Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Bone Diseases, MetabolicEar Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLGrowth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Bone Marrow DiseasesArytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
Reddi AH (1995). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ... GDF6 has been shown to play an important role in the patterning of the epidermis and bone and joint formation. GDF6 induces ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... This gene is differentially regulated during the formation of various tumors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112175 - ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Effect of bone morphogenetic proteins-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human ...
BMP4 is important for bone and cartilage metabolism. The BMP4 signaling has been found in formation of early mesoderm and germ ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. This is thought that inducing osteoblastic ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... 1994). "Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo". J. Cell Biol. 126 ( ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ...
The BMP1 locus encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. Although other bone morphogenetic ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ...
Pereira RC, Economides AN, Canalis E (Dec 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins induce gremlin, a protein that limits their ... thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted ... an extracellular mechanotransducer in articular cartilage?". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (Pt 3): 456-7. doi:10.1042/ ... to induce gremlin expression which in turn is known to inhibit the induction of differentiation by bone morphogenetic proteins ...
... the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin domain of the perlecan core protein ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... "Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation". Bone. ... Others die just after birth with severe defects such as abnormal basement membrane formation, defective cephalic and long bone ...
Osteogenin (bone morphogenetic protein-3) stimulates cartilage formation by chick limb bud cells in vitro. Dev Biol 1991; 146: ... isolation and purification of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are involved in bone formation and repair. The molecular ... a bone morphogenetic protein. Matrix 1992; 12:369-80. Ripamonti U, Heliotis M, van den Heever B, Reddi AH. Bone morphogenetic ... Transitions in collagen types during matrix-induced cartilage, bone, and bone marrow formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1977; ...
... dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... Noggin activity in the mesoderm gives way to the formation of cartilage, bone and muscle growth, and in the endoderm noggin is ... dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ...
"Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... cells in the cartilage)." It was also shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis (the formation of bone resorbing cells) Harmine, and ... Bone. 49: 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.003. PMID 21504804. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Eric Yarnell; ... Rearrangements enable the formation of a Schiff base from tryptamine, which then reacts with pyruvate in II to form a β- ...
The molecular mechanism behind this process lies in the expression and repression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs ... In order to allow for the growth of precursor neural tissues, as opposed to precursor bone or cartilage tissues, BMP expression ... The formation of the neural fold is initiated by the release of calcium from within the cells. The released calcium interacts ... Anderson RM, Stottmann RW, Choi M, Klingensmith J (September 2006). "Endogenous bone morphogenetic protein antagonists regulate ...
found that C12orf60 interacts with BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4). BMP4 induces bone and cartilage formation. It also acts ... The protein product is predicted to have multiple α-helices, coiled coil, and one β-sheet. It is suggested that the protein ... Uncharacterized protein C12orf60 is a protein that in humans (Homo sapiens) is encoded by the C12orf60 gene. The gene is also ... Several other proteins might also interact with C12orf60, and some are predicted to be co-expressed with the protein. Possible ...
Sclerostin antagonizes the activity of BMP (bone morphogenetic protein), a cytokine that induces bone and cartilage formation. ... the bones showed a significant increase in bone resorption, decreased bone formation, trabecular bone loss, and loss of ... "Cartilage and Bone and Bone Histogenesis: compact bone"* =D Histology at ou.edu. ... Osteocytes synthesize sclerostin, a secreted protein that inhibits bone formation by binding to LRP5/LRP6 coreceptors and ...
For example, QSulf1 reduces specific HS 6-O sulfation which releases Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), ... The role of QSulf1 was determined in quail cartilage development and joint formation because of its association with ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
... bone and cartilage. The human tenascin C gene, TN-C, is located on chromosome 9 with location of the cytogenic band at the 9q33 ... These protein modules are lined up like beads on a string and give rise to long and extended molecules. At the N-terminus each ... Akhurst RJ, Lehnert SA, Faissner A, Duffie E (1990). "TGF beta in murine morphogenetic processes: the early embryo and ... Tenascin has an oligomerization domain which in the case of TN-C leads to the formation of hexamers. TN-C and -R are known to ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2). Some of the proteins of the BMP family are BMP4 and ... BMP4 promotes bone formation, causes cell death, or signals the formation of epidermis, depending on the tissue it is acting on ... Indian hedgehog (IHH) is expressed in the gut and cartilage, important in postnatal bone growth. Members of the Hedgehog ... Then active Smoothened protein is able to inhibit PKA and Slimb, so that the Ci protein is not cleaved. This intact Ci protein ...
1977) "Transitions in collagen types during matrix-induced cartilage, bone, and bone marrow formation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Key growth factors in endochondral skeletal differentiation include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that determine to a ... Most bone surfaces express no new bone formation, no tetracycline uptake and no mineral formation. This strongly suggests that ... The functional part of bone, the bone matrix, is entirely extracellular. The bone matrix consists of protein and mineral. The ...
... bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factors, and other tissue repair factors associated with osteoarthritis. There ... The causes are from bone degradation in which the bone is less rigid, cartilage dissipates and structure of joints becomes weak ... In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling ... Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease marked by the breakdown of cartilage between joints resulting in painful bone-to-bone ...
Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after ... This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity. It has been ... Li, Chunyi (2013). "Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells". ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ...
Limb formation begins in the morphogenetic limb field, as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate to the ... In the development of most vertebrate limbs (though not in some amphibians), the cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone later ... This model only specifies a "bare bones" pattern. Other factors like Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Hox proteins, primary ... Zhu J, Zhang YT, Alber MS, Newman SA (2010). "Bare bones pattern formation: a core regulatory network in varying geometries ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are required for neural crest cell migration into the cardiac cushions (precursors to heart ... In the pharyngeal arches the CNCCs assist in the formation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The leading cells have long ... They differentiate into melanocytes and neurons and the cartilage and connective tissue of the pharyngeal arches. They may also ... Molecules such as Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) provide signals which induce the ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity. It has been ... Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after ... These species can regrow hair follicles, skin, sweat glands, fur and cartilage. In addition to these two species, ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins. Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the bone ... the formation of bone from connective tissue whereas endochondral ossification involves the formation of bone from cartilage. ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... They are responsible for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. ...
They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family ... causes the formation of new muscle cell types as well as other cell types such as precursors to fat, bone and nervous system ... Cartilage is the connective tissue responsible for frictionless joint movement. Its degeneration ultimately results in complete ... using the genetic material encoding reprogramming protein factors, recombinant proteins; microRNA, a synthetic, self- ...
Structure of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ALK2 and implications for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J. Biol. ... and cartilage and bone formation, similar to the processes reported in FOP lesions (fig. S9) (17). ... FOP results from mutations in the intracellular domain of the type I BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) receptor ACVR1; the most ... The causal mutation, in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ACVR1, has been thought to boost the receptors activity, ...
Mouse anti-Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001710.1 (MBS2090573) product datasheet at ... BMP7: Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... UniProt Protein Name Bone morphogenetic protein 7 UniProt Synonym Protein Names Osteogenic protein 1; OP-1; INN: Eptotermin ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7), Monoclonal Antibody. Also Known As Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 ( ...
Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ...
Protein Function : Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of ... Protein RefSeq ,NP_001029110,bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis] ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis. Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor ... Gene Name: bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 2 Synonyms: BMP7 ( Add synonyms , Nomenclature history ) Gene Function: TGF-beta ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Analysis By Type (rhBMP-2, rhBMP-7), By Application (Spinal Fusion, Trauma, Reconstruction, ... rhBMP-2 is widely known for its high osteoinductive property for faster formation of bone and cartilage in bone fusion ... Chapter 4 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Type Estimates & Trend Analysis. 4.1 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market: Type ... Chapter 5 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Application Estimates & Trend Analysis. 5.1 Bone morphogenetic protein market: ...
... of natural cartilage; a middle-transitional zone of natural cartilage; a deep-radial zone of natural cartilage; or a calcified ... stratified cartilage tissue that comprises a tissue-engineered, cohesive cartilage construct comprised of two or more cartilage ... layers, wherein each cartilage layer comprises chondrogenic cells having a chondrocytic phenotype corresponding to chondrocytes ... Enhancement of Formation with Osteogenic Protein-1." 2.sup.nd Internantional Conference on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 2000, ...
1 OP1 increases proteoglycan synthesis and initiates formation of cartilage2 and differentiation of bone.3 4 However, recent ... Osteogenic protein-1 (OP1), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), a member of the transforming growth factor-β ( ... Differential expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in the developing vestibular and auditory sensory organs. J Neurosci. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-2212. ...
... general Apoptosis Bone morphogenetic proteins Analysis Physiological aspects Cytokines Evaluation Inflammation Osteoarthritis ... Osteoartritte kemik morfogenik protein duzeyleri.(Original Article/Orijinal Makale, Report) by Turkish Journal of Physical ... Regeneration of articular cartilage chondral defects by osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) in sheep. Growth ... 22.) Tsumaki N, Yoshikawa H. The role of bone morphogenetic proteins in endochondral bone formation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ...
... and to quantify callus formation and the mineralized area of the callus. Biomechanical testing showed a significantly higher ... In delayed bone healing secondary to infection rhBMP treatment promotes bone healing with no significant differences in the ... Results from a semiquantitative bone-healing-score revealed best bone-healing in the non-infected control group. The expected ... Further new therapeutic bone substitutes should be analyzed with the present rat model for delayed osseous union secondary to ...
Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
A developmental process is a morphologically observable event such as limb bud formation or the development of digits. ... and bone morphogenetic proteins [BMPs]  ); (2) cartilage identity genes (group E Sox genes, etc); and (3) chondrogenic ... Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton. Science. 1998 May 29. 280(5368):1455-7. [ ... In order to fashion a digit (or any bone/cartilage/ligament of the body), the actual tissue (bone, cartilage, etc) must first ...
Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins (431 aa) ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins ...
The active growth factor is preferably a composition containing at least one bone morphogenetic protein and a suitable carrier ... The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. ... Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of ... Bone growth factors and inhibitors of bone resorption for promoting bone formation. ...
Rat Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP_006120.1 (MBS021022) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... This gene encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. Although other bone morphogenetic ... NCBI Protein Information. bone morphogenetic protein 1; procollagen C-proteinase; mammalian tolloid protein; procollagen C- ... Induces cartilage and bone formation. May participate in dorsoventral patterning during early development by cleaving chordin ( ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are vital for bone and cartilage formation, where bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Bone tissue engineering, Hydrogel, Micro computed tomography, Positron emission tomography, ... Non-invasive tri-modal visualisation via PET/SPECT/μCT of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 retention and ... Bone formation was monitored using micro computed tomography (μCT) scans at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 weeks. The retention of [125I] ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are critical in the formation of cartilage and bone. Osteogenic BMPs, such as BMP-2, and -7 ... Effects of SB431542 in a BMP-2 induced bone formation model. As an alternative method for inducing bone formation, PDLLA ... Modeling bone morphogenetic protein and bisphosphonate combination therapy in wild-type and Nf1 haploinsufficient mice. J ... which contains an endochondral bone formation component. Again, no significant increase was observed in bone formation with ...
Sánchez-Duffhues G, Hiepen C, Knaus P and Ten Dijke P: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in bone homeostasis. Bone. 80:43-59 ... cartilage formation and angiopoiesis, and recent studies have shown that BMP9 is the strongest inducer of osteogenic ... Poon B, Kha T, Tran S and Dass CR: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone therapy: Successes and pitfalls. J Pharm Pharmacol. 68 ... The color bar indicates the BMD from low (green) to high (red). BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; bone mineral density (BMD). ...
Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis.. Synonyms: OP-1, Bone morphogenetic protein 7, BMP-7, Osteogenic ... Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Antibodies show synonyms for this antigen * bmp-7 ... Images for product: anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) (AA 305-345) antibody ...
Distinct roles of type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors in the formation and differentiation of cartilage. Genes Dev. ... Bone. Formation by autoinduction. Science. 1965;150:893-899. [PubMed]. 15. Wozney JM. The bone morphogenetic protein family and ... Organogenesis and pattern formation in the mouse: RNA distribution patterns suggest a role for bone morphogenetic protein-2A ( ... Identification of type I receptors for osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-4. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16985-16988 ...
Reddi AH (1995). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ... GDF6 has been shown to play an important role in the patterning of the epidermis and bone and joint formation. GDF6 induces ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ...
Bone morphogenic factors,bone morphogenic proteins,BMPs,rhBMP-7,BMP-2,BMP-2,BMP-2A,BMP-7,BMP-7,Osteogenic protein-1,OP-1,rhBMP- ... 7,Dibotermin alfa,Dibotermin alfa,Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (human recombinant rhBMP-2) ... bone morphogenic proteins; BMPs. Literature References: Multifunctional cytokines that induce formation of cartilage and bone; ... Title: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. Additional Names: Bone morphogenic factors; ...
BMPs were originally identified as protein regulators of cartilage and bone formation. They are also involved in embryogenesis ... Immunogen: Purified, E. coli-derived, recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3b (rhBMP-3b). ... BMP3b staining paraffin-embedded human cartilage. HRP-DAB reagents (brown color) were used for the detection. ... BMP3b staining paraffin-embedded human cartilage. HRP-DAB reagents (brown color) were used for the detection. ...
Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of ... a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) was evaluated. Once serum conditions compatible with growth were re- ... Furthermore SMDCs formed bone and cartilage tissues in vivo when placed inside of diffusion chambers and in demineralized bone ... recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein)-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were ...
... which are involved in inducing cartilage and bone formation, embryogenesis and morphogenesis of various tissues and organs. In ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, Osteogenin, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (Osteogenic), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3A, BMP-3A, BMP ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3, BMP3A, BMP3.. Introduction. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) is one of the BMPs, some of which ... BMP-3 protein was lyophilized from a 0.2µm filtered concentrated solution in 30% Acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA. ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins in the formation and repair of cartilage, bone, and joints Workshop on Skeletal Growth and ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. ... Here we show that the short ear region contains the gene for a TGF beta-related protein called bone morphogenetic protein 5 ( ... This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the ...
LigandReceptorRegenerationDefectsTissueBMP7MarrowGeneEndochondralHyaline cartilageInducesChondrocytesReceptorsBMP2CytokinesSkeletalAbstractPathwaysAbility to induceEctopic boneMorphogenic proteinsChondrogenic differentiationProteoglycansRecombinant human boneRepair of articular cartilageFamily of purified proteinsCells in regenerative medicineAlveolar boneLigamentPhenotypeCalcium phosphateHttpsSpinalCalcificationLimbExpression of boneProliferationOsteogenic proteinEpithelialMorphogenesisGraftOsteoarthritis CartilageJoint SurgSignalsInductiveRegulatesRegenerative medicine
- Cell and Molecular Strategies for Massive Bone Repair/Regeneration. (patentgenius.com)
- The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. (google.ca)
- 12. The method of claim 11 , wherein the area in need of regeneration of said articular cartilage is the hip. (google.ca)
- We suggest that the potential of this novel technique could be considered for preclinical evaluation of novel smart materials on bone regeneration. (diva-portal.org)
- Most importantly, this process could generate advanced grafts for bone regeneration by invoking a "developmental engineering" paradigm. (pnas.org)
- There hasn't been a gold standard for how orthopaedic spine surgeons promote new bone growth in patients, but now Northwestern University scientists have designed a bioactive nanomaterial that is so good at stimulating bone regeneration it could become the method surgeons prefer. (news-medical.net)
- Comparative studies indicate that each cell type has advantages and disadvantages, and while direct comparisons are difficult to make, published data suggest some sources may be more promising for cartilage regeneration than others. (springer.com)
- Regeneration of cartilage and bone by defined subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells-potential and pitfalls. (springer.com)
- Defects also were grafted with corticocancellous bone harvested from the iliac crest or left ungrafted to monitor the spontaneous regeneration potential of the adult baboon calvaria. (coventry.ac.uk)
- At day 90, in implants of Og S-200, Og Hep-HA, and DBM, bone and marrow formation was extensive, culminating in complete regeneration of the craniotomies. (coventry.ac.uk)
- Much research has examined cartilage regeneration utilizing stem cells. (hindawi.com)
- A greater understanding of how mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow or artery wall bring about vascular regeneration and repair may lead to novel cell-based treatments for cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
- The additive application of concentrated bone marrow aspirates, ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells, and osteogenic or angiogenic growth factors (or both) holds great potential to improve bone regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study aims to investigate, utilising micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology, whether the topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat model. (springeropen.com)
- More recent approaches involve the incorporation of naturally occurring growth factors into the dental transplant site with the aim of enhancing periodontal healing, root formation and pulpal regeneration. (springeropen.com)
- Unlike bone tissue, articular cartilage regeneration has not been very successful and has many challenges ahead. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we demonstrate a biofunctional hydrogel for specific use in cartilage regeneration by conjugating transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a well-documented chondrogenic factor, to MeGC hydrogels impregnating type II collagen (Col II), one of the major cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components. (biomedcentral.com)
- Comparative evaluation of MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue seeded in PRP-derived scaffold for cartilage regeneration. (nih.gov)
- Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine. (nih.gov)
- Two of the three teeth demonstrated regeneration of new bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. (biohorizons.com)
- Cartilage repair and regeneration is a treatment for joints that have damaged cartilage but are otherwise healthy. (cartilage.org)
- There are several types of new and modern procedures for cartilage repair and regeneration techniques that are designed to heal the cartilage by filling the cartilage defect (pothole) with repair tissue. (cartilage.org)
- His research focuses on developing stem-cell based therapies for the treatment of muscle and cartilage injury, and he has received numerous accolades, including the Charles S. Neer Award from the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, for his study of the role of fibrosis in rotator cuff muscle regeneration. (usc.edu)
- Bone regeneration using a silk scaffold combined with hydroxapatite occurs via two processes, osteoconduction from the surrounding bone in the defect area and nucleation with the combined hydroxyapatite as its seed. (medsci.org)
- This is significant because bone regeneration using the hybrid composite is faster than regeneration by the surrounding bone, resulting in consistent ossification in all areas, including the center of the bone defect. (medsci.org)
- The Repair of Experimentally Produced Defects in Rabbit Articular Cartilage by Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation. (patentgenius.com)
- Therefore currently available therapeutic options must involve not only antibiotic treatment but also repeated surgical debridement, potentially exacerbating extensive bone defects [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of tissue, such as osteochondral grafts, with active growth factor. (google.ca)
- The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone, cartilage, other connective tissue defects and disorders, including tendon, ligament and meniscus, in wound healing. (google.es)
- Cell origin and differentiation in the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. (semanticscholar.org)
- Researchers compared the effects of three bone growth factors to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) -- the most commonly used agent for repair of large bone defects, which is not without risks at the doses required--and showed significant bone-healing effects including the formation of new blood vessels at low doses relative to BMP2. (news-medical.net)
- Aroen, A. Stem cell therapy for articular cartilage defects. (springer.com)
- Complex fractures, non-unions, and large bone defects due to trauma or cancer surgery that require extensive reconstruction are common problems among both veterans and combat injured individuals. (grantome.com)
- Defects were implanted with insoluble collagenous bone matrix (ICBM, the inactive collagenous residue after dissociative extraction of bone matrix with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride) reconstituted with osteogenin fractions isolated from baboon bone matrix by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite-Ultrogel (Og Hep-HA) or osteogenin further purified using Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography (Og S-200). (coventry.ac.uk)
- Additional defects were implanted with baboon demineralized bone matrix (DBM) or ICBM without osteogenin as control. (coventry.ac.uk)
- This provides the phenotypic evidence of endochondral bone differentiation by induction in defects of membranous calvarial bone in adult primates. (coventry.ac.uk)
- Cartilage defects, the most common disease of joints, can cause swelling, pain, and subsequent loss of joint function [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been applied widely with confirmed clinical effects in terms of repairing cartilage defects [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and/or cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. (google.com)
- In addition, defects in processing chondrocalcin, a calcium binding protein that is the C propeptide of this collagen molecule, are also associated with chondrodysplasia. (acris-antikoerper.de)
- These combination preparations are used for the medical treatment of degenerative and traumatic diseases of all joints, for the treatment of articular cartilage and cartilage bone defects and also meniscus and intervertebral disc lesions, such as e.g. arthrosis, articular rheumatism, osteochondritis dissecans, flake fractures, meniscus lesions and for the treatment of skin and mucous membrane changes, also from cosmetic aspects. (google.com.au)
- 1 . Combination preparation consisting of at least one active agent A from the group hyaluronic acid, the salts and fragments thereof, an active agent B from the group of local anaesthetics and derivatives thereof and if necessary further additives for human and veterinary medical therapy, prophylaxis and/or metaphylaxis of degenerative or traumatic articular diseases and articular function disorders and also articular cartilage and cartilage bone defects. (google.com.au)
- In 1889 Senn first found that decalcified ox bone promoted healing of osteomyelitic defects. (periobasics.com)
- Nog is also expressed in condensing cartilage in the limb and in the sclerotome of somites so its loss results in defects in cartilage patterning and skeletal morphogenesis. (jax.org)
- sub.1 Induces Bone Closure of Skull Defects," J Bone Min Res (1991) 6(11):1257-1265. (patentgenius.com)
- Importantly, we demonstrated that GEP is a key downstream molecule of BMP2, and that GEP-knockdown mice display skeleton defects ( 7 ). (ijbs.com)
- This hydrogel system can provide promising efficacious therapeutics in the treatment of cartilage defects. (biomedcentral.com)
- Smaller defects in specific locations may be treated with enhanced bone marrow stimulating techniques, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), or osteochondral autograft transfer which may be completed through the arthroscope. (cartilage.org)
- To improve the decision-making process around the choice of treatment for patients with localised cartilage defects, it would be of great advantage to have a tool to identify those likely to obtain an optimal outcome of the procedure. (biomedcentral.com)
- Stem Cell Treatment for Knee Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. (usc.edu)
- Critical-sized, 7 x 4 x 1.5 mm alveolar defects were created surgically in 36 Sprague-Dawley rats. (medsci.org)
- 4 - 6 Hydroxyapatite is a representative substance used in various fields for scaffolding bone defects due to its capacity for osteoinduction. (medsci.org)
- The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer, which plays a role in bone, kidney and brown adipose tissue development. (mybiosource.com)
- Woessner, J.F. "The Determination of Hydroxyproline in Tissue and Protein Samples Containing Small Proportions of this Amino Acid. (patentgenius.com)
- Background and Purpose -Osteogenic protein-1 (OP1) not only possesses trophic activity on bone tissue but also influences neuronal survival and differentiation in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
- Histological findings supported improved bone-healing after rhBMP treatment but quantitative micro-CT and histomorphometric results still showed significantly more hypertrophic callus tissue in all three infected groups compared to the non-infected group. (biomedcentral.com)
- A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, progressively deforming bones, bowing of limbs due to multiple fractures, very short stature, a triangular face, severe scoliosis, and grayish sclera. (mybiosource.com)
- A Modified RhTGF-beta1 and RhBMP-2 Are Effective in Initiating a Chondro-osseous Differentiation Pathway in Bone Marrow Cells Cultured in Vitro Connective Tissue Research. (jove.com)
- Any of a family of 30-38-kD homodimeric growth factors involved in bone and cartilage formation, which provide morphogenetic signals that guide normal tissue architecture. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Dietary proteins provide the amino acids necessary for the growth and repair of animal tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human MSC, subcutaneously implanted into nude mice at various stages of chondrogenic differentiation, formed bone trabeculae only when they had developed in vitro hypertrophic tissue structures. (pnas.org)
- This study reveals the capacity of human MSC to generate bone tissue via an endochondral program and provides a valid model to study mechanisms governing bone development. (pnas.org)
- These proteins may be used to induce bone and/or cartilage or other connective tissue formation, and in wound healing and tissue repair. (google.es)
- The unique inductive activities of these proteins, along with their presence in bone, suggests that they are important regulators of bone repair processes, and may be involved in the normal maintenance of bone tissue. (google.es)
- BACKGROUND Rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing occurs by formation of a scar tissue interface after repair, which makes it prone to failure. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cartilage, in particular, may benefit from the use of stem cells since the tissue has low cellularity and cannot effectively repair itself. (springer.com)
- A comparison of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells and temporomandibular joint condylar chondrocytes for tissue engineering temporomandibular joint condylar cartilage. (springer.com)
- In the context of tissue repair, bone is unique as it is able to heal itself without forming a scar. (springer.com)
- cBBP increases the tissue retention of BMP-2 and stimulates BMP-2 and BMP-7- mediated spinal fusion and BMP-2-mediated long bone healing. (grantome.com)
- Stem cells have emerged as a promising option in the field of cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and could lead to cartilage repair. (hindawi.com)
- This review presents a summary of emerging trends with regard to using stem cells in cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (hindawi.com)
- Mature bone tissue is found in 5% to 20% of atherosclerotic arteries, 4,7 although earlier stages may occur more often. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 Cartilage tissue is also found within human atherosclerotic plaque, 9 but its frequency has not been systematically assessed. (ahajournals.org)
- 11 In mice, vascular ectopic tissue is most often in the form of cartilage. (ahajournals.org)
- 26 The concept of a continuous replacement of connective tissue with marrow cells parallels the known continuous replacement of blood by bone marrow hematopoietic cells. (ahajournals.org)
- PHILADELPHIA - An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , is taking the first step in developing a treatment for a rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), in which the body's skeletal muscles and soft connective tissue turns to bone, immobilizing patients over a lifetime with a second skeleton. (healthcanal.com)
- The mutation is mildly activating, and so it may take time or the right tissue environment to allow the signal to tip the balance to induce bone formation, explains Shore. (healthcanal.com)
- In the case of FOP, that normal process of bone formation occurs inappropriately in soft tissue, sometimes in response to injury, and sometimes spontaneously, typically beginning by age 5 or so. (healthcanal.com)
- Incubate the tissue section with proteinase K for 7 min (DakoCytomation #S3004). (acris-antikoerper.de)
- 4. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said non-mineralized skeletal joint tissue is selected from the group consisting of articular cartilage, ligament, tendon, intervertebral discs, joint capsule and synovial membrane tissue. (google.com)
- 7. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said matrix comprises devitalized allogenic or xenogenic tissue. (google.com)
- 6 . Combination preparation according to claim 1 , wherein agents of the hyaline cartilage tissue, in particular glucosamine sulphate derivatives and/or chondroitin sulphate derivatives, are contained as additive. (google.com.au)
- Exogenous Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 2 Enhances Connective Tissue Formation and Wound Strength in Guinea Pig Dermal Wounds Healing by Secondary Intent," Ann Surg (1990) 211(3):288-294. (patentgenius.com)
- The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a morphogenic protein stimulatory factor (MPSF) for improving the tissue inductive activity of morphogenic proteins, particularly those belonging to the BMP protein family. (patents.com)
- Methods for improving the tissue inductive activity of a morphogenic protein in a mammal using those compositions are provided. (patents.com)
- This invention also provides implantable morphogenic devices comprising a morphogenic protein and a MPSF disposed within a carrier, that are capable of inducing tissue formation in allogeneic and xenogeneic implants. (patents.com)
- Methods for inducing local tissue formation from a progenitor cell in a mammal using those devices are also provided. (patents.com)
- This invention also provides a prosthetic device comprising a prosthesis coated with a morphogenic protein and a MPSF, and a method for promoting in vivo integration of an implantable prosthetic device to enhance the bond strength between the prosthesis and the existing target tissue at the joining site. (patents.com)
- Histologically, the incorporation of the collagen membrane was found to negatively affect pulpal, root, periodontal and alveolar bone healing with pulpal inflammation and hard tissue formation, extensive root resorption and alveolar bone fragmentation. (springeropen.com)
- Yet, systematic tissue engineering approaches is still required for successful cartilage repair. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cartilage-like gene expression in differentiated human stem cell spheroids: a comparison of bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. (nih.gov)
- MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow (BM), inguinal adipose tissue (AD), and synovium (SM) from the knee joint. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, in this study, we characterized the tenogenic differentiation capacities of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs), and synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs) infected with BMP-12 recombinant adenovirus (Ad-BMP-12) in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chung, C. and Burdick, J.A. (2008) Engineering cartilage tissue. (scirp.org)
- Jeong, C.G. and Hollister, S.J. (2010) A comparison of the influence of material on in vitro cartilage tissue engineering with PCL, PGS and POC 3D scaffold architecture seeded with chondrocytes. (scirp.org)
- 2009) Microstructure and properties of nano-fibrous PCL-b-PLLA scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. (scirp.org)
- Studies have also shown that even modest amounts of vitamin K2 fight heart disease by controlling calcium-regulating proteins in vascular tissue, which keeps calcium out of the arteries and prevents the formation of dangerous calcified plaques. (lifeextension.com)
- Dr. Linda Demer and her team at the University of California, Los Angeles, were among the first to unravel this curious connection by successfully identifying a protein in human atherosclerotic tissue, which was previously believed to reside only in bone tissue. (lifeextension.com)
- 2 Since then, several other key regulators of bone formation have been identified in atherosclerotic plaque tissue, such as matrix GLA-protein and osteopontin, suggesting that common factors might influence both arterial and bone health. (lifeextension.com)
- 2) Fabrication of Cell Hybrid Artificial Bone : New bone formation was induced in rat subcutaneous tissue by implanted bone marrow cells cultured in porous hydroxyapatite. (nii.ac.jp)
- Morphogenesis and tissue engineering of bone and cartilage: inductive signals, stem cells, and biomimetic biomaterials. (naver.com)
- The use of hybrid composites of silk and hydroxyapatite to simulate natural bone tissue can overcome the softness and brittleness of the individual components. (medsci.org)
- 7 - 13 However, silk alone lacks the mechanical strength needed to replace bone tissue, and hydroxyapatite may break upon impact when used by itself, despite its hardness. (medsci.org)
- In order to overcome the disadvantages of the organic and inorganic materials of silk and hydroxyapatite, a study on the use of a hybrid composite of these two substances to replace bone tissue was previously conducted. (medsci.org)
- BMP7: Induces cartilage and bone formation. (mybiosource.com)
- Osteogenic protein-1 (OP1), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been documented to be a trophic factor for bone and cartilage. (ahajournals.org)
- Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded rabbit alveolar bone labeled with Anti-BMP7 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated (ABIN678938) at 1:200 followed by conjugation to the secondary antibody and DAB staining. (antibodies-online.com)
- BMP7 is a novel therapeutic molecule for treatment of metastatic bone disease. (uni-goettingen.de)
- Recombinant human BMP7(cross talk between BMP-7 and transforming growth factor-beta1) leads to repair of severely damaged renal tubular epithelial cells, in association with reversal of chronic renal injury. (uni-goettingen.de)
- Testing this hypothesis, we detected changes in the expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 ( Bmp2, Bmp7 ) in the interdigital and distal joint tissues, suggesting that HOXA13 may directly regulate their expression in these discrete regions. (biologists.org)
- Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. (mdpi.com)
- Here, the use of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL)25 in comparison to differentiation factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)β3, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, BMP7, BMP12, and BMP14 (all in concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 ng/mL) was tested in an in vitro micro mass pellet model with isolated and cultivated human AF-cells ( n = 3) to induce and enhance AF-matrix formation. (mdpi.com)
- The first was a marrow ablation model where reaming of the femur leads to new intramedullary bone formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the marrow ablation model, systemic dosing with up to 10 mg/kg/day SB431542 did not significantly increase reaming-induced bone formation compared to vehicle only controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Pubmed ID: 14504040 Rat bone marrow cells were cultured in vitro in a collagen-gel medium at 0.5% fetal bovine serum concentration for 10 days in the presence of recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta-1, genetically engineered to contain a collagen binding domain (rhTGF-beta1-F2), or a commercial rhTGF-beta1. (jove.com)
- Our study advances the technology capable of selecting a cell population from bone marrow that, in the presence of rhTGF-beta1 or rhBMP-2 in vitro, achieves chondro-osteogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. (jove.com)
- Here, we aimed at engineering tissues from bone marrow-derived, adult human MSC with an intrinsic capacity to undergo endochondral ossification. (pnas.org)
- Use of bone marrow stromal cells for tendon graft-to-bone healing: histological and immunohistochemical studies in a rabbit model. (semanticscholar.org)
- Bone marrow transplants, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplants, are life-saving treatments for aggressive diseases, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, and infections such as HIV. (news-medical.net)
- Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. (news-medical.net)
- A comparison between the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) taken from the same donors. (springer.com)
- These results establish the potential therapeutic application of osteogenin and demineralized bone matrix for the architectural reconstruction of the bone-bone marrow organ in humans. (coventry.ac.uk)
- Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. (rupress.org)
- CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. (rupress.org)
- CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Many of the cell types present in the microenvironment of growing bone contribute to the local synthesis of cytokines and growth factors including the resident endothelial cells, marrow stromal cells, osteoblasts, periosteal cells and chondrocytes. (unu.edu)
- First described by pathologists centuries ago, the phenomenon has been termed metaplasia, and it appears in the form of ectopic cartilage, bone, fat, and marrow. (ahajournals.org)
- Direct bone morphogenetic protein 2 and Indian hedgehog gene transfer for articular cartilage repair using bone marrow coagulates. (acris-antikoerper.de)
- Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
- TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. (frontiersin.org)
- Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) showed the most superior in vitro tenogenic differentiation capacity, followed by synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs) and then adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
- The bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were stained with propidium iodide and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. (globalsciencejournals.com)
- The rate of apoptosis in the bone marrow increased at week 3 then decreased. (globalsciencejournals.com)
- 1) Effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) on Bone Marrow Cel1s : We examined the effects of BMP and bFGF on rat bone marrow cells, and revealed that BMP stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation, while bFGF stimulated cell proliferation but inhibited cell differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)
- Behavior of bone marrow cells cultured on three different cocting of gel-derived bioactive glass-ceramics at early stage of cell differentiation' J Biomed Mater.Res.42・3. (nii.ac.jp)
- This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. (mybiosource.com)
- Imposed upon this gross morphological description is the modern understanding of gene expression and protein elucidation, which bring about these developmental processes. (medscape.com)
- Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not closely related to other known growth factors. (mybiosource.com)
- The CSL family includes C promoter binding factor-1 (CBF-1) in mammals, also known as recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin Jκ region (RBP-Jκ) in mice, Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] in Drosophila and longevity assurance gene 1 (Lag1) in Caenorhabditis ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Our findings suggest that individual bones are composite structures whose detailed growth patterns are built from many smaller lineage and gene expression domains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We identify multiple regulatory sequences in the Bmp5 gene that control expression in particular bones, rather than all bones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene is differentially regulated during the formation of various tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of human bone morphogenetic protein-13 does not improve rotator cuff healing in a rat model. (semanticscholar.org)
- A light and electron microscopic study of ectopic tendon and ligament formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-13 adenoviral gene therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
- A team headed by Professor Albert Rizvanov, director of the Gene and Cell Technologies Open Lab, created a gene therapy drug that encodes growth factors for the stimulation of blood vessel and bone formation. (news-medical.net)
- The FOP mutation is a single replacement for a DNA building block in the gene for a receptor protein called ACVR1. (healthcanal.com)
- In 2006, Kaplan and Shore's team discovered that in the DNA of every patient with FOP they examined, the same mutation occurred: one building block in the protein-coding region of the ACVR1 gene is replaced by another, resulting in conversion of a single arginine amino acid in the sequence of the ACVR1 protein to histidine. (healthcanal.com)
- The result is activation of a cell-signaling cascade that culminates in changes in gene expression, and ultimately, in the formation of new bone. (healthcanal.com)
- Cancers are perhaps the most complicated diseases, since each tumor and/or a subpopulation of tumor cells may have a distinct type of genetic alteration, gene mutation, oncogenic signaling, metabolic features, epigenetic changes and also receive different multiple signals from local environment [1-7]. (omicsonline.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was used for interpretation of protein function. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have used these assembled genomes to study the contribution of individual splicing factors to the organized maturation of messenger RNAs ( 10 ), and in other current projects, are using the assembled genomes to study the activation of gene expression by Wnt/beta catenin signaling during formation of the spinal cord and neural crest ( 11 ). (berkeley.edu)
- Publications] Y Morotome et.al: 'Gene Expression of Growth and Differentiation Factors -506-7 in Developing Bovine Tooth at the Root Forming stage' BBRC. (nii.ac.jp)
- Additionally, increased surface expression of CD166 was observed in the clinical success group, while the gene expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein was downregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, most bones develop by endochondral ossification, i.e., via remodeling of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. (pnas.org)
- To date, endochondral bone formation has not been reproduced using human, clinically compliant cell sources. (pnas.org)
- By analogy to embryonic limb development, we hypothesized that successful execution of the endochondral program depends on the initial formation of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. (pnas.org)
- Long bones and the axial skeleton in the developing embryo are formed by endochondral ossification, namely, by remodeling of cartilage templates ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- The possibility to engineer MSC-based grafts recapitulating the morphogenetic processes of endochondral ossification of embryonic skeletogenesis would represent an important step forward for bone repair, in line with the recently defined "developmental engineering" concepts ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans. (gutenberg.org)
- 4,5 Moreover, as in skeletal development - where unique biology controls matrix mineralization in membranous bone, endochondral bone, dentin, and enamel, 6,7 mechanistic diversity exists in the pathobiology of vascular calcium deposition. (ahajournals.org)
- BMP-2 is known as osteogenic BMP which is based on its strong bone-inducing activity [ 8 ] and essential for endochondral bone formation [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Differential effect of BMP4 on NIH/3T3 and C2C12 cells: implications for endochondral bone formation. (nih.gov)
- Engineering of a functional bone organ through endochondral ossification. (nih.gov)
- Implantation of recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3 (hTGF-β3) with coral-derived calcium carbonate-based macroporous bioreactors with limited conversion to hydroxyapatite (7% HA/CC) in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus induces endochondral bone formation. (naver.com)
- Additionally, this protein induces ectopic bone formation and may promote fracture healing in human patients. (mybiosource.com)
- Tooth formation relies on BMP4 expression, which induces Msx 1 and 2. (gutenberg.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces differentiation of and bone resorption by osteoclasts. (globalsciencejournals.com)
- Publications] I Asahina, TK Sampath PV Hauschka: 'Human Osteogenic Protein-1 Induces Chondroblastic, Osteoblastic, and/or Adipocytic Differentiation of Clonal Murine Target Cells' Experimental Cell Research. (nii.ac.jp)
- The exact mechanisms by which hTGF-β3 signalling induces bone in heterotopic sites of P. ursinus are not known. (naver.com)
- Differences Between Sub-Populations of Cultured Bovine Articular Chondrocytes,I. Morphology and Cartilage Matrix Production. (patentgenius.com)
- Adjacent areas containing no mitotic figures in the chondrocytes showed immunoreactive BMP in the the cartilage matrix while the tumor cells were unreactive. (nii.ac.jp)
- In parallel, chondrocytes in the central regions direct mineralization of the hypertrophic cartilage by initiating remodeling via the production of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and attract blood vessels by releasing vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (pnas.org)
- In addition to having effects on the growth plate chondrocytes, locally synthesised and circulating IGFs retained in bone matrix are important in the regulation of bone remodelling. (unu.edu)
- 2009) Evaluation of extracellular matrix formation in polycaprolactone and starch-compounded polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes when seeded with bovine articular chondrocytes. (scirp.org)
- Toll-like receptors and chondrocytes: the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in cartilage matrix synthesis is dependent on the presence of toll-like receptor 4 and antagonized by bone morphogenetic protein 7. (globalsciencejournals.com)
- Mammalian BMP receptors include seven type I receptors, which are activin-like kinase (ALK)1-7 and five type II receptors, which include ActRIIA, ActRIIB, BMPRII, TβRII, and AMHRII. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Roles of bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors and Smad proteins in osteoblast and chondroblast differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
- Model for activation of BMP receptors: (a) BMP‐mediated heteromeric complex formation of BMPR‐I and BMPR‐II. (els.net)
- BMP receptors are protein switches that help determine the fate of stem cells in which they are expressed. (healthcanal.com)
- 10. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said exogenous osteogenic protein comprises homodimers or heterodimers of OP-1, OP-2, BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, OPX, or naturally sourced and recombinant derivatives of the foregoing. (google.com)
- The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and BMAL1 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Thus, bone matrix could give signals from outside the body to the cells ( 9 , 10 ) either through matrix-residing cytokines, through these attachment machineries, or both. (rupress.org)
- There is also increasing evidence that abnormal production of cytokines in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis may result in inappropriate responses by bone and cartilage cells. (unu.edu)
- They have an important role during embryonic development on the embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. (wikipedia.org)
- Although Bmp5 is expressed in many skeletal precursors, different enhancers control expression in individual bones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Remarkably, we show here that different enhancers also exist for highly restricted spatial subdomains along the surface of individual skeletal structures, including ribs and nasal cartilages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Transgenic, null, and regulatory mutations confirm that these anatomy-specific sequences are sufficient to trigger local changes in skeletal morphology and are required for establishing normal growth rates on separate bone surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Individual enhancers in BMP genes provide a genomic mechanism for controlling precise growth domains in particular cartilages and bones, making it possible to separately regulate skeletal anatomy at highly specific locations in the body. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We hope to develop a family of bone growth factor or BMP/TGF-b (bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta)-binding materials that can be employed in clinical situations where there is a need to retain the growth factors at the skeletal site where they are implanted in order to enhance their activity and promote bone growth and the successful integration of bone grafts or artificial joints into the skeleton. (grantome.com)
- Ferretti, J., "Perspectives of pQct Technology Associated To Biomechanical Studies in Skeletal Research Employing Rat Models," Bone (1995) 17:353S-364S. (patentgenius.com)
- Bone remodeling is a normal physiological process that maintains skeletal integrity after skeletal development by removing small foci of damaged or effete bone from bone surfaces and replacing them with new bone ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We have recently been most interested in the activity of overlapping BMP antagonists in development of the axial skeleton, where BMP signaling must first be prevented to allow formation of the skeletal precursors, and then permitted to permit the differentiation of these precursors ( 13 ). (berkeley.edu)
- Dynamic imaging of the growth plate cartilage reveals multiple contributors to skeletal morphogenesis Nat Commun. (usc.edu)
- We have used classical genetics in mice to identify fundamental pathways that control formation and patterning of cartilage, bone, and joints. (stanford.edu)
- Simon, T.M. and Jackson, D.W. (2006) Articular cartilage: Injury pathways and treatment options. (scirp.org)
- When properly processed, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) graft materials can take advantage of two healing pathways or mechanisms. (biohorizons.com)
- The fibers create a physical network of pathways for bone forming cells to migrate. (biohorizons.com)
- Benn A, Hiepen C, Osterland M, Schütte C, Zwijsen A, Knaus P . Role of bone morphogenetic proteins in sprouting angiogenesis: differential BMP receptor-dependent signaling pathways balance stalk vs. tip cell competence . (fu-berlin.de)
- Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. (wikipedia.org)
- The present invention relates to a family of purified proteins, termed BMP-5 proteins (wherein BMP is bone morphogenic protein), which exhibit the ability to induce cartilage and/or bone formation and processes for obtaining them. (google.com)
- In a second model, 20 μg rhBMP-2 in a polymer carrier was surgically introduced to the hind limb musculature to produce ectopic bone nodules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the ectopic bone model, local co-administration of 38 μg or 192 μg SB431542 did not increase bone formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Ectopic bone formation was seen both on three-dimensional CT reconstruction and histologically in all rats at sites treated with Ad-BMP-2. (thejns.org)
- In particular, it focuses on the characterization of cartilage stem cells, the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, and the various strategies and approaches involving stem cells that have been used in cartilage repair and clinical studies. (hindawi.com)
- While characterizing a Hoxa2 gain-of-function transgenic mouse model in order to study the functional relationship between Hox genes activity and the control of chondrogenic differentiation, we observed that the persistent and ectopic activity of Hoxa2 in cartilage led to a reduction of ossification centers. (mdpi.com)
- We investigated the influence of recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (at doses of three, ten, thirty, or 100 nanograms per milliliter) on the synthesis and release of proteoglycans and the maintenance of a steady-state concentration of proteoglycans in explants of porcine articular cartilage that were maintained in chemically defined serum-free medium. (elsevier.com)
- The capacity of the newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers to form aggregates with exogenous hyaluronic acid was found to be similar to that of proteoglycans in bovine nasal cartilage. (elsevier.com)
- Our results demonstrated that osteogenic protein-1 stimulated the synthesis of proteoglycans and diminished the release of proteoglycans from explants of porcine articular cartilage. (elsevier.com)
- bone morphogenetic protein-7) in explants of cartilage maintained in chemically defined serum-free medium implies that recombinant osteogenic protein-1 may play a role in the maintenance of a steady-state concentration of proteoglycans in articular cartilage, a desirable prerequisite for optimum repair of cartilage. (elsevier.com)
- Once new cartilage has formed at the site of repair, osteogenic protein-1 also may maintain the synthesis of proteoglycans. (elsevier.com)
- Biosynthesis and Turnover of Proteoglycans in Organ Culture of Bovine Articular Cartilage. (patentgenius.com)
- Purified, E. coli-derived, recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3b (rhBMP-3b). (neuromics.com)
- To compare the effects of TGF-betas with other growth factors in which the osteogenic capacity has been widely documented, a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) was evaluated. (jove.com)
- The alveolar bone proper is 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick and is consisted of a Harversian system and lamellated and bundle bone. (periobasics.com)
- The need for an optimal crown-implant ratio similar to the dentate-crown root ratio is discredited biomechanically, but aligning alveolar restoration of the segmental alveolar bone continues to be thought of as favorable for gingival alveolar bone health. (quintpub.com)
- Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. (springeropen.com)
- The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. (springeropen.com)
- Moreover, when the alveolar bone defect is large, several bone grafts are necessary. (medsci.org)
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of an allogeneic bone matrix (ABM) Grafton® to regenerate new bone, new cementum, and a new periodontal ligament around teeth previously contaminated by bacterial plaque. (biohorizons.com)
- Dr. Petrigliano's surgical interests include arthroscopic shoulder repair, knee ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair and transplantation, and elbow ligament reconstruction. (usc.edu)
- The global bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) market size is expected to reach over USD 644.6 million by 2024, based on a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing incidence of spinal fusion, trauma, and small bone surgeries coupled with demand for faster bone recovery are the key drivers affirming growth of BMP market. (marketresearch.com)
- Although rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 are used in the treatment of a variety of bone-related conditions including spinal fusions and nonunions, the risks of this off-label treatment are not understood. (wikipedia.org)
- There is "little debate or controversy" about the effectiveness of rhBMP-2 to grow bone to achieve spinal fusions, and Medtronic generates $700 million in annual sales from their product. (wikipedia.org)
- Recombinant BMP-2 is under clinical investigation for treatment of bone degeneration diseases, spinal injuries, and orthodontic pathologies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Researchers are moving closer to a new approach for improving spinal fusion procedures and repairing broken or defective bones that avoids an over-production of bone that commonly occurs in current treatments. (news-medical.net)
- Histology and immunohistochemistry Bone and cartilage formation while in the spinal columns were assayed by Alizarin Red S Toluidine Blue staining. (topoisomerasesignaling.com)
- Numerous studies have demonstrated that the BMP-2 protein can enhance spinal fusion. (thejns.org)
- Although autogenous bone is the most widely used graft material for spinal fusion, demineralized bone matrix preparations are available as alternatives or supplements to autograft. (biohorizons.com)
- The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three different commercially available demineralized bone matrix products for inducing spinal fusion in an athymic rat model. (biohorizons.com)
- Comparative clinical testing of demineralized bone matrices is indicated in order to determine which preparations are best suited for promoting successful spinal fusion in humans. (biohorizons.com)
- Radiographic knee chondrocalcinosis was present if there was definite linear cartilage calcification. (biomedcentral.com)
- 34 OPG-deficient mice develop severe medial and intimal arterial calcification in conjunction with high-turnover osteoporosis driven by excessive osteoclast formation. (ahajournals.org)
- The purpose of our study was to identify novel eggshell proteins by examining the transcriptome of the uterus during calcification of the eggshell. (biomedcentral.com)
- A developmental process is a morphologically observable event such as limb bud formation or the development of digits. (medscape.com)
- The AER and PZ work as a functional unit responsible for the outgrowth of the limb along the proximodistal axis, and the marginal blood vessel may convey messenger proteins that integrate this process. (medscape.com)
- The underlying morphogenetic process was structurally and molecularly similar to the temporal and spatial progression of limb bone development in embryos. (pnas.org)
- It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins , is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb development and fracture repair. (gutenberg.org)
- in muscle-less limbs, tendons develop in the autopod but do not extend into the zeugopod, and in the absence of limb cartilage the zeugopod segments of tendons develop despite the absence of tendons in the autopod. (biologists.org)
- The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in primary osseous tumors (n=15) with a potential of osteogenesis and/or chondrogenesis was re-evaluated by using a recently characterized monoclonal antibody raised by using rhBMP-2 as an immunogen in a streptavidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method. (nii.ac.jp)
- The circadian system rhythmically regulates cellular proliferation, physiology, and behavior ( 7 , 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Fluoride Increase Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Osteoblast-like Cells: Regulatory Role for the Stimulation of Cell Proliferation and Pi Transport Across the Plasma Membrane," J Bone Miner Res (1995) 10:164-171. (patentgenius.com)
- Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Differentiation of Pluripotent Human Embryonal Carcinoma Cells by Osteogenic Protein-1 (Or Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7)," Laboratory Investigation 71:243-251 (1994). (patents.com)
- Osteogenic protein-1 (also known as bone morphogenetic protein-7) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family. (elsevier.com)
- The size of the proteoglycan monomers and the composition of the glycosaminoglycan chains in the untreated articular cartilage were similar to those in the articular cartilage treated with osteogenic protein-1. (elsevier.com)
- The stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis by osteogenic protein-1. (elsevier.com)
- BMP has reported outstanding results over bone graft, such as lack of donor morbidity, extensive surgical procedure, higher recovery time, pain & numbness, and high cost. (marketresearch.com)
- In theory, the BMP-binding properties of cBBP make it an ideal candidate for a BMP carrier in SBGS (synthetic bone graft substitutes). (grantome.com)
- Our long-term objective is to develop less expensive, more effective synthetic bone graft substitutes for use in orthopedic applications. (grantome.com)
- Long-term studies have determined implant success in sinus floor bone graft settings. (quintpub.com)
- It remains uncertain, however, how much of a role sinus graft directed osseointegration has compared with residual bone implant osseointegration. (quintpub.com)
- 52 58 Bone has been shown to form in the sinus bone graft by migration from the sinus floor into an osteoconductive scaffold. (quintpub.com)
- Pluripotent cells in the sinus membrane also participate in bone formation such that the entire periphery of the graft consolidates in advance of the central portion of the graft. (quintpub.com)
- Despite the material used and the technique employed, the primary determinant of bone formation in the sinus floor is by early vascularization of the graft matrix. (quintpub.com)
- Space maintenance is required for sinus bone graft consolidation to occur. (quintpub.com)
- The proven clinical success of Grafton DBM in multiple forms gives clinicians the ideal bone graft for the specific application. (biohorizons.com)
- Scientists at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia report that a drug candidate that blocks abnormal protein signals may lead to the first pharmacologic treatment for hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), a rare pediatric genetic disease. (news-medical.net)
- Digit formation is influenced by BMP4, along with other BMP signals. (gutenberg.org)
- Bone fracture healing is a complex physiological process relying on numerous cell types and signals. (springer.com)
- Soluble osteogenic molecular signals and the induction of bone formation. (naver.com)
- Treatments thus far involve the use of frames to stabilize bone and of osteo-inductive agents (such as BMP) to increase the amount of bone deposition at the site of injury. (springer.com)
- It has now been shown that noninductive materials with slow resorption profiles can work better at forming and maintaining bone than inductive materials such as maxillofacial or extremity autografts and allografts. (quintpub.com)