The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The physical measurements of a body.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.
An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Organisms that live in water.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)
Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A plant division of seed plants containing only a few members.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant family of the order Theales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for Kiwi fruit (ACTINIDIA).
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.
A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
Fuller, E. (2001). Extinct Birds (revised ed.). New York: Comstock. pp. 364-365. ISBN 978-0-8014-3954-4. Hume, J. P. (2014). pp ... ISBN 978-0-486-21869-4. Cowles, G. S. (1987). "The fossil record". In Diamond, A. W. (ed.). Studies of Mascarene Island Birds. ... Rothschild, W. (1907). Extinct Birds. London: Hutchinson & Co. pp. 3-4. Hume, J. P. (2014). pp. 29-44. Murie, J. (1874). "On ... The hoopoe starling was reported to be in decline by the early 19th century and was probably extinct before the 1860s. Several ...
It first became extinct on mainland Rodrigues, then on Île Gombrani, its last refuge. In 1725, the French sailor Julien ... Hume noted that Günther and Newton had not designated a holotype specimen among the fossils they based the specific name on, ... Extinct reptiles include the domed Rodrigues giant tortoise, the saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise, and the Rodrigues day ... Rothschild, W. (1907). Extinct Birds. London: Hutchinson & Co. pp. 5-6. Hachisuka, M. (1953). The Dodo and Kindred Birds, or, ...
In his 2012 book about extinct birds and his 2019 monograph about extinct Mascarene rails, Hume stated that the Réunion ... They stated the reason no fossils of it had been found was probably because it did not live in the parts of Réunion where ... In 1974, an attempt was made to find fossil localities on the Plaine des Cafres plateau, where the bird was said to have lived ... Extinct Réunion reptiles include the Réunion giant tortoise and an undescribed Leiolopisma skink. The small Mauritian flying ...
... is an extinct genus of tabulate coral. "Fossil Corals". Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2012-11 ...
... is an extinct genus of bulldog fish. "Fossilworks: Allothrissops". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 2019-05-22. " ... "Allothrissops salmoneus de Blainville, 1818". The Fossil Forum. Retrieved 2019-05-22. Paleontology portal v t e. ...
... is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 ...
Mosochiton became extinct during the Jurassic period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6 ... Mesochiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
... became extinct during the Jurassic period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 ... Heterochiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran mollusc. ...
... became extinct during the Pliocene period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 ... Afossochiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
The genus includes both extant and extinct species. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6. v ...
It includes both extinct and extant species. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6. v t e. ...
... became extinct in the Pliocene period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6. v t ... Lirachiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
The suborder includes both living and extinct species. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6 ...
... became extinct during the Carboniferous period. Articulated specimens are known. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue ... of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6. Hoare, R. D.; Farrell, J. R. (2004). "Lower Devonian Polyplacophora from New South Wales ...
... became extinct during the Miocene period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 6279 018 6. v ... Oochiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
... became extinct during the Carboniferous period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 ... Pterygochiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
... is an extinct[when?] family of polyplacophoran mollusc. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN ...
... became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 ... Olingechiton is an extinct genus of polyplacophoran molluscs. ...
Quaternary fossil lemurs". In Hartwig, W.C. (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111-112. ISBN 978 ... When Palaeopropithecus became extinct is not exactly clear, however scientists have suggested that it could be as recent as ... Scientists have found fossils of Palaeopropithecus that appeared to have cut marks in them, suggesting flesh removal with a ... "New Extinct Lemur Species Discovered in Madagascar." Phys.org. CNRS, France, 26 May 2009. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.. . Jungers, ...
Scanchitonidae is an extinct[when?] family of polyplacophoran mollusc. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ...
... is an extinct suborder of polyplacophoran molluscs. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN ...
... is an extinct family of polyplacophoran mollusc. van Belle, R. A. (1981). Catalogue of Fossil Chitons. ISBN 90 ...
List of human fossils List of fossil sites (with link directory) List of hominina (hominid) fossils (with images) StW 505 " ... Image of STS 14 Tattersall, Ian, Schwartz, Jeffery (2000). Extinct Humans. Westview Press, Boulder CO. ISBN 0-8133-3482-9.CS1 ... Some scientists have proposed that STS 14 may have come from the same individual as STS 5 though that fossil is considered only ... the fossil record. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois. ISBN 0-88133-575-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ...
List of fossil sites (with link directory) List of hominina (hominid) fossils (with images) Larsen, Clark Spencer, Matter, ... ISBN 978-0-88133-575-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Tattersall, Ian, Schwartz, Jeffery (2000). Extinct Humans ... Even though studies indicate that it came from a separate individual, the two fossils are considered so closely related that ... Robert M, Gebo, Daniel L (1991). Human Origins: the fossil record. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL. ...
Extinct and fossil forms[edit]. During the early Tertiary period, the Indian tableland, what is today peninsular India, was a ... Stewart R. Hinsley Notes on fossil wood. Retrieved September 2006. *^ Robert Buckler (1999) A brief review of the fossil cycads ... Fossil Cycads[26] are known from India while seven Cycad species continue to survive in India.[27][28] ... Whale fossils *^ Bajpai, S. and Gingerich P.D. (1998) A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of ...
Several extinct species are known from fossils: *Spheniscus anglicus (Late Miocene of Chile)[citation needed] ... The oldest Spheniscus fossils are also the oldest penguin fossils from Antarctica.[10] African, Humboldt, and Magellanic ... The oldest fossil record of the extant penguin genus Spheniscus - a new species from the Miocene of Peru. Acta Palaeontologica ... Scientists believe that the genus Spheniscus originated in South America, even though the oldest fossils assigned to the taxon ...
fossils; probable ancestors of bivalves. extinct. marine Helcionelloida†[43]. fossils; snail-like molluscs such as Latouchella ... The Early Cambrian fossils Fordilla and Pojetaia are regarded as bivalves.[64][65][66][67] "Modern-looking" bivalves appeared ... Fossil record[edit]. Good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods (e.g., Aldanella), cephalopods (e.g., Plectronoceras ... The Late Cambrian fossil Plectronoceras is now thought to be the earliest clearly cephalopod fossil, as its shell had septa and ...
Fossils of this genus date to the Late Jurassic period, where they are found in Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian aged strata, ... Extinct Monsters, 23-Sep-2012. Accessed online 27-Dec-2015, http://extinctmonsters.net/2012/09/23/extinct-monsters-the-marsh- ... Sophie the Stegosaurus is the most nearly complete fossil specimen of a Stegosaurus.[7] It is a young adult of undetermined sex ... By the early 1960s, this had become (and remains) the prevalent idea, mainly because some S. stenops fossils in which the ...
Canary Islands quail, Coturnix gomerae (fossil). *Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. *†New Zealand quail, Coturnix ... novaezelandiae (extinct). *Stubble quail, Coturnix pectoralis. *Brown quail, Coturnix ypsilophora. *Dendroperdix *Crested ...
Fossil mustelids. Extinct genera of the family Mustelidae include:. *Brachypsalis. *Chamitataxus. *Cyrnaonyx ... The oldest fossil of the mustelids where dated at the end of the Oligocene to the beginning of the Miocene. "There is debate ... "Mustelidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web.) From the fossil record we can see that Mustelids appeared in the late Oligocene ... regarding which fossils from these epochs represent possible ancestral forms that led to Mustelidae and which fossils represent ...
Riversleigh fossils Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 2009-08-08 *^ With a Tiger in the Tank World Press Review, published ... an animal extinct since 1936.[5][6] Mike Archer has stated that he is obsessed with bringing the thylacine back to life via ... he has been involved with the exploration of the Riversleigh fossil site in Queensland.[4] ...
Due to scanty fossil evidence it is unclear which ape or apes contributed to the modern hominid clade, but molecular evidence ... The dragon blood tree is considered a remnant of the Mio-Pliocene Laurasian subtropical forests that are now almost extinct in ... "Fossil Record of Miocene Hominoids" (PDF). University of Toronto. Retrieved July 11, 2014.. ... Susanne S. Renner (2011). "Living fossil younger than thought". Science. 334 (6057): 766-767. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..766R. doi: ...
Most of the early large amphibians went extinct in the Triassic period; a few survived to the Lower Cretaceous.[2] ... Temporal range: late Devonian-present, fossil range 370 mya to present. Clockwise from top right: Seymouria, Mexican burrowing ...
... bones rather abruptly appear in food remains of ancient humans and other deposits of fossil bones in Europe, without a ... it became extinct in the late twentieth century.[119] ... after having become nearly extinct in the early twentieth ...
East Asian fossils from this period are typically placed in the genus Homo erectus. Very little fossil evidence is available at ... Both Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis became extinct by the end of the Paleolithic. Descended from Homo Sapiens, the ... Hominin fossils not belonging either to Homo neanderthalensis or to Homo sapiens species, found in the Altai Mountains and ... "Climate Change, Then Humans, Drove Mammoths Extinct from National Geographic. Retrieved 2008-04-04.. ...
Fossils[edit]. In 1993, A. Amzaye found fossils of P. boisei at Konso, Ethiopia. The partial skull is designated as KGA10-525 ... Wood, Bernard; Schroer, Kes (2012). "Reconstructing the Diet of an Extinct Hominin Taxon: The Role of Extant Primate Models". ... boisei fossils suggest that their diet was largely based on C4 resources, probably grasses or sedges. One study has concluded ... "Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins". Nature. 436 (7051): 693-5. Bibcode ...
Fossil history and phylogeny. Cephalopods have existed for 500 million years and octopus ancestors were in the Carboniferous ... lacking the external shell of most molluscs and other cephalopods like the Nautiloids and the extinct Ammonoidea.[109] ... The oldest known octopus fossil is Pohlsepia, which lived 296 million years ago. Researchers have identified impressions of ... eight arms, two eyes, and possibly an ink sac.[108] Octopuses are mostly soft tissue, and so fossils are relatively rare. ...
Fossil birds. *Archaeopteryx. *Omnivoropterygiformes. *Confuciusornithiformes. *Enantiornithes. *Chaoyangiiformes. * ...
The early fossil record is poor because the first Passeriformes were on the small side, and their delicate bones did not ... Fossil songbirds (Passeriformes) from the early Eocene of Australia. Emu. 97 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1071/MU97004 ... Evidence on their evolution comes from comparative anatomy, the fossil record and molecular biology. It is thought that the ... Two specimens from Queensland, Australia are fossil bone fragments clearly recognizable as passeriform. They are two species of ...
Other classes and orders, now long extinct, also occur as fossils, particularly from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. ... Major fossil orders of conifers or conifer-like plants include the Cordaitales, Vojnovskyales, Voltziales and perhaps also the ... The conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late ... Fossil conifers included many diverse forms, the most dramatically distinct from modern conifers being some herbaceous conifers ...
Fossil agnathans[change , change source]. The oldest fossil agnathans are found in Cambrian deposits.[7] ... For example, most extinct agnathans belong to the stem group (ancestral group) of gnathostomes.[2][3] But according to the ... means that they are not typical of the fossil groups, which were free-swimming and often armoured. ...
See also: List of African animals extinct in the Holocene, List of Asian animals extinct in the Holocene, and List of extinct ... However, damage to peatland contributes to 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and 8% of those caused by burning fossil ... Main articles: List of North American animals extinct in the Holocene and List of South American animals extinct in the ... Main articles: Australian megafauna, List of extinct animals of Australia, and List of extinct flora of Australia ...
The highway passes by two mountains considered sacred by Native Americans: Ute Mountain and an extinct volcanic core named ... Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. *Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve ...
The fossil eutherian species believed to be the oldest known is Juramaia sinensis, which lived about 160 million years ago.[3] ... Eutheria contains several extinct genera as well as larger groups, many with complicated taxonomic histories still not fully ... The earliest-known placental fossils have also been found in Asia.[5] ... Montanalestes was found in North America, while all other nonplacental eutherian fossils have been found in Asia. ...
A coprolite is fossilized feces and is classified as a trace fossil. In paleontology they give evidence about the diet of an ... They serve a valuable purpose in paleontology because they provide direct evidence of the predation and diet of extinct ... Prior to this they were known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones". ...
... is an extinct gazelle which existed in what is now Ethiopia during the Pliocene epoch. It was described by ... Fossil taxa described in 2012. *Prehistoric even-toed ungulate stubs. Hidden categories: *Articles with 'species' microformats ...
See also: List of whale species and List of extinct cetaceans. Phylogeny. The whales are part of the largely terrestrial ... Evidence of whale falls in present-day and fossil records shows that deep sea whale falls support a rich assemblage of ... The North Atlantic right whales nearly became extinct in the twentieth century, with a population low of 450, and the North ... an extinct chevrotain-like ungulate, from which they split approximately 48 million years ago.[19][20] Primitive cetaceans, or ...
"GEOL 331 Vertebrate Paleontology II: Fossil Tetrapods". www.geol.umd.edu.. *^ Ryosuke Motani; Nachio Minoura; Tatsuro Ando ( ... In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction ... Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades[8] - the ... van Tuninen, M.; Hadly, E.A. (2004). "Error in Estimation of Rate and Time Inferred from the Early Amniote Fossil Record and ...
Significant fossil deposits include shark teeth, marine shells, and the fossilized remains of extinct land animals.[1] ...
The exhibit showcases fossils of single-celled organisms, Permian snapsids, dinosaurs, extinct mammals, and early hominoids.[31 ... McDonald's Fossil Prep Lab - The public can watch as paleontologists prepare real fossils for study. ... fossil skeleton Inside Ancient Egypt[edit]. *Inside Ancient Egypt offers a glimpse into what life was like for ancient ... On May 17, 2000, the Field Museum unveiled Sue, the most complete and best-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex fossil yet discovered. ...
Devonian fossilsEdit. The oldest evidence for the existence of tetrapods comes from trace fossils, tracks (footprints) and ... and extinct relatives; while another group of amniotes diverged into the mammals and their extinct relatives. Amniotes include ... The oldest partial fossils of tetrapods date from the Frasnian beginning ≈380 mya. These include Elginerpeton and ... The oldest near-complete tetrapod fossils, Acanthostega and Ichthyostega, date from the second half of the Fammennian.[47][48] ...
Homo ergaster - Extinct species or subspecies of archaic human. *Homo gautengensis - Name proposed for an extinct species of ... 2012). "New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo". Nature. 488 (7410): 201-204. ... Paranthropus boisei - Extinct species of hominin of East Africa. *Paranthropus robustus - Extinct species of hominin of South ... Homo rudolfensis - Extinct hominin from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa. *LD 350-1 - Earliest known specimen of the genus ...
"Cincinnatian Fossils and Stratigraphy". strata.uga.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-05.. *^ Burzynski, Greg; Narbonne, Guy M. (2015-09-15 ... The extinct Devonian seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba demonstrated the early evolutionary diversification of frond branching ... Examples include frondose colonial bryozoans[11], extinct Ediacaran biota such as rangeomorphs[12], and some macroalgae and ... "The discs of Avalon: Relating discoid fossils to frondose organisms in the Ediacaran of Newfoundland, Canada". Palaeogeography ...
Fragmentary fossils of extinct rorquals from the Pliocene epoch suggest they rivaled the size of the largest whales today.[53] ... The largest known rodent ever is Josephoartigasia monesi, an extinct species known only from fossils found in Uruguay. It was ... The extinct giant bison (Bison latifrons) may be the largest bovid in the fossil record, with an estimated shoulder up to 2.5 m ... "Zaglossus hacketti - extinct giant echidna". megafauna.com.au/view/home. Tourism Western Australia. Archived from the original ...
1 October - Paleontologists announce the discovery of an Ardipithecus ramidus fossil skeleton, deeming it the oldest fossil ... January - The first animal from an extinct species to be recreated by cloning, a Pyrenean Ibex, is born alive, but dies seven ... 5 February - 28 individual fossils of the giant prehistoric snake T. cerrejonensis are discovered in the coal mines of Cerrejón ... Gray, Richard; Dobson, Roger (January 31, 2009). "Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2011- ...
Tyrannosaurus became extinct in the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, which wiped out half of all species on Earth. ... Jane is a fossil specimen of a small tyrannosaurid. It is either Nanotyrannus or a juvenile Tyrannosaurus. The skeleton was ...
Species (extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct; ₴ indicates evidence only from sub-fossils) ... a b Mayr, G. (2009). Paleogene fossil birds. Springer. *^ Tavares ES, Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Miyaki CY (2006). "Phylogenetic ... Three species-the Thick-billed parrot, the Green parakeet, and the now-extinct Carolina parakeet-have lived as far north as the ... The earliest records of modern parrots date to around 23-20 mya.[15] The fossil record-mainly from Europe-consists of bones ...
Fossils of R. unicornis appear in the Middle Pleistocene. In the Pleistocene, the genus Rhinoceros ranged throughout South and ... A detailed cladistic analysis of the Rhinocerotidae placed Rhinoceros and the extinct Punjabitherium in a clade with ... The Indian and Javan rhinoceroses, the only members of the genus Rhinoceros, first appear in the fossil record in Asia during ... Different studies have hypothesised that they may be closely related to the extinct Gaindatherium or Punjabitherium. ...
It is the second-largest woodpecker in the United States, after the critically endangered and possibly extinct[2] ivory-billed ... Living fossils. *Birds described in 1758. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links ... However, unlike the pileated, both of those species are extremely rare, if not extinct. Most reports of the ivory-billed ...
The class Osteostraci ("Bony Shields") is an extinct taxon of bony-armored jawless fish, termed "ostracoderms", that lived in ... "Discriminating signal from noise in the fossil record of early vertebrates reveals cryptic evolutionary history". Proceedings ...
... were used to determine whether extinct ducks and geese could fly. ... Fossils such as this partial skeleton of a Hawaiian species ... Fossils such as this partial skeleton of a Hawaiian species called Ptaiochen pau were used to determine whether extinct ducks ... Which extinct ducks could fly?. American Ornithological Society Publications Office. Journal. The Auk: Ornithological Advances ...
Thirteen fossil bones and teeth excavated in a cave in the Philippines represent an enigmatic previously unknown human species ... The fossils from the seven-chamber cave, situated in the foothills of Luzons northern Sierra Madre mountains, boasted a ... "With the discoveries made on the field - fossils - and in the lab, for instance genetics, we now know that it was a much more ... In 2003, fossils of another island-dwelling species - Homo floresiensis, dubbed the "Hobbit" due to its diminutive size - were ...
Ancient fossils of an extinct family of insects have been found in British Columbia and northern Washington state, and a ... Fossils of extinct scorpionflies found in B.C.. Ancient fossils of an extinct family of insects have been found in British ... Their entire taxonomic family later went extinct. (Simon Fraser University). Ancient fossils of an extinct family of insects ... Fossil scorpionflies recently found in B.C. and Washington state lived 50 million years ago, at a time when the global climate ...
Learn the names of some extinct animals, and look for them in this fun wordsearch puzzle. ... Now, they dont exist! Learn the names of some extinct animals, and look for them in this fun wordsearch puzzle. ...
Fossil fuels extinct. By System Administrator 23rd April 2008 3:26 pm 16th December 2015 11:55 am ... A trial to replace 20 per cent of fossil fuels resulted in significant environmental benefits for the company, including a 13 ... which replaces up to 40 per cent of the fossil fuels required for the cement-making process. This means that when used together ...
... place in the human evolutionary lineage of a mysterious extinct species called Homo antecessor known from Spanish cave fossils. ... Fossil teeth yield oldest genetic material from extinct human species. WASHINGTON. Scientists have extracted from dental enamel ... place in the human evolutionary lineage of a mysterious extinct species called Homo antecessor known from Spanish cave fossils. ... We have previously shown we are able to extract ancient proteins even from 2-million-year-old animal fossils," ...
The fossils belong to the newly discovered species Kupoupou stilwelli, the oldest known penguin thats similar in size to ... Missing link penguin fossil shows how they evolved after dinosaurs went extinct. By Ashley Strickland, CNN ... The fossil was found in Madagascar. It lived about 237 million years ago. ...
... a representative of an Asian group of extinct humans related to Neandertals. ... Entire genome of extinct human decoded from fossil. The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, Germany ... The DNA sequences showed that this individual came from a previously unknown group of extinct humans that have become known as ... Together with their sister group the Neandertals, Denisovans are the closest extinct relatives of currently living humans. ...
Geographer and National Geographic Grantee Matthew Peros and his team found fossils of three extinct sloth species in an ... Underwater caves with extinct animal remains are extremely rare. Peros hopes to learn more about ancient climate and ... Divers made a rare discovery of extinct giant sloths in a Cuba cave. ... Rare Find: Extinct Sloth Fossils Discovered In Underwater Cave. May 13, 2016 - Divers made a rare discovery of extinct giant ...
Lamp Shade fossil recovered from 250 million year old Herefordshire, U.K. lava ash ... Previous assumptions that extinct brachiopods were very similar to modern examples may thus be too simplistic. Other specimens ... This extraordinary trove of fossil records was buried under the sea in volcanic ash that is 425 million years old. The site is ... Brachiopods, the so called "lamp shells," are rare today, but are some of the best known fossils from the Paleozoic era -- 542 ...
Thus, fossils from southeast Missouri are helping scientists unlock clues about the behaviors of these predators and their ... geologists and paleobiologists at the University of Missouri recently collaborated to study fossils that reveal the behaviors ... Most fossils preserve the physical remains of organisms and their structure; however, ... Trilobites are a fossil group of extinct marine invertebrate animals with external skeletons (see photo). As predators and ...
... as these animals were believed to be extinct. The large fish were thereafter referred to as "living fossils" owing to their ... L. chalumnae lives in the Indian Ocean and the waters off the coast of southeast Africa, and, though not extinct, the fish is ... branches of biologycoelacanthevolutionhat transposonhorizontal gene transferisaac yellanlatimerialiving fossilmobile genetic ... Which leads us to the concept of living fossils - species whose genomes have barely changed over long periods of time. Other ...
Thus, fossils from southeast Missouri are helping scientists unlock clues about the behaviors of these predators and their ... geologists and paleobiologists at the University of Missouri recently collaborated to study fossils that reveal the behaviors ... Most fossils preserve the physical remains of organisms and their structure; however, ... 0216-500-million-year-old-fossils-show-how-extinct-organisms-attacked-their-prey/. ...
Its only right that the so-called extinct Hula painted frog was found in an Israeli pond in 2011, considering that frogs ... Extinct Frog Found in Israel is a Living Fossil. The hula painted frog, discovered in 2011, has no living amphibian relatives. ... Extinct Frog Found in Israel is a Living Fossil. By Romy Zipken ... Its only right that the so-called extinct Hula painted frog ... While the spotted-bellied frog enjoys his new title as a living fossil, lets hope no one confuses him for a Mossad agent. ...
But to date, no results have been obtained, either from fossil bones or teeth preserved in sediments or from a fossil preserved ... To successfully isolate DNA from a long-extinct dinosaur, let alone clone one, scientists would have to overcome numerous ... and molecular biologists have searched for a couple of decades to find and replicate DNA from some non-avian dinosaur fossil. ... For a number of reasons first there isnt a lot of DNA preserved in the ancient fossils, and that that is, is severely damaged ...
... Although Sterkfontein is best known for the hundreds ... Extinct animals. Extinct Parapapio monkey. Two species (Parapapio broomi and Parapapio jonesi) of this extinct genus of large ... Fossils in Sterkfontein. Fossils are the remains or traces of ancient plants and animals, preserved in rocks such as cemented ... Studying fossils. Palaeontologists examine the characteristics of a fossil to determine what animal or plant it belonged to and ...
Two-million-year-old molar fossil links extinct giant ape to living orangutan. by Press Association 13/11/2019, 6:01 pm ... Two-million-year-old molar fossil links extinct giant ape to living orangutan. ... Dental enamel fossil (Professor Wei Wang/Nature). Genetic data extracted from ancient teeth has shed light on the "evolutionary ... Dental enamel fossil belonging to the Gigantopithecus blacki (Professor Wei Wang/Welker et al/Springer Nature). Dr Welker said ...
... extinct,mammal,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... A tiny fossil found more than 10 years ago in central Alberta has prov...Back in 1991 Dr. Richard Fox and his research team ... Researchers find first evidence of venom system in extinct mammal. A tiny fossil found more than 10 years ago in central ... Sun immediately took the fossil to Scott, who thought it was the first proof of a venomous capacity in an extinct mammal, but ...
Unique in the world fossil footprints show a human chasing an extinct giant sloth Each year 500,000 people visit New Mexicos ... This evidence of an interaction between human and extinct giant sloth is unique in the world, Belvedere said. ...
... freshwater fish species in North America went extinct at a rate 877 times faster than the rate found in the fossil record, ... In the fossil record, one freshwater fish species goes extinct every 3 million years, but North America lost 39 species and 18 ... Study: Freshwater Fish Species Going Extinct At Rate 877 Times Faster Than Rate In Fossil Record Posted on Friday, August 17, ... The study used the categories "extinct" (species not seen for 50 years or more), "possibly extinct" (not been seen for 20 years ...
The types of fossils that are present provide evidence about the nature of the environment at that time educators classroom ... resources aligned to Fossils provide evidence that many plant and animal species are extinct and ... Share My Lesson is committed to bringing Fossils provide evidence that many plant and animal species are extinct and that many ... Fossils provide evidence that many plant and animal species are extinct and that many species have changed over time. The types ...
Extinct 65 Million Years Ago… Whoops, It’S Alive! - posted in Creation vs Evolution: The Coelacanth fish was thought to be ... Click through the slide show below:http://www.popsci.co...fossils?image=0Orhttp://news.discover...ils-110830.htmlA bunch of ... www.dinofish.com/image16.htmThere are many more examples of living fossils. ... extinct 65 million years ago. Yet this fish was discovered in South Africa alive in 1938.Here is a picture of its fossilhttp:// ...
... penguin fossil, which shows that the bird once used to fly and gave up the same after extinction of dinosaurs. ... Penguin Fossil Shows the Bird Used to Fly Before Dinosaurs Became Extinct. ... Researchers have found the missing link, penguin fossil, which shows that the bird once used to fly and gave up the same ... Researchers have found the missing link, penguin fossil, which shows that the bird once used to fly and gave up the same ...
A new citizen science project lets you look for fossils, stone tools, and classify rocks in aerial photos of Kenyas Lake ... So far, eager fossil finders have analysed 32,000 of those images. Finds have included an extinct crocodile specimen, ... including many of the earliest stone tools and fossils of primitive hominids. The data gathered on Fossil Finder will be used ... Extinct Crocodiles. "The aim is to surpass what could be ordinarily achieved with a more traditional boots-on-the-ground model ...
Extinct and fossil forms[edit]. During the early Tertiary period, the Indian tableland, what is today peninsular India, was a ... Stewart R. Hinsley Notes on fossil wood. Retrieved September 2006. *^ Robert Buckler (1999) A brief review of the fossil cycads ... Fossil Cycads[26] are known from India while seven Cycad species continue to survive in India.[27][28] ... Whale fossils *^ Bajpai, S. and Gingerich P.D. (1998) A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of ...
... housed in the jaws of a Permian-period creature extinct for millions of years that was a distant cousin of todays mammals. ... The fossil evidence shows that a number of meat-eaters shared the same turf as Dimetrodon. Indeed, meat-eaters outnumbered ... Teeth left behind by extinct Dimetrodon give important clues Paleontologists have found the earliest evidence yet of serrated ... Cretaceous Pompeii left behind exquisitely preserved fossils, say scientists By Tanya Lewis LiveScience Staff Writer ...
Several extinct species are known from fossils: *Spheniscus anglicus (Late Miocene of Chile)[citation needed] ... The oldest Spheniscus fossils are also the oldest penguin fossils from Antarctica.[10] African, Humboldt, and Magellanic ... The oldest fossil record of the extant penguin genus Spheniscus - a new species from the Miocene of Peru. Acta Palaeontologica ... Scientists believe that the genus Spheniscus originated in South America, even though the oldest fossils assigned to the taxon ...
Cloning extinct beasts is a mammoth task. The flashiest - and perhaps the most speculative - use of ancient-DNA research might ... Cooper and his team extracted DNA from the bones of a 26,000-year-old extinct bison (Bison priscus) preserved in permafrost in ... And that applies to more than just extinct bison. Methylation has been found in ancient DNA once before. In 2009, a team led by ... Before that idea can be tested, though, Cooper needed to show that epigenetics is preserved in the fossil record - the best ...
However, Leptictidium fossils are fairly abundant and not only of good quantity, but also of good quality; many of the fossils ... This is due in part to the fact that these fossils are slightly younger than the fossils we typically discuss and because these ... The general rule in fossils is that the smaller you are the more likely it is that parts of your body, or the entirety of your ... soft anatomy of Leptictidium has been preserved as a carbonized film that looks like a dirty halo around the skeletal fossil. ...
The discovery of three extinct species and new insights to a fourth indicates a little-known family of marsupials, the ... New hoofed mammal fossil found. August 9, 2006 A U.S. paleontologist has discovered the fossils of a new hoofed South American ... The fossil record indicates the Palaeothentidae and much of the order Paucituberculata abruptly went extinct about 12 million ... Fossils of forest rodents found in highland desert. August 4, 2011 Two new rodent fossils were discovered in the arid highlands ...
  • Their entire taxonomic family later went extinct. (cbc.ca)
  • The remains of three extinct sloths, we're not really clear when they went extinct but it was probably four or five thousand years ago. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Sloths went extinct in the Caribbean between four and five thousand years ago, so we expect they're at least as old as that. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Enrico Cappellini, an associate professor at the Globe Institute and senior author on the study, said: "By sequencing proteins retrieved from dental enamel about two million years old, we showed it is possible to confidently reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of animal species that went extinct too far away in time for their DNA to survive till now. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • From 1900-2010, freshwater fish species in North America went extinct at a rate 877 times faster than the rate found in the fossil record, while estimates indicate the rate may double between now and 2050. (cbbulletin.com)
  • it went extinct when the caldera temporarily dried up in August 2006. (cbbulletin.com)
  • It was previously assumed this group slowly went extinct over a long time period, but that's probably not the case," said Russell Engelman, a biology MS student at Case Western Reserve and lead author of a new study on the group. (phys.org)
  • The fossil record indicates the Palaeothentidae and much of the order Paucituberculata abruptly went extinct about 12 million years ago, leaving only the lineage leading to modern shrew-opossums. (phys.org)
  • Yet opossums didn't become abundant until 3 million to 4 million years after the family went extinct. (phys.org)
  • New fossils and genetic studies show that our direct ancestors shared the planet with at least one other type of hominin from shortly after the time our taxa split from the chimpanzee and bonobo lineage roughly 6 million years ago until a Hobbit-size human called Homo floresiensis went extinct on the island of Flores in Indonesia just 17,000 years ago or so. (slate.com)
  • We also know from fossils that modern humans arose in Africa 200,000 years ago or so and that Neanderthals lived in Europe starting at least 300,000 to 600,000 years ago and went extinct about 30,000 years ago. (slate.com)
  • The last sabercats, such as Smilodon and Homotherium, went extinct only 10.0. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There are species that are extinct because we, being man, caused their extinction and there are many species who went extinct because of natural law. (cnn.com)
  • Can we clone extinct dinosaurs from DNA preserved in their fossils? (khanacademy.org)
  • Researchers have found the 'missing link', penguin fossil, which shows that the bird once used to fly and gave up the same after extinction of dinosaurs. (news18.com)
  • Fossils rock vary in size from one micrometer bacteria to dinosaurs and trees, many meters long and weighing many tons. (borneoartifact.com)
  • Paleontologists in China have found a new species of fossil bird that they say reveals a pivotal point in the evolution of flight, when birds had lost the long bony tail seen in dinosaurs, but before they had developed the fan of feathers on a shortened tail seen in flying birds today. (yahoo.com)
  • Coming in around 2 feet long from head to tail, its streamlined shell was made for a riverine environment alongside tyrannosaurs, armored ankylosaurus, giant duck-billed dinosaurs and other dinosaurs that left fossil remains in southern Utah. (cnn.com)
  • Dinosaurs are a group of now-extinct, terrestrial reptiles in the order Dinosauria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An explanation of why there seem to be so many lost Islands or enclaves of dinosaurs in and around the South Pacific, why they don't quite resemble the dinosaurs in the fossil record, and why so many of them resemble giant men in badly fitting dinosaur suits. (angelfire.com)
  • In many cases, they seem to be larger than the fossil record for dinosaurs would allow for, often twice as large as their Mesozoic counterparts. (angelfire.com)
  • Skull Island has dinosaurs we recognize as analogous to fossil remnants - there's a triceratops, a styracosaurus, a sauropod, and even a T-Rex/Allosaurus-like carnosaur. (angelfire.com)
  • The fossil fragments of this animal show that it lived during the time the dinosaurs ruled the earth. (i4u.com)
  • The Bisonvaleus browni fossil was the first time they had seen teeth like this preserved within an intact upper and lower jaw, which is extremely rare for a specimen this old. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Finds have included an extinct crocodile specimen, hippopotamus teeth and various stone tools. (techradar.com)
  • For example, although Cooper's team successfully read methylation from a fossil bison specimen, they could not find a signal in five other bison fossils they examined, which suggests that reading ancient epigenetic signatures requires exceptional preservation. (newscientist.com)
  • We realized, when I was offered this specimen," said Dr. Jorn Hurum of the University of Oslo, who led the two-year effort to determine the fossil's importance, "that it was the most complete primate in the fossil record. (go.com)
  • Moreover, the cave bear specimen demonstrates that mitogenomic studies can be applied to Pleistocene fossils that have not been preserved in permafrost, and therefore have a broad application within ancient DNA research. (nih.gov)
  • consequently, a condition of affairs where virtually the whole face and lower jaw, replete with teeth, together with the major portion of the brain pattern, have been preserved, constitutes a specimen of unusual value in fossil anthropoid discovery. (todayinsci.com)
  • Goldeni honors Jerry Golden, a volunteer fossil preparator at the Natural History Museum of Utah, who prepared a physical reproduction of the specimen. (cnn.com)
  • Coelacanth is adapted from the Latin for 'hollow spine' and is named after to the hollow caudal fin rays of the first fossil specimen found in 1839. (earthtimes.org)
  • Lauren Sallan was peering through her microscope, studying a fossil specimen of Tarrasius , when she noticed something odd. (scientificamerican.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Thirteen fossil bones and teeth excavated in a cave in the Philippines represent an enigmatic previously unknown human species, probably small in stature and possessing an unexpected mix of archaic and modern traits, scientists said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers were circumspect in describing the physical appearance and lifestyle of Homo luzonensis, known only from a sparse assemblage of hand and foot bones, and teeth from two adults and one juvenile, with no skull fossils. (reuters.com)
  • They retrieved the ancient proteins from fossilized teeth using a method called palaeoproteomics that can find genetic material in fossils too old to contain DNA because of its chemical degradation over time. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • Genetic data extracted from ancient teeth has shed light on the "evolutionary relationship" between a living orangutan and an extinct giant ape from about two million years ago. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • The fossil remains of the Gigantopithecus - comprising a few lower jaws and lots of teeth - were initially discovered in 1935 in Chuifeng Cave in southern China but due to lack of cranial remains, scientists were unable to reconstruct the physical appearance of this mysterious animal. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • Paleontologists have found the earliest evidence yet of serrated teeth, housed in the jaws of a Permian-period creature extinct for millions of years that was a distant cousin of today's mammals. (csmonitor.com)
  • Researchers have uncovered the earliest fossil evidence yet for serrated teeth in vertebrates. (csmonitor.com)
  • The appearance of serrated teeth coincide with the arrival of large-body plant-eating animals in the fossil record - creatures that in some cases were larger than the predators that hunted them. (csmonitor.com)
  • For Brink and Dr. Reisz, finding the serrated teeth was only one of three surprises they uncovered as they analyzed the Dimetrodon fossils. (csmonitor.com)
  • As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but show some of the most important findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms and to reconstruct past climate. (pnas.org)
  • Scientists on Wednesday described the pivotal new fossil: the right half of the lower jaw of an adolescent, including two teeth, dating from 160,000 years ago. (reuters.com)
  • The only previously known Denisovan fossils were three teeth and some bone fragments unearthed 1,500 miles (2,400 km) away in Siberia at a site called Denisova cave. (reuters.com)
  • Modern adult platypuses don't have teeth to compare the fossil to. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Saber teeth have a rich fossil record going back tens of millions of years in cat-like animals such as nimravids from John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Oregon. (nps.gov)
  • This newly discovered species of otter, Siamogale melilutra , belongs to an ancient lineage of extinct otters that was previously known only from isolated teeth recovered from Thailand. (eurekalert.org)
  • A Legacy in Stone" highlights the replica of a jaw from a now-extinct shark called a megalogon, including 6-inch teeth dug up during construction. (latimes.com)
  • Scientists have extracted from dental enamel the oldest human genetic material ever obtained, helping clarify the pivotal place in the human evolutionary lineage of a mysterious extinct species called Homo antecessor known from Spanish cave fossils. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • Thus, fossils from southeast Missouri are helping scientists unlock clues about the behaviors of these predators and their interactions with their prey. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instead, scientists just discovered that the frog is a living fossil, a species that hasn't changed since past geologic periods and also has no living relatives. (tabletmag.com)
  • The method has been hailed as a "game changer" by scientists as it is able to acquire genetic information - especially from fossils excavated from subtropical regions - that were previously unobtainable using DNA testing. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • Scientists believe that the genus Spheniscus originated in South America , even though the oldest fossils assigned to the taxon are from Antarctica . (wikipedia.org)
  • More than any other organizational scheme, phylogeny is the way biologists think about the natural world, and I applaud the effort to encourage visitors to look at fossils the way scientists do. (extinctmonsters.net)
  • Scientists say a 47-million-year-old fossil found in Germany may be a key link to explain the evolution of early primates, and, ultimately, modern human beings. (go.com)
  • Scientists say a 47-million-year-old fossil found in Germany may be a key link to explaining the evolution of early primates and, perhaps, telling them about developments that led to modern human beings. (go.com)
  • The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host. (borneoartifact.com)
  • The Chinese fossil, found by a Buddhist monk in 1980 in China's Xiahe county and later turned over to scientists, revealed intriguing details about the geographic spread of Denisovans, their physical appearance and their unexpected ability to conquer extreme environments. (reuters.com)
  • A team of scientists uncovered a new species of extinct turtle in southern Utah that features bizarre anatomy including a pig-like snout. (cnn.com)
  • The fossil, which is the most complete so far found of the species, have been outlined by two scientists from the University of Alberta in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology . (earthtimes.org)
  • Many scientists, Barnes included, have recovered DNA from very old fossils. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Scientists poking around Ethiopia's fossil-rich badlands say they have discovered the first pieces of an extinct species of horse that was about the size of a small zebra and lived about 4.4 million years ago. (livescience.com)
  • Scientists have discovered the oldest-known fossil of a pine tree. (bbc.com)
  • By comparing modern melanosomes to the ones found preserved in the fossils, scientists were able to speculate on the colors of this and other extinct animals. (icr.org)
  • There were no elephants in South America before 3 million years ago, and the specimens found have an age of 12 to 15 million years, so that was impossible,' said Professor Jelle Reumer, one of the team of scientists who found the fossil in the Pisco-Ica desert in coastal Peru. (cnn.com)
  • County Supervisor Todd Spitzer, who attended a Thursday press briefing about the exhibit, said he wants the public as well as scientists to be able to see the stored fossils. (latimes.com)
  • Back in 1991, Dr. Richard Fox and his research team found a 60 million year-old incomplete skull fossil that they now believe is the first evidence of an extinct mammal with a venom delivery apparatus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sun immediately took the fossil to Scott, who thought it was the first proof of a venomous capacity in an extinct mammal, but he took it to Fox to confirm his notion. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For instance, it was news to me that the original plan in 1987 was to modernize only the two fossil mammal halls. (extinctmonsters.net)
  • In this section you can find number of fossils rock collections of extinct mammal animal, stegodon, masterdon, mammoth. (borneoartifact.com)
  • It is difficult to determine the locomotion style because it belongs to an extinct family of carnivorous mammal. (nps.gov)
  • Fossils of leaves, wood and other plant material have been found at this site, but the camel is the first mammal recovered. (nature.ca)
  • It was only back at the field camp that I was able to ascertain it was not only bone, but also from a fossil mammal larger than anything we had seen so far from the deposits,' explains Rybczynski, relating the moment that she and her team had discovered something unusual. (nature.ca)
  • This profile was compared with those of 37 modern mammal species, as well as that of a fossil camel found in Yukon, which is also in the Canadian Museum of Nature's collections. (nature.ca)
  • Underwater caves with extinct animal remains are extremely rare. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Underwater caves with extinct animal remains are extraordinarily rare, from this point of view this is an extremely exciting opportunity to study questions to do with paleontology and questions to do with ancient climate and ancient environment. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The oldest human fossil remains with conserved DNA date back 400,000 years - leaving a void in evolutionary history. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • Last fall Robert Bakker, a Houston Museum of Natural Science paleontologist, described finding eight fossil remains of a Permian amphibian known as Diplocaulus, a creature whose flattened, horizontal skull took the shape of a broad crescent. (csmonitor.com)
  • Fossil remains of other members of the family, and other relatives within the order Paucituberculata, have been found at sites of similar age in southwestern Colombia and possibly southern Argentina, geographically spanning almost the entire continent. (phys.org)
  • The general rule in fossils is that the smaller you are the more likely it is that parts of your body, or the entirety of your remains, will be lost over millions of years. (blogspot.com)
  • The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution, beginning with the formation of the tribe Hominini (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages) in the late Miocene, roughly 7 to 8 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of Denisovans was unknown until researchers in 2010 announced the discovery of the Siberian remains, with DNA tests showing them to be a sister group to Neanderthals, the stoutly built extinct human species that resided in parts of Eurasia. (reuters.com)
  • The discovery is significant because most fossil remains of ancient turtle species consist of a skull or shell, but rarely the two together. (cnn.com)
  • The first fossilized skeletal remains to be identified as those of giant, extinct reptiles were discovered by miners in western Europe . (encyclopedia.com)
  • About the size of a child, the largest-known platypus roamed what is now Australia as far back as 15 million years ago, according to newfound fossil remains of the giant monotreme. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • It is known from fossil remains that they once inhabited Lake Edward. (flickr.com)
  • Fossils are the remains of once-living animals. (nps.gov)
  • Collection bias is certainly evident in the known fossil sites that contain thylacine remains, even though all mainland Australian states and territories are represented. (recentlyextinctspecies.com)
  • (CNN) -- Researchers scanning the Peruvian desert for whale fossils have stumbled upon the remains of a 'sea monster' three times the size of a modern day killer whale. (cnn.com)
  • The field area near the mountains is home to an abundance of trilobite trace and body fossils. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus, these types of fossil are called trace fossils or ichnofossils, as opposed to body fossils. (borneoartifact.com)
  • Although Sterkfontein is best known for the hundreds of fossils of early hominids discovered here, it has also yielded thousands of animal bones representing a great variety of species, which tell us about the environment and climatic change. (maropeng.co.za)
  • We know of these animals from fossils of their bones preserved in the Cradle of Humankind. (maropeng.co.za)
  • Freshwater fish are a good choice for analysis as their bones make clear fossil impressions, and their lake and river environments produce excellent stratigraphic sequences. (cbbulletin.com)
  • DNA extracted from the bones of an extinct bison shows that the environment influenced the way the animal's genes worked without altering the genetic code. (newscientist.com)
  • Cooper and his team extracted DNA from the bones of a 26,000-year-old extinct bison ( Bison priscus ) preserved in permafrost in the Canadian Arctic. (newscientist.com)
  • However, several naturalists recognized substantial anatomical differences between the fossil bones and those of living reptiles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They recovered a hardy protein called collagen from the fossil bones of Toxodon and Macrauchenia , another South American oddity that resembled a humpless camel. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The fossil bones of the High Arctic camel laid out in Natalia Rybczynski's lab at the Canadian Museum of Nature. (nature.ca)
  • Using chemical markers for the peptides that make up the collagen, a collagen profile for the fossil bones was developed. (nature.ca)
  • Fossils of this species include a beautifully preserved skull, jaws and upper arm bones. (edu.au)
  • Bruce Archibald of Simon Fraser University said researchers found fossils belonging to a previously unknown family of scorpionflies near Cache Creek, B.C., and Republic, Wash., while conducting fieldwork. (cbc.ca)
  • The researchers said they obtained genetic material from an 800,000-year-old Homo antecessor molar unearthed near the village of Atapuerca in northern Spain and from a 1.77 million-year-old molar of another extinct human species called Homo erectus found near the town of Dmanisi in Georgia. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • The Homo antecessor genetic material was especially illuminating, the researchers said, after comparing it to more recent genetic data from our species and extinct human species. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • The researchers said palaeoproteomics could help decipher human evolution, augmenting knowledge obtained through the study of the shape and the physical structure of skeletal fossils. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • The site is unusual because it yields fossils of the entire animals, including soft body parts that the researchers then can reconstruct digitally. (innovations-report.com)
  • Protein sequencing allowed the researchers to paint a picture of what the Gigantopithecus, which became extinct around 300,000 years ago, may have looked like. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • A tiny fossil found more than 10 years ago in central Alberta has proved to be the key to answering a long unsolved evolutionary question, say researchers from the University of Alberta. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When I first saw [the groove] I thought maybe it was a cavity," said Yong-Qin Sun, the lab technician who prepared the fossil, which is one of thousands that the U of A researchers have collected over the years from the banks of the Blindman River near Red Deer, Alberta. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Based on current trends in threatened and endangered fish species, researchers estimate that an additional 53-86 species of freshwater fish may be extinct by the year 2050. (cbbulletin.com)
  • Discovering new fossil sites may be the only way to learn the answer, researchers say. (phys.org)
  • The fossil of an ancient Chaohusaurus mother that likely died while in labor also suggests that reptilian live birth only evolved on land, researchers report today (Feb. 12) in the journal PLOS ONE. (csmonitor.com)
  • The two fossils aren't from the same time period, the researchers said. (csmonitor.com)
  • The researchers were unable to extract DNA from the fossil, but extracted proteins from one of the molars to determine its Denisovan identity. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers believe this molar came from the extinct platypus' lower jaw. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Other researchers did just this when they found clear matches between the once-famous Homo floresiensis fossils-nicknamed "Hobbit"-to small people with microcephaly. (icr.org)
  • This fossil, found in Inner Mongolia, China, puts the first record of gliding flight for mammals at least 70 million years earlier than had been known, the researchers write in the Dec. 14 issue of the journal Nature . (livescience.com)
  • Instead, V. antiquus provides evidence for the independent origin of flight in this now-extinct lineage of mammals, the researchers conclude. (livescience.com)
  • But when researchers re-dated key fossil sites in the Qafzeh and Skhul caves in Israel in the 1980s and 1990s, they found that fossils of early Homo sapiens were 80,000 to 120,000 years old-older than the 40,000-to-60,000-year-old Neanderthal fossils in the same caves or nearby. (slate.com)
  • Washington - German researchers said on Monday they have discovered a fossil of a feathered hatchling that may be the earliest evidence of a plumed, meat-eating dinosaur that was not closely related to birds. (news24.com)
  • This is due in part to the fact that these fossils are slightly younger than the fossils we typically discuss and because these small mammals lived in the underbrush of forests. (blogspot.com)
  • Damron presented her work reconstructing the activity patterns of extinct carnivorous mammals based on skeletal evidence of the shape of the orbit and the size of the optic nerve. (suffolk.edu)
  • She presented her project about evidence of diet in extinct hoofed mammals who lived during a period of climate change 37-30 million years ago and how the mammals of that time were not as tied to the land as was previously thought. (suffolk.edu)
  • Osimanti examined tooth wear on fossils from small and large hoofed mammals, including relatives of rhinos, horses, and deer. (suffolk.edu)
  • Patriofelis ferox was a creodont, an extinct group of carnivorous mammals, similar to the size of a modern panther. (nps.gov)
  • A new order of mammals has been named based on a recently discovered fossil of a squirrel-sized Mesozoic-era animal [image] that lived at least 130 million years ago and was capable of gliding flight . (livescience.com)
  • Previously, the earliest record of flight in mammals was found in fossils of bats dating back to 51 million years ago, said lead study author, Jin Meng from the American Museum of Natural History in New York. (livescience.com)
  • More than 570 plant species have disappeared in the past 250 years - twice the number of birds, mammals and amphibians recorded as extinct, a new study has found. (wn.com)
  • Brontotheriidae, also called Titanotheriidae, is a family of extinct mammals belonging to the order Perissodactyla, the order that includes horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs. (angelfire.com)
  • A nearby fossil-rich locality at Strathcona Fiord known as the Beaver Pond site has previously yielded fossils of other mammals from the same time period, including a badger, deerlet, beaver and three-toed horse. (nature.ca)
  • Some important physical characteristics suggested the fossil fragments were part of a large tibia, the main lower-leg bone in mammals, and that they belonged to the group of cloven-hoofed animals known as artiodactyls, which includes cows, pigs and camels. (nature.ca)
  • Ancient fossils of an extinct family of insects have been found in British Columbia and northern Washington state, and a Canadian biologist says they may hold valuable lessons about climate change and evolution. (cbc.ca)
  • For a number of reasons first there isn't a lot of DNA preserved in the ancient fossils, and that that is, is severely damaged. (khanacademy.org)
  • The Coelacanth fish was thought to be extinct 65 million years ago. (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • Coelacanths were dubbed 'living fossils' after they were thought to be extinct, but one was discovered in 1938 in South Africa. (earthtimes.org)
  • Lake Turkana basin is home to discoveries of some of the most important discoveries in human evolution - including many of the earliest stone tools and fossils of primitive hominids. (techradar.com)
  • Berge C (1995) The pelvic growth in extant and extinct hominids: implications for the evolution of body proportions and body size in humans. (springer.com)
  • Miocene fossil hominids and the chimp-human clade. (springer.com)
  • Sequences from extinct bears represent the third and fourth Pleistocene species for which complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • They became extinct in Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene. (angelfire.com)
  • Starting in February 2016, the National Fossil Day website will feature a different Pleistocene Partner each month. (nps.gov)
  • These partners preserve fossils and their stories from the Pleistocene Epoch, the slice of geologic time spanning from 2.58 million (2,580,000) to 11,700 years ago. (nps.gov)
  • Scroll down to learn more about the featured animals, the Pleistocene, and places to see Pleistocene fossils. (nps.gov)
  • This year marks the second appearance of Pleistocene fossils on National Fossil Day artwork. (nps.gov)
  • The saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis is a well known fossil but just one of many predatory cats of the Pleistocene in North America as lions, cougars, jaguars, lynx, and cheetah also lived here. (nps.gov)
  • Marsupial lions", also known as thylacoleonids, are an extinct family of marsupials that were present in Australia from about 24 million years ago up until the end of the Pleistocene era, about 30,000 years ago. (edu.au)
  • In the fossil record, one freshwater fish species goes extinct every 3 million years, but North America lost 39 species and 18 subspecies between 1898 and 2006. (cbbulletin.com)
  • That's what happened with five species of desert pupfishes and the Alberca silverside -- the last known fish to go extinct in North America. (cbbulletin.com)
  • The history of this group is well known, due to an excellent fossil record in North America. (angelfire.com)
  • The discovery is based on 30 fossil fragments of a leg bone found on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, and represents the most northerly record for early camels, whose ancestors are known to have originated in North America some 45 million years ago. (nature.ca)
  • We now have a new fossil record to better understand camel evolution, since our research shows that the Paracamelus lineage inhabited northern North America for millions of years, and the simplest explanation for this pattern would be that Paracamelus originated there,' explains Rybczynski. (nature.ca)
  • After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo). (wikipedia.org)
  • It represents groundbreaking research into the evolution of a little-known fossil genus of the otter family. (eurekalert.org)
  • Named Sciurumimus albersdoerferi, in part after its bushy, squirrel-like tail - tree squirrels come from the genus Sciurus - it is the "most complete megalosauroid fossil yet", the study said. (news24.com)
  • In 2003, fossils of another island-dwelling species - Homo floresiensis, dubbed the "Hobbit" due to its diminutive size - were unearthed in a cave on the Indonesian island of Flores, some 1,800 miles (3,000 km) from the Luzon site. (reuters.com)
  • With the discoveries made on the field - fossils - and in the lab, for instance genetics, we now know that it was a much more complex evolutionary history, with several distinct species contemporaneous with Homo sapiens, interbreeding events, extinctions, et cetera," Détroit added. (reuters.com)
  • It showed Homo antecessor was closely related to the last common ancestor of the evolutionary lineage that led to Homo sapiens and two extinct cousins: the Neanderthals and the lesser-known Denisovans. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • The early fossils shown are not considered ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brachiopod belongs to an extinct group, and this work reveals that its pedicle differs from that on living forms. (innovations-report.com)
  • Other specimens of interest from the volcanic ash at Herefordshire that were recently reconstructed by the team include an ancient sea spider and the oldest fossil animal that is "definitively male. (innovations-report.com)
  • She and University of Toronto paleontologist Robert Reisz analyzed Dimetrodon fossil specimens spanning much of the genus's 25 million years on Earth. (csmonitor.com)
  • These lower jaw fossils, combined with reexamination of other specimens, show that the skull of Acdestis was different from other palaeothentids. (phys.org)
  • Specimens are usually considered to be fossils rock if they are over 10,000 years old. (borneoartifact.com)
  • I looked at 1,000 individual specimens," said Osimanti, who studied images and casts of fossils from the White River Badlands, rock beds running from South Dakota to Colorado, and worked with fossils at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. (suffolk.edu)
  • The fossil specimens from other archaic toothed mysticete families ( Llanocetidae , Mammalodontidae , and Kekenodontidae ) have not been studied extensively enough to be meaningfully included into phylogenetic analyses. (tolweb.org)
  • The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, Germany, has completed the genome sequence of a Denisovan, a representative of an Asian group of extinct humans related to Neandertals. (mpg.de)
  • The DNA sequences showed that this individual came from a previously unknown group of extinct humans that have become known as Denisovans. (mpg.de)
  • Trilobites are a fossil group of extinct marine invertebrate animals with external skeletons (see photo). (eurekalert.org)
  • A new fossil that captures both birth and death reveals the earliest ancestors of the giant prehistoric sea predators called ichthyosaurs birthed their babies headfirst, according to a new study. (csmonitor.com)
  • The new ichthyosaur fossil pushes back the known records of live birth to the earliest appearance of marine reptiles 248 million years ago, during the beginning of the Mesozoic era. (csmonitor.com)
  • She quantified the shape of the orbit using a landmark-based method on living carnivores and compared them with some of the earliest fossil carnivores. (suffolk.edu)
  • The fossils show that wildfires raged through the earliest pine forests and probably shaped the evolution of this important tree. (bbc.com)
  • We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete mitochondrial genome sequences from all eight living and two recently extinct bear species, the European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and the American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). (nih.gov)
  • Moa , any of several extinct, ostrichlike flightless birds native to New Zealand and constituting the order Dinornithiformes. (britannica.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A jawbone found in a cave on the Tibetan Plateau in China is providing surprising insights into Denisovans, the enigmatic extinct cousins to Neanderthals and our own species, including that they were pioneers at enduring high-altitude environments. (reuters.com)
  • The study's author, Noel Burkhead, used an established method to compare the rate of extinction found in the fossil record with modern rates. (cbbulletin.com)
  • The background rate of extinction is based on the fossil record, which includes information on when ancient fishes lived and how long species survived in the geological past. (cbbulletin.com)
  • The research focused on fossils from the boundary between the Eocene and Oligocene epochs, a period of extreme global cooling and extinction events. (suffolk.edu)
  • Dr John Long, from the Natural History Museum of LA County, Los Angeles, who is a fish fossil expert, but did not contribute to the study, says, "This is an amazing discovery which overturns the age old image of coelacanths as slow moving fishes and shows the resilience of the group to come back in true fighting form after surviving the world's most devastating mass extinction. (earthtimes.org)
  • The first is that the fossil record is still largely undiscovered and the second is that the fish's shape is a result of the evolution to fill an empty niche in the mass-extinction towards the end of the Permian Period around 250 million years ago. (earthtimes.org)
  • The list consists of common name, Latin name, known geographical range, and approximate extinction date, with the "†" symbol indicating that the species is considered extinct worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome represents the first high-coverage, complete genome sequence of an archaic human group - a leap in the study of extinct forms of humans. (mpg.de)
  • An analysis of coelacanth DNA suggests its genome has experienced some significant changes in recent evolutionary history, potentially dispelling the popular image of these iconic fish as being "living fossils. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • We're nowhere near ever finding a whole genome for an extinct dinosaur. (khanacademy.org)
  • central Alberta is one of the richest areas of the world to uncover the types of fossils that we're interested in. (bio-medicine.org)
  • From animal and plant fossils, we can also determine ancient environments and climatic conditions. (maropeng.co.za)
  • The habitat includes larch trees and the depiction is based on records of plant fossils found at nearby fossil deposits. (nature.ca)
  • In some instances the overall body shape of the soft anatomy of Leptictidium has been preserved as a carbonized film that looks like a dirty halo around the skeletal fossil. (blogspot.com)
  • The discovery of a live coelacanth (pronounced "see-lah-kanth") off the coast of South Africa in 1938 was quite the shock, as these animals were believed to be extinct. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Analysis of bone structure in fossils from South Africa suggests evidence of diverse modes of locomotion in ancient hominins. (pnas.org)
  • Surprising fossil find offers clues. (csmonitor.com)
  • The new fossil offers clues about what Denisovans looked like. (reuters.com)
  • How could dinosaur fossils retain original organic material after millions of years? (icr.org)
  • The Cambrian Period, which occurred between 541 million and 485 million years ago, is an important point in evolutionary history where most of the major groups of animals first appear in the fossil record. (eurekalert.org)
  • The large fish were thereafter referred to as "living fossils" owing to their uncanny resemblance to near-identical species spotted in the fossil record. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Before that idea can be tested, though, Cooper needed to show that epigenetics is preserved in the fossil record - the best place to study evolutionary processes over a large number of generations. (newscientist.com)
  • The Primate Fossil Record. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family Raphidae (dodoes and solitaires) Extinct but with no fossil record. (britannica.com)
  • More than 175 species of fruits and nuts preserved in the fossil record suggest a forest more diverse than any modern ecosystem in this part of the world. (nps.gov)
  • Both plant and animal fossils are listed here, as well as some groups that are still extant, yet have an extensive fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
  • The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paleontology is the study of fossils and includes their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. (borneoartifact.com)
  • With only isolated skulls or shells, we are unable to fully understand how different species of fossil turtles are related, and what roles they played in their ecosystems," said Randall Irmis, curator of paleontology at the museum and associate professor at the University of Utah. (cnn.com)
  • Learn the names of some extinct animals, and look for them in this fun wordsearch puzzle. (education.com)
  • There are plenty of actual photographs and proof of these animals and their fossils. (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • The finding, however, complicates the question: why did these animals go extinct? (phys.org)
  • I'm interested in how fossils can relate to or be used to determine how animals lived in prehistoric times," said Osimanti. (suffolk.edu)
  • Approaches to understanding the physiology of extinct animals and the evolution of endothermy have largely focused on biophysical modeling, anatomical observations, growth rate analysis from bone histology, and behavioral studies such as estimating predator/prey ratios ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • and just as little, we may expect, will a knowledge of the origin of the existing and extinct species of plants and animals, be the result of physiological and geological investigation. (todayinsci.com)
  • There are extinct animals that we know nothing about other than that they tasted good, because no one bothered to write anything down. (nautil.us)
  • A team of paleontologists from the University of New South Wales in Australia identified the new species, called Obdurodon tharalkooschild, based on a single molar they discovered in the Riversleigh fossil field in northwestern Queensland, Australia. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Our results indicate that ART (assisted reproduction techniques) could be a viable strategy to rescue genes from the iconic, almost extinct, northern white rhinoceros," the team wrote in the journal Nature Communications. (channelstv.com)
  • Previously found fossils of pregnant ichthyosaurs had already revealed the reptiles carried live embryos, not eggs. (csmonitor.com)
  • More research on fossil ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs, and sea turtles supposedly 55 to 190 million years old has revealed actual preserved skin tissue and melanosomes that indicate a brown-black skin color. (icr.org)
  • The fossils from the seven-chamber cave, situated in the foothills of Luzon's northern Sierra Madre mountains, boasted a combination of anatomical features setting it apart from other human species. (reuters.com)
  • Until now, the oldest genetic material from an extinct human species was dated to about 420,000 years ago. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • It is rare that we get to study the activities of 500 million-year-old organisms, yet the fossils in this locality are helping us determine how these organisms behaved. (eurekalert.org)
  • However it has been widely assumed that it would not be possible to make a direct measurement of the body temperatures of extinct organisms ( 2 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fossils can provide evidence for the appearance, behavior, physiology, and ecology of groups of organisms that have been extinct for millions of years. (nps.gov)
  • Fossil taxa from the Cretaceous show links to the Seychelles and Madagascar chain of islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many taxa are based on fragmentary material, leading to difficulties when trying to correlate taxa from distant fossil localities. (tolweb.org)
  • Geographer and National Geographic Grantee Matthew Peros and his team found fossils of three extinct sloth species in an underwater cave near Varadero. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • At the Sterkfontein Caves, one way of determining the age of the fossils is by using radio-isotope dating of the cave deposits. (maropeng.co.za)
  • The fossil from Baishiya Karst cave, situated 10,760 feet (3,280 meters) above sea level, showed not only that Denisovans once were widely distributed in eastern Eurasia but also that they inhabited an inhospitable high-altitude, low-oxygen setting. (reuters.com)
  • Dimensions of the fossil skull replica: 26" long x 13" wide x 24" tall. (angelfire.com)
  • Photograph of a spectacularly preserved fossil condor skull from Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. (nps.gov)
  • While most of the turtles that have been unearthed have a single bone or two that is in a fossilized form, the pig-anouted turtle has a skull, tail, shell and fore and hind limbs intact in its fossil. (i4u.com)
  • The site in Queensland where the Wakaleo schouteni fossil skull was found. (edu.au)
  • Palaeontologists examine the characteristics of a fossil to determine what animal or plant it belonged to and its place in the evolutionary framework. (maropeng.co.za)
  • Fox and Scott had found individual canine fossils with similar grooves, but they didn't know which species of animal the loose fossils came from. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Fossils provide evidence that many plant and animal species are extinct and that many species have changed over time. (sharemylesson.com)
  • Therefore, Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces (coprolites). (borneoartifact.com)
  • Based on the sedimentary rocks and other fossil assemblages surrounding the area where the tooth was found, the team has estimated that the animal lived between 5 million and 15 million years ago, though they still need to conduct further analyses to determine a more precise age. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Petrified Forest has plant and animal fossils from the Triassic Period, going back over 200 million years. (nps.gov)
  • A fossil is an extinct animal. (earthlink.net)
  • To fish it out of fossils, you need molecular bait, and to design that bait, it really helps to know what kind of animal you're looking for and what they're related to. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Fossil scorpionflies recently found in B.C. and Washington state lived 50 million years ago, at a time when the global climate was much warmer. (cbc.ca)
  • A fossil of a ichthyosaur that apparently died during labor some time between 251 million and 247 million years ago sheds new light on how these ancient sea predators birthed their young. (csmonitor.com)
  • And one spectacular fossil of a Stenopterygius ichthyosaur in "childbirth," from the Jurassic period, between 201 million and 145 million years ago, showed at least one species had newborns come out tail-first. (csmonitor.com)
  • The fossil is believed to belong to a young land-based dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period, some 170 million years ago, said the study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (news24.com)
  • Often called the "Cambrian explosion," fossils from this time provide glimpses into evolutionary history as the world's ecosystems were rapidly diversifying. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ichthyosaur fossil counters this assumption, by providing an evolutionary link to the headfirst, terrestrial style of childbirth. (csmonitor.com)
  • Proteins can survive about 10 times longer than DNA in fossils," paleoanthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany said. (reuters.com)
  • Resolving this fundamental difference in interpretation is crucial: if endogenous then the fossil microbodies would represent a significant advancement in the fields of palaeontology and evolutionary biology given, for example, the possibility to reconstruct integumentary colours and plumage colour patterns. (nature.com)
  • Neanderthal and Denisovan genetics: Human ancestors interbred with extinct species. (slate.com)
  • This extraordinary trove of fossil records was buried under the sea in volcanic ash that is 425 million years old. (innovations-report.com)
  • Fossils of large, forest-dwelling monkeys are also relatively common in the older Member 2 (about 4.2-million to 3.3-million years old) and Member 3 (about 3.3-million to 2.5-million years old) at Sterkfontein, and are evidence of this lusher environment. (maropeng.co.za)
  • A tiny fossil found more than 10 years ago in central Alberta has prov. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study used the categories "extinct" (species not seen for 50 years or more), "possibly extinct" (not been seen for 20 years or more), and "extinct in nature. (cbbulletin.com)
  • Living Fossils) Extinct 65 Million Years Ago… Whoops, It’S Alive! (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • On the other hand, The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. (borneoartifact.com)
  • The Chaohusaurus fossil, from one of the oldest ichthyosaur species, is about 10 million years older than other fossil embryos from reptiles found so far. (csmonitor.com)
  • Pian is optimistic that they will find something in the coming years, given the overall abundance of well-preserved fossils at the Riversleigh site. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • It becomes harder if the fossils are also very old, since DNA has a half-life of around 521 years . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Their discovery again demonstrates the presence of preserved original proteins in fossils claimed to be many millions of years old. (icr.org)
  • They maintain the fossils are millions of years old, in spite of the contrary data. (icr.org)
  • The fossils were collected over three summer field seasons (2006, 2008 and 2010) and are about three and a half million years old, dating from the mid-Pliocene Epoch. (nature.ca)
  • What's more, the finding is further evidence that the living fossil concept is outdated and somewhat of a misnomer. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • While the spotted-bellied frog enjoys his new title as a living fossil, let's hope no one confuses him for a Mossad agent . (tabletmag.com)
  • The fossil evidence shows that a number of meat-eaters shared the same turf as Dimetrodon. (csmonitor.com)
  • New genetic evidence shows our ancestors interbred with now-extinct species. (slate.com)
  • This view was bolstered by evidence from fossils and stone tools as well as initial studies of DNA from the mitochondria of the cell (mtDNA), which is inherited only from one's mother and can be used to trace maternal lineages. (slate.com)
  • based on incomplete fossil evidence, it too is likely to have outweighed Brachiosaurus . (mcgill.ca)
  • Ottawa, March 5, 2013 -A research team led by the Canadian Museum of Nature has identified the first evidence for an extinct giant camel in Canada's High Arctic. (nature.ca)
  • The fossil evidence consists of about 30 bone fragments, which together form part of a limb bone of a camel. (nature.ca)
  • Our knowledge of these extinct forms was previously based almost entirely on their shells, which are all that normally fossilize. (innovations-report.com)
  • It has previously been shown that certain trace elements occur in fossils as organometallic compounds, and hence may be used as biomarkers for melanin pigments. (nature.com)
  • [5] A thirty million year old Ologocene era fossil tooth from the Bugti Hills of central Pakistan has been identified as from a lemur-like primate, prompting controversial suggestions that the lemurs may have originated in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fossil , of a young female that probably resembled a modern-day lemur, is described as "the most complete primate fossil ever found. (go.com)
  • Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nut Beds also preserve over 66 genera and 77 species of petrified woods, making it the most species rich fossil wood locality on Earth of any age. (nps.gov)
  • Where did the wooly rhinos go, and so many other extinct creatures? (icr.org)
  • But there's also creatures that have no fossil counterparts. (angelfire.com)
  • These also include numerous fossils of aquatic creatures such as sponges, corals, mussels, ammonites and sea urchins from the Jurassic period, when the region was covered by a flat sea. (museenbasel.ch)
  • Let's meet these fossils (and their less colossal modern cousins). (cpr.org)
  • After the mammoth is born, we'll examine its ecology and genes to study why the species became extinct and other factors. (cnn.com)
  • many of the fossils found are entire or nearly entire skeletons. (blogspot.com)
  • The team recovered more than 80 new ichthyosaur skeletons during a recent field expedition to a fossil quarry in south Majiashan, China. (csmonitor.com)
  • Woolly Rhino Battle Scene - Two Rare fossil skeletons! (angelfire.com)
  • We have Authentic Fossil Wooly Rhino skulls, skeletons and tusks for sale. (angelfire.com)
  • One geneticist's quest to de-extinct what was once one of the world's most abundant birds. (nautil.us)
  • Since the first assessment of extinct North American freshwater fishes in 1989, the number of extinct fishes increased by 25 percent. (cbbulletin.com)
  • Note: this book contains very accessible descriptions of human and non-human primates, their evolution, and fossil history). (wikipedia.org)
  • While not a completely unambiguous indicator of physiology, the ability to measure the body temperature of extinct vertebrates would provide crucial information in tracing the evolution of thermoregulation. (pnas.org)
  • The significance of this research is to be able to analyze carnivores alive today and then to use that information to reconstruct behaviors of carnivores that are now extinct," she said. (suffolk.edu)
  • It will also open new avenues in the study of paleoclimate, as the measurement of clumped isotopes in phosphorites and fossils has the potential to reconstruct environmental temperatures. (pnas.org)
  • The fossil was discovered by amateur fossil hunters in 1983 in a mile-wide crater called the Messel Shale Pit, not far from Frankfurt. (go.com)
  • L. chalumnae lives in the Indian Ocean and the waters off the coast of southeast Africa, and, though not extinct, the fish is elusive and critically endangered, said Yellan, a graduate student with the Department of Molecular Genetics at the University of Toronto. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • They may have gone extinct because of competition from other species or climate change. (cbc.ca)