Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Receptors, Estradiol: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.PhosphoproteinsHeat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1)
NQO1 catalyzes the reduction of vitamin K1,K2 and K3 into their hydroquinone form, but it only has a high affinity for Vitamin ... This protein is located in the cytosol. NQO1 enzyme expression can be induced by dioxin and inhibited by dicoumarol. This gene ... Furthermore, reduced forms of ubiquinone and vitamin E quinone have been shown to possess antioxidant properties that are ... Gasdaska PY, Fisher H, Powis G (1995). "An alternatively spliced form of NQO1 (DT-diaphorase) messenger RNA lacking the ...
Pentose phosphate pathway
This makes the cytosol a highly-reducing environment. An NADPH-utilizing pathway forms NADP+, which stimulates Glucose-6- ... For most organisms, the pentose phosphate pathway takes place in the cytosol; in plants, most steps take place in plastids. ... The primary results of the pathway are: The generation of reducing equivalents, in the form of NADPH, used in reductive ... The ratio of NADPH:NADP+ is normally about 100:1 in liver cytosol. ...
The resulting activated form GR has two principal mechanisms of action, transactivation and transrepression, described below. A ... The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor- ... Because the receptor gene is expressed in several forms, it has many different (pleiotropic) effects in different parts of the ... resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), the heat shock protein 70 ...
The DUF4206 Domain is cysteine rich and forms with 7 CXXC protein motifs. This motif is responsible for forming disulfide ... It is predicted to be localized primarily in the cytosol. PLEKHM3 has orthologs in eukaryotes. The function of PLEKHM3 is not ... It has 8 exons, 4 common splice forms. PLEKHM3 contains 3 domains. Two domains are highly conserved across mammalian species. ...
DsbC protein family
DsbA receives its oxidizing potential from the cytosol through DsbB. However, the probability of forming a non-native disulfide ... These enzymes work in tandem with each other to form disulfide bonds during the expression of proteins. DsbC and DsbG act as ... They break non-native disulfide bonds that were formed and act as chaperones for the formation of native disulfide bonds. The ... Both DsbC and DsbG receive their reducing power, through DsbD, from the cytosol. DsbC and DsbG have been maintained in their ...
Calcium release activated channel
The pore traverses the membrane and extends into the cytosol. A ring of glutamate residues on its extracellular side forms the ... Cells from patients with one form of hereditary Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) syndrome are defective in store- ... forms the pore of the CRAC channel. The protein ORAI1 is a structural component of the CRAC calcium channel. ORAI1 interacts ... allowing calcium to be released into the cytosol. In most of the cell, the fall in Ca2+ concentration within the lumen of the ...
There are two forms of StarD7: StarD7-I and StarD7-II. The former is 295 amino acids long. StarD7-I possesses an additional 75 ... StarD7 is found in the cytosol and associated with the mitochondrion. When overproduced in the cell, mitochondrial levels of ... amino acids at its amino-terminus, which form a signaling sequence that targets it to the outer membrane of the mitochondrion. ...
A second consecutive round of geranyl pyrophosphate ionization, condensation with IPP, and elimination forms farnesyl ... Various studies have located FPPS in chloroplasts, mitochondria, cytosol, and peroxisomes. In cholesterol synthesis, the ... The loss of pyrophosphate forms an allylic carbocation on dimethylallyl. In the second step, the reactive C3-C5 double bond in ... is consumed in a reductive tail-to-tail condensation with another farnesyl pyrophosphate to form a 30-carbon compound called ...
3(or 17)a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
FLIP then binds to caspase-8, forming a caspase-8 FLIP heterodimer in the cytosol that disrupts the activity of caspase-8 and ... RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the cytosol, forming what is known as complex IIa. Caspase-8 activates Bid, a protein that binds to the ... The assembly of complex II-b then starts in the cytosol. This new complex contains the caspase-8 FLIP heterodimer as well as ... Necroptosis is a programmed form of necrosis which starts with the assembly of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) ligand to its ...
This calcium-bound form of recoverin slows the activity of rhodopsin kinase, resulting in the prolongation of light sensitivity ... When recoverin is not bound to calcium, it stays in cytosol. When recoverin binds calcium, it migrates to the disc membrane and ... activated form of rhodopsin). Recoverin is involved in the recovery phase of visual excitation and in adaptation to background ...
One of the ATPases is a dynein-like Rea1 protein made up of 6 different ATPase domains that form a ring structure. The ring ... These will later assemble in the cytosol to make a functioning ribosome. See nuclear export for more about the movement of the ... Helicases and GTPases are also involved in the removal of assembly factors and the rearrangement of RNA to form the completed ... After transcription, the rRNAs associate with the ribosomal proteins, forming the two types of ribosomal subunits (large and ...
John I. Gallin
"Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors". Science. 242 (4883): 1298-1301 ... His laboratory described the genetic basis for several forms of CGD and has done pioneering research that has reduced life- ... Lomax KJ, Leto TL, Nunoi H, Gallin JI, Malech HL (Jul 1989). "Recombinant 47-kD cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in ...
Caspase-11 will only recognize the hexa- and penta-acylated forms of LPS. LPS enters the cytosol through intracellular ... Caspase-11 appears to provide immune defense against bacteria that enter or access the host cell cytosol. Caspase-11 has been ... Caspase-11 activation results in pyroptosis, a form of lytic cell death that releases inflammatory molecules such as ATP, HMGB1 ... For bacteria that do not typically access the host cytosol, caspase-11 is activated with delayed kinetics if Gram-negative ...
A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific protein-nucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special complex forms ... These tubes sometimes branch forming a network that is reticular in appearance. In some cells, there are dilated areas like the ... Ribosomes at this point may be released back into the cytosol; however, non-translating ribosomes are also known to stay ... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of ...
... monomers form two heptameric rings that bind to the surface of linear proteins and catalyze their folding in an ATP ... HSP60 subunits are encoded by nuclear genes and translated into the cytosol. These subunits then move into the mitochondria ... Chaperonin 10 aids HSP60 in folding by acting as a dome-like cover on the ATP active form of HSP60. This causes the central ... The cytoplasmic HSP60 forms a complex with proteins responsible for apoptosis and regulates the activity of these proteins. The ...
The human form of FAM46B contains 425 amino acid residues, has an isoelectric point of 8.093, and a molecular mass of 46,888 ... The absence of a signal peptide supports the prediction that FAM46B is located in the cytosol. Tools at ExPASy were used to ... FAM46B is a soluble protein predicted to be located in the cytosol. FAM46B contains only one identified domain: Domain of ... Although present, FAM46B appears to contain only a few small sections pre predicted to form beta sheets. Annotated results of ...
CGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway
Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... However, chronic activation of STING, due to host DNA in the cytosol, can also activate the cGAS/STING pathway, leading to ... Upon directly binding cytosolic DNA, cGAS forms dimers to catalyze production of 2'3'-cGAMP from ATP and GTP. cGAMP then acts a ... These regions are necessary to form the catalytic pocket for the cGAS substrates: GTP and ATP, and to perform the necessary ...
This binding forms the characteristic loop structure of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Poly(A)-binding proteins in the cytosol ... There are several forms. These include: PABPC1, PABPC3, PABPC4, PABPC5 Kahvejian A, Svitkin YV, Sukarieh R, M'Boutchou MN, ... The central two β-strands, connected by a short linker, of each RRM forms a trough-like surface that's thought to be ... Trehalose is a special form of sugar that has shown reduced aggregate formation and delayed pathology in the mouse model of ...
Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, ... Actin filaments, present in the cytosol, are most abundant near the cell surface. These filaments are thought to determine the ... As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. ... villin and espin to form the core of the microvilli. In the enterocyte microvillus, the structural core is attached to the ...
Genetics of social behavior
cVA complexes with other proteins to form a ligand, which binds to the odorant receptor Or67d present in OSNs, which is ... The pathway to queen morphs is through increased mRNA translation in the cytosol. Biogenesis of organelles occurs at the same ... Queen and worker morphological forms both come occur from the same genome, royal jelly nourishment is the non-genetic ...
Sph that is formed has sufficient solubility in the liquid found inside cells (cytosol). Thus, Sph may come out of the lysosome ... Sphingosine (Sph) is formed by the action of ceramidase (CDase) enzymes on ceramide in the lysosome. Sph can also be formed in ... S1P is probably formed at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in response to TNFα and other receptor activity-altering ... S1P is formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine by sphingosine kinase (SK). The phosphate group of the product can be detached ...
The adjectival form is lysosomal. The forms *lyosome and *lyosomal are much rarer; they use the lyo- form of the prefix but are ... With a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.0, the interior of the lysosomes is acidic compared to the slightly basic cytosol (pH 7.2). The ... The cell is additionally protected from any lysosomal acid hydrolases that drain into the cytosol, as these enzymes are pH- ... The lysosome maintains its pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton ...
This complex of prefoldin and chaperonin then forms molecules of actin in the cytosol. The prefoldin acts as a transporter ... Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the protein complex, the complex formed a single band that was excised and ran on an ... Prefoldin is triggered only to bind to nonnative target proteins in the cytosol so that it will only bind to unfolded proteins ... A prefoldin molecule works as a transfer protein in conjunction with a molecule of chaperonin to form a chaperone complex and ...
The clathrin coated pit invaginates into the cytosol and forms a clathrin coated vesicle. The clathrin proteins will then ... The vesicles would have formed regardless of whether or not the receptors and ligand were there. This is why it is still a ... These clathrin coated pits are short lived and serve only to form a vesicle for transfer of particles to the lysosome. ... Phagocytosis Phagocytosis is also known as cell eating, is the absorption of larger particles into the cytosol including things ...
Signal recognition particle RNA
They form a stable SRP68/72 heterodimer. About one third of the human SRP68 protein was shown to bind to the SRP RNA. A ... This pre-SRP is transported to the cytosol where it binds to protein SRP54. The molecular structures of the free or SRP RNA- ... Yeast SRP14 forms a homodimer. SRP9/14 is absent in the SRP of trypanosoma which instead possess a tRNA-like molecule. SRP19 is ... SRP9 and SRP14 are structurally related and form the SRP9/14 heterodimer which binds to the SRP RNA of the small (Alu) domain. ...
PAR will be formed either as a branched or linear molecule. Branching and long-chain polymers will be more toxic to the cell ... Once enough PAR has accumulated, it will translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. One study has suggested that PAR can ... Parthanatos (derived from the Greek Θάνατος, "Death") is a form of programmed cell death that is distinct from other cell death ... PAR moves through the cytosol and enters the mitochondria through depolarization. Within the mitochondria, PAR binds directly ...
LMNA - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
The GP forms a trimeric complex, which tethers the virus to the endothelial cells. The sGP forms a dimeric protein that ... When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... involves a Middle Eastern terrorist attack on the United States using an airborne form of a deadly Ebola virus strain named " ... "Doctors Without Borders Evolves as It Forms the Vanguard in Ebola Fight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 ...
... proteins from assuming their active form and carrying out their chloroplast functions in the wrong place-the cytosol. ... The first three proteins form a core complex that consists of one Toc159, four to five Toc34s, and four Toc75s that form four ... Toc75 is a β-barrel channel lined by 16 β-pleated sheets. The hole it forms is about 2.5 nanometers wide at the ends, and ... Toc34's job is to catch some chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol and hand them off to the rest of the TOC complex. When ...
Available formsEdit. See also: Steroidal antiandrogen and Nonsteroidal antiandrogen. There are several different available ... Heyns, W.; G., Verhoeven; De Moor, P. (1976). "Androgen binding in rat uterus cytosol. Study of the specificity". Journal of ... Kolvenbag GJ, Iversen P, Newling DW (August 2001). "Antiandrogen monotherapy: a new form of treatment for patients with ... Tissues in which DHT forms at a high rate include the prostate gland, skin, and hair follicles. In accordance, DHT is ...
cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene ... Gadkar-Sable S, Shah C, Rosario G, Sachdeva G, Puri C (2005). "Progesterone receptors: various forms and functions in ... "Identification of phosphorylation sites unique to the B form of human progesterone receptor. In vitro phosphorylation by casein ... "The interaction of canrenone with oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human uterine cytosol". British Journal of Clinical ...
... whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature form, so is denoted as precursor M (prM) and forms a complex with protein E. ... The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by ... He is also credited for using the first type of medical consent form during his experiments in Cuba, an attempt to ensure that ... In recent years, this has been the most common form of transmission of yellow fever in Africa. ...
RNA polymerase - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Benzo[a]pyrene is first oxidized by cytochrome P450 1A1 to form a variety of products, including (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-epoxide. ... BaP induces cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) by binding to the AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) in the cytosol. Upon binding the ... The substance with the formula C20H12 is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene. Its diol epoxide ... The compound is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene, and is the result of incomplete combustion ...
cytosol. • condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation ... The paralogs form two identified complexes: BCDX2 (RAD51B-RAD51C-RAD51D-XRCC2) and CX3 (RAD51C-XRCC3). These two complexes act ... Unlike other proteins involved in DNA metabolism, the RecA/Rad51 family forms a helical nucleoprotein filament on DNA. ... In mice and humans, the BRCA2 complex primarily mediates orderly assembly of RAD51 on ssDNA, the form that is active for ...
Integral membrane protein
The C terminal end of the protein is in the cytosol while the N terminal region is in the outside of the cell. A membrane that ... and the membrane formed by the phospholipid bilayer is illustrated below. In this case the integral membrane protein spans the ... which are positioned such that their carboxyl-terminus is towards the cytosol, or Type II, which have their amino-terminus ... towards the cytosol. Type III proteins have multiple transmembrane domains in a single polypeptide, while type IV consists of ...
Meyers MB, Puri TS, Chien AJ, Gao T, Hsu PH, Hosey MM, Fishman GI (Jul 1998). "Sorcin associates with the pore-forming subunit ... calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation ... The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium ... An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration implicated in Cav1.2 facilitation, a form of positive feedback called Ca2+- ...
AMP activates glycogen phosphorylase b by changing its conformation from a tense to a relaxed form. This relaxed form has ... endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates ... Residues 397-437 form this structure, which allows the protein to covalently bind to the glycogen chain a full 30 Å from the ... Glycogen is left with one fewer glucose molecule, and the free glucose molecule is in the form of glucose-1-phosphate. In order ...
The general form, applicable to all the different metal-coordinated forms of SOD, can be written as follows: *M(n+1)+-SOD + O2− ... The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo form (no copper or zinc bound) the ... Three forms of superoxide dismutase are present in humans, in all other mammals, and most chordates. SOD1 is located in the ...
Studies of the metamorphosis of insects have shown cells undergoing a form of PCD that appears distinct from other forms; these ... Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... This form of cell death most likely corresponds to a process that has been morphologically defined as autophagic PCD. One ... Three forms of autophagy are commonly described: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). In ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
Polymorphisms of the PrP-VRQ form and PrP-ARQ form are associated with increased susceptibility, whereas PrP-ARR is associated ... cytosol. • postsynaptic density. • inclusion body. • dendrite. • anchored component of external side of plasma membrane. • ... infectious forms of proteins which have so far been observed in almost all instances to be forms of PRNP but need not be. ... The protein can exist in multiple isoforms, the normal PrPC and protease-resistant forms designated PrPRes such as the disease- ...
The puromycin can then form a covalent link to the growing peptide chain allowing the mRNA to be physically linked to its ... Puromycin is a reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl-peptidase II (serine peptidase) and cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase ( ... "Complexes between nascent polypeptides and their molecular chaperones in the cytosol of mammalian cells". Mol Biol Cell. 8 (8 ... and cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase (inhibited by puromycin). ...
Strange life-forms found deep in a mine point to vast 'underground Galapagos' Archived 2019-09-09 at the Wayback Machine, By ... Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms. Glycolysis can be literally ... Once acetyl-CoA is formed, aerobic or anaerobic respiration can occur. When oxygen is present, the mitochondria will undergo ... During recovery, when oxygen becomes available, NAD+ attaches to hydrogen from lactate to form ATP. In yeast, the waste ...
Later it was shown that IL-15 also exists as a membrane-bound form which represents the major form of IL-15 protein. In ... cytosol. • nuclear speck. Biological process. • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cell maturation. • ... It exists in two forms, secreted and membrane-bound particularly on dendritic cells. On the other hand, IL-15 SSP isoform is ... Phosphorylation STATs form transcription factors and activate transcription of appropriate genes. The β chain of IL-15R ...
... exists in two forms, a taut (tense) form (T) and a relaxed form (R). Various factors such as low pH, high CO2 and ... The heme part is synthesized in a series of steps in the mitochondria and the cytosol of immature red blood cells, while the ... Hemoglobin H (β4) - A variant form of hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of β chains, which may be present in variants of α ... Hemoglobin Barts (γ4) - A variant form of hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of γ chains, which may be present in variants of α ...
cytosol. • protein phosphatase type 2A complex. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • respiratory chain. • nucleus ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... One of the ways cell apoptosis is activated is by release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into cytosol. A study has shown ... The release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it activates the caspase family of proteases is believed to ...
cytosol. • nuclear membrane. • membrane. • nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell nucleus. • extracellular region. • ... to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE). The 5S-HpETE intermediate may then be released ... to form the dihydroxyl product, Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, i.e. 5S,12R-dihydroxy-5S,6Z,8E,10E,12R,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) or by ... They form later than the ALOX5-derived chemotactic factors in the inflammatory response and are thought to limit or resolve ...
It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort, or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, ... thereby increasing the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytosol, or intracellular fluid, of the presynaptic ... In Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a ... Nicotine is the active chemical constituent in tobacco, which is available in many forms, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing ...
Enzyme - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chymotrypsin, a digestive protease, is produced in inactive form in the pancreas and transported in this form to the stomach ... For example, fatty acids are synthesized by one set of enzymes in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Then ... This prevents or slows down an enzyme-substrate complex being formed. Denaturation[change , change source]. Denaturation is the ... This form of gene regulation is called enzyme induction and inhibition. For example, in bacteria which are resistant to ...
Strict biochemical control is maintained over this sequence by usage of a pH gradient: the pH of the cytosol is 7.4, the ER's ... Proteins which use this pathway have the capability to form a beta-barrel with their C-terminus which inserts into the outer ... The low Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol opens the gate that regulates T3SS. One such mechanism to detect low calcium ... Misfolded proteins are usually identified here and retrotranslocated by ER-associated degradation to the cytosol, where they ...
Reactome | PGYB dimer a form [cytosol]
Reactome | PGYM dimer, b form [cytosol]
Detection of Different Estrogen Receptor Forms in Breast Cancer Cytosol by Enzyme Immunoassay | Cancer Research
Detection of Different Estrogen Receptor Forms in Breast Cancer Cytosol by Enzyme Immunoassay. Ruggero Dittadi, Sabrina Meo, ... Detection of Different Estrogen Receptor Forms in Breast Cancer Cytosol by Enzyme Immunoassay ... Detection of Different Estrogen Receptor Forms in Breast Cancer Cytosol by Enzyme Immunoassay ... Detection of Different Estrogen Receptor Forms in Breast Cancer Cytosol by Enzyme Immunoassay ...
Cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase - Wikipedia
Sidorowicz, W.; Hsia, W.-C.; Maslej-Zownir, M.; Behal, F.J. (1980). "Multiple molecular forms of human alanine aminopeptidase: ... Cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase (EC 22.214.171.124, arylamidase, aminopolypeptidase, thiol-activated aminopeptidase, human liver ... aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, soluble alanyl aminopeptidase, cytosol aminopeptidase III, alanine ...
Neutrophil cytosol factor P40 (IPR000919) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Phagocytes form the first line of defence against invasion by microorganisms. Engulfing of bacteria by neutrophils is ... The electrons are carried across the membrane by a short electron transport chain in the form of an unusual flavocytochrome B [ ... The process is mediated by NADPH oxidase, which transports electrons across the plasma membrane to form superoxide (an oxygen ... Upon activation, p40phox translocates to the region of the plasma membrane forming the phagocytic vacuole, where, with ...
Cytosol | Definition of Cytosol at Dictionary.com
Cytosol definition, the water-soluble components of cell cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal ... Related formscy·to·sol·ic [sahy-tuh-sol-ik] /ˌsaɪ təˈsɒl ɪk/, adjective ... cytosol. 1965-70; cyto- + sol(ution), on the model of hydrosol, etc. ... In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes, the cytosol surrounds the organelles. ...
Cytosol - Wikipedia
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ... The concentrations of the other ions in cytosol are quite different from those in extracellular fluid and the cytosol also ... The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in ... of the volume of the cytosol. However, measuring precisely how much protein is dissolved in cytosol in intact cells is ...
Frontiers | Plastid-cytosol partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways for APS/PAPS biosynthesis in Arabidopsis...
Cytosolic ATP sulfurylase (cyt-ATPS2) forms by alternative translational initiation (Bohrer et al., 2014). Abbreviations of ... Since SOTs and consequently PAP production are localized in the cytosol (Figure 1), increase in PAPS synthesis in the cytosol ... Plastid-cytosol partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways for APS/PAPS biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Anne- ... To avoid elevation of PAP concentration in the cytosol, the sulfation reactions catalyzed by SOTs may be not only limited by ...
Biomechanics/The Biomechanics Of Skeletal Muscles - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
1) Sarcoplasm: the cytosol. It is the seat of the glycolytic reactions to form ~P from carbohydrates. It thus contains stores ... Each thick and thin filament is organized in a 3D lattice that permits each filament to form cross-bridges with several others ... 1) Tail: long, very insoluble units that polymerize with each other to form what is viewed as the thick filament. ... of glycogen and ~P (in form of ATP and phosphagen). 2) Mitochondria: located next to the fibrils. They are present in all ...
BMC biology reviews
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase - Wikipedia
There are three different forms that serve very different functions: *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (mitochondria, urea ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism).. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (found in fish). ... The carboxylphosphate then reacts with ammonia to form carbamic acid, releasing inorganic phosphate. ... Most prokaryotes carry one form of CPSase that participates in both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, however certain ...
Death effector domain-containing protein induces vulnerability to cell cycle inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer |...
To study the cytosol-specific function of DEDD in promoting TNBC development, we constructed FLAG-tagged DEDD constructs with ... Right: Schematic of 3×-FLAG-tagged wild-type DEDD nuclear localization sequence (NLS) location and its mutated form. b, Left: ... Although cytosol DEDD facilitates cell cycle transition (Fig. 3), overexpression of DEDD alone was not sufficient to drive ... In the cytosol, PTEN suppresses the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway through its lipid phosphatase activity, while ...
PRF1 - Perforin-1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - PRF1 gene & protein
Can insert into the membrane of target cells in its calcium-bound form, oligomerize and form large pores. Promotes cytolysis ... in transplant rejection or some forms of autoimmune disease. ... Cytosol. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. ... Can insert into the membrane of target cells in its calcium-bound form, oligomerize and form large pores. Promotes cytolysis ... The pore is formed by transmembrane beta-strands.. ,p>This subsection of the Family and domains section provides information ...
ARRB1 - Beta-arrestin-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ARRB1 gene & protein
... beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on either ARRB1 or ARRB2 and is inhibited by the other respective beta-arrestin form ( ... The monomeric form is predominantly located in the nucleus. The oligomeric form is located in the cytoplasm. Translocates to ... Cytosol. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual ... p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates ...
Reactome | PRKAR1A [cytosol]
Other forms of this molecule. PRKAR1A [ciliary base] Inferred To. Homologues of PRKAR1A [cytosol] (Xenopus tropicalis) ... PKA tetramer [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PKA regulatory subunit [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PRKAR1A [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... PKA tetramer [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PKA regulatory subunit [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PRKAR1A [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... PKA tetramer [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PKA regulatory subunit [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * PRKAR1A [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ...
Peroxisomes Are Required for in Vivo Nitric Oxide Accumulation in the Cytosol following Salinity Stress of Arabidopsis Plants |...
3H). In Figure 9, A and B , the pattern of peroxisomes appears in the form of green spots in the roots of control and stressed ... These findings also suggest that NO could be released into the cytosol under salinity stress, which is a prerequisite for ONOO− ... 8, D and F). This suggests that NO is released from the peroxisomes into the cytosol under salinity stress. To corroborate this ... Mullen RT, Flynn CR, Trelease RN (2001) How are peroxisomes formed? The role of the endoplasmic reticulum and peroxins. Trends ...
2.7 [BIOCHEMISTRY] Gluconeogenesis - Better Pictures | Glycolysis | Pyruvic Acid
Two ways of forming PEP:. 1. Mitochondrial PEPCK may convert oxaloacetate to PEP. and be transported to the cytosol OR. 2. ... cytosol. MALATE is reoxidized to OXALOACETATE in the. cytosol with the production of cystolic NADH ... Located in the cytosol and involved in glycolysis. and gluconeogenesis. Needs one mole of H2O per mole of phosphoenol. pyruvate ... Located in the cytosol and involved in glycolysis. and gluconeogenesis. +. Tthis step oxidizes NADH to NAD to convert 1, ...
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase - Wikipedia
Most plants also have this homomeric form in cytosol. ACC functional regions, starting from the N-terminus to C-terminus are ... The carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl CoA to form malonyl CoA in the second reaction, which is catalyzed by ... The resulting enolate attacks CO2 to form malonyl CoA. In a competing mechanism, proton abstraction is concerted with the ...
Pro- and Anti-Oxidant Factors in Rat lung Cytosol | SpringerLink
Anti-CD13 antibody [WM15] (Allophycocyanin) (ab239295) | Abcam
Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor | Fisher Scientific
Novus Biologicals Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL Antibody; Alexa ... Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 594, Clone: 1500000, ... Please use the form below to provide feedback related to the content on this product. ... Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/ ...
Structural Biochemistry/Cell Organelles/Cytosol - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
A complex mixture of substances dissolved in water forms the cytosol even though water is the large majority of the mixture. ... Besides ions, the cytosol also has macromolecules. Cytoplasm vs. Cytosol. There is often much confusion between the ... However, they cytosol is in fact just a part of the cytoplasm. The gel-like translucent fluid is what the cytosol really is. It ... Protein also occupies approximately 20-30% of the volume of cytosol. However, even with this many protein occupying cytosol, ...
A unique cardiac cytosolic acyltransferase with preferential selectivity for fatty acids that form cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase...
Free Anatomy Flashcards about A&P 2 - E5 - P1
cytosol, protein. Newly formed _______ molecules move into the cytosol, associate with _______, and begin synthesizing protein. ... cytosol. Once a steroid hormone molecule has _______ into the target cell, it binds to a receptor molecule to form a ________. ... The _______ forms the major portion of the adenohypophysis.. par anterior. The tissue of the adenohypophysis is composed of ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes a portion of each tubule in the kidney to reabsorb _______ from the urine it has formed.. ...
cytosol (. pH 7.0) or the extracellular fluid (pH 7.4), ATP4− is the dominant form (76% of the total ATP for pH 7.0).. ... cytosol via the glycolytic pathway. This generates a net two molecules of ATP through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by ... Thus, energy is produced from the new bonds formed between ADP and water, and between phosphate and water.. The net change in ... Most of the ATP synthesized in the mitochondria will be used for cellular processes in the cytosol; thus it must be exported ...
Function of the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex in retrotranslocation from the ER to the cytosol | JCB
One possibility is that the proteins together form a binding site with higher affinity. Specifically, double Ψ barrel folds are ... The cytosol was removed by high speed centrifugation and replaced with cow liver cytosol that was ubiquitin depleted (−Ub). ... the cytosol in permeabilized US11 cells was replaced with ubiquitin-depleted cow liver cytosol (Shamu et al., 2001). Pulse- ... F) Yeast cytosol from a control strain (UFD1) or a strain expressing protein A-tagged UFD1 (UFD1PrA) was incubated with IgG ...
Cytosol-Localized Heat Shock Factor-Binding Protein, AtHSBP, Functions as a Negative Regulator of Heat Shock Response by...
HsHSBP1 has been suggested to form a homotrimer (Tai et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2009); thus, we tested the fusion proteins of ... Cytosol-Localized AtHSBP Translocates to the Nucleus in Response to Thermal Stress. AtHSBP was fused to the N terminus of GFP ( ... The cytosol-localized AtHSBP translocated to the nucleus during the recovery from HS, a pattern that differed from that of ... Cytosol-Localized Heat Shock Factor-Binding Protein, AtHSBP, Functions as a Negative Regulator of Heat Shock Response by ...
The von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene product forms a stable complex with human CUL-2, a member of the Cdc53 family of...
6A Left). In contrast, pVHL alone localized to the cytosol and predominantly to the nucleus (Fig. 6A Right). Hs-CUL-2 was ... The VHL protein (pVHL) has been shown to form a stable complex with elongin B and elongin C, two factors that stabilize and ... We have shown previously that pVHL can localize to the cytosol as well as the nucleus of cells, depending on cell density (20 ... The von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene product forms a stable complex with human CUL-2, a member of the Cdc53 family of ...
Redox Regulation of Inflammatory Processes Is Enzymatically Controlled
Similar to the cytosol, ONOO− and OH• can also be formed in the mitochondria. In the extracellular environment, NOX and SOD3 ... converting the open form to the close form. So far, no open ADAM10-MPD was obtained by expression in E. coli (unpublished ... The NFκB subunits p50 and p60 are kept in an inhibitory iκB/NFκB-complex in the cytosol. Reduced Trx1 inhibits the dissociation ... The isolated open form of the ADAM17-MPD can be expressed as a soluble protein and the closed from can be obtained by refolding ...
Cysteine-Generated Sulfide in the Cytosol Negatively Regulates Autophagy and Modulates the Transcriptional Profile in...
Similar to NO and CO, H2S is lipophilic and permeates plasma membranes freely, although the ionized form HS− cannot permeate ... During leaf senescence, the SAVs are formed de novo; they are smaller in size than the central vacuole, and they can be ... In Arabidopsis thaliana, DES1 is the only identified l-Cysteine desulfhydrase located in the cytosol, and it is involved in the ... Mutations of L-CYS DESULFHYDRASE 1 (DES1) impede H2S generation in the Arabidopsis cytosol and strongly affect plant metabolism ...
Place in the cytosolProteinMitochondriaNucleusCompartmentSUBUNITPlastidsNeuronal cytosolExtracellular fluidMoleculeCytosolicEnzymesArabidopsisBindsProkaryotesGlycogenComplexCell'sNucleoplasmPathwayRibosomeGlycolyticSynthesisRibosomes are formedMRNAChromosomesConsistsPhagocytesDetectsVesiclesAggregatesCysteineSubstanceReactiveLung
Place in the cytosol3
- In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. (dictionary.com)
- In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, the entire process of anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytosol. (wyzant.com)
- These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together to carry out metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, we show that under salinity stress (100 m m NaCl), peroxisomes are required for NO accumulation in the cytosol, thereby participating in the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) and in increasing protein tyrosine nitration, which is a marker of nitrosative stress. (plantphysiol.org)
- Commonly seen, protein molecules that do not bind to cytoskeleton or cell membranes are simply because they dissolve in the cytosol. (wikibooks.org)
- Protein also occupies approximately 20-30% of the volume of cytosol. (wikibooks.org)
- The VHL protein (pVHL) has been shown to form a stable complex with elongin B and elongin C, two factors that stabilize and activate the transcription elongation factor elongin A. Here, Hs-CUL-2, a member of the recently identified multigene family, the cullins, is shown to specifically associate with the trimeric pVHL-elongin B-C (VBC) complex in vitro and in vivo . (pnas.org)
- This cytokine also binds to interleukin 18 binding protein (IL18BP), an inhibitory binding protein of interleukin 18 (IL18), and subsequently forms a complex with IL18 receptor beta subunit, and through which it inhibits the activity of IL18. (genecards.org)
- The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with ARNTL (BMAL1) that binds E-box enhancer elements upstream of Period (PER1, PER2, PER3) and Cr. (genecards.org)
- A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex. (rupress.org)
- This may be a form of ubiquitination that results in protein modification but not degradation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- This group proposed that this misfolded protein is ejected from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol, where the proteasome destroys it. (alzforum.org)
- The p100 full-length protein is co-translationally processed into a p52 active form. (nih.gov)
- In addition, the protein Nup107, a component of nuclear pores, formed inclusions adjacent to the nuclear envelope. (alzforum.org)
- These results show that a dynamin-related protein also participates in chloroplast division and that its behavior differs from that of FtsZ and plastid-dividing rings that form before constriction at the site of division. (plantcell.org)
- But Ma and Lindquist discovered that if the proteasomes can't digest PrP quickly enough, the protein accumulates in the cytosol and can alter the cell's metabolism, killing it in the process. (scienceblog.com)
- The analysis of cell fractionation showed that the APX protein is distributed in the cytosol, but not the plastids, suggesting that Euglena APX becomes mature in the cytosol after processing of the precursor. (portlandpress.com)
- Transport from one compartment of this pathway to another is mediated by vesicular carriers, which are formed by the controlled assembly of coat protein complexes (COPs) on donor organelles. (mdpi.com)
- A viral nonstructural protein, μNS, forms large inclusion-like structures called viral factories (VFs) in which assembling viral particles can be identified. (asm.org)
- The matrix of these structures is formed by the nonstructural viral protein μNS ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- It has been observed that the mitochondria compensate for its lack of mitochondrial tRNA genes by taking in tRNA contained within the cytosol of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
- Plant cells contain different Ser acetyltransferase and OASTL enzymes in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria, resulting in a complex variety of isoforms and different subcellular Cys pools. (plantcell.org)
- Catalase acts as a "safety valve" for dealing with the large amounts of H2O2 generated by peroxisomes, however, other enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, are capable of metabolizing hydroperoxides and also H2O2, in the cytosol and mitochondria. (madsci.org)
- The production of superoxide anion in mitochondria and cytosol is regulated mailnly by the enzyme superoxide dismutase. (madsci.org)
- It may be localized in the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. (novusbio.com)
- Later, when mitochondria eventually evolved, peroxisomes became less important (in some ways) to the cell since mitochondria also utilize oxygen to carry out many of the same reactions, but with the additional benefit of generating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) at the same time. (fsu.edu)
- On the other hand, cells such as eukaryotes cell the cytosol containing the cell's genome is held within the cell nucleus, which then separates from the cytosol by nuclear pores that blocks the free diffusion of any kind of molecule that is larger than 10 nm in diameter. (wikibooks.org)
- Subcellular localization revealed that the cytosol-localized AtHSBP translocated to the nucleus in response to HS. (plantphysiol.org)
- E1 is found in the nucleus and cytosol and associated with the cytoskeleton [ 15 ]. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Something was clearly wrong with the gateway between nucleus and cytosol. (alzforum.org)
- Newly released NFkB transcription factors form active complexes and translocate into the nucleus to induce expression of their target genes. (qiagen.com)
- The mRNA is commissioned with conveying the genetic code of the DNA from the nucleus in complete form. (harunyahya.com)
- The nucleus is en. (reference.com)
- The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
- In Arabidopsis thaliana , DES1 is the only identified l -Cysteine desulfhydrase located in the cytosol, and it is involved in the degradation of cysteine and the concomitant production of H 2 S in this cell compartment. (plantcell.org)
- In the cytosol compartment they are tagged with ubiquitin and destroyed by proteasomes. (ubc.ca)
- APK is present in both plastids and cytosol for phosphorylation, while APR and the subsequent pathway enzyme, sulfite reductase (SiR), are localized only in plastids for catalyzing the reduction steps. (frontiersin.org)
- The sulfate assimilation pathway thus bifurcates into two directions to phosphorylate or reduce APS in plastids, whereas only the APS phosphorylation pathway is present in cytosol (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The illustration shows subcellular partitioning of sulfate assimilation and APS/PAPS metabolic pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
- Others include proplasts (immature plastids), chromoplasts (full of pigments), etioplasts (formed in the dark) and amyloplasts (full of starch). (conservapedia.com)
- A unique cardiac cytosolic acyltransferase with preferential selectivity for fatty acids that form cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase metabolites and reverse essential fatty acid deficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
- The GDP-bound form of Sar1p is normally cytosolic. (pnas.org)
- Immunocytochemical analyses showed that CmDnm2 appears in cytoplasmic patches just before chloroplast division and is recruited to the cytosolic side of the chloroplast division site to form a ring in the late stage of division. (plantcell.org)
- The muscle does not contain the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis so it would have to export lactate through the blood to the liver and in the hepatocytes lactate will be formed back to glucose. (scribd.com)
- This shows that many of the enzymes in cytosol are bound to the cytoskeleton in the cell. (wikibooks.org)
- E1 is also found to form complexes with ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and E3s [ 17 ]. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Euglena gracilis lacks a catalase and contains a single APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and enzymes related to the redox cycle of ascorbate in the cytosol. (portlandpress.com)
- 2. Caspase antibodies are classical tools for detecting inactive (pro) and active (cleaved) forms of the enzymes. (novusbio.com)
- In this study, we provide an in vivo demonstration that Arabidopsis peroxisomes are essential for NO accumulation in the cytosol, thus participating in the generation of nitrosative stress under salinity conditions. (plantphysiol.org)
- Mutations of L-CYS DESULFHYDRASE 1 ( DES1 ) impede H 2 S generation in the Arabidopsis cytosol and strongly affect plant metabolism. (plantcell.org)
- Most prokaryotes carry one form of CPSase that participates in both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, however certain bacteria can have separate forms. (wikipedia.org)
- In prokaryotes, cytosol is where most metabolic chemical reactions occur. (wikibooks.org)
- In cells such as prokaryotes cell, the cytosol within nucleoid contains the cell's genome. (wikibooks.org)
- The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. (wikipedia.org)
- A complex mixture of substances dissolved in water forms the cytosol even though water is the large majority of the mixture. (wikibooks.org)
- This complex assembles in the cytosol of cells. (nih.gov)
- The latter form complex networks that vary in nature. (springer.com)
- YopD and LcrH form a complex in the bacterial cytosol and bind yopQ mRNA. (asm.org)
- Lysosomes are generally formed in the Golgi complex, whereas peroxisomes self-replicate. (fsu.edu)
Ribosomes are formed2
- The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate if ER-EIA mainly detects ER filled by endogenous estrogens when using an estrogenfree buffer to dilute cytosol samples. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cytosol Nonspecific Dipeptidase (CNDP2)/CPGL in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
- This antibody detects both the pro- and active-Caspase 9 forms. (novusbio.com)
- This cysteine accepts ubiquitin from E1 to form a thiol ester . (nottingham.ac.uk)
- It is a delivery form of L-cysteine, which is a major precursor to glutathione. (prohealth.com)
- People who form kidney stones, especially cysteine kidney stones. (prohealth.com)
- when cysteine is oxidized it can form cystine, which is two cysteine residues joined by a disulfide bond. (hmdb.ca)
- N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine where an acetyl group is attached to cysteine's nitrogen atom and is sold as a dietary supplement. (hmdb.ca)
- 5. Keeping a mixture of renin from the granules and crude renin-binding substance at 0°C for 7 days resulted in the conversion of the renin into the higher-molecular-weight form, indicating that the renin-binding substance we have previously described is required for the conversion during cold storage. (clinsci.org)
- It is comprised of cytosol, which is a watery substance, and several other cell structures, including ribosomes. (reference.com)
- These superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide together form very reactive oxygen species, namely the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. (springer.com)
- Electrons however, may leak from reduced sites in the respiratory chain and react with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) which play an important role in cell signaling, but are better known for creating oxidative stress (8). (bioscience.org)