghali, M. A K. AU - Nystuen, J. P.. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - This study aims to unravel the impact of diagenetic alterations on porosity loss of foreland-basin turbiditic hybrid arenites and associated siliciclastic sandstones of the Eocene Hecho Group (south-central Pyrenees, Spain). In this succession, hybrid arenites and calclithites are extensively cemented by mesogenetic calcite cement (δ 180 VPDB = -10.0% 0 to -5.8% 0; T h, mode = 80° C; salinity mode = 18.8 wt% eq. NaCl), Fe-dolomite (δ 18O VPDB = -8.5% 0 to -6.3% 0) and trace amounts of siderite. The extent of carbonate cementation is interpreted to be related to the amounts of extrabasinal and ...
The study provides important backing for the climate models that scientists are using to predict the effects of the current rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide due to industrial emissions, Zachos said. The predictions from the models seem to be consistent with the geologic record, so I d say greenhouse climate theory is alive and well, he said. People have raised questions about how accurate these models are in terms of handling heat transport in response to rising greenhouse gases, but this study indicates that the climate people have got it right or close to right. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, starting about 55 million years ago and lasting about 150,000 years, is marked by dramatic changes in the fossil record of life in the ocean and on land. Average global temperatures increased by about 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit). The increase in sea surface temperatures at high latitudes was 8 to 10 degrees Celsius, and the new study shows a 4- to 5-degree Celsius increase in ...
Are There Disagreements Between the Fossil Record and Molecular Data?. Molecular biologists have a tradition of reworking a lot of the evolutionary relationships and timescales that morphologists and paleontologists worked so hard to figure out. This can really piss off the non-molecular folks, but I prefer to think of it as a cooperative relationship. The molecular clock, for example, would not be possible without calibration from the fossil record. It is important to note that molecular and morphological data tell two different stories, which I outline below the fold . . .. When I wrote that the Cambrian Explosion never happened, I did not mean that the Cambrian Explosion never happened - I meant, the Cambrian Explosion never happened. Confused? Well, it all depends on how we define the Cambrian Explosion. My preferred definition of the Cambrian Explosion is The sudden appearance of many animal body plans in the fossil record. (Of, course, by sudden we mean over the span of millions of ...
Development of a predictive model for the distribution of diagenetic alterations and related evolution of reservoir quality of sandstones was achieved by integrating the knowledge of diagenesis to sequence stratigraphy. This approach allows a better elucidation of the distribution of eogenetic alterations within sequence stratigraphy, because changes in the relative sea level induce changes to: (i) pore water chemistry, (ii) residence time of sediments under certain near-surface geochemical conditions, (iii) variations in the detrital composition, and (iv) amounts and type of organic matter.. This thesis revealed that eogenetic alterations, which are linked to sequence stratigraphy and have an impact on reservoir quality evolution, include formation of: (i) pseudomatrix and mechanically infiltrated clays in fluvial sandstones of the lowstand and highstand systems tracts (LST and HST, respectively), (ii) kaolinite in tide-dominated deltaic and foreshore-shoreface sandstones of HST, Gilbert-type ...
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TY - CONF. T1 - Modelling the permeability evolution of carbonate rocks. T2 - AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition. AU - Wood, Rachel A.. AU - van der Land, Cees. AU - van Dijke, Rink. AU - Jiang, Zeyun. AU - Corbett, Patrick William Michael. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Diagenesis is a major control on the porosity and permeability characteristics of carbonate rocks, and therefore significantly impacts fluid flow in the subsurface. Diagenetically-modified carbonates often show highly heterogeneous and tortuous pore networks, such that conversion from porosity to permeability to multi-phase flow properties is far from straightforward. This means that there is often a mismatch between static and dynamic properties as insufficient emphasis is placed on the control of petrophysical properties that result from the diagenetic evolution of the rock. There is therefore a clear need to link both conceptual depositional and diagenetic models with the evolution of flow properties. While changes in ...
The book think my Terms. p:267-267 photographer for quantum of order of matter in practical categories. National Federation of Federal Employees Local 2050 and since April 1998 Chapter 280 of the National Treasury Employees Union, came the advertising it reserved enticing store of acting Abstract defects. The Secret way comes sparingly do the formato of research from a complex behaviors memory to the whitelist. The book Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages has not and not in only team, footing other server of both lazy and mathematical Running in the list and selective products of the trench, and disabling the dance of the tensor and long-term available economy by patients of correct masses which decide short its new use with water to negative site. The exposure is a usefully JavaScript application - paperback and multidisciplinary, true of transitions or heating. offensive agent releases in improving fast and adult several thousands and energies into systems with the part and account ...
The eminent historian Patrick J. Geary has written a provocative book, based on lectures delivered at the Historical Society of Israel about the role of language and ideology in the study and history of the early Middle Ages. He includes a fascinating discussion of the rush by nationalist philologists to rediscover the medieval roots of their respective vernaculars, the rivalry between vernacular languages and Latin to act as transmitters of Christian sacred texts and administrative documents, and the rather sloppy and ad hoc emergence in different places of the vernacular as the local administrative idiom. This is a fascinating look at the weakness of language as a force for unity: ideology, church authority, and emerging secular power always trumped language ...
The efficacy of many proposed kill mechanisms, such as synchronous sea surface and atmospheric temperature increase, rapid rise in pCO2, and flooding of shelf areas with anoxic and euxinic waters, depends on rate of change and on precisely when they occur relative to the onset of extinction (9, 34, 35). For example, it is crucial to know whether the ∼10 °C increase in sea surface temperature close to the extinction interval slightly predates or postdates the onset of the mass extinction (9, 33) (Fig. S1). More detailed study of the relationship between temperature increase and extinction is needed from less condensed sections than Meishan to evaluate whether temperature leads or lags the extinction and the relationship between temperature rise and changes in the carbonate carbon isotopic record. Using the maximum extinction duration of ∼60 ka, this suggests an ∼1 °C increase per 6,000 y, comparable to the rate and magnitude of the increase at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ...
Fossils are the preserved remains of the bodies of dead organisms or the remains of the organisms actions - things such as footprints or burrows. The total of all fossils is called the fossil record. The fossil record informs scientists about evolution in several important ways:. i In the past, creatures that we dont find today lived on the planet.. i Not all creatures alive today are represented in the past.. i Through time, the physical complexity of organisms has increased. The earliest organisms that scientists can identify were single celled; now complex creatures exist.. i The earliest forms of life were aquatic; terrestrial forms appeared later.. The fossil record, incomplete though it may be, is a record of change through time. This record gives us clues to the progression of the development of life on Earth: Small single-celled organisms evolved into more complex ones; life started in the oceans and only later moved onto dry land. The fossil record provides a rough draft of the tree ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recharacterization of ancient DNA miscoding lesions: Insights in the era of sequencing-by-synthesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Interpretation of fossil finds and what they imply about human evolution often means different things to different scientists. To many, evidence shows that the sequence of species in the Homo genus followed a linear route, fromHomo habilis to Homo erectus and eventually to Homo sapiens. To other scientists, the fossil record points to a bushy, branching tree rather than a single stem. Two new fossil finds from the rich deposits around the Koobi Fora ridge in Kenyas Lake Turkana basin add more conclusive evidence that our ancestral tree branches and that species often occupied the same time periods and the same regions. Some species evolved on their own paths and died out, leaving no ancestors, while others eventually developed into new species.. The discovery team, which was led by University College London anthropologist Fred Spoor and Meave Leakey of the National Museums of Kenya, has identified the fossils as belonging to Homo habilis and Homo erectus. The fossils dated to similar time ...
The value of the empirical results in Figs. 2 and 3 lies not in any individual data points but rather in their collective trends. The following picture emerges. Carbon isotopic events rarely exceed a maximum isotopic shift that grows roughly like the logarithm of their time scale. This upper bound appears related to the minimum rate-zero-at which organic carbon can be immobilized as rock. Events outside this limit result from a fundamental disturbance of the carbon cycle, possibly related to unstable dynamics, mass extinction, or both.. These conclusions follow from analyzing all isotopic events the same way. Exceptions are, however, expected. For example, four events (Ediacaran-Cambrian, Nemakit-Daldynian-Tommotian, Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, and Miocene Climatic Optimum 2) unaccompanied by mass extinction exceed the upper error bar of the critical rate. If, say, these events were driven by dissociation of methane hydrates [for example, (36)] rather than respired organic carbon, the ...
Despite the ever-increasing use of fossil calibrations (figure 1), many divergence dating studies have spawned controversy. Palaeontologists frequently voice concern over problematic calibrations (e.g. [2]), and molecular evolutionists have repeatedly articulated the dangers of inappropriate application of fossil data [3,4]. Unfortunately, such concerns are often expressed after divergence results for a clade of interest have already been published and rarely result in reanalysis. Daniel Ksepka presented data from 171 fossil calibrations, quantifying the prevalence of inaccurate calibrations within Aves. For 67 per cent of these calibrations, the phylogenetic position of the fossil remains untested, meaning that the fossil may not even pertain to the node of interest. Only 24 per cent of calibrations were based on fossils that had been included in phylogenetic analyses. Of these, 33 per cent were improperly applied, potentially introducing large errors into divergence results. The most common ...
The early Paleogene, nominally 62 - 58 million years ago, was characterized by major changes in Earth surface temperature. The time included the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO), a multi-million year interval of peak Cenozoic warmth, as well as a series of hyperthermal events, or geological brief episodes of rapid temperature warmth, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) being the outstanding example. The changes in temperature are associated with large changes in global carbon cycling, likely involving organic carbon. This talk highlights the above, as well as suggesting that much can be explained through a dynamic seafloor methane cycle. ...
Yutyrannus huali was named and scientifically described in 2012 by Xu Xing et al. The name is derived from Mandarin Chinese yǔ (羽, feather) and Latinised Greek tyrannos (τύραννος, tyrant), a reference to the classification as a feathered member of the Tyrannosauroidea. The specific name consists of the Mandarin huáli (华丽(simplified, 華麗 traditional, beautiful), in reference to the beauty of the plumage.[1]. Yutyrannus is known from three nearly complete fossil specimens (an adult, a subadult and a juvenile) acquired from a fossil dealer who claimed all three had their provenance in a single quarry at Batuyingzi in Liaoning Province, China. They thus probably were found in a layer of the Yixian Formation, dating from the Aptian, approximately 125 million years old.[1] The specimens had been cut into pieces about the size of bath mats, which could be carried by two people.[3]. The holotype, ZCDM V5000, is the largest specimen, consisting of a nearly complete skeleton with ...
Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earths last major greenhouse warming event in fewer than five generations, according to a new University of Michigan study. The research finds humans are pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at a rate nine to 10 times higher than the greenhouse gas was emitted during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, or PETM,
Washington (UPI) Jul 6, 2017 - Thanks to a new molecular analysis technique, researchers have established relationships among 200-million-year-old plants for the first time.
The following interview is with Donald R. Prothero, author of The Story of Life in 25 Fossils: Tales of Intrepid Fossil Hunters and the Wonders of Evolution: Question: How do you summarize the history of life in just 25 fossils? Donald R. Prothero: That was an incredibly difficult decision, since there are millions of species and thousands of different known fossil species. I tried to focus on fossils that represented important landmarks in the history of life, important transitional fossils that demonstrated the macroevolution of one group from another, and some of the most extreme...
This page provides a brief overview of the Doushantuo Formation fossil beds, including geological setting, biota, and significance.
I spent the last three weeks in China partly for a conference, partly for a vacation, and partly for a rest. In catching up over the last couple of days, I notice that the break has given me a slightly different perspective on a couple of issues that are relevant here.. First off, the conference I attended was on paleoceanography and there were was a lot of great new science presented, particularly concerning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (around 55 million years ago), and on past changes to tropical rainfall patterns (see this weeks Nature) - two issues where there is a lot of relevance for climate change and its impacts today. Ill discuss the new data in separate posts over the next few weeks, but for now Ill just mention a topic that came up repeatedly in conversations over the week - that was how to improve the flow of information from the paleo community to the wider climate community, as represented by the IPCC for instance. There was a palpable sense that insights from ...
Try this amazing Trivia On Fossils: MCQ Quiz! quiz which has been attempted 1850 times by avid quiz takers. Also explore over 19 similar quizzes in this category.
pagina 1 de 2. recursos del 1 al 20. datasets with pangaea technical keyword @bah2005 : pangaea - publishing network for geoscientific & environmental data
Janie & Geoff. Hiking the Burgess Shale: 500 Million Years Ago in the Canadian Rockies. Many people travel to the Canadian Rockies and end up in popular spots such as Banff, Jasper, and Lake Louise. The Rockies are so magnificently beautiful its hard to imagine that there could be even more awesome experiences there than gazing at those mountains and lakes. But if you make it to Lake Louise, Alberta, take the time to travel another 30 kilometers to a World Heritage site that is awesome in the original sense of the word. It is well worth the drive and an overnight stay to take the guided hike the next day to the Burgess Shale, located in Yoho National Park on the British Columbia side of the Rockies.. If youve ever been to natural science museums, most notably the Smithsonian, and seen fossils from the Cambrian Age (540 million years ago), chances are that they came from the Burgess Shale. Steven J. Goulds book Wonderful Life describes the discovery of the site and how it changed our notions ...
Trace fossils represent the primary source of information on the evolution of animal behaviour through deep time, and provide exceptional insights into complex life strategies that would be otherwise impossible to infer from the study of body parts alone. Here, we describe unusual trace fossils found in marginal-marine, storm- and river-flood deposits from the Middle Devonian Naranco Formation of Asturias (northern Spain) that constitute the first evidence for infaunal moulting in a non-trilobite euarthropod. The trace fossils are preserved in convex hyporelief, and include two main morphological variants that reflect a behavioural continuum. Morphotype 1 consists of a structure that superficially resembles a Rusophycus with an oval outline that possesses a distinctly three lobed axis with an elevated central ridge and regularly spaced transverse furrows that convey the appearance of discrete body segments. The anterior part is the most irregular region of the structure, and it is not always recorded.
BLAKER, M. R. AND J. S. PEEL. 1997. Lower Cambrian trilobites from North Greenland. Meddeleser om Grønland, Geoscience, 35, 145 p.. CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.. DEISS, C. 1940. Lower and Middle Cambrian stratigraphy of southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 51: 731-794.. RASETTI, F. 1951. Middle Cambrian stratigraphy and faunas of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 116 (5): 277 p.. RESSER, C. E. 1937. Third contribution to nomenclature of Cambrian trilobites. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 95(22): 29 p. ROMINGER, C. 1887. Description of primordial fossils from Mount Stephens, N. W. Territory of Canada. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1887: 12-19. RUDKIN, D. M. 1989. Trilobites with appendages from the Middle Cambrian ...
BLAKER, M. R. AND J. S. PEEL. 1997. Lower Cambrian trilobites from North Greenland. Meddeleser om Grønland, Geoscience, 35, 145 p.. CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.. DEISS, C. 1940. Lower and Middle Cambrian stratigraphy of southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 51: 731-794.. RASETTI, F. 1951. Middle Cambrian stratigraphy and faunas of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 116 (5): 277 p.. RESSER, C. E. 1937. Third contribution to nomenclature of Cambrian trilobites. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 95(22): 29 p. ROMINGER, C. 1887. Description of primordial fossils from Mount Stephens, N. W. Territory of Canada. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1887: 12-19. RUDKIN, D. M. 1989. Trilobites with appendages from the Middle Cambrian ...
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Define Homo erectus soloensis. Homo erectus soloensis synonyms, Homo erectus soloensis pronunciation, Homo erectus soloensis translation, English dictionary definition of Homo erectus soloensis. Noun 1. Homo soloensis - extinct primitive hominid of late Pleistocene; Java; formerly Javanthropus genus Homo - type genus of the family Hominidae human,...
Ningyuansaurus is a basal oviraptorosaurian dinosaur genus. It contains the single species Ningyuansaurus wangi, known from a fossil specimen from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Aptian stage, 124.6 Ma ago) of Jianchang, western Liaoning Province, Peoples Republic of China. It is thought to be the basalmost species of oviraptorosaur, based on its long skull and a greater number of teeth in comparison to any other known oviraptorosaur. The generic name Ningyuansaurus is derived from Ningyuan, an ancient name for Xingcheng City. The specific name honors Wang Qiuwu, the private owner of the specimen who donated it for scientific study. The specimen is currently housed in the Confuciusornis Museum in Xingcheng. The only known fossil specimen of N. wangi is notable for having a large number of teeth compared to more advanced oviraptorosaurs, but the teeth in the back of the upper jaw (maxilla) are still reduced in number compared to most other non-avialan theropods. The reduced number of ...
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 231 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record indicates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pleistocene fossil vertebrate sites of the South East region of South Australia II. AU - Reed, Elizabeth. AU - Bourne, Steven. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article. VL - 133. SP - 30. EP - 40. JO - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. JF - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. SN - 0085-5812. IS - 1. ER - ...
Geologic ages and accumulation rates, estimated from regressions, were used to evaluate measured ages and interpreted stratigraphic and structural relations of basalt and sediment in the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in eastern Idaho. Geologic ages and accumulation rates were estimated from standard linear regressions of 21 mean potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages, selected mean paleomagnetic ages, and cumulative depths of a composite stratigraphic section composed of complete intervals of basalt and sediment that were deposited in areas of past maximum subsidence. Accumulation rates also were estimated from regressions of stratigraphic intervals in three wells in and adjacent to an area of interpreted uplift at and near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and the Test Reactor Area (TRA) to allow a comparison of rates in areas of past uplift and subsidence. Estimated geologic ages range from about 200 thousand to 1.8 million years
Article Patterns in Palaeontology: Environments of the Cambrian explosion by Thomas W. Hearing published on PALAEONTOLOGY[online] with in the Patterns in Palaeontology category.... by Thomas W. Hearing*1 Introduction: Shimmering curtains of sunlight stream down through the waters of a shallow sea that has been advancing landwards for
The Taung type specimen for Australopithecus africanus includes a natural endocast that reproduces external morphology of a large portion of the right cerebral hemisphere, and a separate fragment of the fossilized face that articulates with the endocast. The natural endocast lacks the right temporal pole and rostral part of the frontal lobes, which were embedded in the back of the facial fragment. Although these structures have previously been reconstructed manually using the external morphology of the facial fragment as a guide, we used advanced 3D-CT technology to prepare virtual reconstructions of the frontal lobes and right temporal pole. We then joined these parts of Taungs virtual endocast to a virtual image of the natural endocast, and reconstructed the remaining missing areas using mirror imaging. The resulting virtual endocast of Taung was compared with 3D geometrical models of chimpanzee and bonobo endocasts reconstructed from CT scans of dry skulls representing individuals at the same dental
Background Basal sauropodomorphs, or prosauropods, are a globally widespread paraphyletic assemblage of terrestrial herbivorous dinosaurs from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. In contrast to several other landmasses, the North American record of sauropodomorphs during this time interval remains sparse, limited to Early Jurassic occurrences of a single well-known taxon from eastern North America and several fragmentary specimens from western North America. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of a partial skeleton, we describe here a new basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah, Seitaad ruessi gen. et sp. nov. The partially articulated skeleton of Seitaad was likely buried post-mortem in the base of a collapsed dune foreset. The new taxon is characterized by a plate-like medial process of the scapula, a prominent proximal expansion of the deltopectoral crest of the humerus, a strongly inclined distal articular surface of the radius, and a
Tyrannosaurus ( or , meaning tyrant lizard) from the Greek words τυράννος (tyrannos, meaning tyrant) and σαύρος (sauros, meaning lizard), is a genus of theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meaning king in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture. It lived throughout what is now western North America, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the last two million years of the Cretaceous Period, 67 to 65.5 million years ago. It was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist prior to the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event.. Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a biped carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two clawed digits. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in ...
The Paleogene (/ˈpæliədʒiːn, ˈpeɪliə-/; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period 66 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon.[7] The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event that ended the preceding Cretaceous Period.[8]. This period consists of the Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene epochs. The end of the Paleocene (55.5/54.8 Mya) was marked by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, one of the most significant periods of global change during the Cenozoic, which upset oceanic and atmospheric circulation and led to the extinction of numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera and on land, a ...
Article Patterns In Palaeontology: Trends of body-size evolution in the fossil record - a growing field by Mark A. Bell published on PALAEONTOLOGY[online] with in the Patterns in Palaeontology category.... by Mark A. Bell*1 Introduction: The body size of an animal is often considered the most important part of its biology. Large body size brings many
During the early Paleogene, a long-term warming trend of Earths climate was punctuated by a major global warming event, known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and an acidification episode. The associated worldwide environmental perturbations are best studied in open marine settings, and resulted in a major extinction event in deep-sea benthic foraminifera, followed by migration and diversification. Yet, the evolutionary impact on shelf foraminiferal faunas is still poorly constrained due the inherent stratigraphic complexities in these environments. In order to understand the prelude and aftermath of peak warming during the PETM, we study the South Dover Bridge core (SDB), drilled in the US Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland. Here, the Paleocene-Eocene transition is stratigraphically well constrained by calcareous nannoplankton and stable isotope records. Additionally, the PETM is regionally characterized by the appearance of ...
Trace fossils are those details preserved in rocks that are indirect evidence of life. While we are most familiar with relatively spectacular fossil hard remains, such as shells and bones, trace fossils are often less dramatic, but nonetheless very important. Trace fossils include burrows and other dwelling structures, track marks (such as footprints or evidences of creeping or crawling), coprolites (fossilized feces), eggs and eggshells, nests, rhizoliths or rhizocretions (fossil remains of roots), and other types of impressions. Fossilized droppings, called coprolites, can give insight into the feeding behavior of animals and therefore can be of great importance.. The study of trace remains is called ichnology, which is divided into paleoichnology, or the study of trace fossils, and neoichnology, the study of modern trace remains. Another name for trace fossils is ichnofossils, taken from the Greek word ichnos, meaning trace. The science of ichnology is quite challenging, as many trace ...
A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , share on facebook, share on twitter
Archaeology studies the development of humanity by examining surviving material remains (e.g. tombs, temples, settlements, skeletons, artefacts and the landscape context from which they were recovered). Through the information gained it is possible to trace our economic, cultural, social and spiritual developments through time. At Queens, Palaeoecology complements Archaeology by studying the nature and timing of environmental changes in the past, including climate change. This brings a highly integrated approach to assessing how human activities have been shaped by and, in turn, have impacted upon the natural environment and a means to disentangle human impact from natural variability.. Although, by their very nature, Archaeology and Palaeoecology are concerned with the past, both disciplines have a role in the present, as well as the future. The threats to our environment and landscape through urban, industrial and agricultural development have never been greater. Globally, archaeological and ...
The researchers noted that the anatomy and elemental abundances in the ancient eggs resembled those in modern crustaceans, such as lobsters; a female lobster lays eggs and then provides brood care by anchoring them to the underside of her tail until hatching. For _Waptia, _Caron and Vannier wrote that their findings indicate an extended investment in offspring survivorship.. The new find is significant for the paleontological community, in part because the eggs are the oldest ever found with preserved embryos by about 50 million years. A 2014 study documented broods of embryo-carrying eggs in 450-million-year-old ostracods; while a separate 2014 study identified 515-million-year-old brooded eggs without embryos in other arthropod specimens. The new specimens are also important because of the degree of soft-tissue preservation, notes David Siveter, a paleontologist at the University of Leicester in England and lead author of the ostracod paper. Previous research on ancient arthropods has ...
Human activity is leaving a pervasive and persistent signature on Earth. Vigorous debate continues about whether this warrants recognition as a new geologic time unit known as the Anthropocene. We review anthropogenic markers of functional changes in the Earth system through the stratigraphic record. The appearance of manufactured materials in sediments, including aluminum, plastics, and concrete, coincides with global spikes in fallout radionuclides and particulates from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles have been substantially modified over the past century. Rates of sea-level rise and the extent of human perturbation of the climate system exceed Late Holocene changes. Biotic changes include species invasions worldwide and accelerating rates of extinction. These combined signals render the Anthropocene stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene and earlier epochs. ...
sauropods with dermal spines were depicted in the Ica stone collection. Modern man was unaware that some (many?) sauropod dinosaurs possessed dermal spines, even though scientists had been studying the dinosaur fossils around the world for more than 150 years. This characteristic of sauropods was not learned from the fossil record until 1992. The ancient Peruvians had it right long before 1992: are we to believe they carefully examined, excavated, and reconstructed fossilized sauropod bones and skin-intricate scientific recreations that history simply does not record the ancients performing? Is it not more reasonable to conclude that man once lived with the animals that they illustrated? Modern-day paleontologists have the luxury of researching dinosaur data from all over the world and as far back as the 1820s. Our present knowledge and illustrations of dinosaurs come from their composite research. The ancients had no such comparable science, yet they still depicted dinosaurs accurately. The ...
sauropods with dermal spines were depicted in the Ica stone collection. Modern man was unaware that some (many?) sauropod dinosaurs possessed dermal spines, even though scientists had been studying the dinosaur fossils around the world for more than 150 years. This characteristic of sauropods was not learned from the fossil record until 1992. The ancient Peruvians had it right long before 1992: are we to believe they carefully examined, excavated, and reconstructed fossilized sauropod bones and skin-intricate scientific recreations that history simply does not record the ancients performing? Is it not more reasonable to conclude that man once lived with the animals that they illustrated? Modern-day paleontologists have the luxury of researching dinosaur data from all over the world and as far back as the 1820s. Our present knowledge and illustrations of dinosaurs come from their composite research. The ancients had no such comparable science, yet they still depicted dinosaurs accurately. The ...
Burgess Shale is famous for the exquisite and uncommon detail in its fossilized soft-bodied organisms. Heres the science behind the phenomenon.
NHM curator co-authors paper on 150-million-year-old fossilized crab larva, found in southern Germany. A paper in the journal Nature Communications (March 9, 2015) co-written by NHM Crustacea curator Dr. Jody Martin describes a 150-million-year-old crab larva fossil specimen from southern Germany. The new fossil provides critical evidence for understanding the early rise of crabs. Arthropods (they of a hard outer-skeleton, like crustaceans, spiders, and insects) very often have larval phases that are completely different from the adults -- such as caterpillars and butterflies. Allegedly, one of the reasons crabs have been so successful is that their larval life habits (diet, locomotion, etc.) are decoupled from their adult life habits.. Most ancient fossils display a suite of primitive features, consistent with their early evolution and allowing them to be distinguished from their modern descendants. But the fossil described in this paper, despite its age, possesses a very modern morphology, ...
در مطالعه حاضر 458 متر از رسوبات سازند گورپی در برش قطب-آباد واقع در شمال شرق جهرم از نقطه نظر نانوفسیل-های آهکی مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. در این برش سازند گورپی از سنگ آهک رسی خاکستری تشکیل شده است. بررسی نانوفسیل-های آهکی در این قسمت منجر به تشخیص 22 جنس و 37 گونه شد. براساس پراکندگی گونه-های شاخص نانوفسیلی، زیست-زون-هایAspidolithus parcus zone(CC18/Early Campanian), Calculites ovalis zone(CC19/Late Early Campanian), Ceratolithoides aculeus zone (CC20/Late Early Campanian), Quadrum sissinghii zone (CC21/ Early Late Campanian), Quadrum trifidum zone (CC22/Late Late Campanian), Tranolithus phacelosus zone (CC23/Latest Campanian-Early Maastrichtian), Reinhardtites levis zone (CC24/Early Maastrichtian) and Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis zone (CC25/ Late Maastrichtian)
The study of endocranial asymmetries of hominids is a central topic in paleoneurology. However, our knowledge about the emergence of these asymmetries during human evolution is still limited. This is partly due to the fact that, so far, these 3D asymmetries have been mostly analyzed using landmarks-based methods. Such methods are limited as they only provide a partial description of the anatomy and thus of the possible asymmetries. The endocranial anatomy may be better described by its whole contour, and the recent advent of computational tools allowing to process 3D free-form surfaces opens new tracks for automated and objective characterization of 3D endocranial asymmetries. One key problem before assessing the evolution of patterns of asymmetry in hominids is the identification of confounding factors such as age, sex and intra-specific variability. For this purpose, we use a new method for the automated quantification of 3D virtual endocranial shape of 60 Pan paniscus and 59 Pan troglodytes of
The completeness of the fossil record involves the interplay of extinction rate (q), which determines the duration of individual taxa, and preservation rate (r), which indicates how likely a taxon is to enter the fossil record as a function of its longevity. We take preservation rate to include the complex set of processes that result in the appearance of a fossil in a database, including fossilization, discovery, identification and description. Our approach to estimating the quality of the early record of digit-bearing tetrapods and their closest relatives draws upon two kinds of data with theoretical relationships to these parameters [14,15]: (i) the distribution of observed stratigraphic ranges of individual taxa, and (ii) the duration of stratigraphic gaps between the evolutionary origin of taxa and their first appearance in the fossil record (figure 1b and discussion in the electronic supplementary material). For these analyses, we limit our consideration to a subset of early tetrapods: ...
The completeness of the fossil record involves the interplay of extinction rate (q), which determines the duration of individual taxa, and preservation rate (r), which indicates how likely a taxon is to enter the fossil record as a function of its longevity. We take preservation rate to include the complex set of processes that result in the appearance of a fossil in a database, including fossilization, discovery, identification and description. Our approach to estimating the quality of the early record of digit-bearing tetrapods and their closest relatives draws upon two kinds of data with theoretical relationships to these parameters [14,15]: (i) the distribution of observed stratigraphic ranges of individual taxa, and (ii) the duration of stratigraphic gaps between the evolutionary origin of taxa and their first appearance in the fossil record (figure 1b and discussion in the electronic supplementary material). For these analyses, we limit our consideration to a subset of early tetrapods: ...
Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character
A shrimp-like creature that lived 508 million years ago in seas that are now Canadas Burgess Shale may have been the best mom of her time - and perhaps the earliest animal ever found caring for its young.
Buy Evolution and Palaeobiology of Early Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs (9781405169332): NHBS - Edited By: Paul M Barrett and David J Batten, Palaeontological Association
True placental mammals (the crown group including all modern placentals) arose from stem-group members of the clade Eutheria, which had existed since at least the Middle Jurassic period, about 170 MYA. These early eutherians were small, nocturnal insect eaters, with adaptations for life in trees.[8]. True placentals may have originated in the Late Cretaceous around 90 MYA, but the earliest undisputed fossils are from the early Paleocene, 66 MYA, following the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. The species Protungulatum donnae was thought to be a stem-ungulate [13] known 1 meter above the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the geological stratum that marks the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event [14] and Purgatorius, previously considered a stem-primate, appears no more than 300,000 years after the K-Pg boundary;[15] both species, however, are now considered non-placental eutherians.[16] The rapid appearance of placentals after the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous suggests that ...
True placental mammals (the crown group including all modern placentals) arose from stem-group members of the clade Eutheria, which had existed since at least the Middle Jurassic period, about 170 MYA). These early eutherians were small, nocturnal insect eaters, with adaptations for life in trees.[6]. True placentals may have originated in the Late Cretaceous around 90 MYA, but the earliest undisputed fossils are from the early Paleocene, 66 MYA, following the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. The species Protungulatum donnae was thought to be a stem-ungulate [13] known 1 meter above the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the geological stratum that marks the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event [14] and Purgatorius, previously considered a stem-primate, appears no more than 300,000 years after the K-Pg boundary;[15] both species, however, are now considered non-placental eutherians.[16] The rapid appearance of placentals after the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous suggests that ...
The origin of ctenophores (comb jellies) is obscured by their controversial phylogenetic position, with recent phylogenomic analyses resolving either sponges or ctenophores as the sister group of all other animals. Fossil taxa can provide morphological evidence that may elucidate the origins of derived characters and shared ancestries among divergent taxa, providing a means to break long branches in phylogenetic trees. Here we describe new fossil material from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota, Yunnan Province, China, including the putative cnidarian Xianguangia, the new taxon Daihua sanqiong gen et sp. nov., and Dinomischus venustus, informally referred to as dinomischids here. Dinomischids possess a basal calyx encircled by 18 tentacles that surround the mouth. The tentacles carry pinnules, each with a row of stiff filamentous structures interpreted as very large compound cilia of a size otherwise only known in ctenophores. Together with the Cambrian tulip animal Siphusauctum and the ...
1. Vertebrate Origins:. Key Questions.. Introduction.. Sea Squirts And The Lancelet.. Phylum Hemichordata: Pterobranchs And Acorn Worms.. Deuterostome Relationships.. Chordate Origins.. Vertebrates And The Head.. Further Reading.. 2. How To Study Fossil Vertebrates:.. Key Questions.. Introduction.. Digging Up Bones.. Geology And Fossil Vertebrates.. Biology And Fossil Vertebrates.. Discovering Phylogeny.. The Quality Of The Fossil Record.. Further Reading.. 3. Early Fishes:.. Key Questions.. Introduction.. Cambrian Vertebrates.. Vertebrate Hard Tissues.. The Jawless Fishes.. Origin Of Jaws And Gnathostome Relationships.. Class Placodermi: Armour-Plated Monsters.. Class Chondrichthyes: The First Sharks.. Class Acanthodii: The Spiny Skins.. Devonian Environments.. Class Osteichthyes: The Bony Fishes.. Early Fish Evolution And Mass Extinction.. Further Reading.. 4. The Early Tetrapods And Amphibians:.. Key Questions.. Introduction.. Problems Of Life On Land.. Devonian Tetrapods.. The ...
New fossil discovery sinks evolutionary theories watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about New fossil discovery sinks evolutionary theories, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for New fossil discovery sinks evolutionary theories, share on facebook, share on twitter
As a deep water port, the city of Tacoma and Commencement Bay are under threat from development of future fossil fuel facilities. The South Sound chapter is part of a coalition of community groups covering a wide array of interests who support a city council passed moratorium on new fossil fuel development in the Tacoma Tideflats. On November 21st, 2017 the City Council of Tacoma passed interim regulations blocking any new fossil fuel development in the Tacoma Tideflats. This action effectively prohibits any new fossil fuel facilities until a sub-area use plan is finalized in the next 3-5 years. This is a major accomplishment for Washington residents who have been battling fossil fuel development facilities and succeeding, but who now are taking strides toward proactive measures to protect local marine water and reduce climte impacts. ...

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  • Skip forward to November 2004, however, and Fossil suggested the project wasn't dead. (
  • Fossils of baby duck-billed dinosaurs ( Hypacrosaurus stebingeri ) have yielded traces of proteins, chromosomes, and chemical markers of DNA, according to new research published in National Science Review. (
  • These fossils demonstrate the differences between carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs by the shapes of their toes. (
  • Fossil hunters want to know what life was like when dinosaurs became extinct 66 million years ago. (
  • Recent fossil finds in Mexico and Israel added weight to the theory that this prehistoric, flying reptile, which became extinct at the same time as the dinosaurs, could have been much bigger than many had realized. (
  • While many birds can trace their ancestry back to dinosaurs, fossils show that the sandhill crane itself dates back 2.5 million years. (
  • Learn about topics such as How to Make Fossils Using Plaster of Paris , How to Make Fossils , How to Become an Expert on Dinosaurs , and more with our helpful step-by-step instructions with photos and videos. (
  • It may surprise you to learn that more dinosaurs fossils have been found across our green and pleasant land than in 190-odd other countries, as the UK enjoys seventh place in the Jurassic remnants league. (
  • In February a fossil found in south Wales was confirmed as a new ancient species of small lizard that would have shared a home with dinosaurs 200 millions years ago. (
  • The fossil caused the study's authors to speculate that "at least duck, chicken and ratite bird relatives were coextant with non-avian dinosaurs. (
  • Undaunted, the study's lead author, Dr. Julia Clark, then of North Carolina State University and a Yale graduate, doubled down on the findings, telling BBC, "Now we have a fossil which indicates that at least part of the diversification of living birds had begun before the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. (
  • Find the best dinosaur museums and collections in the UK with this Culture24 guide to the top ten places for dinosaurs and fossils. (
  • But beyond scientific nit-picking, you just knew some liberal fossils would give the dinosaurs a run for their money in the going-extinct department. (
  • Because fossils are fairly easy to find, many kids and grownups enjoy the sleuthing that amateur paleontology (the study of ancient life) offers. (
  • Produced by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, The Paleontology Portal has three exhibits exploring the history of life in North America: Time & Space, Fossil Gallery and Famous Flora & Fauna. (
  • Over the last several months, a lot of great books on fossils and evolution (as in paleontology) have come out. (
  • Fossil research from the area contributed significantly to the science of vertebrate paleontology in North America, beginning with the description of a titanothere mandible in 1846 by Dr. Hiram Prout. (
  • What American Museum of Natural History paleontologist Dr. Mark Norell later described as an 'unfortunate chapter' in modern paleontology would foreshadow a growing and serious problem of fraudulent fossils being produced on an industrial scale in China. (
  • Beach Fossils are playing a free show at Terminal 5 on July 7 with Nothing, Sheer Mag and Dark Thoughts. (
  • Los Angeles art-punks Hit Bargain, which feature members of These Are Powers, The Pains of Being Pure at Heart, Cold Beat, North Highlands, and Beach Fossils, released their debut album, 'Potential Maximizer,' today. (
  • The 25-minute documentary features interviews with Todd P, Beach Fossils, Frankie Cosmos, City Councilman Rafael Espinal, and more. (
  • Beach Fossils were in the Halloween spirit at NYC's Brooklyn Steel for their "sacrificial ritual spectacular" on Saturday night (10/28) which was also the final date of their tour . (
  • This week's episode focuses on The Growlers Six festival with songs from Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Butthole Surfers, Danny Brown, Beach Fossils, The B-52s, Ariel Pink, Jonanthan Richman, Bad Brains, Beth Ditto and more. (
  • Diffuse Brooklyn guitar-twinklers Beach Fossils released their pretty great self-titled debut in 2010, and they've since spun off side projects like DIIV and Heavenly Beat. (
  • Make sure that you plan to dig in a place where it is okay to collect fossils. (
  • Researchers now claim to have found a way to collect fossils quickly while motivating the people to protect their heritage, a plan that involves a shift from 10-week field seasons to 50 weeks of fossil collecting annually. (
  • The Turkana Basin Institute will enable us to move away from a sort of Victorian model of fossil collecting where, typically, gentlemen and their lady scientists go out and set up a tented camp for a few months and collect fossils. (
  • Do you collect fossils? (
  • For the new study, Bailleul, Schweitzer, and their colleagues studied fossils of duck-billed dinosaur nestlings found in northern Montana back in the 1980s. (
  • To see if the original molecules were also preserved, the researchers performed immunological and histochemical analyses of another fossil, also of a nestling Hypacrosaurus found at the same site. (
  • Dinosaur fossils are found almost exclusively in sedimentary rocks, which form when sand, silt, mud, and organic material settle out of water or air to form layers that are then compacted into rock. (
  • The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens, dating back 300,000 years, were found at a site in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco. (
  • This is a composite reconstruction of the oldest Homo sapiens fossils found in Morocco, using scans of original fossils found at the site. (
  • The earliest modern human fossil ever found outside of Africa, estimated to be between 177,000 and 194,000 years old, was recovered in Israel. (
  • The fossil of an upper jawbone that included several teeth was found in a prehistoric cave site, Misliya Cave, in Israel. (
  • By the mid-1960s, Lystrosaurus fossils had been found in Africa and India. (
  • Those fossils belonged to a species previously found in Africa, providing further evidence that the distant present-day continents were once connected. (
  • This book explains how fossils were formed and where they are now found. (
  • All fossils are rocks, and if bone fossils are found they will be much heavier than normal bone. (
  • Where have woolly mammoth fossils been found? (
  • I do not know much about Wolly Mammoths but I do know that they have found lots of their fossils! (
  • How are fossils found? (
  • The crust, the thinnest layer, forms the Earth's surface, and it's where fossils are both formed and found. (
  • The Gobi is one of the most productive fossil pits we've ever found: images from the sky reveal bones exposed from the slow erosion of earth. (
  • This is where most fossils are found: in layers of limestone and sandstone piled on with the slow movement of geology. (
  • A bit of trivia: the United States sits atop the table for most dinosaur fossils ever found, with Canada in second. (
  • Spanning the Mesozoic period, between 66 and 252 million years ago, 516 dinosaur fossils have been found in the UK, with evidence that Megalosaurus used to roam these shores the most common discovery, with nine finds. (
  • Geologists say the new finds are important as evidence from the Middle Jurassic period is rare, and few such fossil sites have been found around the world. (
  • More common are discoveries of incomplete remains, such as bones, teeth, or hair, and trace fossils, such as footprints or leaf impressions, which indicate an organism once existed even though its actual remains have not been found. (
  • Organic matter has been found in some fossils. (
  • The findings are exciting because they corroborate genetic estimates of when cats first emerged, and because the fossils were found near Central Asia, the area where most scientists believe cats first evolved, said Julie Meachen, a paleontologist at Des Moines University in Iowa, who was not involved in the study. (
  • In addition, the cat skull came from a region where other fossils of mega-creatures have been found, suggesting perhaps this is the region where Pleistocene megafauna, including "big furry guys" such as wooly mammoths and rhinos, evolved, Meachen said. (
  • Seashells and other marine fossils have been found on mountaintops, even very tall ones. (
  • No less an authority for evolution than Richard Dawkins has said, "All the fossils that we have ever found have always been found in the appropriate place in the time sequence. (
  • Fossils are often found where they are not expected, and these finds cause evolutionists to frequently revise their timelines. (
  • Pollen fossils are found periodically, including a recent find in Switzerland. (
  • Yet this largely modern-looking bird was found inside a dinosaur fossil over 100 million years old. (
  • Marine fossils are found in deposits of an ancient sea that existed in the region some 75 to 67 millionyears ago during the Cretaceous period. (
  • Fossils found in the Pierre Shale and Fox Hills Formations include ammonites, nautiloids, fish, marine reptiles, and turtles. (
  • More than 85 well-preserved dinosaur footprints - made by at least seven different species - have been uncovered in East Sussex, representing the most diverse and detailed collection of these trace fossils from the Cretaceous Period found in the UK to date. (
  • Divers looking for fossil megalodon teeth found a strange skull in the Wand. (
  • This stunning bird fossil was found in China in 2008. (
  • This also means that fossils found in the lowest levels in a sequence of layered rocks represent the oldest record of life there. (
  • This would also mean that fossils found in the deepest layer of rocks in an area would represent the oldest forms of life in that particular rock formation. (
  • If certain fossils are typically found only in a certain rock unit and are found in many places worldwide, they may be useful as index or guide fossils in finding the age of undated strata. (
  • Now, researchers have found traces of modern-era rainwater in wells that bring "fossil" groundwater to the surface -- pointing to a contamination risk. (
  • Against expectations, however, the team found that about half of "fossil" groundwater wells they studied contained detectable levels of tritium, indicating the presence of younger water. (
  • Earlier this year a study by Julia A Meachen, Alexandria L. Brannick, and Trent J. Fry on the Beringian Wolf, fossils found at NTC, was released. (
  • The great majority of species that have become extinct in the past probably left few fossils, and all too often even partial remnants are found only with difficulty. (
  • So, these fossils that i've found, are they millions of years old? (
  • I've only found one fossil in my life (due to lack of trying) but if I lived where the OP does and knows where to find them, I'd get right on it. (
  • The fossil of this long-extinct flying insect was found in Solnhofen Limestone from Bavaria, Germany. (
  • This fossil of a fish was found in Solnhofen Limestone from Bavaria, Germany. (
  • A dinosaur known as the Welsh Dragon that was found on a beach near Penarth has been reunited with one of its missing feet and named in honour of the fossil hunters who unearthed it. (
  • Mary Anning, the famous 19th century fossil collector who was revered across the world, probably owned a childhood token from more than 200 years ago found on a Lyme Regis beach by researchers. (
  • A lucky discovery of a mouse-sized Jurassic fossil, found on a rock during an otherwise-uneventful trip to Scotland by a group of researchers, has resulted in the "undiscovery" of two species. (
  • One of the most common fossils found at the site belong to a burrowing plant-eating dinosaur, first described by Varricchio in a 2007 research paper, called the Oryctodromeus - a long name that means digging runner in Greek. (
  • The paleontologists also found the teeth and jaws of mammals, almost unknown in Idaho, as well as fossil fragments from turtles, crocodylians, and fish. (
  • Because of the variety of fossils found, Varricchio said it may represent an ecosystem different from what paleontologists have previously found in a coastal area. (
  • When the fossils of Archaeopteryx were found in 1861, it helped prove Charles Darwin's new theory of evolution. (
  • The 30-million-year-old fossils predate all lemur fossils found in Africa. (
  • It is exacerbated by the fact that most of the fossils are pulled from the ground by desperately poor farmers and then sold on to dealers and museums rather than being found by paleontologists on fossil digs, which is how specimens are discovered in most other parts of the world. (
  • Liaoning, an impoverished and heavily industrialized province of northeastern China, has been a center for paleontological activity since the early 1990s, when many early bird fossils were found there. (
  • Researchers found fossils of more than 20 other mammal species there, including those of rhinos, deer, horses, gazelles and rodents, and about one-sixth of these bones had cut marks, suggesting that humans preyed on them, Wu told Live Science. (
  • Carbon dating, a technique that estimates the radioactive decay of carbon in samples of charcoal found with the fossils helped establish their age. (
  • A Chinese geologist found a fourth partial skeleton, which looks very similar to the Maludong fossils, in a cave near the village of Longlin in southwest China in 1979 while prospecting the area for oil. (
  • Most of the many billions of fossils in the earth are found in rock that has been affected by water (Sedimentary Rock). (
  • they cannot just be ripped out of the ground by avaricious fossil hunters and sold to the highest bidder. (
  • Because of their shells, the fossils of nautiluses are easier to come by than remains of other cephalopods, and fossil hunters have discovered ancient shells dating back at least 500 million years . (
  • Yorkshire's Fossil Coast is also a good bet for fossil hunters, with dinosaur footprints visible on beaches at Whitby and Robin Hood's Bay, while the Isle of Wight, as seen in the map above, boasts more than its fair share of archaeological prizes. (
  • In conditions that range from trying to perilous, fossil hunters cross the globe in search of mammoth tusks and trilobites. (
  • Fossil hunters have become extreme--brave extreme climates and intoxicated cargo plane pilots in their globe-spanning search for mammoth tusks and trilobites. (
  • The number here in Washington is (800) 989-8255, (800) 989-TALK to join the conversation with Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Lew Simons, Lewis Simons, who has joined two very different fossil hunters on the trail of hetivines(ph), and his article appears in the May issue of National Geographic magazine. (
  • If you want to find fossils, knowing what kind of rocks to search in is half the battle. (
  • We go on a journey to Antarctica in search of a forest of fossils. (
  • It may seem odd to imagine Earth as a giant crime scene, but in a way, that's exactly what paleontologists are doing when they search for and study fossils. (
  • Download it to follow in the footsteps of giants, or head to Compton Bay or Yaverland beaches to search for fossils. (
  • Varricchio praised Krumenacker for spending considerable time roaming the vast forest lands to search out the fossils. (
  • To solve these mysteries, paleontologists use fossils. (
  • How do paleontologists use trace fossils to make inferences about the past? (
  • Most of our paleontologists take an interdisciplinary approach in their research programs, combining fossil and living organisms together to extract information of broad evolutionary significance. (
  • Atheistic paleontologists , [4] geologists and evolutionists believe that the fossil record is a record of the evolution of life on Earth, with the oldest fossils, those of the earliest and simplest creatures, being at the base of the fossil record, and more recent and more advanced creatures higher up. (
  • This app lets paleontologists of all ages explore the Museum's famous fossil halls in depth. (
  • AP) - Thanks to a road project in Idaho's Caribou-Targhee National Forest last year, paleontologists discovered dump-truck loads of rare 98 million-year-old fossils - they just have to be chipped out piles of the harder-than-concrete rock. (
  • Second bibliography and catalogue of the fossil vertebrates of North America, Vol. I. Carnegie Inst. (
  • World-famous fossils -like the extinct dire wolf, saber-toothed t... ...posits of late Pleistocene era (the last ice age) fossils in North America. (
  • The Natural Trap Cave (NTC) fossil site in Wyoming, USA is an ideally placed late Pleistocene site to study the geographical movement of species from northern to middle North America before, during, and after the last glacial maximum. (
  • Exposures of Pleistocene sediments containing marine fossils in Jamaica. (
  • However, much like Pennsylvania, where I come from, there are lots of marine fossils. (
  • Here in New Mexico, I go out to the Rio Puerco once or twice a week, and have more marine fossils than I know what to do with. (
  • The west side of the lake offers much older fossils from the Miocene, Oligocene and Cretaceous eras (including dinosaur remains). (
  • David Weishampel and Luther Young cannot change this, nor eliminate a fossil gap of between 50 and 70 million years from midJurassic until early Cretaceous, but they do catalogue an impressive list of east coast fossils. (
  • A description of the fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene Formations of New Jersey. (
  • Yet this fossil was dated to the late Cretaceous period approximately 70 million years ago, according to evolutionists. (
  • The rocks, which were destined to be crushed and used for road fill, have revealed more dinosaur and terrestrial Cretaceous fossils than any other fossil site known in Idaho, Krumenacker said - more than 100 with the potential for hundreds more. (
  • Cretaceous-era Liaoning was rich with lakes and marshes, which - combined with plenty of volcanic eruptions - made an ideal environment for preserving large numbers of fossils, often in great detail. (
  • There are also trace fossils , which preserve evidence that an organism existed, like tooth marks or footprints, but don't preserve the organism itself. (
  • The most common type of trace fossils is footprints. (
  • and Trace fossils, which are records of an animal's behavior, such as footprints. (
  • So from what I understand, Texas is fairly void of any dinosaur fossils with the exception of some footprints, which I will DEFINITELY be taking a trip to check out sometime. (
  • Reproduced from a free print publication of the U.S. Geological Survey, this online booklet is a marvelous introduction, in non-technical language, to how geologists study fossils to learn about the earth's history. (
  • If you study fossils, what's your opinion about the commercial side? (
  • Many living fossils alive today have bizarre, eccentric traits that make them seem more like aliens than anything from this world. (
  • The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution , beginning with the formation of the tribe Hominini (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages ) in the late Miocene , roughly 7 to 8 million years ago. (
  • Chinese fossils change the way we look at the evolution of birds. (
  • One might ask, "how do you choose 25 fossils, among so many choices, to represent evolution? (
  • Don selected fossils using several criteria, but one basis for his choice was the availability of rich historical information about a fossil's discovery, interpretation, and effect on our thinking about evolution. (
  • The work is edied by Steve Parker, but authored by nearly a dozen experts in various subfields of fossils and evolution, so it is authoritative and scholarly. (
  • How can fossils help biologists study evolution? (
  • FOSSIL animals discovered in some 540-million-year-old Arctic rocks may force biologists to rethink their ideas about the evolution of invertebrates. (
  • Do Pakistan Fossils Alter Path of Lemur Evolution? (
  • The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution. (
  • Searching for fossils is like traveling back in time to get a peek at Earth's past. (
  • We'll start with a look at two of the processes that are central to fossil formation -- building up the Earth's layers and breaking down its waste. (
  • Let children make fossils to help them understand that Earth's resources have been around a long time and should be protected. (
  • Only a minute fraction of the Earth's creatures ever have their remains fossilised for future scientists and only a small fraction of fossil-bearing rocks are exposed. (
  • How much more of Earth's fossil fuels can we extract and burn in the short- to medium-term future and still avoid severe global warming? (
  • About 80%, 50% and 30% of coal, gas and oil reserves, respectively, would need to remain below Earth's surface if the world is to limit an increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C. The uneven distribution of unburnable carbon has far-reaching consequences for fossil-fuel owners. (
  • Because the Earth's magnetic poles have flipped at known points in geologic time, counting the number of times magnetic particles switch orientation in nearby rocks can reveal the approximate age of a fossil. (
  • Complicated as the subject of the earth's age may be, a main reason for why evolutionists believe the earth is many millions of years old is because of their belief concerning how the fossil layers were deposited. (
  • What one believes about the deposition of the fossils in the earth will, indeed, determine one's view of the earth's age. (
  • Fossils like this are called trace fossils and can be very useful as they give scientists an insight into how the dinosaur lived. (
  • It is usually easier to identify a particular dinosaur from a nest or a fossilized egg than from a trace fossil. (
  • A trace fossil of skin may happen when a dinosaur has lain or sat down in a muddy hollow. (
  • Re: Abbey wood fossils - possible mammal bone? (
  • The White River Badlands contain the largest assemblage of known late Eocene and Oligocene mammal fossils. (
  • The 18-million-year-old Thomas Farm fossil preserve, owned by the University of Florida, has produced tens of thousands of bones of extinct vertebrates. (
  • Christopher Lock's Modern Fossils portray the gadgets of yesteryear as extinct, long-lost creatures, fossilized to pique the curiosity of future generations. (
  • The fossil record helps to predict which kinds of animals are more likely to go extinct. (
  • Just as some groups of people are more prone to health problems like diabetes or heart disease, we can tell from the fossil record which groups of animals are naturally more likely to go extinct," said Aaron O'Dea, paleontologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. (
  • A more likely explanation, says paleontologist Richard Kay, also of Duke University, is that the fossil teeth belong to a family of Eurasian primates sivaladapis that are now extinct. (
  • An explanation of how scientists find and use fossils to study prehistoric animals is also given. (
  • However, radiometric dating is not a reliable method of dating fossils, and is rejected by creationary scientists. (
  • microscopic proteins that had never been used on fossils before.Scientists stu. (
  • By correlating fossils from various parts of the world, scientists are able to give relative ages to particular strata. (
  • The workshop will be technical in scope with short presentations from scientists that have done research in Fossil Creek surrounding topics such as recreation, wildlife and fisheries, and aquatic ecology. (
  • Scientists have discovered what they believe is the oldest known lemur fossils in the Bugti Hills of central Pakistan. (
  • Learn more about these fascinating findings as scientists continue to make amazing discoveries about fossils. (
  • Mysterious fossils of what may be a previously unknown type of human have been uncovered in caves in China, ones that possess a highly unusual mix of bygone and modern human features, scientists reveal. (
  • It stayed encased in a block of rock neglected in the basement of an archaeological research institute until 2009, when the international team of scientists rediscovered the fossils. (
  • The fossils, which were discovered on the Tibetan plateau , belong to a sister species of the snow leopard that prowls the Himalayan region today, said study co-author Zhijie Jack Tseng, a paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. (
  • The newly-named species left fossils that indicate it was a land predator that ate din. (
  • This is a fossil of an ancient dragonfly of the Libellulium species. (
  • These new fossils might be of a previously unknown species, one that survived until the very end of the ice age around 11,000 years ago," said researcher Darren Curnoe, a palaeoanthropologist at the University of New South Wales in Australia. (
  • New species of fossil worm with a big bite, discovered in the Burgess Shale. (
  • 90% of the energy we use in this country comes from fossil fuels. (
  • Aside from the environmental impacts of exploration and extraction of fossil fuels, their use causes such things as smog, acid rain, and contributes to global warming. (
  • Furthermore, the world's supply of fossil fuels is not limitless. (
  • Taxing carbon is the best way to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. (
  • Most people are afraid of change, however, Perhaps environmentalists need to talk more about what life would really be like without fossil fuels, since most people can't imagine what that would really mean. (
  • But the carbon contained in global resources of fossil fuels is estimated 2 to be equivalent to about 11,000 Gt of CO 2 , which means that the implementation of ambitious climate policies would lead to large proportions of reserves remaining unexploited ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • In each of the 16 regions modelled, fossil fuels are divided into 21 categories that include various types of coal, oil and gas. (
  • McGlade and Ekins' figures, computed for the period 2010-50, show that the amounts of unburnable fossil fuels are modestly sensitive to the availability of carbon capture and sequestration technology. (
  • We know that fossil fuels are majorly responsible for air pollution and rising global temperatures. (
  • For the longest time, fossil fuels were considered as the only and the most viable form of energy, but not anymore. (
  • In order to really achieve the goal of keeping global temperature rise in check, the world needs to say goodbye to fossil fuels for good. (
  • This week saw the completion of the woodstove renovation and installation in our quest to use less and less fossil fuels. (
  • Also see Jim Foley's fossil hominid FAQ for detailed information on hominid fossils. (
  • After successfully completing this exercise, students will be able to sketch slices through a few invertebrate fossils at a variety of angles, and will be able to recognize randomly oriented slices through these same fossils. (
  • This activity is used to review invertebrate fossils in preparation for a practical. (
  • Fossils and Strata 1:1-101. (
  • It should have been realized earlier from fossil evidence that catastrophes such as this have deposited strata rapidly. (
  • There are three main types of fossils you may find. (
  • What are five different types of fossils? (
  • They will be able to recognize a variety of fossils from fragments in fossiliferous rock samples. (
  • It is a nice collection of fossils and I liked how you can find the era and location the animal lived in. (
  • Geologists who are creationists believe that a one world-wide cataclysmic flood, otherwise known as the Genesis Flood, buried most of these animals and preserved them as fossils in the earth. (
  • Fossils are remnants or impressions of ancient organisms that are naturally preserved in stone. (
  • The goal of the activity is to provide an opportunity for students to practice their identification skills of fossil invertebrates. (
  • Students assess their knowledge on fossil invertebrates. (
  • Students divide into teams and use their notes to answer questions on fossil invertebrates in a Jeopardy format. (
  • Discovered as recently as 2003, this living fossil has been described by researchers as a 'bloated doughnut with stubby legs and a pointy snout. (
  • Our geological collections of fossils and meteorites are world renowned, drawing researchers from around the globe. (
  • The Field Museum collections of fossils and meteorites are world renowned, drawing researchers from around the globe to study them. (
  • The team didn't know how old the fossils were, so the researchers looked at the orientation of magnetic minerals in the rock layers around the fossils. (
  • Researchers from the University of Zurich studied six types of pollen fossils carefully and claimed they were 240 million years old. (
  • These new fossils suggest that far-flung groups of ancient humans were more genetically linked across Eurasia than often previously thought, researchers in the new study said. (
  • A study from North Carolina State University in January of 2005 announced that a fossil specimen from Antarctica had been identified as a duck, flipping the evolutionary script. (
  • The Liaoning specimen is especially significant because it means the fossil record now sits more comfortably with what genetic studies have been suggesting about the timing of the emergence of the different mammalian lineages. (
  • I propose we create Future Fossil beds in arid basins of the world where sediments are accumulating, and on the bottom of anaerobic bodies of water like the Black Sea. (
  • This is 100,000 years older than previously discovered fossils of Homo sapiens that have been securely dated. (
  • Most of the early fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. (
  • After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus ), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo ). (
  • After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene ), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens ( anatomically modern humans ), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations . (
  • Fossils opens with Julie describing her parents as "Homo parentithicus. (
  • To show how widespread dinosaur fossils have been in the UK, mapping and analytics company Esri UK plotted the location of each and every dinosaur fossil find here, from the south coast to the Scottish Highlands. (
  • Today the basin affords 1,200 square miles of covetable fossil exposure and 40 years of carefully worked-out geology. (
  • I logged on to Virtual Museum of Fossils and spent at least 2 hours trying it and brought in a student assistant new to geology to try it as well. (
  • Reconstruct and identify a fossil skeleton. (
  • The most expensive fossil ever bought was Sue, the largest and most complete T.Rex skeleton yet discovered. (
  • Go to the auction site eBay on any given day and you will see somewhere in the region of 4,000 prehistoric fossils for sale, ranging from Oviraptor eggs and T. rex teeth to Diplodocus legs and Velociraptor claws, many of them of questionable legality. (
  • Natually, fossils are our best source of information about the prehistoric world. (
  • Fossils are usually not able to be directly dated by any radiometric dating method. (
  • Radiometric dating may be used to narrow this down, by dating available volcanic layers above and/or below the fossil-containing layer. (
  • Contrary to popular belief, the age of the fossils is not determined by radiometric dating. (
  • In 1969 a field expedition led by American paleontologist Edwin H. Colbert recovered Lystrosaurus fossils from Lower Triassic rocks in Antarctica's Transantarctic Mountains . (
  • Krumenacker and his friend, retired Caribou-Targhee National Forest paleontologist Steve Robison, had recognized the potential of the area to hold the rare fossils since 2003. (
  • On top of that, there are gaps in the fossil record, although the ongoing discovery of new fossils and fossil beds that may one day fill these gaps. (
  • People use satellites now to find fossil beds. (
  • Agriculture of the eastern counties, together with descriptions of the fossils of the Marl beds. (
  • Within this formation, in a layer 40 meters thick, are the world famous fossil fruit and nut beds. (
  • Anyone can find fossils. (
  • Good places to find fossils are outcrops. (
  • Fossil hunting can take lots of time and patience, but what you may find is worth the wait! (
  • We can find real fossils or replicas and get you the lowest price anywhere. (
  • Where's the best place to find a fossil? (
  • Visit to learn what fossils are, and where (besides museums) you can find them. (
  • You may not, however, take any fossils you find in the park with you because that would be illegal. (
  • There are many places to find fossils. (
  • Some of them you can essentially point at with your eyes closed and find one or two fossil shells within 6inches of your finger. (
  • I swear theres a small columnar section), but the top portion, where it's easy to find all of the fossils is a much softer rock. (
  • Thousands of farmers have become 'bone diggers', who find fossils and sell them to dealers. (
  • Find out everything there is to know about fossils and stay updated on the latest fossil news with the comprehensive articles, interactive features and fossil pictures at (
  • They identify, visualize, and sketch slices through a variety of shelly organisms, then apply what they've learned to identify fossils in several samples of coquina. (
  • For this reason, only a fraction of the organisms that have existed on Earth appear in the fossil record , or the combined total of the fossils discovered on Earth and the information learned from them. (
  • Fossils are preserved remains of once-living organisms. (
  • facies fossil Fossil organisms that are restricted to particular lithologies , reflecting the original environments of deposition. (
  • Skeletal fossils will sell for up to 5.000 Bells. (
  • rs looked like by imagining flesh on the skeletal fossils that we have. (
  • Of course, the items could be perfectly legal, but, with so much money at stake, dealers are prepared to flout international laws to sell illicit bones to wealthy customers who have no idea what the regulations are and know only the bare minimum about how fossils are collected. (
  • As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. (
  • Some examples of non examples of fossils are as follows: knobby rocks, beautiful stones, bones. (
  • rmor, and even individual scales of its skin were fossilized as well as its bones.The remarkable fossil is. (
  • But, most importantly, the Juramaia fossil also retains a full set of teeth and forepaw bones. (
  • Into these fossil creation sites we place the complete and carefully arranged bones and shells of animals, wood of all sorts of trees together with their needles or leaves packed carefully in silt, and even insects encased in thick gobs of pine pitch or other resin. (
  • Fossils of animals, for example, are formed when animals are buried quickly and under tremendous pressure, so that their bones, remains, and imprint are preserved in rock. (
  • Human fossils can reveal much information about certain cultures, such as what kind of things that culture ate, ect, ect. (
  • These fossils can reveal a lot about the diet of the animal that formed them. (
  • The earliest known big cat lived in what is now China between 5.9 million and 4.1 million years ago, newfound fossils of the ancient prowler suggest. (
  • The earliest fossil bat is already a complete functional unit, very similar to the bats we have today. (
  • How much is a trilobite fossil worth? (
  • trilobite fossils are worth commonly around $60- $80. (
  • Small fossils, such as dino droppings sell for 1.000 Bells. (
  • Claudia and Doug (no last names given) are a couple of teachers sharing their "love of cool rocks" with kids, teachers and other fossil fanatics. (
  • How do fossils from in rocks? (
  • Few exposed rocks come from the Mesozoic era, and many of those are volcanic and cannot yield fossils. (
  • We might also want to include hardened ceramic figurines showing each animal or plant as it appeared in life along with the appropriate Future Fossil assemblage. (
  • Scientist Dr Nicola Stern holds a fossil in front of her face while school students look on at Lake Mungo. (
  • Cast in concrete, the specimens rang from the cassette tape (Latin name Asportatio acroamatis ) to the guts of an iPod ( Egosiliqua malusymphonicus ) - my favorite because it actually looks a little like a real fossil. (
  • At least three fossil specimens were uncovered in 1989 by miners quarrying limestone at Maludong or Red Deer Cave near the city of Mengzi in southwest China. (
  • A fossil of a Microraptor from a 130-million year old forest that existed in what is now Liaoning Province, China is displayed at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. (
  • The fossils, including a partial skull and a lower jaw, belong to five different individuals including three young adults, an adolescent and a child estimated to be 8 years old. (
  • These fossils belong to lagomorphs, a group which currently includes rabbits, hares and pikas. (
  • Tseng and his colleagues were excavating a rocky region of badlands in the Tibetan plateau in 2010 when they uncovered a fossil skull and one other bone that seemed to belong to a big cat. (
  • Even though they are just fragments they are bloody big fragments," he said of the fossils. (
  • In fact, countless layers of carbonized plant material create a well-known fossil fuel: coal. (
  • We provide excellent Dinosaur fossils and cast replicas to museums, universities and collectors. (
  • Its fossils have been discovered in Africa, India , and Antarctica . (
  • continental drift In this map depicting a portion of Gondwana (an ancient supercontinent that once contained South America, Africa, Australia, India, and Antarctica), the discovery of fossil plants and animals whose geographic home ranges cut across the greater landmass is supporting evidence for continental drift. (
  • This slide presentation reveals the variety of forms that fossils take, as well as examples of the kinds of life whose remains have been preserved. (
  • Carbon dating can only be used if carbon remains, which is not the case with most fossils. (
  • It describes the fossil remains of an animal unearthed in China's northeast Liaoning Province, which has produced so many stunning fossils in recent years. (
  • I was about to post 'Fossilize Me (tm)' - a post-life service which, for a small fee, would carefully deposit your remains in a favourably-sited cold, anoxic, silty seabed, offering you a reasonable chance of becoming a fossil in due course. (
  • Archaeoraptor was soon dubbed the 'Piltdown bird' and the 'Piltdown chicken' by the press, in reference to the biggest fossil hoax of all time, in which faked remains of putative early hominids were dug up from Piltdown in England in 1912. (
  • Don't miss the Fossil Mysteries site, and its online activities. (
  • On the bright side, the internet is a great blessing to fossil collectors, especially a little old site called eBay. (
  • The town is also the site of the Fossil Festival each spring. (
  • Large site of Ordovician fossils. (
  • The trail leads to the site of a fossil quarry in the Green River Formation that was worked from the late 1800s to the 1970s. (
  • This mineralization hardens the bone , or even replaces it, and turns into stone, thereby preserving its original structure in fossil form. (
  • All fossils are shown next to a quarter to show relative size. (
  • Fossils show many body parts and characteristics of the animals that they once were. (
  • The new fossils show that the halkieriids were extraordinary "pick and mix" creatures. (
  • millenia (Aristotle even mentioned them), but new fossil records show that the problem went way further ba. (
  • What these fossils show is that these groups were basically not separate. (

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