Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Iridectomy: Surgical removal of a section of the iris.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Trabeculectomy: Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Glaucoma, Neovascular: A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Exfoliation Syndrome: The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Filtering Surgery: A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Lens DiseasesSclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Miotics: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.IndiaHydrophthalmos: Congenital open-angle glaucoma that results from dysgenesis of the angle structures accompanied by increased intraocular pressure and enlargement of the eye. Treatment is both medical and surgical.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Wound Closure Techniques: Methods to repair breaks in tissue caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Eye ProteinsOphthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase: A PROTEIN O-METHYLTRANSFERASE that recognizes and catalyzes the methyl esterification of ISOASPARTIC ACID and D-ASPARTIC ACID residues in peptides and proteins. It initiates the repair of proteins damaged by the spontaneous decomposition of normal L-aspartic acid and L-asparagine residues.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Singapore
  • Not everyone with high eye pressure will develop glaucoma, and some people with normal eye pressure will develop glaucoma. (
  • Such new treatments will improve the care of patients with high IOP and will preserve vision in the many patients who do not respond well to IOP lowering or who develop glaucoma while having a normal eye pressure. (
  • While anyone can develop glaucoma, some people are at greater risk. (
  • Age - The older you are the more likely it is you will develop Glaucoma. (
  • Just because you have increased eye pressure does not mean that you will develop glaucoma. (
  • Gonioscopy - a special type of contact lens with mirrors is used to examine the outflow channels of the angle. (
  • However, his IOP was normal and he had no neovascularization of the angle (NVA) on gonioscopy. (