Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Relating to the size of solids.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.

Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (1/171)

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

Nitrogen management and the future of food: lessons from the management of energy and carbon. (2/171)

The food system dominates anthropogenic disruption of the nitrogen cycle by generating excess fixed nitrogen. Excess fixed nitrogen, in various guises, augments the greenhouse effect, diminishes stratospheric ozone, promotes smog, contaminates drinking water, acidifies rain, eutrophies bays and estuaries, and stresses ecosystems. Yet, to date, regulatory efforts to limit these disruptions largely ignore the food system. There are many parallels between food and energy. Food is to nitrogen as energy is to carbon. Nitrogen fertilizer is analogous to fossil fuel. Organic agriculture and agricultural biotechnology play roles analogous to renewable energy and nuclear power in political discourse. Nutrition research resembles energy end-use analysis. Meat is the electricity of food. As the agriculture and food system evolves to contain its impacts on the nitrogen cycle, several lessons can be extracted from energy and carbon: (i) set the goal of ecosystem stabilization; (ii) search the entire production and consumption system (grain, livestock, food distribution, and diet) for opportunities to improve efficiency; (iii) implement cap-and-trade systems for fixed nitrogen; (iv) expand research at the intersection of agriculture and ecology, and (v) focus on the food choices of the prosperous. There are important nitrogen-carbon links. The global increase in fixed nitrogen may be fertilizing the Earth, transferring significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere to the biosphere, and mitigating global warming. A modern biofuels industry someday may produce biofuels from crop residues or dedicated energy crops, reducing the rate of fossil fuel use, while losses of nitrogen and other nutrients are minimized.  (+info)

Domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian villages. (3/171)

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done primarily outdoors. Apart from this difference, the villages were virtually identical in terms of socioeconomic status, climate, altitude, access to health care, and other potential confounders. METHODS: Pollution exposure was assessed by combining information on concentrations of particulate matter of <10 microm diameter (PM(10)) in 12 randomly selected households in each village in all potential microenvironments of exposure with time allocation information. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was assessed using the British Medical Research Council's questionnaire on individuals >20 years of age in both villages (n = 241). RESULTS: Daily pollution exposure was significantly higher in the indoor cooking village (range for adults: 9840-15 120 microg-h/m(3)) than in the outdoor cooking village (range for adults: 5520-6240 microg-h/m(3)) for both seasons and for men and women. The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 22% and 13% for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, which excluded the few smokers present in the population, showed a 60% reduced risk of chronic bronchitis in the outdoor cooking village compared with the indoor cooking village (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8; p = 0.0102) after adjusting for age and sex. Individuals aged >40 years were 4.3 times more likely to have chronic bronchitis than the younger age group (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.3; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest an association between chronic bronchitis and exposure to domestic biomass fuel combustion, but further large scale studies from other areas of the developing world are needed to confirm the association. Results from this and other studies will assist the development of culturally acceptable and feasible alternatives to the high exposure cooking stoves currently being used by most people worldwide.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms in older people and use of domestic gas appliances. (4/171)

BACKGROUND: Studies in children and young women have indicated an increased risk of respiratory illness in association with the use of domestic gas appliances, possibly caused by oxides of nitrogen generated when gas is burned. It is not known whether risks are similarly increased in older subjects. METHODS: A questionnaire about respiratory symptoms in the past year and potential risk factors for respiratory disease was mailed to 6000 men and women aged 65 years and older who were selected at random from the lists of general practices in North Bristol, UK. Associations between symptoms and the use of gas appliances were examined by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, social class, and smoking habits. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 4792 (80%) of those mailed. The most common symptoms were exercise induced breathlessness, wheeze, or chest tightness (51%); wheeze (27%); morning phlegm (20%); and daytime breathlessness at rest (19%). In an analysis that included all subjects only weak associations were found with use of gas appliances, odds ratios all being 1.2 or less. The risks associated with use of a gas hob tended to be higher in women, with odds ratios of 1.36 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.83) for wheeze and 1.33 (95% CI 0.56 to 3.17) for morning chest tightness, but were lower than had been reported previously in younger women. CONCLUSION: The absence of stronger associations cannot readily be explained by bias or confounding. Gas cookers and fires are unlikely to be an important cause of respiratory illness in the elderly. If they do cause such illness, the largest risks are likely to be in women who use gas hobs.  (+info)

The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E. (5/171)

Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the dose-response slope (Percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) divided by total dose of methacholine given) as the dependent variable in 1,921 subjects from a random sample of the Dutch population, aged 20-70 yrs. Whether the association was different according to sex, age, total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, specific IgE to inhalant allergens or smoking habits was tested by including interaction terms into the regression model. Subjects who used gas for cooking had a higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (provocative dose causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20) < or = 2 mg) than those who used electricity (21% versus 14%) and this was dependent on the presence of atopy. Especially subjects with total IgE levels in the highest quartile had a significantly higher dose-response slope when using gas for cooking. This was independent of the presence of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. These results show increased bronchial responsiveness with gas cooking, which was only found in subjects with high total immunoglobulin E levels. This suggests that atopic subjects are sensitive to adverse effects of gas cooking on respiratory health.  (+info)

Neonatal tetanus associated with topical umbilical ghee: covert role of cow dung. (6/171)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee have been incompletely evaluated epidemiologically. METHODS: Detailed information on ghee usage, including fuels used to heat it, was obtained from cases of NNT (n = 229) and their matched controls (n = 687) from a population-based study of NNT in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Design variables were created to evaluate the impact of different fuel sources on risk of ghee applications. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of all infants had ghee applied, and it was nearly always heated before application to umbilical wounds of newborns. After controlling for all factors found to be significantly associated with NNT in conditional logistic regression, only ghee that had always been heated with dried cow dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. Topical antimicrobials and ghee were never applied together. CONCLUSIONS: Ghee applications to umbilical wounds, when heated with 'clean' fuels, appear to pose no increased risk of NNT, although handling practices undoubtedly result in hazardous microbial contamination. In contrast, ghee heated with dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. The effective promotion of topical antimicrobials might help reduce ghee use, since the intended purpose of each is to enhance healing.  (+info)

Occupational risk factors for lung cancer in the French electricity and gas industry: a case-control survey nested in a cohort of active employees. (7/171)

The main aim of this study was the analysis of occupational lung cancer risk factors in the French national electricity and gas company (Electricite de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF)). A case-control survey nested in a cohort of male employees was undertaken. The study population consisted of all male staff who were active at EDF-GDF between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 1989. During this period, 310 cases of lung cancer were identified in the cancer register set up by the medical department of the company. For each case, four age-matched controls who were free of cancer at the time of occurrence of the case's lung cancer were randomly selected. Occupational exposures to 21 chemical agents were assessed for each subject using a job exposure matrix. The associations between lung cancer and the different agents were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for various occupational confounding factors, the analysis showed increased lung cancer risks linked to exposure to crystalline silica (highest exposure class: odds ratio = 2.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.68) and creosotes (highest exposure level: odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 4.31), with significant dose-response relationships for both exposures.  (+info)

Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario. (8/171)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.  (+info)

Fossil fuel projects moratorium; clean energy mandates. Establishes a moratorium, effective January 1, 2019, on approval by any state agency or political subdivision of any approval required for (i) electric generating facilities that generate fossil fuel energy through the combustion of a fossil fuel resource; (ii) import or export terminals for fossil fuel resources; (iii) certain maintenance activities relating to an import or export terminal for a fossil fuel resource; (iv) gathering lines or pipelines for the transport of any fossil fuel resource that requires the use of eminent domain on private property; (v) certain maintenance activities relating to such gathering lines or pipelines; (vi) refineries of a fossil fuel resource; and (vii) exploration for any type of fossil fuel, unless preempted by applicable federal law. The measure also requires not less than 80 percent of the electricity sold by a retail electric supplier in calendar years 2027 through 2034 to be generated from clean energy
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In 2009 the Group of 20 (G20) made commitments to reduce fossil fuel subsidies. It agreed to rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption. Later that year APEC countries made a similar commitment.. Many countries are now working to reform their fossil fuel subsidies, but progress has been slow. There are many economic, political and social hurdles that need to be overcome to make lasting changes.. In December 2017, New Zealand delivered a Ministerial Statement to the World Trade Organisation (WTO), encouraging it to address the global harm being caused by inefficient fossil fuel subsidies. Ministerial statement fossil fuel subsidies. Endorsed by 11 other WTO Members, the statement confirms the environmental, development and trade benefits of fossil fuel subsidy reform, and includes a political commitment by participants to look at avenues to bring the issue into the WTO.. Watch our short film on reforming fossil fuel ...
China, Japan extract combustible ice from seafloor. By Matthew Brown. The Associated Press. BEIJING - Commercial development of the globes huge reserves of a frozen fossil fuel known as combustible ice has moved closer to reality after Japan and China successfully extracted the material from the seafloor off their coastlines.. But experts said Friday that large-scale production remains many years away - and if not done properly could flood the atmosphere with climate changing greenhouse gases.. Combustible ice is a frozen mixture of water and concentrated natural gas. Technically known as methane hydrate, it can be lit on fire in its frozen state and is believed to comprise one of the worlds most abundant fossil fuels.. The official Chinese news agency Xinhua reported that the fuel was successfully mined by a drilling rig operating in the South China Sea on Thursday. Chinese Minister of Land and Resources Jiang Daming declared the event a breakthrough moment heralding a potential global ...
A new study, the G7 Fossil Fuel Subsidy Scorecard, measured the US against other G7 countries on each countrys progress in eliminating fossil fuel subsidies. The US ranked the worst out of the G7 countries, spending over $26 billion a year propping up fossil fuels. (The G7 countries are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK and the US.). How did the US manage to score so low? By continuing to subsidize fossil fuel production, and then promoting even more pro-polluter, pro-fossil initiatives since President Trump took office.. In 2009, the G7 countries pledged to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies. In 2016, the G7 set a deadline of 2025 for doing so. The G7 Fossil Fuel Subsidy Scorecard, produced by NRDC with the Global Subsidies Initiative, Oil Change International and Overseas Development Institute, tracks progress towards that goal. The indicators to determine progress included assessments of countries level of transparency of reporting on subsidies, recent pledges and commitments related ...
Burning fossil fuels can cause acid rain, global warming, oil spills, and air and water pollution. All of these things are VERY bad for the environment. It affects the air we breathe, water we drink, and damages the ecosystem. Damaging the ecosystem will affect the lives we live for many years to come. In the US we use about 17 million barrels of oil every day. If you think that is bad 86% of US energy comes from fossil fuels. What Can You Do About It? What are Fossil Fuels? by Trisha Minocha Fossil Fuels are nonrenewable forms of energy from a million years ago. They come from underground and will not last forever. Coal, natural gas, and oil are fossil fuels ...
Governments, individuals, and industry all bear some responsibility for global warming. But fossil fuel companies are substantial contributors to the problem, and therefore must take responsibility for their actions.. There are several steps fossil fuel companies should take. An essential first action is for fossil fuel companies to stop disseminating climate disinformation, either directly or through trade associations and other industry groups. This should include severing ties with organizations like the American Legislative Exchange Council.. Fossil fuels companies should also fully disclose the financial and physical risks of climate change, invest in low-carbon and renewable energy resources, support policies to shift away from fossil fuels, publicly disclose their direct and indirect political spending, and pay for their share of the costs of climate-related damages and climate preparedness.. ...
Data & statistics on Trends in global fossil fuel use per person: Trends in global fossil fuel use per person (source: Galloway, 1988)., Reported as head of cattle, rather than in acres. Other credits generated could include: carbon accumulation in woody biomass (Heath et al., 2003a) and from the use of perennial grasses for cellulosic ethanol production, with the ethanol substituting for fossil fuel use (Nelson personal communication), and methane credits (per head, 11: assumptions on global fossil fuel use in the energy [r]evolution scenario...
CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have increased at an average annual rate of 3.4 per cent between 2000 and 2008, compared with one per cent per year in the 1990s.. Emissions from land use change have remained almost constant since 2000, but now account for a significantly smaller proportion of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions (20 per cent in 2000 to 12 per cent in 2008).. The fraction of total CO2 emissions remaining in the atmosphere has likely increased from 40 to 45 per cent since 1959, models suggests this is due to the response of the natural CO2 sinks to climate change and variability.. Emissions from coal are now the dominant fossil fuel emission source, surpassing 40 years of oil emission prevalence.. The financial crisis had a small but discernable impact on emissions growth in 2008 - with a two per cent increase compared with an average 3.6 per cent over the previous seven years. On the basis of projected changes in GDP, emissions for 2009 are expected to fall to their ...
Background. The fossil fuel industrys mission is to extract and burn oil, coal, and gas for profit, regardless of the costs to people and the planet. To protect their wealth, they buy off governments and attack those who resist them. Communities of color, working class communities, and those in the Global South are hit first and worst by the fossil fuel industrys recklessness. Additionally, the fossil fuel industry has been expanding outside the US through the exploitation of people and destruction of ecosystems, this is resource colonialism. We aim to end the stranglehold that the fossil fuel industry has on the political process - only then can we get the action we need to keep global temperature rise beneath 1.5 degrees C (AHEM) and build an economy that is sustainable and works for everybody.. The fossil fuel divestment campaign was started at Swarthmore College in 2010 after students met with anti mountaintop removal mining organizers in Appalachia. Upon return they looked for a way to ...
As a deep water port, the city of Tacoma and Commencement Bay are under threat from development of future fossil fuel facilities. The South Sound chapter is part of a coalition of community groups covering a wide array of interests who support a city council passed moratorium on new fossil fuel development in the Tacoma Tideflats. On November 21st, 2017 the City Council of Tacoma passed interim regulations blocking any new fossil fuel development in the Tacoma Tideflats. This action effectively prohibits any new fossil fuel facilities until a sub-area use plan is finalized in the next 3-5 years. This is a major accomplishment for Washington residents who have been battling fossil fuel development facilities and succeeding, but who now are taking strides toward proactive measures to protect local marine water and reduce climte impacts. ...
Most of the fuels people burn are fossil fuels. A big use is to make electricity. In power plants fossil fuels, usually coal, are burned to heat water into steam, which pushes a fan-like object called a turbine. When the turbine spins around, magnets inside the turbine make electricity. Crude oil can be separated to make various fuels such as LPG, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. These substances are made by fractional distillation in an oil refinery. They are the main fuels in transportation. That means that they are burned in order to move cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, trains and even spacecraft. Without them, there wouldnt be much transport. People also burn fossil fuels to heat their homes. They use coal less for this than they did long ago, because it makes things dirty. In many homes, people burn natural gas in a stove for cooking. Fossil fuels are widely used in construction. . ...
Most of the fuels people burn are fossil fuels. A big use is to make electricity. In power plants fossil fuels, usually coal, are burned to heat water into steam, which pushes a fan-like object called a turbine. When the turbine spins around, magnets inside the turbine make electricity. Crude oil can be separated to make various fuels such as LPG, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. These substances are made by fractional distillation in an oil refinery. They are the main fuels in transportation. That means that they are burned in order to move cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, trains and even spacecraft. Without them, there wouldnt be much transport. People also burn fossil fuels to heat their homes. They use coal less for this than they did long ago, because it makes things dirty. In many homes, people burn natural gas in a stove for cooking. Fossil fuels are widely used in construction. . ...
A number of industrial processes produce combustible dust as a by-product. The most common being wood dust. Combustible dust has been defined as: a solid material composed of distinct particles or pieces, regardless of size, shape, or chemical composition, which presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations.[10] In addition to wood, combustible dusts include metals, especially magnesium, titanium and aluminum, as well as other carbon-based dusts.[10] There are at least a 140 known substances that produce combustible dust.[11]:38[12] While the particles in a combustible dusts may be of any size, normally they have a diameter of less than 420 µm.[10][note 1] As of 2012[update], the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration has yet to adopt a comprehensive set of rules on combustible dust.[13]. When suspended in air (or any oxidizing environment), the fine particles of combustible dust present a ...
A number of industrial processes produce combustible dust as a by-product. The most common being wood dust. Combustible dust has been defined as: a solid material composed of distinct particles or pieces, regardless of size, shape, or chemical composition, which presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations.[11] In addition to wood, combustible dusts include metals, especially magnesium, titanium and aluminum, as well as other carbon-based dusts.[11] There are at least a 140 known substances that produce combustible dust.[12]:38[13] While the particles in a combustible dusts may be of any size, normally they have a diameter of less than 420 μm.[11][note 1] As of 2012[update], the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration has yet to adopt a comprehensive set of rules on combustible dust.[14] When suspended in air (or any oxidizing environment), the fine particles of combustible dust present a potential ...
The problem is no country is doing anywhere near enough to keep fossil fuels in the ground, according to the Climate Action Tracker released Friday on the sidelines of the U.N. climate change negotiations here in Doha, Qatar.. In fact, countries are going in the wrong direction, spending 523 billion dollars in 2011 in public tax money to subsidise the burning of fossil fuels, said Michiel Schaeffer, a scientist with Climate Analytics that produces the Climate Action Tracker (CAT) with Dutch energy consulting organisation Ecofys and Germanys Pik Potsdam Institute.. The 2011 subsidies for fossil fuels were a 30-percent increase over 2010, according to the IEA (International Energy Agency), Schaeffer told IPS.. By contrast, the IEA said that solar, wind and other forms of renewable energy received only 88 billion dollars in subsidies, one-sixth of the amount given to the highly profitable fossil fuels sector.. Even though 194 states and the European Union are here at COP18 to ensure the heating ...
A pre-requisite for making the transition to a clean energy future is to switch subsidies from fossil fuels to renewable energy projects. If thats the case, why are we still bank-rolling dirty energy projects in developing countries?. World Bank lending for fossil fuels rose by 94% between 2007 & 2008 to over $3 billion which far outweighs the $476 million they gave to new renewables energy projects. World Bank lending for coal in particular rose 256% from 2007 to 2008. This contradicts the Banks own rhetoric in their World Development Report published in September that advises against locking the world into high-carbon infrastructure.. Steve Kretzmann of Oil Change International has been campaigning for the elimination of fossil fuel subsidies for many years. He says that if the G20 leaders were serious about their Pittsburgh commitment to phasing out subsidies for fossil fuels, they could end World Bank and Export Credit Agency support at the stroke of a pen. However, rather than ...
Yvo de Boer, the head of the UNFCCC has done a lot to move the global climate negotiations forward. No questions about that. But yesterday he shocked me by - at the opening ceremony of all places - strongly endorsing fossil fuels and putting a lot of hope in making dirty fuels a little cleaner (you can listen to his speech here). This, to put it midly, is unhelpful. The fossil fuel industry, which made record profits in recent years, hardly needs de Boers pity. It is the industry, that caused the problem we are dealing with here in the first place (as you all know, but Yvo seemed to have forgotten for a moment). Fossil fuels will not be gone tomorrow, true. But if we want to fight climate change, we need to move beyond them. At Bali governments should commit to ending all subsidies for fossil fuels - which are still massive. Institutions like the World Bank or the Asian Development Bank like to talk about how much money they spend on renewables. But they also still fund the climate problem - ...
Alex Tyrrell wrote the following letter to Concordia President Alain Shepard urging him to divest the Universitys funds from the fossil fuel industry. To: Dr. Alan Shepard - President and Vice-Chancellor of Concordia University. Subject: Divestment from Fossil Fuels. Dr. Shepard,. As a student in Environmental Science at Concordia University and the leader of the Green Party of Québec, I would like to take a moment to voice my support for a student-lead divestment campaign aimed at the numerous holdings that the Concordia Foundation has made in the unethical fossil fuel industry. As you know, global climate change, as well as the toxic pollution associated with all types of fossil fuel extraction, transport, and combustion are well-known global health threats to both human beings and the planet we live on. If we do not change our ways in the near future we may never be able to avert catastrophic climate change effects such as sea level rise, extreme weather events and the extinction of a large ...
The university hosted a debate on the topic and assembled a committee that ultimately urged MIT to divest its stocks and other investments in the most damaging fossil fuel industries, including coal and tar sand companies.. The MIT report warns of catastrophic outcomes linked to current energy use, but said the school can help by maintaining ties with fossil fuel companies.. We choose not to divest from fossil fuel companies because we think engagement stands the greatest chance of success, MIT President L. Rafael Reif said in a conference call with reporters. MIT seeks to convene key players with the goal of helping drive significant progress for the world. There is a great deal to do and we are eager to get started.. At MIT and campuses across the United States, students have pushed universities to pull their investments in fossil fuels. They argue that coal and oil companies are driving climate change, with the support of heavy college investments. Leaders at MIT took up the issue after ...
Sept. 13, 2017 - Over 220 organizations from 55 countries have released a signed declaration calling for a managed decline of the fossil fuel industry in line with the Paris climate goals. The Lofoten Declaration demands climate leadership that includes an end to exploration and expansion of new fossil fuel reserves.. The world already has access to more oil, coal, and gas than we can afford to burn if we hope to stay within the Paris climate goals, says Truls Gulowsen of Greenpeace Norway. It is imperative that we stop exploring and expanding into new reserves, and instead start thinking about how we are going to have a just transition away from our dangerous dependence on fossil fuels.. The Declaration is being launched publicly in advance of Norways national elections next week. One of the Declarations core themes is that countries like Norway, who have built incredible wealth from the fossil fuel sector, must lead by proving a fossil-free economy is possible with a just transition and ...
The ASUC Senate unanimously approved a bill at a meeting Wednesday ordering the divestment of its funds from fossil fuel companies while encouraging other institutions of higher education to follow suit.. The bill - SB 10 - binds the ASUC to complete the withdrawal of any of its $3 million in total investments from fossil fuel companies. CalSERVE Senator Nolan Pack, an author of the bill, said he sought to use UC Berkeleys position as a global leader to curb the effects of climate change. SB 10 was supported by a coalition of campus environmental groups and Cal Berkeley Democrats.. The bill is part of a wider movement at universities across the nation to support divestment from fossil fuel companies by institutions of higher education.. Senator Sadia Saifuddin, chief of the senate finance committee, was unsure of how the ASUC would logistically divest from fossil fuel companies, saying that the senate would discuss that now that the bill has passed.. According to a press release, divestment ...
Resnick-Day is the activist with Greenpeace who questioned Clinton on Thursday. Dorozenski is the democracy campaign director at Greenpeace. Resnick-Day said after her exchange with Clinton: To be clear, we are talking about more than just individual contributions from oil and gas employees. According to data compiled by Greenpeaces research department, Secretary Clintons campaign and the Super PAC supporting her have received more than $4.5 million from the fossil fuel industry during the 2016 election cycle. Eleven registered oil and gas industry lobbyists have bundled over $1 million to her campaign. See from Greenpeace: Hillary Clintons Connection to the Oil and Gas Industry.. The Huffington Post in Hillary Clintons Biggest Campaign Bundlers Are Fossil Fuel Lobbyists reported last year: Nearly all of the lobbyists bundling contributions for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clintons campaign have at one time or another worked for the fossil fuel industry.. Resnick-Day ...
United States Eatet [72] Inventors Robert J. Mackey Morton Grove; lhor B. Karpowycz, Chicago, both of I11. [211 App]. No. 780,476 [22} Filed Dec. 2, 1968 [45] Patented Sept. 21, 1971 I73] Assignee Sun Electric Corporation [54] COMBUSIIBLE GAS MEASUREMENT 21 Claims, 4 Drawing Figs. [52] 11.8. C1 23/232, 23/254, 23/255, 73/27, 117/227, 252/462, 252/472 [51] 1nt.C1 ..B0ljll/12, GOln 31/10, GOln 31/12 [501 Field of Search 1.23/232, 232 E, 254, 254 E, 255, 255 E, 2.2, 288.3; 73/27; 252/462, 472; 117/227, 231 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,030,283 2/1936 Rewal 252/462 X 2,273,981 2/1942 Morgan et al 23/232 E Primary Examiner-Morris D. Wolk Assistant ExaminerR. M. Reese Attorney-Molinare, Allegretti, Newitt & Witcoff ABSTRACT: The measurement of combustible gases comprises passing a stream of gas containing the combustible gases over a conductive metal wire coated with a thin catalytic coating of a mixture of thorium oxide and black palladium powder and/or black platinum powder. ...
Any combustible material can burn rapidly when in a finely divided form. If such a dust is suspended in air in the right concentration, under certain conditions, it can become explosible. Even materials that do not burn in larger pieces (such as aluminum or iron), given the proper conditions, can be explosible in dust form.. The force from such an explosion can cause employee deaths, injuries, and destruction of entire buildings. For example, 3 workers were killed in a 2010 titanium dust explosion in West Virginia, and 14 workers were killed in a 2008 sugar dust explosion in Georgia. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) identified 281 combustible dust incidents between 1980 and 2005 that led to the deaths of 119 workers, injured 718, and extensively damaged numerous industrial facilities.. A wide variety of materials that can be explosible in dust form exist in many industries. Examples of these materials include: food (e.g., candy, sugar, spice, starch, flour, feed), ...
Background: Given the rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and the paucity of associated longitudinal health-related data, the need to assess the potential risks of long-term use is essential.. Objective: To compare exposure to nicotine, tobacco-related carcinogens, and toxins among smokers of combustible cigarettes only, former smokers with long-term e-cigarette use only, former smokers with long-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use only, long-term dual users of both combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and long-term users of both combustible cigarettes and NRT.. Design: Cross-sectional study.. Setting: United Kingdom.. Participants: The following 5 groups were purposively recruited: combustible cigarette-only users, former smokers with long-term (≥6 months) e-cigarette-only or NRT-only use, and long-term dual combustible cigarette-e-cigarette or combustible cigarette-NRT users (n = 36 to 37 per group; total n = 181).. Measurements: Sociodemographic and smoking ...
Response 8: As discussed in our Responses 6 and 7 above, OSHA does not have specific standards which prohibit process tanks to vent inside the buildings. However, venting inside a building is prohibited under the OSHA 1910.106 standard for storage tanks containing flammable and/or combustible liquids. 1910.106(b)(4)(ii), which applies to storage tanks inside buildings, in part states that Vents shall discharge vapors outside the building. In addition, as stated earlier, if process tanks are part of a PSM-covered process, at a minimum, the employer would be required to identify, evaluate, and control [§1910.119(e)(1)] the hazard of discharging flammable and combustible materials through an emergency relief device into the inside of a building. As discussed in our responses above, if employers have not properly evaluated and controlled a release inside a building from process tank vents, OSHA may use section 17.15.3 of NFPA 30-2008 as the basis for enforcing the General Duty Clause for process ...
Radiocarbon (14C) is the natural radioactive carbon isotope which is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray induced reactions with atmospheric nitrogen. The radioactive half life of 14C is 5700 years. In an undisturbed steady state situation the atmospheric 14CO2 activity corresponds to an equilibrium between production in the atmosphere and decay of 14C in all carbon reservoirs exchanging CO2 with the atmosphere. The natural equilibrium level of atmospheric 14CO2 has been disturbed through mans activities in the last century, (1) by the ongoing input of fossil fuel CO2 into the atmosphere known as Suess effect, and (2) through nuclear detonations in the atmosphere in the 1950s and early 1960s (14C bomb effect). CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, due to its age of several hundred million years is free of 14C. Adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere therefore leads not only to an increase of its mole fraction but also to a dilution of the 14C/C ratio in CO2. While the Suess effect caused a ...
It is almost impossible to ignore fossil fuel use in the world today. Fossil fuels come in three main forms: coal, natural gas and petroleum (oil). Fossil fuels were created by dead organic matter millions of years ago.
There is considerable uncertainty about levels of greenhouse gas emissions particularly for those associated with land use change as well as for fugitive emissions associated with oil and gas extraction and coal mining. Estimates of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have the least degree of uncertainty, but do vary depending on the data source. In 2007 estimates of emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by only 2.7% across data sources (Macknick, 2011). Default uncertainty estimates (2 standard deviations) that have been used by the IPCC for emissions coefficients for fossil fuel combustion range from 7.2% for coal use in industry to 1.5% for diesel used in road transport (Olivier et al., 2010). In summary, the uncertainty for fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions is ±5% (UNEP, 2012). There is much greater variation in estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from cement production and gas flaring but these are a relatively small fraction of total emissions (Macknick, 2011). ...
The planet can no longer afford these subsidies. We should move to scrap them as soon as possible and make the switch to a green economy. The energy landscape is changing quickly The energy transition is happening now, all around us. The growth rate of renewables is three times faster than fossil and nuclear fuel, with record growth rates in solar and wind power. The United Kingdom just went 100 days on 100 per cent renewable energy sources, and no one noticed. However, despite the rapid pace of change, the bulk of all our power for heating, lighting, cooking, transport and industry still comes from fossil fuels.. A major way to reduce air pollution, which is above World Health Organization safe levels in many cities around the world, is to switch more quickly away from fossil fuels. We should eliminate fossil fuel subsidies, except for liquefied petroleum gas cooking programmes.. UN Environment, in collaboration with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the ...
Georgetowns decision to divest from fossil fuel investments is an encouraging outcome for the entire Georgetown community, according to Lucy Chatfield (COL 22), a member of GUFF. The whole process of campaigning for the referendum has gotten the student body engaged in thinking about divestment and weve gotten to reach a lot more people, Chatfield said. I think that this announcement from Georgetown will mean a lot more to people now that weve been going through this process and having this dialogue on campus.. GUFF had submitted a proposal Jan. 17, 2019, to Georgetowns Committee on Investments and Social Responsibility, a group of university representatives in charge of amending Georgetowns investment practices, that called on Georgetown to not directly invest in fossil fuels in the future and to divest the endowment from fossil fuels by Jan. 1, 2024. The boards decision to divest is a testament to GUFFs persistent and effective activism, according to Georgetown Renewable Energy and ...
Translate Fossil fuel. Nature always strikes back - and it is already doing so with growing force and fury. { bidder: openx, params: { unit: 539971065, delDomain: idm-d.openx.net }}, },{ A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion. WR Apps: Android & iPhone Word of the day. Translation for fossil-fuels in the free English-Spanish dictionary and many other Spanish translations. Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, became buried under further heavy layers of inorganic sediment. var googletag = googletag ,, {}; Learn more. So burning coal or oil, which releases carbon from when the fossil fuel was formed, has a serious global warming effect.. {code: ad_rightslot2, pubstack: { adUnitName: cdo_rightslot2, adUnitPath: /23202586/cdo_rightslot2 }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, ...
Dr. Thomas Johansson, Professor and Director, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University - formerly Director of the Energy and Atmosphere Programme of the Bureau for Development Policy in the United Nations Development Programme.. Professor Jaccards book provides a very important addition to the policy debate over future sources of energy in a climate constrained world that is trying to become environmentally sustainable. At the heart of his book is the idea that Renewables and zero emission fossil fuels will compete for the dominant position in meeting the needs of a sustainable energy system over the coming century. He finds that zero (carbon) emissions fossil fuels are likely to have a cost advantage over renewables and in any event renewables, he argues, would be hard pressed to overtake fossil fuels by the end of the century. Whilst a number of published scenarios challenge this view, particularly for the period beyond the 2050s, he has marshalled ...
Back in 2011, Hampshire College became the first university in the US to make plans to divest, it says.. Earlier this year, the Harvard Universitys Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as well as the Harvard Medical Schools Faculty Council, both called on the university to divest - but so far, the school hasnt made official plans to do so.. Though the movement has been slow-going in the US, that isnt the case everywhere. In the UK, by comparison, more than 50% of universities have committed to divestment, according to the advocacy group Students Organising for Sustainability.. Why divest from fossil fuels?. The call to universities to divest from fossil fuels is driven by environmental consciousness. Universities invest billions to help generate revenue for the schools, and advocates say divesting from fossil fuel helps stigmatize those companies for carbon emissions and push them toward more development of clean energy.. So why dont all universities divest?. It comes down to money. Swarthmore ...
Natural News) Carbon dioxide is always going to be an unfortunate byproduct of burning fossil fuels. But researchers have been looking for ways to minimize this in order to reduce the harmful effects to the environment. Now according to a recent report, one group of hard-working experts may have finally found a breakthrough.. According to a news release from the Ohio State University, a group of engineers have successfully developed new technologies that have the potential to economically convert fossil fuels and biomass into useful products including electricity while skipping all the harmful carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The details of these new technologies have been laid out in two separate papers, both of which were published in the journal Energy & Environmental Science. According to the report, the findings allow for a fossil fuel that doesnt cause pollution.. While that may seem contradictory, thats really the simplest way to describe their breakthrough. The first of ...
Like it says in the highly acclaimed DVD Blind Spot; If we keep burning fossil fuels, our ecology will collapse, and if we stop burning fossil fuels our economy will collapse. If we keep pumping in CO2 to the atmosphere, the tipping point of methane self-release occurs (some think we are AT that tipping point), and the biosphere becomes unlivable at a rate that is too fast for adaptation for most life. It doesnt matter where the CO2 comes from; fossil fuel burning, forest burning, volcanic increase, or bio-fuels ...
Fossil fuel market prices dont reflect the externality, or social cost, of pollutants, including carbon dioxide that causes global warming. Since the catastrophic effects of climate change will occur decades in the future, it is easier to measure the cost of preventing them than the the damage that will occur if we dont. Internalizing the prevention cost by adding it to fossil fuel market prices makes these prices more closely reflect the real cost of fossil fuels.
With 2016 is set to be the hottest year on record and a climate sceptic elected to the White House, the need for stronger action on climate change is more urgent than ever.. We know that to stop the worst of climate change, almost all of the known reserves of fossil fuels must stay in the ground. Despite this fact, the fossil fuel industry continues with business as usual. According to the United Nations Environment Programme, we will blow the 1.5 target created in Paris within three years without a step change in global action. Is it time to look for ways to radically reduce the influence of the fossil fuel sector within our politics?. APPCCG chair Caroline Lucas MP will bring together a panel of speakers for an interactive discussion on conducting fossil free politics, discussing the reasons for pursuing it and how to implement it in practice.. Speakers will be confirmed shortly. ...
Investments in coal, oil, and gas increase financial risk without increasing returns, according to the new report Climate proofing your investments: Moving funds out of fossil fuels published by The Australia Institute.. To meet the internationally-agreed two degree global warming limit, fossil fuel businesses must leave in the ground two-thirds of the reserves currently on their books. Failure to incorporate this risk is causing inaccurate share valuations.. The report includes the first simulation comparing performance of an Australian fossil fuel free investment portfolio with an indexed ASX portfolio and It identifies a series of ASX-listed companies that are most at risk of stock devaluation due to climate change.. ...
Washington D.C., Oct 6, 2016 / 12:02 am (CNA/EWTN News).- On the Feast of St. Francis of Assisi this week, seven Catholic organizations on five continents announced they are divesting from fossil fuel companies in an effort to care for creation.. The announcement also fell on the last day of the Season of Creation, a Christian celebration and period of reflection on the state of the environment which began with the World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation on Sept. 1.. The move is the largest joint faith-based divestment from fossil fuels to date. Earlier this year, four Catholic orders in Australia announced they were divesting of coal, oil and gas following the call of Pope Francis in his encyclical Laudato Si: On Care for Our Common Home.. The initiative is also part of a larger, global movement to divest from fossil fuels, one of the largest such movements in history. Almost 600 institutions worth over $3.4 trillion globally have announced divestment commitments, according to ...
We are sitting on a time bomb: more than 500 gigatons of carbon dioxide in the United States completely under the control of unaccountable fossil fuel corporations. These companies have so many incentives to turn their reserves into profitable returns on investment-are we really ready to stake our collective future on the hope that these companies go green in time to avert climate catastrophe? As the Trump administration continues to run down the carbon clock as quickly and as irresponsibly as it can, the time has come to promote solutions that can deal with this massive private control of fossil fuel reserves. A future government may have no choice but to de-privatize control of these reserves, which would detach them from single-minded profit interests and take fossil fuel companies, powerful forces of climate opposition, out of the equation as we genuinely figure out the rest of the green transition.. The 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season kicked-off with a series of record-breaking storms ...
Choose to be on the right side of the climate change fight and the right side of history. Demand that CalSTRS, the California State Teachers Retirement System, divest from fossil fuels by signing this petition. What are the financial reasons for CalSTRS to divest from fossil fuels? When it comes to fossil fuel divestment, which may come off as radical to some, you may be asking yourself, is it p
Oil spills continued to be a problem in 2015 with a number of major incidents in North America. These spills contaminated both land and waterways and prompted the evacuation of local citizens. Whether by pipe, ship, rail or truck, there are well founded concerns about the safety of transporting fossil fuels. These concerns add weight to the argument that we need to expedite the shift away from fossil fuels. Many consecutive years with substantial numbers of spills illustrate the dangers associated with transporting fossil fuels ...
AMY GOODMAN: Joining us now is Eva Resnick-Day. Shes the Greenpeace activist who confronted Hillary Clinton Thursday. Also with us, Charlie Cray, research specialist for Greenpeace and lead researcher on the fossil fuel lobbyists contributions to the Clinton campaign. According to Greenpeaces research, the Clinton campaign has received more than four-and-a-half million dollars from lobbyists, bundlers and large donors connected to the fossil fuel industry. Clinton maintains shes received about $330,000 from individuals who work for fossil fuel companies.. We welcome you both to Democracy Now! Eva Resnick-Day, lets start with you. Describe the scene at the university, State University of New York-Purchase, when you were able to question Hillary Clinton. How hard was it to get to her?. EVA RESNICK-DAY: Absolutely. So, its pretty difficult to make sure that youll get to the front of a rally and even have the opportunity to stick your hand out and, hopefully, get to ask a question to ...
Activists claim Dane County may be the first in the country to pledge against investing in fossil fuels.. Thursday night the board voted unanimously to keep from financial stakes in the 200 companies with the largest reserves. The board cited environmental and global warming concerns echoed by local activists 350 Madison.. When you as individuals buy gas or dont buy gas or invest in fossil fuels, or dont invest in fossil fuels, nobody in Washington knows about it, the groups Dick Smith said to the board. But when you pass a resolution anybody can know about it.. District 4 Supervisor Kyle Richmond said he and a group of five other board members are planning a trip to Texas to lobby for a similar change, expecting a more hostile political climate.. The move may not make a major financial impact on the oil companies or Dane County, which hasnt invested directly in privately-issued stock in at least a decade.. Image Credit: WMTV News, Madison, Wisconsin.. ...
New bill will give federal employees the option to invest retirement savings in funds free of fossil fuel resources WASHINGTON, D.C. - Oregons Senator Jeff Merkley today introduced the Retirement Investments for a Sustainable Economy (RISE) Act of 2019, which gives federal employees the ability to divest from the fossil fuel industry-and reduce the financial liability of fossil fuel asset losses-by offering a Climate Choice investment option for the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP).. Americans are seeing the growing climate crisis driving catastrophic wildfires, deadly storms and hurricanes, and devastating droughts, and lots of people dont want to wait around for these risks to grow, said Merkley. If people want to get their money out of the industry driving climate chaos, they should be able to. Its time for Congress to give millions of federal employees the power to ensure their retirement funds are invested in a less risky and more sustainable, socially responsible portfolio.. ...
Rooftop solar takes the heat off vulnerable fossil fuels plants as temperatures hit record highs in Australia, and conservatives hope for power outages. The post Rooftop solar takes the heat off ageing fossil fuel generators appeared first on RenewEconomy. via Rooftop solar takes the heat off ageing fossil fuel generators - RenewEconomy
On December 19, 2017, the government of China announced that it is commencing development of a nationwide CO2 trading system, that when launched will become the worlds largest carbon trading system, annually covering about 3.5 billion tons of CO2 emissions in Chinas electric power sector ...
This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the historic fossil fuel and cement production records of the 50 leading investor-owned, 31 state-owned, and 9 nation-state producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and cement from as early as 1854 to 2010. This analysis traces emissions totaling 914 GtCO2e - 63% of cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial CO2 and methane between 1751 and 2010 - to the 90 carbon major entities based on the carbon content of marketed hydrocarbon fuels (subtracting for non-energy uses), process CO2 from cement manufacture, CO2 from flaring, venting, and own fuel use, and fugitive or vented methane. Cumulatively, emissions of 315 GtCO2e have been traced to investor-owned entities, 288 GtCO2e to state-owned enterprises, and 312 GtCO2e to nation-states. Of these emissions, half has been emitted since 1986. The carbon major entities possess fossil fuel reserves that will, if produced and emitted, intensify anthropogenic climate change. The purpose of the analysis is to ...
Fund Managers Have a Duty to Dump Fossil Fuels". Financial News. Retrieved 30 December 2015. Gasoline and diesel fuel prices in ... Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (2 October 2017). "Fossil Fuels". Our World in Data. Retrieved 6 March 2020. Martin, Douglas (16 ... Cost competitiveness of fuel sources Efficient energy use Elasticity (economics) Energy crisis Food vs fuel Gasoline usage and ... "Rising oil prices fuel fears of damage to global economy". The Guardian. 25 September 2018. "Former BP geologist: peak oil is ...
Fossil fuels • Sea level rise • Greenhouse gas • Ocean acidification • Shutdown of thermohaline circulation • Environmental ... Trail ethics Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles Environmental aspects of the electric car Hydrogen economy Scrappage program ...
Fossil fuel divestment[edit]. In October 2014, the Australian National University sold its shares in Santos and several other ... "South Australian Senator Sarah Hanson-Young waging campaign against Santos and fossil fuels". The Advertiser. Retrieved 23 ... companies in the nation's most reported case of fossil fuel industry divestment. Santos responded by claiming that gas is ...
Fossil fuel use[edit]. With the high degree of mechanization of the military large amounts of fossil fuels are used. Fossil ... The United States Department of Defense (DoD) is a government body with the highest use of fossil fuel in the world.[30] ... Accordingly, the US military is estimated to be the number one fossil fuel consumer in the world[36] ... Military activity uses solvents, fuels and other toxic chemicals which can leach toxins into the environment that remain there ...
Fossil fuels[edit]. The use of fossil fuels produces VOC's either directly as products (e.g., gasoline) or indirectly as ... One VOC that is a known human carcinogen is benzene, which is a chemical found in environmental tobacco smoke, stored fuels, ...
In fossil fuels[edit]. Odours occur as well in chemical processing of coal or crude oil into precursor chemicals (feedstocks) ... Fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which are derived from ancient organisms, necessarily contain organosulfur ... Many methylated, dimethyl, diethyl benzothiophene derivatives are present in diesel and fuel oils which make fuel oils very ... said to be pollutants within most common fossil fuels, especially coal. The most common organosulfur compound present in all ...
Fossil fuels[edit]. The use of fossil fuels produces VOC's either directly as products (e.g., gasoline) or indirectly as ... "Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks: Clean Fuel Fleet Exhaust Emission Standards (EPA-420-B-16-006, March 2016)" (PDF). ... One VOC that is a known human carcinogen is benzene, which is a chemical found in environmental tobacco smoke, stored fuels, ... burning of all types of fuels, storage and transportation of oils, fitment finish, coating for furniture and machines, cooking ...
... mainly by burning far less fossil fuel. Limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees C is technically possible if no new fossil fuel ... and does not include fossil fuel related cancer and other indirect deaths created by the use of fossil fuel consumption in its ... It produces MOX fuel from spent fuel derived from several countries. More than 32,000 tonnes of spent fuel had been reprocessed ... "Academic: Fossil fuel back-ups 'may be the price to pay' for renewables". Spencer R. Weart (2012). The Rise of Nuclear Fear. ...
Former fossil fuels exporters are expected to lose power, while the positions of former fossil fuel importers and countries ... "Reduce Fossil Fuels". NRDC. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016. Carter, Jimmy (23 January ... In 2005, Sweden announced plans to end its dependence on fossil fuels by the year 2020. From around 2015 onwards, there was ... Some authors argue that compared to the geopolitics of fossil fuels, renewable energy may cause more small-scale conflicts but ...
Furthermore, it is symmetrical, with the peak of production reached when half of the fossil fuel that will ultimately be ... Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels, M.K. Hubbert, Presented before the Spring Meeting of the Southern District, American ... M. King Hubbert (June 1956). "Nuclear Energy And The Fossil Fuels" (PDF). Shell Development Company. Archived from the original ... Whipple, Tom (2006-03-08). "Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels". Energybulletin.net. Archived from the original on 2008-08-11 ...
"Eating Fossil Fuels". EnergyBulletin.net. 2003-10-02. Archived from the original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2012-01-31. The Oil ... The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), ... statement by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries indicated that increasing levels of greenhouse gases from use of fossil fuels ... and hydrocarbon-fueled irrigation. David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario ...
"Eating Fossil Fuels". EnergyBulletin.net. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2013-07-23. Peak Oil: the threat ... The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), ... The term fossil water is sometimes used to describe aquifers whose water is not being recharged. Fisheries: At least one ... Cheap natural gas has also led to Ethanol fuel produced with a net EROEI of less than 1, although figures in this area are ...
This would largely confine use of fossil fuels to either domestic cooking needs (such as for kerosene burners) or where carbon ... Part III Stabilization p. 183 Jaccard, M. (2005). Sustainable Fossil Fuels. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... and because of current costs of alternative fuels, these policy responses largely rest on faith of technological change. ...
The specific fossil fuel input to fertilizer production is primarily natural gas, to provide hydrogen via steam reforming. ... The largest consumer of fossil fuels in modern agriculture is ammonia production (for fertilizer) via the Haber process, which ... Majorca is an island currently[when?] diversifying its energy supply from fossil fuels to alternative sources and looking back ... Hubbert, Marion King (June 1956). Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels 'Drilling and Production Practice' (PDF). Spring Meeting ...
In 2003 he wrote their often cited article on peak oil and food production titled Eating Fossil Fuels. In 2005 he ended his ... "Eating Fossil Fuels". FromTheWilderness.com. October 3, 2003. Archived from the original on June 6, 2004. Pfeiffer, Dale Allen ... In 2006, he expanded the Eating Fossil Fuels article into a book. Pfeiffer believed that energy depletion will have a major ... Eating Fossil Fuels: Oil, Food and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture (2006), New Society Publishers Blood Moon (Tales of da ...
"Fossil Fuels on SoundCloud". "Come Again on SoundCloud". "Lemaitre - Machine". Control (feat. Jerry Folk), retrieved 1 June ...
The range of content included fossil fuels, renewable energies (including Hydrogen), End-Use (Buildings, Industry and Transport ... coal and fossil fuels; and renewable energy technologies (e.g., solar energy, wind energy, biomass, geothermal, hydro). The ... coal and fossil fuels; and renewable energy technologies (e.g., solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydro). Energy Science and ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Backer, Terry (2005-02-01). "Freedom from fossil fuels". State Legislatures. The Free ... titled Freedom From Fossil Fuel. In the article, he criticized the federal government and past administrations for their ... The Caucus was formed to investigate the status of world petroleum based fuel supply, the impact of escalating cost on the ... failure to prepare the nation's infrastructure for a contraction of the conventional fossil fuel supply and the resulting ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hoffert, Martin I. (10 September 2010). "Farewell to Fossil Fuels?". Science. 329 (5997 ... Efficiency Fuel switching Carbon capture and storage Forest and agricultural soils Nuclear Wind Solar Biomass fuels Natural ...
Amory Lovins (March-April 2012). "A Farewell to Fossil Fuels". Foreign Affairs. Exelon delays plan for Texas nuclear plant A ... The following companies have active Nuclear fuel fabrication facilities in the United States. These are all light water fuel ... fossil fuel production costs, partly due to the rapid development of shale gas, and high financing costs for nuclear plants. In ... far safer than fossil fuels as regards human health, safety and carbon footprint," with nuclear energy resulting in 99.8% fewer ...
Fossil fuels are considered as biotic because they are formed from decayed organic matter. Fossil fuels are non-renewable. ... Thorium fuel cycle - Potential benefits and challenges (PDF). p. 45. "Availability of Thorium". Press Information Bureau, ...
... "fossil fuels and foreign oil"; "government subsidies for big business"; and "government officials who operate without the ... He was also in favor of creating a locally owned renewable fuels industry, universal health care, reforming the Departments of ...
... fossil fuels and other hydrocarbons; geothermal reservoirs; and groundwater reservoirs. Exploration geophysics can be used to ...
... the NAACP published a report outlining the tactics used by the fossil fuel industry. The report claims that "Fossil fuel ... "NAACP Fossil Fuels report" (PDF). Penn, Ivan (January 5, 2020). "N.A.A.C.P. Tells Local Chapters: Don't Let Energy Industry ...
Stevenson, John J. (1916). "Interrelations of the fossil fuels. I". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 55 (2): ... Stevenson, John J. (1917). "Interrelations of the fossil fuels". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (2): 53- ... Stevenson, John J. (1918). "Interrelations of the fossil fuels. III". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 57 (1 ... Stevenson, John J. (1921). "Interrelations of the fossil fuels. IV". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 59: 405 ...
"Fossil fuels are far deadlier than nuclear power - tech - March 23, 2011 - New Scientist". Archived from the original on ... driven by rising fossil fuel prices and new concerns about meeting greenhouse gas emission limits. In the 2009 World Energy ... "A Farewell to Fossil Fuels". Foreign Affairs. Jeff Mcmahon (November 10, 2013). "New-Build Nuclear Is Dead: Morningstar". ... and that a substantial shift away from nuclear power would boost demand for fossil fuels, putting additional upward pressure on ...
84% think that the US is too dependent on fossil fuels. 72% think that the US is too reliant on foreign oil. 79% think that the ... The remaining non fossil fuel portion comes primarily from Hydro, Wind and Nuclear stations. Americans constitute less than 5% ... "Coal - A Fossil Fuel". US Department of Energy. February 2007. Retrieved July 22, 2007. Table 7.1 Coal Overview, Selected Years ... Subsidies to fossil fuels totaled approximately $72 billion over the study period, representing a direct cost to taxpayers. ...
Fossil Fuels Improve the Planet (2013) The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels (2014) "Making the Case for the Benefits of Fossil Fuels ... "Pro-fossil fuel advocate roughed up by climate change activists". Washington Times. Armstrong, Arl Alex Epstein on the Moral ... Epstein is also the New York Times best-selling author of The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels (2014), in which he advocates the use ... Epstein-Are Fossil Fuels a Risk to the Planet?". EcoWatch. Rolling Stone. "Global Warming's Denier Elite". RollingStone.com. ...
... batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, and other biomass sources. The ... Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, ... This is especially the case when actions are directed at the saving of fossil fuels. Energy conservation is a challenge ... Amory Lovins (March-April 2012). "A Farewell to Fossil Fuels". Foreign Affairs. Tuominen, Pekka; Reda, Francesco; Dawoud, Waled ...
Many rockets use fossil fuels. A SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket for instance burns through 400 metric tons of kerosene and emits ... are using different launch fuels (such as bio-propane,methane produced from biomass, ...). Blue Origin's BE-3 uses liquid ...
Natural gas could be considered the least environmentally harmful fossil fuel, because it has the lowest CO2 emissions per unit ... "LNG fuel unlikely to be fuel of choice for Europe". Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2015.. ... An alternative fuelling centre tracking site shows 84 public truck LNG fuel centres as of Dec 2016.[40] It is possible for ... "An innovative vision for LNG Fuel System for MD Diesel Dual Fuel Engine(DDF+LNG)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
The isotopic ecology of fossil vertebrates and conservation paleobiology (PDF). The Paleontological Society Papers. 15. pp. 95- ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ... Paleoecological studies can reconstruct fossil food-webs and trophic levels. Primary producers form the base (red spheres), ... Paleoecological web - a web that reconstructs ecosystems from the fossil record.[57] ...
"Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 March 2007.. ... fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient ...
... and scientists like Roberts believe flying windmills could put an end to dependence on fossil fuels. At 15,000 feet, winds are ... Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and ... Determination of Qin from the Fuel Heating Value [online]. [Cit. 2008-02-17]. Dostupné online. ... Ford, Daimler Chrysler a GM patria medzi automobilky, ktoré predávajú autá, nákladné autá a minivany typu „Flexi-fuel". Tieto ...
Fossil fuels. *Sedimentology. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. ... Fossil. References[edit]. *^ a b Marshak, Stephen, 2009, Essentials of Geology, W. W. Norton & Company, 3rd ed. ISBN 978- ... Grains of sediment, rock fragments and fossils can be replaced by other minerals during diagenesis. Porosity usually decreases ... In order to assess the potential impact of diagenesis on archaeological or fossil bones, many factors need to be assessed, ...
Fossil-fuel power station *Cogeneration. *Integrated gasification combined cycle. *Electric power. *Nuclear power *Nuclear ...
... of those caused by burning fossil fuels.[169] Palm oil cultivation has also been criticized for other impacts to the ... Some of these lemurs typically weighed over 150 kilograms (330 lb), and fossils have provided evidence of human butchery on ... "Population explosion fuelling rapid reduction of wildlife on African savannah, study shows". The Independent. Retrieved April ... "Once a Dream Fuel, Palm Oil May Be an Eco-Nightmare". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2017 ...
Three fossil fuel industry groups, the American Petroleum Institute, American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, and the ... Some fossil fuel and industry groups intervened as defendants but were later dropped at their request after Trump's election. ... "These fossil-fuel groups joined a historic climate lawsuit. Now, they want to get out of it". The Washington Post. Retrieved ... "Why The Fossil Fuel Companies Won't Defend The Government In Court On Climate". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 2018-10-23.. ...
"Dried Camel Dung as fuel".. *^ "Panda Poop Might Help Turn Plants Into Fuel". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2013-09-10. ... A coprolite is fossilized feces and is classified as a trace fossil. In paleontology they give evidence about the diet of an ... Further information: Dry animal dung fuel. Dry animal dung is burned and used as a fuel source in many countries around the ... "Bacteria Eat Human Sewage, Produce Rocket Fuel". news.nationalgeographic.com.. *^ Harhangi, HR; Le Roy, M; van Alen, T; Hu, BL ...
Evidence of whale falls in present-day and fossil records shows that deep sea whale falls support a rich assemblage of ... which was used as lamp fuel and a lubricant, baleen or whalebone, which was used for items such as corsets and skirt hoops,[89] ...
"GEOL 331 Vertebrate Paleontology II: Fossil Tetrapods". www.geol.umd.edu.. *^ Ryosuke Motani; Nachio Minoura; Tatsuro Ando ( ... The benefit of a low resting metabolism is that it requires far less fuel to sustain bodily functions. By using temperature ... van Tuninen, M.; Hadly, E.A. (2004). "Error in Estimation of Rate and Time Inferred from the Early Amniote Fossil Record and ... The sister group to Archosauromorpha is Lepidosauromorpha, containing lizards and tuataras, as well as their fossil relatives. ...
Fossil fuel * sw:Fossil fuel. France * sw:France. Francisco de Goya * sw:Francisco de Goya. Frank Lloyd Wright * sw:Frank Lloyd ...
... neo-Malthusians point out that fossil fuels provided the energy for the Green Revolution, in the form of natural gas-derived ... "Population explosion fuelling rapid reduction of wildlife on African savannah, study shows". The Independent. Retrieved April ... "Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 18, 2013.. CS1 ... fertilizers, oil-derived pesticides, and hydrocarbon-fueled irrigation, and that many crops have become so genetically uniform ...
A fossil of the oldest ancestor of the Tyrannosaurus was found in Gloucestershire; Mary Anning was a famous fossil collector ... vehicle leasing and fuel cards), and Allstar (fuel card); also nearby are Cartus Europe, Catalent Pharma Solutions UK and MAN ... Nearby on Lydiard Fields in Lydiard Tregoze is Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, which in 2002 was the world's first production site ...
The state of Hawaiʻi has substantial geothermal resources, which could dramatically reduce fossil fuel use and energy prices ...
Brocks JJ; Logan GA; Buick R; Summons RE (1999). "Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes". Science. 285 ( ... releasing energy to fuel the cell's activities. One compound acts as an electron donor and one as an electron acceptor. The ... Although probable prokaryotic cell fossils date to almost 3.5 billion years ago, most prokaryotes do not have distinctive ... morphologies and fossil shapes cannot be used to identify them as archaea.[44] Instead, chemical fossils of unique lipids are ...
Carbon-neutral fuel. *Carbon offset. *Carbon tax. *Emissions trading. *Fossil fuel phase-out ...
... wood is used in making furniture and wood flooring,[28] as well as a flavoring fuel for smoking meats, giving grilled ... The first fossil examples of the family appear during the Cretaceous. Differentiation between the subfamilies of ...
Fossil fuels lobby. *European Women's Lobby. *Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Model. *Issue versus express advocacy ...
This has to do with the amount of fossil fuel the production of fuel crops involves. In addition, the intensive use of ... Main articles: Biomass § Environmental damage, and Ethanol_fuel § Air_pollution. Biofuels are similar to fossil fuels in that ... rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and ... Methanol is currently produced from natural gas, a non-renewable fossil fuel. In the future it is hoped to be produced from ...
However, much of the critique towards CCS is that it may strengthen the dependency on depletable fossil fuels and ... In oxy‐fuel combustion, the main difference from conventional air firing is that the fuel is burned in a mixture of O2 and ... Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Larson, Eric; Möllersten, Kenneth (2006). "Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuels ... This means that we can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel. Even though co-firing will have some energy penalty, it still offers ...
... is fossil-fuel derived.[61] By 2025, nuclear power is projected to supply 42%, while fossil-fuel-derived generation is ...
The action was also to highlight what is seen as an expansion to the fossil fuel economy, by corporations and government, and ... Valley Climate Action glued their hands to the doors of BHP Billiton's headquarters in protest of the use of coal as a fuel. ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (1997). Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry (Report). ... This allows for the use of less enriched fuel. For the main cooling system, normal water is preferably employed through the use ...
2MW-1 for fossil-fuel-based technologies.) *^ a b Winsley, Peter (2007). "Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change ... This high oxygen content results in non-volatility, corrosiveness, immiscibility with fossil fuels, thermal instability, and a ... "Renewable Fuels from Algae Boosted by NREL Refinery Process - News Releases , NREL". www.nrel.gov. Retrieved 16 October 2016.. ... Pyrolysis oil, sometimes also known as bio-crude or bio-oil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for ...
In 1907, it was placed by Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze in the otherwise fossil genus Steinhauera, but doubt as to whether the giant ... The suppression of fires leads to ground fuel build-up and the dense growth of fire-sensitive white fir, which increases the ... Older fossil specimens reliably identified as giant sequoia have been found in Cretaceous era sediments from a number of sites ... sequoia is related to the fossil originally so named makes this name invalid. ...
As fossil fuel generation becomes less attractive it will be increasingly unattractive to exceed a carbon cap because the ... Projects have also been developed for a wide variety of other emissions reductions such as reforestation, fuel switching, ...
Carbon-neutral fuel. *Carbon offset. *Carbon tax. *Emissions trading. *Fossil fuel phase-out ...
Petroleum diesel, also called petrodiesel,[7] or fossil diesel is the most common type of diesel fuel. It is produced from the ... Water in fuel can damage a fuel injection pump; some diesel fuel filters also trap water. Water contamination in diesel fuel ... Diesel fuel /ˈdiːzəl/ in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark ... Fuel is typically supplied via a fuel pump. If the pump breaks down in an open position, the supply of fuel will be ...
The party wants to end subsidies for fossil fuels and replace them with subsidies for renewable energy sources such as wind, ... The party states that it would phase out fossil fuel-based power generation, and would work toward closing coal-fired power ...
Fast Facts About Fossil Fuels: First, the USA *The United States uses about 17 million barrels of oil every day. * Petroleum ... Natural gas, a third form of fossil fuel, accounts for roughly 23% of The United States energy usage. *It takes the equivalent ... Furthermore, the worlds supply of fossil fuels is not limitless. Coal, oil, and natural gas heat our homes, power our cars, ... 90% of the energy we use in this country comes from fossil fuels. Aside from the environmental impacts of exploration and ...
... are the product of millions of years of natural processes. Learn how they affect the planet, and how to lessen our ... Fossil Fuels. Fossil fuels are the product of millions of years of earths natural processes. Learn how they are extracted, ... Members Call on REI to Divest From Banks Funding Fossil Fuel Industry ... Proposed Fuel Economy Rules for Large Trucks Would Save as Much Oil as Is Imported From OPEC... Each Year! ...
Fossil fuel consumption by fuel type, OWID.svg 850 × 600; 10 KB. ... fossil fuel (sco); Шатах ашигт малтмал (mn); fossil energi (nn); fossilt brensel (nb); Qalıq yanacaqlar (az); ಪಳೆಯುಳಿಕೆಯ ಇಂಧನ ( ... Datoteke u kategoriji "Fossil fuels". Prikazano je 70 datoteka u ovoj kategoriji, od ukupno 70. ... Fossil fuel vs. low-carbon energy shares (substitution method), OWID.svg 850 × 600; 10 KB. ...
"We do not buy stocks to support the fossil fuel industry, and we do not short them to destroy the industry," he wrote, saying ... Druckenmiller notes the potential to diminish investment returns by divesting from fossil fuels In a response in the school ... It will be interesting to compare Yales fossil fuel-free performance to that of Bowdoin and its carbon-based returns ... Its not that Druckenmiller is defending the fossil fuel industry. He is a long / short pragmatist - when oil related ...
Fossil Fuel Uses. We depend on fossil fuels so much that we cannot even imagine a life without them. It has become an ... How do Fossil Fuels Work?. We depend heavily on fossil fuels, even when modern technology has come up with innovative and cost- ... What are Fossil Fuels?. Heres an explanation of what fossil fuels are, their importance for our survival, and how they can be ... Fossil Fuels. If you happen to be one of the many people out there left utterly confused between biofuels and fossil fuels, ...
Synthetic fossil fuels: A dieselgate 2.0 in the making?. Audi, the German car manufacturer, is pitching e-fuels as a clean ... Fair fuel pricing: A test for Europes climate ambitions. Is the EU committed enough to increase taxes on fossil fuels? That is ... Ireland commits to divesting public funds from fossil fuel companies. Ireland committed to divesting public funds from fossil ... John Cooper: On fossil fuels, the European public is a little bit misled. A lot is at stake for the energy security of Europe ...
Making Solar Energy Cheaper Than Fossil Fuels April 22, 2011 at 8:27 am How do you make renewable energy a reality? The best ... MIT creates hydrophobic material that could revolutionize fossil fuel and nuclear power plants October 22, 2012 at 8:18 am A ... This could seriously boost the efficiency of fossil fuel power plants, and many other technologies that include cooling towers ... two new advancements in solar cell tech may help boost solar energy as a far more attractive alternative to fossil fuels. ...
... fossil fuel production. They find that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80% of current coal ... fossil fuel use and the associated release of greenhouse gases will need to be severely limited. This raises questions ... How much more of Earths fossil fuels can we extract and burn in the short- to medium-term future and still avoid severe global ... leading to severe devaluations of fossil-fuel reserves, which are currently worth about US$27 trillion9. Fossil-fuel companies ...
Mayor de Blasio on Wednesday announced a ridiculous assault on the fossil-fuel industry that powers our city and whose earnings ... Without a practical non-fossil-fuel alternative, putting more carbon in the air is on all of us, not just the folks who provide ... Mayor de Blasio on Wednesday announced a ridiculous assault on the fossil-fuel industry that powers our city and whose earnings ... 5 billion worth of fossil-fuel holdings. But those stocks are a growing part of the US economy, thanks to the fracking ...
... candidates competed with one another to take the strongest position in favor of fossil fuels. It was the best illustration yet ... Far from running from these sources of energy, we should be proud of our fossil fuel use. While fossil fuels have risks and ... these fossil fuels have got to go, I was asking for trouble holding a giant I Love Fossil Fuels sign and a book called The ... Alex Epstein is author of the new book The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels (Portfolio/Penguin November 2014). ...
Fossil fuels are non-renewable materials such as petroleum (oil and gas) and coal. In addition to causing local air pollution, ... the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and... ... Why do they use only fossil fuels to make plastic objects? Is plastic made out of fossil fuels? ... Power up with renewables. In many locations, the prices of solar and wind energy are competitive with fossil fuels.[14] ...
... this partnership of American and German organizations seeks to solve todays fossil fuel crisis with the power of neutrinos ... Eliminating Fossil Fuels Carelessly Could Destroy Civilization. While concerns over fossil fuels are well-founded, it isnt so ... Banks Will No Longer Finance Fossil Fuels. Across the world, pressure to end mankinds reliance on fossil fuels is starting to ... On one side, further reliance on fossil fuels threatens humanitys future, but quitting fossil fuels cold turkey could kill us ...
One way to explore fossil fuel free investing, is with a financial planner. A number of firms have experience with fossil fuel ... How to extract fossil fuels from your investment portfolio. Published Tue, Sep 17 2013 7:00 AM EDT. Updated Wed, Sep 18 2013 11 ... Seattle committed to fossil fuel free operations last December, and other cities have followed in the past month, including ... Read more: Students are clamoring for fossil fuel divestment). There are no guarantees on anything, but there is evidence that ...
4 billion pounds of UK public funding on fossil fuel infrastructure in the global south since the Paris Agreement was signed. ... 520 million in fossil fuel projects in the past decade alone. When we also take into account the amount of fossil fuel support ... UKEF gave 97 percent of its energy support to fossil fuel projects. Despite being told by MPs that its level of fossil fuel ... distribution and manufacturing involving fossil fuels. At times, the government has given the impression that its fossil fuel ...
PRWEB) February 6, 2005 -- Everyday, the world uses up large amounts of hydrocarbon fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum crude ... Fossil Fuel Set, Coal Rank Set, Petroleum Set and Crude Oil Set which all come with different hydrocarbon fossil fuel ... hydrocarbon fossil fuel specimens from all over the world and that they are helping to make different hydrocarbon fossil fuel ... minerals and fossils that relate to hydrocarbon fossil fuels. Some of the sets that they make are called the Oil Rock Set, ...
The fossil fuel companies arent taking this lying down, of course. Both ExxonMobil and Valvoline are at least taking small ... This gave him the opportunity to speak out against buying into these oil companies or even any other fossil fuel stocks. It ... Those young people might be college students in the UK, where half of all universities have joined the fossil fuel divestment ... Cramers "Im done with fossil fuels" statement was greeted with enthusiasm by environmental activist and 350.org founder Bill ...
Lower fuel prices helped reduce global fossil-fuel consumption subsidies. Government support for the production and consumption ... in support of fossil fuel production and consumption as documented in the OECD Inventory of support measures for fossil fuels, ... with many countries targeting state aid to shore up fossil fuels and related industries in the wake of record low fuel prices ... tend to provide support to fossil-fuel consumers in ways other than the under-pricing of fuels, blunting the impact of ...
This week saw the completion of the woodstove renovation and installation in our quest to use less and less fossil fuels. It ... Another reduction in fossil fuel use. Pump only when the sun is shining. We can either irrigate directly or store it uphill and ...
Fossil Fuels news articles and editorial content published by Common Dreams, non-profit independent media publishing since 1997 ... Fossil Fuels. Extremely Disappointing: New Analysis Offers Scathing Critique of Top Democrats CLEAN Future Act ... What If Limiting New Fossil Fuel Supply Is More Important Than Reducing the Emissions Produced When We Burn Them? ... London and NYC Mayors Call on Every Major City in the World to Divest From Climate-Destroying Fossil Fuels ...
And in terms of the fossil fuel bill meat runs up, for that family of four who is using up 930 gallons of fossil fuel a year on ... In the U.S., up to 20 percent of the countrys fossil fuel consumption goes into the food chain, according to the UNs Food and ... The average developed world diet uses 1,600 liters of fossil fuels each year, according to the U.S. based Organic Consumers ... Nitrogen fertilizer in particular is extremely fossil fuel-intensive, requiring 1.5 tons of oil equivalents to make 1 ton of ...
Fossil fuels are not renewable resources because there is a finite amount of them on Earth. Renewable resources only include ... A: Coal is nonrenewable because it comes from fossil fuels, and fossil fuels take millions of years to form. Fossil fuels are ... Why do we use fossil fuels?. A: Fossil fuels are utilized because they are abundant and easy to use. They make modern living ... What is the original source of biomass and fossil fuels?. A: Fossil fuels are formed from the decayed matter of plants and ...
"Extracting the fuel, generating the power and distributing the power are more dangerous in fossil fuel energy than renewable ... Thats because fossil fuels - as the term suggests - have to be dug or drained from underground, and mining is one of the ... Not all green energies are inherently safer for workers than fossil fuels, though. "Rates of injury in agriculture are high, ... but theres little hard data on the health costs of producing green energy compared with extracting fossil fuels. One study, a ...
sidential candidate Hillary Clinton said on Thursday she would seek to phase out fossil fuel extraction and increase fees on ... Some green groups have pressured the Obama administration to ban fossil fuel development on federal lands since it would ... Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton said on Thursday she would seek to phase out fossil fuel extraction and ... increase royalties for companies that drill for oil and gas or mine coal as a way to aid a transition away from fossil fuels. ...
... setting the course for a historic transformation of the worlds fossil fuel-driven economy within decades in a bid to arrest ... setting the course for a historic transformation of the worlds fossil fuel-driven economy within decades in a bid to arrest ... a research and advocacy organization opposed to fossil fuel production.. Most climate activists reacted positively, encouraged ...
In the model, they dosed the planet with 4000 gigatons of carbon to simulate the burning of all fossil fuel reserves between ... The ocean will likely nurse a hangover from our fossil fuel use for hundreds of thousands of years. Researchers at Southampton ... In the model, they dosed the planet with 4000 gigatons of carbon to simulate the burning of all fossil fuel reserves between ... The ocean will likely nurse a hangover from our fossil fuel use for hundreds of thousands of years. Researchers at Southampton ...
It is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. Noted coal geologist James Morton Schopf defined coal as ... The burning of all fossil fuels (oil and natural gas included) releases large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ... It is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. ... The fossil record. Anthracite (the highest coal rank) material ... Early fuels were primarily wood (and charcoal derived from it), straw, and dried dung. References to the early uses of coal are ...
Fossil fuels are formed from decayed prehistoric plants and animals that lived millions of years ago (Science Daily). According ... Effects Of Fossil Fuels. 839 Words , 4 Pages. Everyday in U.S., immense amount of fossil fuel is burned. Fossil fuels are fuel ... What are fossil fuels? Fossil fuels are a type of gas that dominate the energy sources. Fossil fuels are one of the most used ... Fossil Fuels. 1917 Words , 8 Pages. natural deposits of fossil fuels (Science Daily). There are 3 types of fossil fuels that we ...
Most of Canadas fossil-fuelled energy policies are on a collision course with reconciliation. Shifting to renewable energy ... What role do teachers have in the necessary transition away from our fossil-fuel dependent economy? ...
... How were they formed? Learn how human use of non-renewable energy sources, such coal, oil, and natural ... What Are Fossil Fuels?. What are fossil fuels? How were they formed? Learn how human use of non-renewable energy sources, such ... What Are Fossil Fuels?. What are fossil fuels? How were they formed? Learn how human use of non-renewable energy sources, such ... What are fossil fuels? How were they formed? Learn how human use of non-renewable energy sources, such coal, oil, and natural ...
The Transition From Fossil Fuel Economy to a Greener Future. Our leaders can support the transition to a greener, fairer future ... Hold the Keystone bubbly: Our fossil fuel addiction remains. Did you hear that Keystone XL-the long-planned pipeline from the ... As just about everyone knows, there are gaping chasms separating the worldviews of fossil fuel promoters, nuclear power ... But crucially, even among those who disdain fossils and nukes, there is a seemingly... ...
  • Clinton said she thinks the government could increase royalties for companies that drill for oil and gas or mine coal as a way to aid a transition away from fossil fuels. (reuters.com)
  • An increasing number of banks are turning away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy financing. (pv-tech.org)
  • Groups like 350.org are pointing to the G7's agreement as a clear indication that the world must, and will, move away from fossil fuels. (benjerry.com)
  • A new report from the Environmental Working Group claims that Duke Energy, the nation's largest utility, is holding back the transition away from fossil fuels. (psmag.com)
  • Due to the considerable CO2 emissions, fossil energy sources contribute to global climate change. (springer.com)
  • In addition to causing local air pollution, the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. (wikihow.com)
  • It's ironic that Congress is contemplating climate-change legislation that would increase the price of fossil fuels at the same time that its tax policy decreases the price of fossil fuels. (technologyreview.com)
  • HOUSTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - The Rockefeller Family Fund said on Wednesday it would divest from fossil fuels as quickly as possible and "eliminate holdings" of Exxon Mobil Corp ( XOM.N ), saying the oil company associated with the family fortune has misled the public about climate change risks. (reuters.com)
  • Fossil fuels have been the world's main energy source since they were discovered, however, they carry harmful side effects such as pollution and climate change. (bartleby.com)
  • Recent use of fossil fuels have created pollution, global warming and climate change, therefore we need to use technologies to change this. (bartleby.com)
  • You can't deal with climate change without finding ways to reduce burning fossil fuels, and that's not in the Romney plan. (npr.org)
  • The Stanford University Board of Trustees' decision on fossil fuels investment affects us all - especially people in communities of color who are more likely than most Americans to suffer from the health effects of climate change. (mercurynews.com)
  • Fossil fuel companies have been obscuring and hiding the science of climate change for decades. (mercurynews.com)
  • NEW YORK (AP) - On the same day the world's scientists issued their latest report on climate change and the risks it poses to society, the nation's biggest oil and gas company said the world's climate policies are "highly unlikely" to stop it from selling fossil fuels far into the future. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Exxon 's report was in response to the contentions of some shareholders and environmental activists that the assets underpinning the value of Exxon and other fossil fuel companies will be worth less as society restricts consumption of fossil fuels to fight climate change. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Exxon and the environmental groups agree that climate change is a risk and that society will take steps to reduce emissions from fossil fuels to slow the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (washingtontimes.com)
  • While I share [students'] belief in the importance of addressing climate change, I do not believe, nor do my colleagues on the Corporation, that university divestment from the fossil fuel industry is warranted or wise," Harvard President Drew Faust declared in 2013 . (yahoo.com)
  • BILL MCKIBEEN: In the last couple of years it's become clear that the fossil fuel industry really is the driving force behind the fact that we make no progress on climate change. (abc.net.au)
  • If we have any hope of preventing runaway climate change, we need to keep fossil fuels in the ground - starting now. (greenpeace.org)
  • Swensen added that while public scrutiny has focused on investments in fossil fuel producers, the Investments Office approaches the issue of climate change more broadly by considering the impact of climate change across all its investments. (yaledailynews.com)
  • At Yale, though the Investments Office has directly contributed to the University's sustainability efforts for over a decade - including initiating efforts to invest in wind power projects in 2007 - Swensen told The New York Times that the office's climate change-related strategy over the past two years was partially spurred by the Yale Corporation's vote against divesting the University's assets from fossil fuel companies in August 2014. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The connection between potential emissions from fossil fuel reserves and climate change is substantial, with enough carbon stored in untapped reserves to bust the carbon budget, which is the amount of emissions allowed before the 2°C goal is exceeded. (wri.org)
  • Now eight environmental groups - most of them involved in the La Jolla meeting - and attorneys general from two states are facing their own subpoenas from the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology, which, according to its fossil fuel-loving and climate change-denying chair, Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), is trying to defend the 1st Amendment rights of Exxon Mobil. (latimes.com)
  • The production and use of fossil fuels-also known as "dirty fuels"-for electricity and transportation fuels are not only contributing to climate change, but they also cause health problems, destroy our wild places, and release toxins such as mercury and arsenic into our communities. (nwf.org)
  • However, the production of liquid coal proves otherwise: the process emits twice as much climate change pollution as gasoline and requires at least four gallons of water per gallon of fuel produced. (nwf.org)
  • Each of these unconventional dirty fuels emits high levels of climate change pollution and comes with a unique set of risks to human health, our landscapes, and our water resources. (nwf.org)
  • While acknowledging the threat of climate change, Faust said removing fossil-fuel ties from its endowment would not help the university's financial strength or academic mission. (nationaljournal.com)
  • In light of historical evidence that it takes several decades to complete a major change in fuel use, this makes large climate change almost inevitable," Hansen et al wrote in anticipation of the difficulties of a global shift away from dependence on carbon dioxide-emitting fossil fuels. (universetoday.com)
  • An arguably more realistic estimate of $100 per tonne of CO2 would bring global fossil fuel subsidies to over $4 trillion per year, with $3.2 trillion due to climate change. (skepticalscience.com)
  • The mechanisms behind this are outlined and suggest that climate change goals to end poverty and to achieve the phasing out of fossil fuels are achievable if the trends are mainstreamed. (scirp.org)
  • In 2015/16 the world's governments committed to two core sets of goals for the future: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change action which essentially aims to phase out fossil fuels by 2100 and 80% by 2050. (scirp.org)
  • 1698 words - 7 pages Abstract- As the world began to raise concerns on climate change and rapid depletion of fossil fuels, there is a need to hasten the solutions for clean energy generation with renewable sources. (brightkite.com)
  • The extraction and burning of fossil fuels are the central cause of climate change and have already driven global temperatures up by 1°C beyond pre-industrial levels. (nrdc.org)
  • It's a particularly sharp contrast to the US, whose new leadership is already going to great lengths to suppress climate change science and protect the fossil fuel industry . (engadget.com)
  • A student graduating in 2019 who questioned investments in the fossil fuel industry. (businessinsider.com)
  • OECD analysis of budgetary transfers, tax breaks and spending programmes linked to the production and use of coal, oil, gas and other petroleum products in 50 OECD, G20 and European Union (EU) Eastern Partnership (EaP) economies shows that total fossil fuel support rose by 5% year-on-year to USD 178 billion in 2019, ending a five-year downward trend. (oecd.org)
  • In 2019, oil and gas industries in several countries received additional support, mostly through direct budgetary transfers to alleviate corporate debt and underpin fossil-fuel infrastructure investments, and tax provisions providing preferential treatment for capital expenditures for fossil-fuel production. (oecd.org)
  • The OECD-IEA combined estimates of government support for fossil fuels across 81 economies fell by 18% year-on-year in 2019, to USD 475 billion, principally due to the mechanical effect of the drop in average fuel prices on consumption subsidies. (oecd.org)
  • The historic plunge in fossil fuel prices provoked by the COVID-19 crisis will enhance 2019 consumer subsidy reductions across countries that intervene to keep end-user prices artificially low, but has not yet translated into widespread, additional momentum for pricing reform. (oecd.org)
  • But in 2019 fossil fuels were subsidized $320 billion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bank financing for companies that are planning new coal, oil, and gas extraction increased 40% from 2018 to 2019, despite warnings that we need to stop burning these fuels. (fastcompany.com)
  • Despite their claimed support for the Paris Climate Agreement, major global banks have not only continued to pour billions of dollars into the fossil fuel industry since 2015, they financed more fossil fuel extraction and infrastructure companies in 2019 than the year prior-funneling billions into new coal, oil, and gas projects even as experts warn that we need to stop burning these fuels. (fastcompany.com)
  • However, what the report can show is that BNP increased by 72% its financing to the overall fossil fuel sector in 2019 compared to 2018. (fastcompany.com)
  • Despite giving up those narrow parts of the fossil fuel world, BNP Paribas was still the biggest fossil fuel funder in Europe in 2019. (fastcompany.com)
  • But the science could not be clearer: We must keep fossil fuels in the ground. (mercurynews.com)
  • We need to keep fossil fuels in the ground. (google.com)
  • Join the global movement to Break Free and keep fossil fuels in the ground. (greenpeace.org)
  • The science is clear: to avoid the worst effects of #climatechange , we need to keep fossil fuels in the ground. (greenpeace.org)
  • We only have one choice to protect our future: keep fossil fuels in the ground. (greenpeace.org)
  • A 2017 paper ( PDF ) from the New Zealand chapter, for example, lists widespread EV adoption as one of the three major near-future challenges the fossil fuel industry faces. (forbes.com)
  • Even when these banks have policies that seem environmentally friendly-French bank BNP Paribas, for example, announced a policy in 2017 that it would no longer do business with companies who primarily produce and distribute oil and gas from shale or tar sands-it's not enough to counter their overall monetary support of fossil fuels. (fastcompany.com)
  • Newman, P. (2017) Decoupling Economic Growth from Fossil Fuels. (scirp.org)
  • This has led to rapid expansion of these technologies, even though they are still used much less than fossil fuels: in 2017, for instance, sun and wind produced just 6 percent of the world's electric supply, but they made up 45 percent of the growth in supply, and the cost of sun and wind power continues to fall by about 20 percent with each doubling of capacity. (countercurrents.org)
  • The university will immediately end new direct investment in fossil fuels, will fully divest from public investments in fossil fuels by July 2023 and will allow pre-existing multi-year private investments, which it stopped acquiring in 2017, to lapse without renewal. (uvm.edu)
  • Fossil fuels are composed primarily of hydrocarbons (molecules containing primarily carbon hydrogen bonds). (wou.edu)
  • Why do Oxygenated fuels contain less energy than hydrocarbons? (physicsforums.com)
  • However, all fossil fuels consist mainly of hydrocarbons (compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen), which, upon complete combustion, yield carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As of 2018, the world's main primary energy sources consisted of petroleum (34%), coal (27%), and natural gas (24%), amounting to an 85% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Find out more about Defund Fossil Fuels Webinar we hosted on Thursday 26th July 2018. (350.org)
  • Powerful economic and political interests are organized around the fossil-energy system, as are complex social arrangements (consider, for example, the dependence of rapidly expanding cities on conventional electrical grids). (theatlantic.com)
  • Dependence on Fossil Fuels Introduction: When you think of fossil fuels what comes to mind? (bartleby.com)
  • Articles in this series examine innovative attempts to reduce the world's dependence on coal, oil and other carbon-intensive fuels, and the challenges faced. (nytimes.com)
  • Given our pervasive dependence on these companies for the energy to heat and light our buildings, to fuel our transportation, and to run our computers and appliances, it is hard for me to reconcile that reliance with a refusal to countenance any relationship with these companies through our investments. (harvard.edu)
  • The transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politically unstable regions. (sfu.ca)
  • It ignores pollution from burning coal and other fossil fuels, and the complexity and interconnectedness of natural systems. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • When you account for the effects which are not reflected in the market price of fossil fuels, like air pollution and health impacts, the true cost of coal and other fossil fuels is higher than the cost of most renewable energy technologies. (skepticalscience.com)
  • For the second year in a row, climate advocates disrupted the U.S. government's attempts to promote coal and other fossil fuels at the United Nations climate conference. (psmag.com)
  • Fossil fuel exposure lands energy majors in trouble with one-trillion-dollar GPFG, who is boycotting coal-heavy firms as part of climate shift that will see it back unlisted renewables. (pv-tech.org)
  • All four IEA scenarios include a mix of renewables as well as nuclear and the world's remaining fossil fuel plants. (popularmechanics.com)
  • We will then reach peak use of fossil fuels, not because we're running out of them but because renewables will have become so cheap that anyone needing a new energy supply will likely turn to solar or wind power. (countercurrents.org)
  • As nations - including big fuel importers - get more serious about climate, the key comparisons are not only between fossil fuels and renewables, or even competing types of legacy energy sources. (yahoo.com)
  • His objective is to consider what might constitute a more sustainable energy system and in this he considers not only the usual suspects (energy efficiency, nuclear and renewables) but the unusual - fossil fuels. (sfu.ca)
  • While the university has taken steps recently to limit investments in this area, approving a policy of divestment from fossil fuels is a significant expression of the values of our institution and our broader community. (insidehighered.com)
  • Several cities worldwide have fully committed to divestment from fossil fuels according to 350.org's Fossil Free project, including other college towns like Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Berkeley, California. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Check out the Alternative Fuels Data Center for more on this. (umich.edu)
  • As early as 2008, members of the Rockefeller family called on Exxon to increase spending on alternative fuels. (reuters.com)
  • For this reason, any process used to convert coal to alternative fuels must add hydrogen (either directly or in the form of water). (britannica.com)
  • Alternative fuels will likely play a part in Sweden reaching that goal as the country is pumping money into research and development, including $1.5 million in ethanol. (triplepundit.com)
  • Those young people might be college students in the UK, where half of all universities have joined the fossil fuel divestment movement . (forbes.com)
  • We all joined the fossil fuel divestment movement because we saw that fossil fuel corporations held far too much power in our political process," Lobel said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • 800 words - 3 pages Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels Besides food, fossil fuels are our most important resource. (brightkite.com)
  • Recently, the European Investment Bank (EIB), which is the EU's preeminent lending institution, proposed to end all fossil fuel financing by 2020. (yahoo.com)
  • This trend is set to have continued in 2020, with many countries targeting state aid to shore up fossil fuels and related industries in the wake of record low fuel prices arising from the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic - despite the major opportunity to prioritise sustainable investments and broader well-being objectives as part of stimulus measures for economies battered by the COVID-19 crisis. (oecd.org)
  • He's currently "new energy strategist" for a small British think tank called Carbon Tracker, and last fall he published a short paper called "2020 Vision: Why You Should See the Fossil Fuel Peak Coming. (countercurrents.org)
  • As more solar and wind energy generators come online, fulfilling a legal mandate to produce one-third of California's electricity by 2020, the demand will rise for more backup power from fossil fuel plants. (latimes.com)
  • Today, more than 85 percent of the world's energy still comes from fossil fuels. (theatlantic.com)
  • In 2000, fossil fuels accounted for almost 90 percent of the world's energy production (see Table 1). (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is affordable energy from fossil fuels that runs our farms, that powers our hospitals, that purifies our water, that runs our factories. (foxnews.com)
  • Yet beneath their public relations hype about new sustainability commitments, the majority of the world's leading commercial banks continue to funnel eye-watering sums into new fossil fuel projects. (350.org)
  • Divesting from fossil fuels is the right thing to do for the University of Vermont, given our history and longstanding commitment to sustainability efforts," said Suresh Garimella, president of the university. (uvm.edu)
  • Mark Jaccard skillfully makes the case that those who leave modifying the way we use fossil fuels out of any plan to achieve 'sustainability' in our energy systems surely confuse means with ends. (sfu.ca)
  • Since the Industrial Revolution, the demand for fossil fuels has only surged. (buzzle.com)
  • Exxon , along with other private and government energy researchers, believes that demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow around the world as more people demand access to electricity, heat, and transportation. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Bond writes that in the 2020s-probably the early 2020s-the demand for fossil fuels will stop growing. (countercurrents.org)
  • Borenstein said state legislators and the governor did not consider all of the details, such as unleashing this new demand for fossil fuel generators, when they set the 33% mandate for renewable energy. (latimes.com)
  • As health professionals, parents, and Stanford alumni, we were proud of Stanford students when they unanimously passed a resolution - in both the Undergraduate Senate and Graduate Student Council - asking the Board of Trustees to divest from fossil fuel companies earlier this year. (mercurynews.com)
  • As we wrote in March, Governor Andrew Cuomo separately has called on his state agencies, including the MTA, New York Power Authority and the New York State Throughway Authority-in total, nearly $40 billion in value-to divest from fossil fuel companies. (nrdc.org)
  • Fossil fuels are non-renewable materials such as petroleum (oil and gas) and coal. (wikihow.com)
  • Everyday, the world uses up large amounts of hydrocarbon fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum crude oil and natural gas for energy. (prweb.com)
  • Some of the sets that they make are called the 'Oil Rock Set', 'Fossil Fuel Set', 'Coal Rank Set', 'Petroleum Set' and 'Crude Oil Set' which all come with different hydrocarbon fossil fuel geology specimens and educational information sheets. (prweb.com)
  • Petroleum geology is the study of the origin, natural occurrence, movement, gathering of and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels, especially oil or petroleum. (reference.com)
  • Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH, a biomass derived fuel) is more highly oxidized than a hydrocarbon since it contains an oxygen and gives off significantly less energy on combustion than petroleum. (wou.edu)
  • Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios (like methane), to liquids (like petroleum), to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. (worldcat.org)
  • Even worse, as conventional petroleum oil becomes scarcer and more expensive, industry and governments around the world are pushing to develop even dirtier fuels to power our transportation sector: tar sands, oil shale, and coal to liquids. (nwf.org)
  • During the first half of 2008, prices of Fossil fuels- petroleum (oil), natural gas, and coal-rose steeply. (britannica.com)
  • The debate focused in particular on petroleum, globally the most important fossil fuel and the primary source of fuel for transportation. (britannica.com)
  • Despite the inroads renewable and nuclear energies have made in recent decades, the vast majority of energy used by society still comes from the three main fossil fuels: petroleum, natural gas, and coal. (brightkite.com)
  • 945 words - 4 pages Fossil Fuels Concentrated organic compounds such as coal, petroleum (oil), and natural gas that are found in the Earth's crust are labeled fossil fuels. (brightkite.com)
  • But fossil fuel subsidies are still commonplace, Angel Gurría told EURACTIV partner La Tribune . (euractiv.com)
  • The OECD has been supporting international efforts to reform fossil-fuel subsidies and other forms of support for almost a decade, through analysis on the nature and scale of government budgetary transfers and tax expenditures in support of fossil fuel production and consumption as documented in the OECD Inventory of support measures for fossil fuels , and how governments might expedite reform. (oecd.org)
  • In addition to collaborating with the IEA to produce the combined OECD-IEA estimates of government support for fossil fuels, the OECD chairs the G20's voluntary peer reviews of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies and produces a regular update report to the G20 on progress against its 2009 commitment to "rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption. (oecd.org)
  • According to a new study (pdf) by the Environmental Law Institute, from 2002 to 2008, U.S. subsidies to fossil fuels totaled $72 billion. (technologyreview.com)
  • Over that same period, subsidies to renewable fuels (including biofuels, solar power, and wind power) totaled just $29 billion. (technologyreview.com)
  • Most of the fossil-fuel subsidies come in the form of fossil-fuel companies holding on to money that other companies have to hand over to the government. (technologyreview.com)
  • The plan would end subsidies for renewable energy sources and instead rely heavily on fossil fuels from the U.S., Mexico and Canada. (npr.org)
  • The US Department of the Treasury has revealed how new renewable tax incentives will be paid for by a tax raid on the fossil fuel industry, eliminating subsidies for oil and gas companies. (pv-tech.org)
  • That is despite a promise from all G7 and G20 members to stop subsidising fossil fuels by 2025. (euractiv.com)
  • The new plan is to sell off the riskiest gas and oil stocks and be completely divested from fossil fuels by 2025. (inhabitat.com)
  • Almost a third of new cars sold in Norway last year were fully electric, a new world record as the country strives to end sales of fossil-fueled vehicles by 2025. (autonews.com)
  • Figure 1: Fossil-fuel resources exceed atmospheric disposal space for carbon emissions. (nature.com)
  • These projects will cause significant environmental damage by locking in high carbon emissions and expanding fossil fuel infrastructure across the global south for generations to come. (theecologist.org)
  • Universities invest billions to help generate revenue for the schools, and advocates say divesting from fossil fuel helps stigmatize those companies for carbon emissions and push them toward more development of clean energy. (mercurynews.com)
  • Although advocates for the fossil-fuel industry are challenging recent carbon-emissions regulations in the U.S. courts, the rest of the world is implementing policies designed to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. (sentinelandenterprise.com)
  • The fossil fuel industry is pushing lawmakers to implement a tax on carbon emissions, but environmentalists are skeptical of its newfound support for climate action. (psmag.com)
  • More broadly, the Comptroller also argues that divestment should only be used "as a last resort," and that corporate shareholder engagement and other strategies are a better approach for addressing reducing carbon emissions from the fossil fuel sector. (nrdc.org)
  • Burning the rest of the world's untapped fossil fuel resources - an equivalent five trillion tonnes of carbon emissions - would push up the average global temperature by between 6.4C and 9.5C. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • The modelling study used simulations from comprehensive climate models to explore the relationship between warming and the total amount of potential carbon emissions, based on estimates of world fossil-fuel reserves. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Fossil fuels are the product of millions of years of earth's natural processes. (treehugger.com)
  • How much more of Earth's fossil fuels can we extract and burn in the short- to medium-term future and still avoid severe global warming? (nature.com)
  • About 80%, 50% and 30% of coal, gas and oil reserves, respectively, would need to remain below Earth's surface if the world is to limit an increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C. The uneven distribution of unburnable carbon has far-reaching consequences for fossil-fuel owners. (nature.com)
  • Fossil fuels are formed over millions of years in Earth's crust out of the carbon that makes up decaying biomass from dead plants and animals. (reference.com)
  • Fossil fuels are formed from the decayed matter of plants and animals that have been exposed to heat and pressure underneath the earth's crust for millions. (reference.com)
  • In the energy world, though, I'm willing to bet that these images are poison to the fossil fuel industry. (commondreams.org)
  • There student activists persuaded the school's chief investment officer, David Swensen, a widely respected noncorrelated investing leader, to partially divest Yale's $25.6 billion endowment from the fossil fuel industry. (businessinsider.com)
  • It's not that Druckenmiller is defending the fossil fuel industry. (businessinsider.com)
  • We do not buy stocks to support the fossil fuel industry, and we do not short them to destroy the industry," he wrote, saying he agrees with McCann on the core issue. (businessinsider.com)
  • Mayor de Blasio on Wednesday announced a ridiculous assault on the fossil-fuel industry that powers our city and whose earnings support retired city workers. (nypost.com)
  • Sir, - This week the majority of TDs signalled support for the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF) to remove its investment in the fossil fuel industry. (irishtimes.com)
  • Most information that is learned about hydrocarbon fossil fuels comes from the many different books out there that can be read on this subject along with different articles in business, industry and academic journals. (prweb.com)
  • We supported public interest journalism to better understand how the fossil fuel industry was dealing with the reality of climate science internally and publicly," Wasserman said. (reuters.com)
  • In response to the divestment movement, many oil industry leaders have said millions of people in the developing world would be condemned to darkness and poverty if society were to halt the burning of fossil fuels before there is ample supply of cleaner energy sources. (reuters.com)
  • This weekend, the Board of Trustees of Stanford University will be deciding whether to continue to invest in the fossil fuel industry. (mercurynews.com)
  • Stanford's Faculty Senators shared a variety of reasons for their vote to reject the divestment resolution: some admitted that their research is funded by the fossil fuel industry and divesting would hurt their funding. (mercurynews.com)
  • Today, activists are targeting a far larger target: The fossil fuel industry. (yahoo.com)
  • The fossil-fuel industry-which, for two centuries, underwrote our civilization and then became its greatest threat-has started to take serious hits. (newyorker.com)
  • For years, the fossil-fuel industry has labored to sell the idea that a transition to renewable energy would necessarily be painfully slow-that it would take decades before anything fundamental started to shift. (newyorker.com)
  • Therefore, we, as ### civil society organizations representing ##s of millions around the world, call on world leaders to put an immediate halt to new fossil fuel development and pursue a just transition to renewable energy with a managed decline of the fossil fuel industry. (google.com)
  • The world can either start now in pursuing a managed decline of the fossil fuel industry and a just transition to renewable energy, or it can delay action and bring about economic upheaval and climate chaos. (google.com)
  • The Pledge: "I pledge not to take contributions over $200 from oil, gas, and coal industry executives, lobbyists, and PACs and instead prioritize the health of our families, climate, and democracy over fossil fuel industry profits. (google.com)
  • The state announced Wednesday that it is removing oil and gas stocks from its portfolio, making it the world's largest pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry. (inhabitat.com)
  • This divestment campaign, which has spread, the New York Times said is the fastest growing student movement in the US in decades, spread very quickly across college campuses where students are demanding that their boards of trustees end their investments in the companies, fossil fuel industry whose business plan guarantees these kids will not have a future really in which to carry out their educations. (abc.net.au)
  • But much worse is the fact that the fossil fuel industry already has about 2,800 billion tonnes, 2,800 gigatonnes, five times as much, in their reserves. (abc.net.au)
  • This movement is in fact making the fossil fuel industry a global pariah," said Ellen Dorsey, the moderator of a panel convened to discuss divestment on Tuesday. (msnbc.com)
  • 1. Business as usual for the fossil fuel industry cannot continue. (greenpeace.org)
  • From financial stress to increased pressure from people like you, the fossil fuel industry is reeling . (greenpeace.org)
  • This will potentially send a signal to investors that further investments in fossil fuel stock will be "stranded assets," as the industry as a whole shutters and shifts toward renewable sources. (benjerry.com)
  • Harvard and Yale's decisions to exit positions in certain fossil fuel assets have come at a challenging juncture for the coal industry. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Sen. Bernie Sanders uses padded data to back up his claim that "Hillary Clinton received $4.5 million from the fossil fuel industry. (factcheck.org)
  • Based on earlier technological transitions-horses to cars, sails to steam, land lines to cell phones-it seems possible that the fossil fuel industry may begin to weaken much sooner than you'd think. (countercurrents.org)
  • Aside from the environmental impacts of exploration and extraction of fossil fuels, their use causes such things as smog, acid rain, and contributes to global warming. (umich.edu)
  • Those corporations that continue to invest in new fossil fuel exploration, new fossil fuel exploitation, are really in flagrant breach of their fiduciary duty because the science is abundantly clear that this is something we can no longer do. (wikipedia.org)
  • No additional fossil fuel development, no exploration for new fossil fuels, no expansion of fossil fuel projects. (google.com)
  • These upstream sources account for between 5 percent and 37 percent (an average of 15 percent) of fossil fuels' total emissions, from exploration to consumption. (wri.org)
  • About 5 percent of Rutgers's $1.6 billion endowment is invested in fossil fuels, which the university defines as "investments in any company or fund whose primary business is the exploration or extraction of fossil fuels, including coal, oil and natural gas, or whose primary business supports this sector with infrastructure and other services," according to a press release. (insidehighered.com)
  • Different types of fossil fuels, that form differently from each other, have different utilities and applications. (buzzle.com)
  • Depending on what combination of plant and/or animal debris was decomposed, different types of fossil fuels were formed. (bartleby.com)
  • There are 3 types of fossil fuels that we use today. (bartleby.com)
  • 90% of the energy we use in this country comes from fossil fuels. (umich.edu)
  • Coal is nonrenewable because it comes from fossil fuels, and fossil fuels take millions of years to form. (reference.com)
  • We depend heavily on fossil fuels, even when modern technology has come up with innovative and cost-effective ways of harnessing alternative and easily renewable sources of energy. (buzzle.com)
  • Stanford announced its divestment from coal mining companies in 2014, and Syracuse said last year that it will no longer directly invest in publicly traded companies whose primary business is the extraction of fossil fuels. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The increase in support was driven by a 30% rise in direct and indirect support for the production of fossil fuels, primarily in OECD countries. (oecd.org)
  • Officials in Charlottesville, Virginia, have voted to divest the city's operating budget investments from any entity involved in the production of fossil fuels or weapons. (foxbusiness.com)
  • By encouraging combustion of fossil fuels, such government support contributes to exposing people to air pollution, which can exacerbate vulnerability to pandemics like the COVID-19. (oecd.org)
  • In the case of the combustion of fossil fuels, the combustion reaction is what we think of as a burning process. (wou.edu)
  • However, the depleting reservoirs of fossil fuels, as well as the disastrous effects of their over-consumption have forced the mankind to rethink about uses of. (buzzle.com)
  • The EU Council's proposal for double or even multiple counting of advanced biofuels and green electricity consumption will increase Europe's dependency on fossil fuels to cover "real" energy needs, something which conflicts with the principal objective of the RED II legislation. (euractiv.com)
  • By contrast, a whopping 496 liters goes into the chemical fertilizers used during the food growing stage, representing well over one third of the food chain's entire fossil fuel consumption. (cnn.com)
  • But it concludes that because oil and gas are so critical to global development and economic growth, governments are "highly unlikely" to adopt policies that cut emissions so sharply that fossil fuel consumption would be severely restricted. (washingtontimes.com)
  • They differ, however, on how drastic society's response could be, and what would cost more - severely restricting fossil fuel consumption or not doing so and allowing more carbon dioxide to build in the atmosphere. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentiful and cheap, followed by a fall, as fossil fuel become more scarce and alternative energy production has yet to take over, until finally the steady state is reached where alternative energy production fuels the entire economy. (repec.org)
  • Whether or not the peak oil type picture of consumption the model depicts actually represents a sort of energy rich heyday depends analytically on the productivity differential between alternative energy and fossil fuels now and in the future. (repec.org)
  • Ireland committed to divesting public funds from fossil fuel companies on Thursday after parliament passed a bill forcing the €8.9 billion Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF) to withdraw money invested in oil, gas and coal. (euractiv.com)
  • Big Oil companies such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, Total S.A., Chevron Corporation, and ConocoPhillips are among the largest corporations associated with the fossil fuels lobby. (wikipedia.org)
  • This policy would send a message that fossil fuels are no longer tolerated in modern society, but it threatens to destroy a lot of jobs and put companies out of business. (yahoo.com)
  • Students on dozens of campuses have been demanding that their universities divest themselves of fossil fuel companies. (cnbc.com)
  • RBC Capital Markets has a division called SRI Wealth Management that can help clients create fossil fuel free portfolios, and companies like Progressive Asset Management support networks of investment consultants who can work with clients on eliminating fossil fuels from their holdings. (cnbc.com)
  • Thus, what makes this company different from other companies that deal in geology specimens such as rocks, minerals and fossils is that they only specializes in hydrocarbon fossil fuel specimens from all over the world and that they are helping to make different hydrocarbon fossil fuel specimens into desirable, acceptable and collectible items like all of the other kinds of rocks, minerals and fossils that are collected. (prweb.com)
  • This gave him the opportunity to speak out against buying into these oil companies or even any other fossil fuel stocks. (forbes.com)
  • The fossil fuel companies aren't taking this lying down, of course. (forbes.com)
  • DOVER, N.H. (Reuters) - U.S. Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton said on Thursday she would seek to phase out fossil fuel extraction and increase fees on companies operating on public lands in a way that does not disrupt the economy if elected to the White House, irking environmental activists seeking stronger environmental policies. (reuters.com)
  • One senator expressed that fossil fuel companies are good because they make hand sanitizer. (mercurynews.com)
  • Find out about the companies and banks driving a new generation of fossil fuel infrastructure in Europe - and how we can resist them. (350.org)
  • Many of the fossil fuel companies pushing new infrastructure projects operate in multiple countries, and crucially, are often financed by the same collection of private and public banks. (350.org)
  • We looked at the financial data for companies involved in eight key fossil fuel projects across Europe. (350.org)
  • The table below presents a snapshot in time for the companies behind the 8 fossil fuel projects listed above. (350.org)
  • Col. Robert Charette Jr., director of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Office, said he was "cautiously optimistic" that Company I's equipment would prove reliable and durable enough for military use, and that other Marine companies would be adopting renewable technology in the coming months, although there would probably always be a need to import fuel for some purposes. (nytimes.com)
  • Fossil fuel companies and banks use complicated financial instruments and structures to fund destructive projects like tar sands pipelines. (greenpeace.org)
  • Lines of credit are one of the most common tools used by fossil fuel companies to finance operations and new projects. (greenpeace.org)
  • I, as well as members of our Corporation Committee on Shareholder Responsibility, have benefited from a number of conversations in recent months with students who advocate divestment from fossil fuel companies. (harvard.edu)
  • Universities own a very small fraction of the market capitalization of fossil fuel companies. (harvard.edu)
  • Taking the pledge means that a candidate's campaign will adopt a policy to not knowingly accept any contributions over $200 from the PACs, lobbyists, or SEC-named executives of fossil fuel companies - companies whose primary business is the extraction, processing, distribution, or sale of oil, gas, or coal. (google.com)
  • The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation won't divest from fossil fuels companies because killing everyone will finally stop malaria. (funnyordie.com)
  • Environmental activists have been pushing for divestment in fossil fuel companies for years. (inhabitat.com)
  • HSBC and Citibank put out a report a few weeks ago saying, if we ever took that two degree target seriously, you'd have to cut the share value of all the big fossil fuel companies by more than half. (abc.net.au)
  • The campaign to starve fossil fuel companies of cash announced a major milestone on Tuesday, a surge past the trillion dollar mark - to $2.6 trillion, according to a new report by Arabella Advisors, a progressive consulting firm -and the addition of Leonardo DiCaprio to the list of global names and institutions that have pledged to divest. (msnbc.com)
  • Even if all that money was pulled from the market, there's no evidence that it's made any difference - or will make any difference-at least not in the share prices of fossil fuel companies. (msnbc.com)
  • Fossil fuel companies themselves still spend about $600 billion a year exploring for new reserves. (msnbc.com)
  • The consequences of our reliance on dirty energy are no secret, but that hasn't stopped fossil fuel companies from going to extremes to protect their bottom lines. (greenpeace.org)
  • In February, Georgetown University officials approved a policy to divest from the public securities of fossil fuel companies within the next five years and from existing private investments over the next 10. (mercurynews.com)
  • According to a Oct. 14 article in the Harvard Crimson, two members of the school's board told students involved with Divest Harvard - a campus group urging the school to divest from all holdings in the top 200 fossil fuel companies - that from the school's perspective coal investments are not currently financially prudent. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Apparently, fossil fuel companies protect watersheds and rivers by removing oil. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Because the value of fossil fuel companies is based on the size of their reserves, it may seem counter-intuitive to see some of these assets as potential risks. (wri.org)
  • If fossil fuel companies are required to leave a significant bulk of their reserves untapped, their valuations could decline steeply - that is, unless these companies preemptively adjust their businesses strategies to avoid these risks, for example by diversifying holdings to include more low or zero carbon energy sources like wind, solar and geothermal. (wri.org)
  • If so, is it ethical to profit from investment in fossil-fuel companies that will ultimately cause suffering and destruction? (sentinelandenterprise.com)
  • Officials said fossil fuel and weapons companies make up only a small portion of the city's operating fund investment portfolio. (foxbusiness.com)
  • One global response to this climate crisis is to push large institutions to stop investment in fossil fuel companies. (nrdc.org)
  • This bill , sponsored by Senator Liz Krueger and Assemblyman Felix W. Ortiz, would require the New York State Comptroller to divest the $209 billion New York State Common Retirement Fund ("Pension Fund") from stocks, debt or other securities in the 200 largest publicly-traded fossil fuel companies, along with their subsidiaries, affiliates, or parent entities. (nrdc.org)
  • Specifically, the bill includes an important "safety valve" that allows the Comptroller to stop divesting, continue investing, or begin reinvesting in fossil fuel companies if "clear and convincing evidence" shows that the New York Pension Fund has lost or would lose at least half a percent of the fund's total worth because of divestment. (nrdc.org)
  • Most air pollution deaths are due to fossil fuel combustion products, it is estimated to cost over 3% of global GDP, and fossil fuel phase-out would save 3.6 million lives each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study finds that air pollution caused by fossil fuel emissions is killing millions and disrupting the water cycle. (psmag.com)
  • Instead, natural gas and oil will likely be used in large amounts for a long time even as nations move to clean energy, so using the lowest-pollution fossil fuels possible will be important. (yahoo.com)
  • Across the world, pressure to end mankind's reliance on fossil fuels is starting to impact the financial world. (yahoo.com)
  • On one side, further reliance on fossil fuels threatens humanity's future, but quitting fossil fuels cold turkey could kill us all. (yahoo.com)
  • As the political left voices legitimate concerns regarding the modern world's crippling reliance on fossil fuels, the conservative side of the spectrum is doubling down and producing more fossil fuels than ever before. (yahoo.com)
  • It's undeniable that we need to end our reliance on fossil fuels, but doing so without having a reliable source of clean energy at hand would make us lose almost all the hard-won benefits of the industrial age. (yahoo.com)
  • He and other experts also said that greater reliance on renewable energy improved national security, because fossil fuels often came from unstable regions and scarce supplies were a potential source of international conflict. (nytimes.com)
  • Though only a sliver of the endowment's modest $130 million in assets is invested in fossil fuels, the move is notable because a century ago John D. Rockefeller Sr. made a fortune running Standard Oil, a precursor to Exxon Mobil. (reuters.com)
  • Meanwhile, there's a bill pending in the California State Legislature calling for CalPERS and CalSTRS -- which have over $400 billion in combined assets -- to divest from fossil fuels. (yahoo.com)
  • Word is spreading: portfolios and endowments worth a total of $2.6 trillion in assets have begun to divest from fossil fuels. (newyorker.com)
  • File photo: According to the University of California, the system sold more than $1 billion in fossil fuel assets from its pension, endowment and working capital pools and invested $1 billion in clean energy projects. (mercurynews.com)
  • However, the high cost of extraction is only one factor that can create stranded fossil fuel assets. (wri.org)
  • Audi, the German car manufacturer, is pitching 'e-fuels' as a clean alternative to produce petrol, diesel or gas, without having to extract fossil fuels. (euractiv.com)
  • Los Angeles Power and Water officials have struck a deal on the largest and cheapest solar + battery-storage project in the world, at prices that leave fossil fuels in the dust and may relegate nuclear power to the dustbin. (forbes.com)
  • Forms of alternative energy such as solar, wind, and nuclear power are possible replacements of fossil fuel energy. (bartleby.com)
  • As just about everyone knows, there are gaping chasms separating the worldviews of fossil fuel promoters, nuclear power advocates, and renewable energy supporters. (islandpress.org)
  • By buying time for increasing energy efficiency, developing renewable energy technologies and making nuclear power more attractive, fossil fuels will play a key role in humanity's quest for a sustainable energy system. (sfu.ca)
  • The end game is a fossil free system where we could use a lot more green electricity, Vattenfall CEO Magnus Hall told EURACTIV.com. (euractiv.com)
  • Already, trains in Stockholm are running on electricity that is produced mostly from fossil fuel-free sources (hydro-power, nuclear and wind). (triplepundit.com)
  • All of Japan's utilities have been increasing their imports of fossil fuels to help them continue to meet electricity demand. (world-nuclear-news.org)
  • To avoid that calamity, fossil fuel plants have to be ready to generate electricity in mere seconds. (latimes.com)
  • What role do teachers have in the necessary transition away from our fossil-fuel dependent economy? (rabble.ca)
  • A real sustainable finance means speeding up our transition away from coal and all fossil fuels and to renewable energy , not locking-in climate vulnerable communities to outdated, dirty, and dangerous technologies. (350.org)
  • And as of this week, the G7 is agreeing to phase out fossil fuels entirely by 2100 . (benjerry.com)
  • Sending the world a message that the G7 has agreed to phase out fossil fuels is a great start. (benjerry.com)
  • Formed more than 300 million years ago, during the Carboniferous period, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources. (buzzle.com)
  • What Are Your Recommendations For Using Fossil Fuels And Renewable Energy Sources? (bartleby.com)
  • The mayor also joined Comptroller Scott Stringer to set a goal of divesting the city's five pension funds of $5 billion worth of fossil-fuel holdings. (nypost.com)
  • Trillium helps institutional clients and wealthy individuals remove fossil fuels from their holdings, and also manages some fossil fuel-free mutual funds. (cnbc.com)
  • More than 1,200 universities, religious organizations, philanthropic foundations and other groups have also pledged to sell off their fossil fuel holdings. (inhabitat.com)
  • In total, more than 1,000 institutional investors globally have committed to divest, in whole or in part, almost $8 trillion in holdings from fossil fuels. (nrdc.org)
  • As a result, it's also past time to explore more seriously a parallel path to reducing greenhouse gases-one focused not on moving off fossil fuels, but on capturing the carbon that these fuels emit. (theatlantic.com)
  • Or can the world achieve decoupling of economic growth from fossil fuels and greenhouse gases? (scirp.org)
  • We have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. (sfu.ca)
  • On page 187 of this issue, McGlade and Ekins 2 comprehensively quantify the regional distribution of fossil-fuel reserves that should not be burned between 2010 and 2050, by modelling a broad range of scenarios based on least-cost climate policies. (nature.com)
  • President Obama, who has already shown the willingness to dictate energy policy via executive order, announced immediately that he would be undeterred in his quest to reduce fossil fuel use by 80% by 2050 and by 30% by 2030 . (foxnews.com)
  • Stockholm may not be the city that comes to mind when you think of going fossil fuel-free by 2050. (triplepundit.com)
  • A new report from a group of environmental nonprofits details how 35 international banks have not only been sustaining but expanding the fossil fuel sector with investments that total more than $2.7 trillion over the four years since the Paris Climate Agreement. (fastcompany.com)
  • They don't know how much of that $2.6 trillion was actually invested in fossil fuels in the first place. (msnbc.com)
  • A 2013 report published by the International Monetary Fund concluded that global fossil fuel subisides amount to $1.9 trillion annually. (skepticalscience.com)
  • When we also take into account the amount of fossil fuel support provided by UK Export Finance (UKEF), it rises to £3.875 billion given to fossil fuel projects overseas since the Paris Agreement was signed. (theecologist.org)
  • Everyday in U.S., immense amount of fossil fuel is burned. (bartleby.com)
  • Fossil Fuels and Their Impact on the Environment The amount of fossil fuels being deposited into the air should be controlled. (bartleby.com)
  • In April, Yale University Chief Investment Officer David Swensen similarly noted the excessive risks of investments in thermal coal miners and oil sands producers when announcing the removal of about $10 million of Yale's endowment from two publicly traded fossil fuel producers. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Fossil fuels and global warming are closely associated with each other. (buzzle.com)
  • This is because the phenomena of global warming is triggered mainly due to excessive use of fossil fuels. (buzzle.com)
  • But the carbon contained in global resources of fossil fuels is estimated 2 to be equivalent to about 11,000 Gt of CO 2 , which means that the implementation of ambitious climate policies would lead to large proportions of reserves remaining unexploited ( Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • McGlade and Ekins 2 report that the carbon contained in fossil-fuel reserves (equivalent to 11,000 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide) is much more than the amount that can be emitted as CO 2 to the atmosphere (870-1,240 Gt) if global warming is to be limited to 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. (nature.com)
  • Publicly, fossil-fuel corporations say that they support the Paris Agreement aiming to limit global warming below 2 °C in 2100. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, according to research published earlier this year by Impax Asset Management, 'historical data shows that over the past seven years eliminating the fossil fuel sector from a global benchmark index would have actually had a small positive return effect. (cnbc.com)
  • The UK government has spent nearly £4 billion pounds of UK public funding on fossil fuel infrastructure in the global south since the Paris Agreement was signed. (theecologist.org)
  • But despite this, recent analysis by Global Justice Now shows that £3.875 billion of UK public funding has supported fossil fuel projects overseas since the agreement was signed. (theecologist.org)
  • These investments are made in the interests of private profit rather than the public interest, enforcing fossil fuel dependency on global south economies and frustrating attempts to tackle fuel poverty via a just transition to renewable energy. (theecologist.org)
  • While the cost of air capture is largely speculative-current estimates range from $20 to $2,000 per ton of carbon dioxide removed-it appears to be comparable with the equally speculative cost of moving the global energy system off fossil fuels and onto renewable energy resources, which might reduce global GDP by several percentage points. (theatlantic.com)
  • Unlike abandoning fossil energy, capturing carbon does not demand a radical alteration of national economies, global trade, or personal lifestyles. (theatlantic.com)
  • The whole transport issue initially came to the fore after the 'food miles' concept was coined in Europe to illustrate how fossil fuel-intensive the global food distribution network had become. (cnn.com)
  • PARIS (Reuters) - The global climate summit in Paris forged a landmark agreement on Saturday, setting the course for a historic transformation of the world's fossil fuel-driven economy within decades in a bid to arrest global warming. (yahoo.com)
  • Fossil fuel release carbon dioxide when they are burned which adds to the greenhouse effect and increases global warming. (bartleby.com)
  • The global carbon budgets associated with either temperature limit will be exhausted with current fossil fuel projects, and in fact some currently-operating fossil fuel projects will need to be retired early in order to have appropriately high chances of staying below even the 2˚C limit, let alone 1.5˚C. (google.com)
  • JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Citi, and Bank of America together account for 30% of all fossil fuel financing from 35 global banks since 2015. (fastcompany.com)
  • And the vast majority of climate scientists agree that if the remaining fossil fuels are pulled out and burned, this will push us past the point of no return in regard to Global Warming, and transform our planet into an unlivable hellish nightmare from which no human life will escape. (funnyordie.com)
  • My path is straightforward: if fossil fuels cause global warming, and I don't want global warming, then I should reduce my fossil fuel use. (treehugger.com)
  • Four years later, thanks to the efforts that began in La Jolla, at least 17 state attorneys general are in various stages of investigating whether Exxon Mobil lied to investors by publicly denying a link between fossil fuels and global warming even though their own research dating back to the 1970s established the connection. (latimes.com)
  • Against the odds, and even their own expectations, activists have fended off more than 20 proposals to use West Coast ports to expand the global fossil fuel trade - the carbon equivalent of five Keystone XL pipelines, according to the Seattle-based Sightline Institute. (ap.org)
  • Crucially, they looked beyond policy measures designed to cut emissions, such as carbon trading and carbon taxes, and instead followed the fossil fuel shipments that impact communities - often marginalized communities - en route to warming the global climate. (ap.org)
  • Because fossil fuels were crucial sources of energy worldwide, the rapid rise in prices spurred debate about the accessibility of global fossil-fuel supplies, the extent to which producers would be able to meet demand in decades to come, and the potential for alternative sources of energy to mitigate concerns about energy supply. (britannica.com)
  • Current global fossil fuel reserves, if extracted and burned, would exceed-many times over-the international carbon budget for an average increase in temperatures of 1.5-2°C (2.7-3.6°F). (nrdc.org)
  • It is time for New York to join this global divestment campaign by enacting "The Fossil Fuel Divestment Act"-now pending before the Legislature in Albany. (nrdc.org)
  • How Can We Reduce the Use of Fossil Fuels? (buzzle.com)
  • The way we can help the environment and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide is by replaying fossil fuels with solar and wind sources for electric power generations in the U.S. We burn fossil fuel everyday by driving cars. (bartleby.com)
  • While much of the attention remains on the need to reduce fossil fuel use, land restoration and reforestation are often neglected as solutions to the crisis. (ipsnews.net)
  • The National Wildlife Federation fights to protect people and wildlife from harmful fossil fuels through legislation and advocates for the development of clean energy. (nwf.org)
  • Despite centuries of growing use, these fuels remain abundant. (theatlantic.com)
  • Fossil fuels are utilized because they are abundant and easy to use. (reference.com)
  • Coal to Liquids -Due to the abundant coal resources in the United States, proponents of "liquid coal" see this fuel as a long-term, stable source for the transportation sector. (nwf.org)
  • The Futurist, 1997) Coal is by far the most abundant of fossil fuels, and will be available for much longer than oil. (brightkite.com)
  • Natural gas, a third form of fossil fuel, accounts for roughly 23% of The United States energy usage. (umich.edu)
  • Fossil fuels such as crude oil, natural gas, hard coal, lignite and peat are still the most commonly used energy sources today. (springer.com)
  • While concerns over fossil fuels are well-founded, it isn't so simple to deny that humanity is fully dependent on oil, coal, and natural gas. (yahoo.com)
  • This paper will discuss the three main fossil fuels which are oil, coal, and natural gas. (bartleby.com)
  • Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of fossil fuels are oil, coal, and natural gas. (bartleby.com)
  • The proposal by Swedegas for a new Liquefied Natural Gas terminal to import gas would be contradictory to Sweden's plans to go fossil free. (350.org)
  • This book tells you all about fossil fuel - coal, oil, and natural gas - including amazing facts about how they are made and how we can use them in our everyday lives. (worldcat.org)
  • This story of uncharacteristic environmental victories has its roots in the mid-2000s, when growing use of so-called "natural" gas spawned proposals to import liquefied natural gas through ports in Oregon and pipelines to move the fossil gas eastward - pipelines that take a lot of land, and much of it in solidly conservative expanses of the state. (ap.org)
  • A big U.S. liquefied natural gas exporter will start giving customers detailed info about the greenhouse gas footprint of its cargoes - a move that provides a glimpse into fossil fuel producers' strategies for competing in a climate-constrained world. (yahoo.com)
  • Coal remained the major fuel source for many years, and then, in the latter half of the twentieth century, oil and natural gas became the primary energy sources. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More and more people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels - oil, natural gas and coal - to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. (sfu.ca)
  • Needless to say, the reserves of these fuels are rapidly depleting, which has landed the world in a cauldron of energy crisis. (buzzle.com)
  • However, the whole world is debating on the use of fossils and its impact on the environment. (buzzle.com)
  • And I told her I wasn't alone--that most Americans disagreed with the protesters, whose "fossil fuels have got to go" policies would ruin millions of lives in this country and billions around the world. (foxnews.com)
  • Rather than mending, this political divide is growing larger every day, and as the public argument over fossil fuels enters the financial sector, it threatens to throw the world economy into chaos. (yahoo.com)
  • Among other things, the Green New Deal calls for the banning of all commercial air travel that uses jet fuel, and there's no viable clean energy alternative to this fossil fuel product that keeps every plane in the world alight. (yahoo.com)
  • McKibben's organization, which has chapters around the world, has issued a number of white papers explaining why investing in fossil fuels is risky in an era where automobiles are getting more and more electric. (forbes.com)
  • The average developed world diet uses 1,600 liters of fossil fuels each year, according to the U.S. based Organic Consumers Association (OCA). (cnn.com)
  • Without fossil fuels the world would not be where it is today. (bartleby.com)
  • The world would be a different if fossil fuels and their uses were not to of use. (bartleby.com)
  • It's kind of like the world our great grandchildren will find themselves living in, except in my little thought experiment, we wouldn't have been derived from fossil-fuel-dependent great-grandparents. (triplepundit.com)
  • Perhaps you think of the massive oil rigs set up around the world or maybe your mind wonders to how fossil fuels formed in the Earth millions of years ago. (bartleby.com)
  • Truthfully the full extent of our usage of fossil fuels around the world is widely not realized. (bartleby.com)
  • Though banks across the world are guilty of financial fossil fuels, "The U.S. banks are the worst of the worst," says Lucie Pinson, executive director of Reclaim Finance, a France-based research and advocacy organization that pressures financial institutions to support climate initiatives and one of the groups that coauthored the report. (fastcompany.com)
  • The World Council of Christians, an international group of 345 churches, has voted to divest from fossil fuels . (care2.com)
  • Clearly the world is moving away from fossil fuel," added May Boeve, the executive director of 350.org. (msnbc.com)
  • Figure 1 shows that for the first time the industrial world was producing wealth without this meaning more fossil fuels and more emissions. (scirp.org)
  • The world quickly turned to coal to satisfy its energy needs, and it has been reliant on fossil fuels ever since. (brightkite.com)
  • Many financial professionals argue that in a world dependent on fossil fuels, it will take decades to transition to alternative energy sources. (sentinelandenterprise.com)
  • Which Cities In the World Are Closest to Nixing Fossil Fuels? (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Geology company makes hydrocarbon fossil fuel sets for energy education. (prweb.com)
  • Thus, it is very important to appreciate, conserve and learn about hydrocarbon fossil fuels since we depend so much on them. (prweb.com)
  • However, a geology company called 'ONTA' is trying a very different and more direct hands-on approach to hydrocarbon fossil fuel energy education. (prweb.com)
  • This is being done by their making of hydrocarbon fossil fuel sets that consist of different geology specimens such as rocks, minerals and fossils that relate to hydrocarbon fossil fuels. (prweb.com)
  • This week, Syracuse University announced its $1.2 billion endowment plans to drop all fossil fuel stocks. (yahoo.com)

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