Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).IndazolesOxadiazolesSuperoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Mice, Inbred C57BLVasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.HydrazinesMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Nitrosation: Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.DiethylaminesBradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.AmidinesQuinoxalinesIndomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Isothiuronium: An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors: Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nitroso CompoundsAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.CitrullineCaveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred BALB C
RNS are produced in animals starting with the reaction of nitric oxide (•NO) with superoxide (O2•−) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO ... Guzik TJ, West NE, Pillai R, Taggart DP, Channon KM (June 2002). "Nitric oxide modulates superoxide release and peroxynitrite ... Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L (January 2007). "Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease". Physiol. Rev. 87 (1): ... Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are a family of antimicrobial molecules derived from nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (O2•−) ...
5-oxadiazole 2-oxide is a heterocycle of the isoxazole family and an amine oxide derivative of furazan. It is a nitric oxide ... Furoxanes can be formed by dimerization of nitrile oxides. Clara Cena; Massimo Bertinaria; Donatella Boschi; Marta Giorgis; ... Alberto Gasco (2006). "Use of the furoxan (1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxide) system in the design of new NO-donor antioxidant hybrids ...
Ernst van Faassen; Anatoly Fyodorovich Vanin (7 May 2007). Radicals for life: the various forms of nitric oxide. Elsevier. pp. ... Once formed, these deeply colored compounds are often thermally unstable with respect to formation of the disulfide and nitric ... Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity leads directly to SNO formation. NOSs are hemoproteins that combine reductase and ... Wang, P. G.; Xian, M.; Tang, X.; Wu, X.; Wen, Z.; Cai, T.; Janczuk, A. J. (2002). "Nitric Oxide Donors: Chemical Activities and ...
van Faassen E.E.; Vanin A.F. (eds); "Radicals for life: The various forms of nitric oxide." Elsevier, Amsterdam 2007. ... Complexes of Dithiocarbamates with iron provide one of the very few methods to study the formation of nitric oxide (NO) ... Vanin, A.F.; Huisman, A.; van Faassen, E.E. (2002). "Iron dithiocarbamates as spin trap for nitric oxide: Pitfalls and ... "Nitric oxide research from chemistry to biology: EPR spectroscopy of nitrosylated compounds." Landes, Austin 1997. ...
Ca2+-concentration increases intracellular nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Excessive NO-molecules form free radicals and thus ... PMC 3387496 . Murphy, Michael P (1999-05-05). "Nitric oxide and cell death". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and ... some forms of intellectual disability, and diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. ...
Nitric oxide, a short-lived messenger, is formed from arginine. Porphyrins are synthesized from glycine and succinyl CoA, which ... The loop formed by strands 2 and 3 forms an anti-terminator and translation of the his genes will continue and histidine will ... The confirmation of the enzyme plays a role in regulation depending on if GS is in the taut or relaxed form. The taut form of ... Instead strands 3 and 4 will form a hairpin loop further downstream of the ribosome. The hairpin loop formed by strands 3 and 4 ...
Nitric acid then reacts with the copper turnings to form nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is thus reduced to nitrogen dioxide (if ... Here sulfuric acid reacts with the nitrate ion to form nitric acid. ... and formation of a nitrosonium complex where nitric oxide is reduced to NO−. 2HNO3+ 3H2SO4 + 6FeSO4 --->> 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 2NO + ... and Spectroscopy of the Reversible Binding of Nitric Oxide to Aquated Iron(II). An Undergraduate Text Book Reaction Revisited ...
Increased arterial stiffness Inhibition of vascular dilation by interfering with nitric oxide. Oxidizing LDL. Binding cells- ... Although the only form suitable for urinary excretion, the breakdown products of AGE-that is, peptides and free adducts-are ... AGE free adducts are the major form through which AGEs are excreted in urine, with AGE-peptides occurring to a lesser extent ... They form photosensitizers in the crystalline lens, which has implications for cataract development. Reduced muscle function is ...
Identification of constitutive and inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase in human platelets. Journal of Laboratory and ...
Dissolving europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3) in dilute nitric acid produces europium(III) nitrate. Eu2O3 + 6 HNO3 = 2 Eu(NO3)3 + 3 ... Europium(III) nitrate is an inorganic compound with the formula Eu(NO3)3. Its hexahydrate is the most common form, which is a ... H2O Europium(III) nitrate reacts with some ligands to form complexes. It reacts with 1,3,5-trimesic acid, producing europium ...
Different forms of this reductase catalyze the formation of nitric oxide or nitrous oxide. A version of this compound was ... The Cu is now five coordinate bonded to nitric oxide and water. Nitric oxide is released as Cu is oxidized to state (II) and ... Copper containing enzymes carry out a single electron transfer to produce nitric oxide. There are several types of iron based ... further protonation of the hydroxylamine leads to the breakage of the N-O bond to form water. The oxidation of iron from Fe(II ...
... is a nitric oxide donor. The nitric oxide donated by Roussin's Black Salt has proven to be toxic to some ... It can also be formed by the conversion of Roussin's Red Salt in mildly acidic conditions. This reaction is reversible and ... Nitric Oxide. 10 (1): 42-50. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2004.01.009. Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A. (2006). Chemistry of the elements ( ...
Ozone is combined with nitric oxide to form nitrogen dioxide in an activated state. NO+O3 → NO2[◊]+ O2 The activated NO2[◊] ... To determine the amount of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in a sample (containing no NO) it must first be converted to nitric oxide, NO ... Another gas phase reaction is the basis of nitric oxide detection in commercial analytic instruments applied to environmental ... Normally, reactants form products of lesser chemical energy. The difference in energy between reactants and products, ...
... can be formed by the reversible reaction of nitric oxide with bromine. This reaction is of interest as it is ...
This led to a collaboration with Michael Marletta, whose discovery of the enzymatic source of nitric oxide revealed the source ... Tannenbaum's areas of research include mechanisms of biochemical activation of chemicals to electrophilic forms that bind to ... the role of endogenous nitric oxide in inflammation, cytotoxicity, and DNA damage; and development of new tools for drug ... and the role of nitric oxide in brain pathology, including Alzheimer's Disease and ASD. The Tannenbaum laboratory has made ...
In healthy individuals nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule on vascular smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation. ... In addition, a phase II study of riociguat is underway in patients suffering from other forms of PH such as associated with ... The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ...
... or nitric oxide (NO), the molecule is said to be heteronuclear. The only chemical elements that form stable homonuclear ... Common examples include the gases carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen chloride (HCl). Many 1:1 binary ... As early as 1805, Gay-Lussac and von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen, ... Other elements form diatomic molecules when evaporated, but these diatomic species repolymerize when cooled. Heating ("cracking ...
Hydrosulfide has been identified as the third gasotransmitter along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Its specific role ... SH− is a soft anionic ligand that forms complexes with most metal ions. Examples include [Au(SH)2]− and (C5H5)2Ti(SH)2, derived ... For example, the hydrated form of sodium sulfide, nominally with the formula Na2S · 9 H2O, is better described as NaSH · NaOH ...
NO− It is the reduced form of nitric oxide (NO) and is isoelectronic with dioxygen. Nitroxyl can be formed as a reaction ... and reactivities toward oxygen and nitric oxide". U.S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99, 7340. doi:10.1073/ ... Nitroxyl rapidly decomposes by a bimolecular pathway to nitrous oxide (k(298K) = 8 x 106 M1s1): 2 HNO → N2O + H2O The reaction ... HNO is generated via organic oxidation of cyclohexanone oxime with lead tetraacetate to form 1-nitrosocyclohexyl acetate: This ...
Vitamin B 12 becomes inactive due to Hydrogen cyanide and Nitric oxide in cigarette smoke. Vitamin B 12 also becomes inactive ... Historically, a form of vitamin B 12 called hydroxocobalamin is often produced by bacteria and was then changed to ... The two bioactive forms of vitamin B 12r are methylcobalamin in cytosol and adenosylcobalamin in mitochondria. Multivitamins ... Preparation of the Reduced Forms of Vitamin B 12 and of Some Analogs of the Vitamin B 12 Coenzyme Containing a Cobalt-Carbon ...
... nitric oxide) production. Nitrotyrosine is formed in the presence of the active metabolite NO. Generally in many disease states ... Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L (January 2007). "Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease". Physiological Reviews. ... Kaur H; Halliwell B (1994). "Evidence for nitric oxide-mediated oxidative damage in chronic inflammation Nitrotyrosine in serum ... a pathophysiological function of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 356 (1): 1 ...
In combination with a superoxide, nitric oxide forms peroxynitrite and causes oxidative stress in different sorts of tissues. ... An increase in intracellular calcium concentration also activates the nitric oxide synthase to produce nitric oxide. ... "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signals Endothelial Cell Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin through Flk-1/KDR ...
... which is formed as nitric oxide (NO) combines with oxygen in the air; and acid rain, which is formed when sulfur dioxide or ... This noxious mixture of air pollutants may include the following: Aldehydes Nitrogen oxides, particularly nitric oxide and ... Examples of a secondary pollutant include ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in ... This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ozone, smoke or dirt particles and also less ...
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are absorbed in the liquid and react to form sulfuric acid and nitric oxide. The liberated ... Nitrogen oxides are absorbed to form nitrosylsulfuric acid, which is then returned to the Glover tower to reclaim the oxides of ... In the reaction chambers, nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide. Liquid from the bottom of the chambers ... Some percentage of the nitrogen oxides are sequestered in the reaction liquor as nitrosylsulfuric acid and as nitric acid, so ...
Here it is presumably formed from nitrous oxide (itself formed by autoxidation of nitric oxide) and methanol. Methyl nitrite is ... With inorganic bases it forms explosive salts. It forms explosive mixtures with air. It is used as a rocket propellant, a ... The cis conformer is 3.13 kJ mol−1 more stable than the trans form, with an energy barrier to rotation of 45.3 kJ mol−1. The ... Unlike silver nitrite, silver iodide is highly insoluble in water and thus forms a solid. Note that nitrogen is a better ...
Inhibits urinary nitrous oxide production and may inhibit nitric oxide production.. *Renal abnormalities, sterile leukocyturia ... Unboosted indinavir requires a very precise dosing of 400 mg every eight hours to thwart HIV from forming drug-resistant ... C at which it starts to emit toxic vapors such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. ... that are necessary for the HIV virions cannot form. Eventually, the viral load decreases because of the lack of reproduction.[1 ...
The amount of hydroxide formed doubled at 80 oC, with the largest percentage (56.7 %) formed from the hydration in magnesium ... Ammonium chloride, magnesium acetate, magnesium nitrate, nitric acid, acetic acid, water, magnesium chloride, sodium acetate ... Magnesium oxide -- Industrial applications. en. dc.title. The effects of hydrating agents on the hydration of industrial ... Sodium acetate formed the lowest amount of magnesium hydroxide, ranging between 1.2 and 12.2 % magnesium hydroxide. Hydrations ...
Examples of alternative forms of nitric oxide, with special emphasis on their protective role against widespread human diseases ... Nitrosocompounds can be considered as stabilised forms of nitric oxide, one of the most important regulatory molecules in ... Many nitrosocompounds share some of the physiological functions of nitric oxide, and may be formed inside living organisms. ... with particular emphasis on the nitrosocompounds that are endogenously formed in higher organisms and humans. Points of ...
Nitric oxide reductase (NAD(P), nitrous oxide-forming) (EC 1.7.1.14, fungal nitric oxide reductase, cytochrome P450nor, NOR ( ... Nitric oxide reductase (NAD(P), nitrous oxide-forming) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Spectroscopic and kinetic studies on reaction of cytochrome P450nor with nitric oxide. Implication for its nitric oxide ... ambiguous)) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrous oxide:NAD(P) oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical ...
I-NOS stands for Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase. I-NOS is defined as Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase rarely. ... How is Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-( ... www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-(I_NOS).html ... www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-(I_NOS).html ...
Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was ... Nitric Oxide (NO) Mediates the Inhibition of Form-Deprivation Myopia by Atropine in Chicks Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 5;6(1):9. doi: ... Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was ... Nitric Oxide / antagonists & inhibitors * Nitric Oxide / metabolism* * Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology * Nitric Oxide Donors ...
... ... Chinhyun (Erica) Lee (2015). Development of Expression Systems for Various Forms of Human Nitric Oxide Synthase Isozymes. ... Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NO from L-arginine in biological systems, and has ... Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important biological molecules which has functions in neurotransmission, vasodilation, and ...
Nitric oxide (NO) has been long recognized as an atypical neuronal messenger affecting excitatory synaptic transmission, but ... Physiologic role for inducible nitric oxide synthase: a new form of astrocytic-neuronal interface.. @article{ ... nitric oxide synthase: a new form of astrocytic-neuronal interface.}, author={Yael Amitai}, journal={Glia}, year={2010}, volume ... Nitric oxide (NO) has been long recognized as an atypical neuronal messenger affecting excitatory synaptic transmission, but ...
... nitric oxide gas), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... reinstate nitric oxide immediately. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forms in gas mixtures containing NO and O2 and may cause airway ... encoded search term (nitric oxide gas (INOmax%2C Genosyl)) and nitric oxide gas (INOmax, Genosyl) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Accidental exposure to nitric oxide for inhalation in hospital staff has been associated with chest discomfort, dizziness, dry ...
Measurement of nitric oxide formation in ischemic myocardium. p. 323. Evaluation of the role of nitrite-derived nitric oxide in ... Role of DNIC/nitric oxide stores in protection against nitric oxide overproduction. p. 90. ... Examples of alternative forms of nitric oxide, with special emphasis on their protective role against widespread human diseases ... Examples of alternative forms of nitric oxide, with special emphasis on their protective role against widespread human diseases ...
Although we do not yet know precisely how GRK2 binds to Akt or how β-arrestin 2 forms a complex with GRK2 and Akt, it seems ... A crucial role for GRK2 in regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase function in portal hypertension. Nat Med 2005; ... Impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity associated with enhanced caveolin binding in experimental cirrhosis in the ... Roles for insulin receptor, PI3-kinase, and Akt in insulin-signaling pathways related to production of nitric oxide in human ...
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Nitric oxide : biochemistry, molecular biology, and therapeutic implications. [Louis J Ignarro; Ferid Murad;] -- Each volume of ... of the chemical properties of nitric oxide and how they form the basis for the multifaceted biological actions for nitric oxide ... oxide_chemistry> # Nitric Oxide--chemistry a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Nitric Oxide--chemistry"@en ;. . ... oxide_pharmacology> # Nitric Oxide--pharmacology a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Nitric Oxide--pharmacology"@en ;. . ...
Nitric oxide : novel actions, deleterious effects, and clinical potential. [Chuang C Chiueh; Jau-Shyong Hong; Seng Kee Leong; ... Genre/Form:. Congresses. Conference papers and proceedings. Additional Physical Format:. Online version:. Nitric oxide.. New ... oxide_adverse_effects> # Nitric Oxide--adverse effects. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Nitric Oxide--adverse effects"@en ; ... oxide_therapeutic_use> # Nitric Oxide--therapeutic use. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Nitric Oxide--therapeutic use"@en ; ...
colony-forming unit;. RSNO,. low molecular weight S-nitrosothiol;. p.i.,. postinfection;. AFB,. acid-fast bacilli;. HC,. ... inducible nitric oxide synthase;. Mtb,. Mycobacterium tuberculosis;. BCG,. bacillus Calmette-Guérin;. IFN-γ,. interferon-γ;. ... Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis. John D. MacMicking, Robert J. North, Ron ... Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis. John D. MacMicking, Robert J. North, Ron ...
Role of binding site loops in controlling nitric oxide release: Structure and kinetics of mutant forms of nitrophorin 4. ... Role of binding site loops in controlling nitric oxide release : Structure and kinetics of mutant forms of nitrophorin 4. / ... T1 - Role of binding site loops in controlling nitric oxide release. T2 - Structure and kinetics of mutant forms of nitrophorin ... title = "Role of binding site loops in controlling nitric oxide release: Structure and kinetics of mutant forms of nitrophorin ...
Biofilms formed by E. coli O157:H7 were also significantly dispersed. Nitric oxide donor molecules were highly active within 6 ... All five nitric oxide donors induced significant (35-80%) dispersal of biofilms, however, the degree of dispersal and the ... In this work, we compared the ability of five nitric oxide donors (molsidomine, MAHMA NONOate, diethylamine NONOate, ... Recent studies suggest that compounds capable of manipulating nitric oxide-mediated signaling in bacteria could induce ...
V. Nitric Oxide Synthase, GTP Cyclohydrolase, and Ornithine Decarboxylase in Ovine Uteri and Peri-Implantation Conceptuses," ... V. Nitric Oxide Synthase, GTP Cyclohydrolase, and Ornithine Decarboxylase in Ovine Uteri and Peri-Implantation Conceptuses. ... Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines are critical for implantation and development of conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic ... V. Nitric Oxide Synthase, GTP Cyclohydrolase, and Ornithine Decarboxylase in Ovine Uteri and Peri-Implantation Conceptuses," ...
Use of nitric oxide in patients with acute lung injury does not improve survival and may cause... ... Nitric oxide improves oxygenation but not mortality in acute lung injury: meta-analysis BMJ Online First, , ... Email Form. Your Name. Your Email. Your Recipients Name. Your Recipients Email. Comments. Verification Code:. Please type in ... Nitric oxide improves oxygenation but not mortality in acute lung injury: meta-analysis BMJ Online First. Use of nitric oxide ...
"Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ... Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells. ... "Retraction: Regulation of FoxO1 Transcription Factor by Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells," ... Clear Form. ...
... is the reduced form of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide dimer N2O2 is formed when nitric oxide is cooled. Nitric oxide reacts with ... Independent of nitric oxide synthase, an alternative pathway, coined the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway, elevates nitric ... of Nitric Oxide in the Diabetic Foot New Discoveries About Nitric Oxide Can Provide Drugs For Schizophrenia Nitric Oxide at the ... nitric oxide forms naturally along the pathway of lightning in thunderstorms. In mammals, including humans, nitric oxide is a ...
Used to produce a controlled release of nitric oxide in solution. Bulk and Prepack available at Sigmaaldrich.com. ... If your search was unable to find the COA you are looking for, you will be presented with a COA Request form. In many cases a ... Nitric Oxide Donors, Nitric Oxide Metabolism, Nitric Oxide and Cell Stress, Synthetic Reagents ... Spermine-Nitric oxide complex source of nitric oxide Synonym: N-. [4-. [1-. (3-. Aminopropyl). -. 2-. hydroxy-. 2- ...
NOS is present in two forms:. The constitutive form (eNOS). Present in vascular, neuronal, cardiac tissue, skeletal muscle and ... Nitric oxide was formerly known as endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is one of the nitrogen oxides ("NOx") and is ... Nitric oxide may play a role in sodium homeostasis in the kidney. It is the physiological mediator of penile erection. ... Nitric oxide acts as a biological mediator throughout the body but especially in:. • Vascular endothelium: responsible for ...
Signed informed consent form. Exclusion Criteria:. *Pulmonary exacerbation resulting in antibiotic treatment (except ... Drug: Nitric Oxide for Inhalation Nitric oxide will be administered at 20 ppm via nasal cannula over a 44 hour period. ... Drug: Nitric Oxide for Inhalation Nitric oxide will be administered at 40 ppm via nasal cannula over a 44 hours period. ... Safety and Tolerability of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis. The safety and scientific validity of this ...
Ignarro L. Biological actions and properties of endothelium-derived nitric oxide formed and released from artery and vein. Circ ... Nitric oxide synthase and neuronal NADPH diaphorase are identical in brain and peripheral tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:4651-4655. ... Busse R, Mulsch A. Induction of nitric oxide synthase by cytokines in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 1990;275:87-90. ...
Mediators come in many forms, including:. *Histamines *Tumor necrosis factor-alpha *Nitric oxide ... nitric oxide, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. It takes longer to produce effects than NSAIDS, but this means it doesnt result in the ... The damaging effects of sunlight and various organic materials are caused by this less-stable form of oxygen. Astaxanthin is ...
  • These data indicate that LPS-induced nitric oxide generation can result in oxidant stress in the liver, and that inhibitors of iNOS may offer some protection in LPS-induced hepatic toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this work, we compared the ability of five nitric oxide donors (molsidomine, MAHMA NONOate, diethylamine NONOate, diethylamine NONOate diethylammonium salt, spermine NONOate) to dislodge biofilms formed by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and pathogenic E. coli on plastic and stainless steel surfaces at different temperatures. (springeropen.com)
  • All five nitric oxide donors induced significant (35-80%) dispersal of biofilms, however, the degree of dispersal and the optimal dispersal conditions varied. (springeropen.com)
  • To better understand mode of action of these compounds, we identified Salmonella genomic region recA-hydN , deletion of which led to an insensitivity to the nitric oxide donors. (springeropen.com)
  • 2005 ]). The application of NO donors has the same effect on dispersal of biofilms as the direct addition of nitric oxide and is less toxic than the application of the nitric oxide gas (Barraud et al. (springeropen.com)
  • In this work, we tested the effectiveness of NO donors in dispersal of biofilms formed by common foodborne pathogens (non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli , EHEC) on materials that are common in the food industry. (springeropen.com)
  • Na,K-ATPase activity did not respond to nitric oxide donors, and the free radical-dependent step of the pathway could not be bypassed by the addition of the downstream protein kinase G activator, 8-Br-cGMP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). (hindawi.com)
  • Using donors ( l -arginine) and inhibitors [N G -monomethyl- L -arginine ( l -NMMA), l -N 5 (1-iminoethyl)ornithine ( L -NIO)] of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and haemoglobin as NO scavenger, we demonstrate that NO signalling is involved in ANG II-mediated inotropism. (biologists.org)
  • This volume contains chapters that address diverse but interrelated areas pertaining to the chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacology of nitric oxide in mammalian cells. (worldcat.org)
  • Rengasamy, A, Xue, C & Johns, RA 1994, ' Immunohistochemical demonstration of a paracrine role of nitric oxide in bronchial function ', American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology , vol. 267, no. 6 11-6, pp. (elsevier.com)
  • An industrial procedure for the manufacture of hydroxylamine is based on the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst . (britannica.com)
  • Inhaling a small dose of nitric oxide gas may one day help sickle cell patients avoid pain crises and live healthier lives, researchers say. (redorbit.com)
  • A review of trials in 2003 concluded that the effects of nitric oxide were uncertain. (webwire.com)
  • So researchers reviewed the effects of nitric oxide, compared to placebo or usual care without nitric oxide, in adults and children with ALI or ARDS. (webwire.com)
  • Because some paracrine factors contribute to the renal autoregulation, we first isolate the effects of nitric oxide from other paracrine factors. (concordia.ca)
  • One of the most important functions of the endothelium is the production of nitric oxide (NO), and impaired NO production can result from endothelial dysfunction ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide was formerly known as endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • From the endothelium, nitric oxide diffuses to underlying smooth muscle cells and causes them to relax. (britannica.com)
  • The integrity of the cardiovascular system is dependent on the continuous generation of nitric oxide (NO). Reduction in NO bioavailability is central to the development of cardiovascular disorders and patients with heart failure (HF) exhibit blunted endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation in indicating diminished NO release. (ahajournals.org)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonists that are optionally substituted with at least one NO or NO.sub.2 moiety and compounds that donate, transfer or release nitric oxide or elevate levels of endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and methods for treating sexual dysfunctions in males and females. (patentgenius.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO), first described as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), plays various roles in basic life functions of an organism. (mdpi.com)
  • 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 4 O 2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 NADP + + 4 H 2 O. (uniprot.org)
  • One serving, which is equal to 3 capsules , packs a blend of L-Citrulline, L-Arginine, and L-Glutathione, the primary amino acids that are used to boost nitric oxide levels. (vitamins-supplements.org)
  • Nitric oxide concentration can be determined using a simple chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The few studies investigating the effects of smoking on flow-independent NO exchange parameters indicate that smoking is related to a lower maximum total airway nitric oxide flux ( J ' aw,NO ) 7 , 14 and to a lower mean airway tissue nitric oxide concentration ( C aw,NO ) 15 . (ersjournals.com)
  • An electrode sensor which may be used to specifically and quantitatively measure nitric oxide is provided, as well as a method of preparing and using such an electrode sensor to measure nitric oxide concentration in solution. (google.co.uk)
  • A larger scale sensor utilizing porphyrin and cationic exchanger deposited on larger fibers or wires, platinum mesh or tin indium oxide layered on glass, can also be employed when measurement of NO concentration in chemical media, tissue or cell culture is desired. (google.co.uk)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines are critical for implantation and development of conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membranes), but mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis in uteri and conceptuses are largely unknown. (bioone.org)
  • The drug sildenafil citrate (trade name Viagra) treats impotence by enhancing nitric oxide's relaxant effects on smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosa, resulting in the increased blood flow that causes an erection. (britannica.com)
  • Biocompatible metallic medical devices having silanized surfaces coupled to nucleophile residues that release sustained, therapeutic amounts of nitric oxide to specific sites within a mammalian body are provided. (google.com)
  • Additionally, the biocompatible metallic medical devices can also be provided with anti-thrombogenic, lubricious coatings that release sustained, therapeutic amounts of nitric oxide. (google.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 2 further comprising adding a therapeutic agent to the fiber forming liquid before electrostatically spinning the fiber. (google.es)
  • The sGC heme domain is a member of the h eme- n itric oxide/ ox ygen binding (H-NOX) protein family, which is also present in many bacteria, including a number of pathogens ( 6 - 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The new research from Global QYResearch on Pharma-Grade Nitric Oxide Market Trends Report for 2019 intends to offer target audience with the fresh outlook on market and fill in the knowledge gaps with the help of processed information and opinions from industry experts. (mynewsdesk.com)