Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Bone Diseases, MetabolicEar Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLGrowth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Bone Marrow DiseasesArytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
Reddi AH (1995). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ... GDF6 has been shown to play an important role in the patterning of the epidermis and bone and joint formation. GDF6 induces ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... This gene is differentially regulated during the formation of various tumors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112175 - ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Effect of bone morphogenetic proteins-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human ...
BMP4 is important for bone and cartilage metabolism. The BMP4 signaling has been found in formation of early mesoderm and germ ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. This is thought that inducing osteoblastic ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... 1994). "Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo". J. Cell Biol. 126 ( ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ...
The BMP1 locus encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. Although other bone morphogenetic ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ...
Pereira RC, Economides AN, Canalis E (Dec 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins induce gremlin, a protein that limits their ... thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted ... an extracellular mechanotransducer in articular cartilage?". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (Pt 3): 456-7. doi:10.1042/ ... to induce gremlin expression which in turn is known to inhibit the induction of differentiation by bone morphogenetic proteins ...
... the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin domain of the perlecan core protein ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... "Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation". Bone. ... Others die just after birth with severe defects such as abnormal basement membrane formation, defective cephalic and long bone ...
Osteogenin (bone morphogenetic protein-3) stimulates cartilage formation by chick limb bud cells in vitro. Dev Biol 1991; 146: ... isolation and purification of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are involved in bone formation and repair. The molecular ... a bone morphogenetic protein. Matrix 1992; 12:369-80. Ripamonti U, Heliotis M, van den Heever B, Reddi AH. Bone morphogenetic ... Transitions in collagen types during matrix-induced cartilage, bone, and bone marrow formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1977; ...
... dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... Noggin activity in the mesoderm gives way to the formation of cartilage, bone and muscle growth, and in the endoderm noggin is ... dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ...
"Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... cells in the cartilage)." It was also shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis (the formation of bone resorbing cells) Harmine, and ... Bone. 49: 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.003. PMID 21504804. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Eric Yarnell; ... Rearrangements enable the formation of a Schiff base from tryptamine, which then reacts with pyruvate in II to form a β- ...
The molecular mechanism behind this process lies in the expression and repression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs ... In order to allow for the growth of precursor neural tissues, as opposed to precursor bone or cartilage tissues, BMP expression ... The formation of the neural fold is initiated by the release of calcium from within the cells. The released calcium interacts ... Anderson RM, Stottmann RW, Choi M, Klingensmith J (September 2006). "Endogenous bone morphogenetic protein antagonists regulate ...
found that C12orf60 interacts with BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4). BMP4 induces bone and cartilage formation. It also acts ... The protein product is predicted to have multiple α-helices, coiled coil, and one β-sheet. It is suggested that the protein ... Uncharacterized protein C12orf60 is a protein that in humans (Homo sapiens) is encoded by the C12orf60 gene. The gene is also ... Several other proteins might also interact with C12orf60, and some are predicted to be co-expressed with the protein. Possible ...
Sclerostin antagonizes the activity of BMP (bone morphogenetic protein), a cytokine that induces bone and cartilage formation. ... the bones showed a significant increase in bone resorption, decreased bone formation, trabecular bone loss, and loss of ... "Cartilage and Bone and Bone Histogenesis: compact bone"* =D Histology at ou.edu. ... Osteocytes synthesize sclerostin, a secreted protein that inhibits bone formation by binding to LRP5/LRP6 coreceptors and ...
For example, QSulf1 reduces specific HS 6-O sulfation which releases Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), ... The role of QSulf1 was determined in quail cartilage development and joint formation because of its association with ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
... bone and cartilage. The human tenascin C gene, TN-C, is located on chromosome 9 with location of the cytogenic band at the 9q33 ... These protein modules are lined up like beads on a string and give rise to long and extended molecules. At the N-terminus each ... Akhurst RJ, Lehnert SA, Faissner A, Duffie E (1990). "TGF beta in murine morphogenetic processes: the early embryo and ... Tenascin has an oligomerization domain which in the case of TN-C leads to the formation of hexamers. TN-C and -R are known to ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2). Some of the proteins of the BMP family are BMP4 and ... BMP4 promotes bone formation, causes cell death, or signals the formation of epidermis, depending on the tissue it is acting on ... Indian hedgehog (IHH) is expressed in the gut and cartilage, important in postnatal bone growth. Members of the Hedgehog ... Then active Smoothened protein is able to inhibit PKA and Slimb, so that the Ci protein is not cleaved. This intact Ci protein ...
1977) "Transitions in collagen types during matrix-induced cartilage, bone, and bone marrow formation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Key growth factors in endochondral skeletal differentiation include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that determine to a ... Most bone surfaces express no new bone formation, no tetracycline uptake and no mineral formation. This strongly suggests that ... The functional part of bone, the bone matrix, is entirely extracellular. The bone matrix consists of protein and mineral. The ...
... bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factors, and other tissue repair factors associated with osteoarthritis. There ... The causes are from bone degradation in which the bone is less rigid, cartilage dissipates and structure of joints becomes weak ... In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling ... Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease marked by the breakdown of cartilage between joints resulting in painful bone-to-bone ...
Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after ... This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity. It has been ... Li, Chunyi (2013). "Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells". ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ...
Limb formation begins in the morphogenetic limb field, as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate to the ... In the development of most vertebrate limbs (though not in some amphibians), the cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone later ... This model only specifies a "bare bones" pattern. Other factors like Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Hox proteins, primary ... Zhu J, Zhang YT, Alber MS, Newman SA (2010). "Bare bones pattern formation: a core regulatory network in varying geometries ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are required for neural crest cell migration into the cardiac cushions (precursors to heart ... In the pharyngeal arches the CNCCs assist in the formation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The leading cells have long ... They differentiate into melanocytes and neurons and the cartilage and connective tissue of the pharyngeal arches. They may also ... Molecules such as Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) provide signals which induce the ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity.[64] It has been ... Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after ... These species can regrow hair follicles, skin, sweat glands, fur and cartilage.[74] In addition to these two species, ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins. Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the bone ... the formation of bone from connective tissue whereas endochondral ossification involves the formation of bone from cartilage. ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... They are responsible for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. ...
They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family ... causes the formation of new muscle cell types as well as other cell types such as precursors to fat, bone and nervous system ... Cartilage is the connective tissue responsible for frictionless joint movement. Its degeneration ultimately results in complete ... using the genetic material encoding reprogramming protein factors, recombinant proteins; microRNA, a synthetic, self- ...
Structure of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ALK2 and implications for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J. Biol. ... and cartilage and bone formation, similar to the processes reported in FOP lesions (fig. S9) (17). ... FOP results from mutations in the intracellular domain of the type I BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) receptor ACVR1; the most ... The causal mutation, in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ACVR1, has been thought to boost the receptors activity, ...
Mouse anti-Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001710.1 (MBS2090573) product datasheet at ... BMP7: Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... UniProt Protein Name Bone morphogenetic protein 7 UniProt Synonym Protein Names Osteogenic protein 1; OP-1; INN: Eptotermin ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7), Monoclonal Antibody. Also Known As Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 ( ...
Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ... Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins induce the formation of new cartilage and bone at heterotopic sites. We investigated ...
Protein Function : Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of ... Protein RefSeq ,NP_001029110,bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis] ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis. Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor ... Gene Name: bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 2 Synonyms: BMP7 ( Add synonyms , Nomenclature history ) Gene Function: TGF-beta ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Analysis By Type (rhBMP-2, rhBMP-7), By Application (Spinal Fusion, Trauma, Reconstruction, ... rhBMP-2 is widely known for its high osteoinductive property for faster formation of bone and cartilage in bone fusion ... Chapter 4 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Type Estimates & Trend Analysis. 4.1 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market: Type ... Chapter 5 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Application Estimates & Trend Analysis. 5.1 Bone morphogenetic protein market: ...
... of natural cartilage; a middle-transitional zone of natural cartilage; a deep-radial zone of natural cartilage; or a calcified ... stratified cartilage tissue that comprises a tissue-engineered, cohesive cartilage construct comprised of two or more cartilage ... layers, wherein each cartilage layer comprises chondrogenic cells having a chondrocytic phenotype corresponding to chondrocytes ... Enhancement of Formation with Osteogenic Protein-1." 2.sup.nd Internantional Conference on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 2000, ...
1 OP1 increases proteoglycan synthesis and initiates formation of cartilage2 and differentiation of bone.3 4 However, recent ... Osteogenic protein-1 (OP1), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), a member of the transforming growth factor-β ( ... Differential expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in the developing vestibular and auditory sensory organs. J Neurosci. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-2212. ...
... general Apoptosis Bone morphogenetic proteins Analysis Physiological aspects Cytokines Evaluation Inflammation Osteoarthritis ... Osteoartritte kemik morfogenik protein duzeyleri.(Original Article/Orijinal Makale, Report) by Turkish Journal of Physical ... Regeneration of articular cartilage chondral defects by osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) in sheep. Growth ... 22.) Tsumaki N, Yoshikawa H. The role of bone morphogenetic proteins in endochondral bone formation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ...
... and to quantify callus formation and the mineralized area of the callus. Biomechanical testing showed a significantly higher ... In delayed bone healing secondary to infection rhBMP treatment promotes bone healing with no significant differences in the ... Results from a semiquantitative bone-healing-score revealed best bone-healing in the non-infected control group. The expected ... Further new therapeutic bone substitutes should be analyzed with the present rat model for delayed osseous union secondary to ...
Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
A developmental process is a morphologically observable event such as limb bud formation or the development of digits. ... and bone morphogenetic proteins [BMPs] [7] ); (2) cartilage identity genes (group E Sox genes, etc); and (3) chondrogenic ... Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton. Science. 1998 May 29. 280(5368):1455-7. [ ... In order to fashion a digit (or any bone/cartilage/ligament of the body), the actual tissue (bone, cartilage, etc) must first ...
Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins (431 aa) ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins ... Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins ...
The active growth factor is preferably a composition containing at least one bone morphogenetic protein and a suitable carrier ... The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. ... Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of ... Bone growth factors and inhibitors of bone resorption for promoting bone formation. ...
Rat Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP_006120.1 (MBS021022) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... This gene encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. Although other bone morphogenetic ... NCBI Protein Information. bone morphogenetic protein 1; procollagen C-proteinase; mammalian tolloid protein; procollagen C- ... Induces cartilage and bone formation. May participate in dorsoventral patterning during early development by cleaving chordin ( ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are vital for bone and cartilage formation, where bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Bone tissue engineering, Hydrogel, Micro computed tomography, Positron emission tomography, ... Non-invasive tri-modal visualisation via PET/SPECT/μCT of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 retention and ... Bone formation was monitored using micro computed tomography (μCT) scans at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 weeks. The retention of [125I] ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are critical in the formation of cartilage and bone. Osteogenic BMPs, such as BMP-2, and -7 ... Effects of SB431542 in a BMP-2 induced bone formation model. As an alternative method for inducing bone formation, PDLLA ... Modeling bone morphogenetic protein and bisphosphonate combination therapy in wild-type and Nf1 haploinsufficient mice. J ... which contains an endochondral bone formation component. Again, no significant increase was observed in bone formation with ...
Sánchez-Duffhues G, Hiepen C, Knaus P and Ten Dijke P: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in bone homeostasis. Bone. 80:43-59 ... cartilage formation and angiopoiesis, and recent studies have shown that BMP9 is the strongest inducer of osteogenic ... Poon B, Kha T, Tran S and Dass CR: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone therapy: Successes and pitfalls. J Pharm Pharmacol. 68 ... The color bar indicates the BMD from low (green) to high (red). BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; bone mineral density (BMD). ...
Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis.. Synonyms: OP-1, Bone morphogenetic protein 7, BMP-7, Osteogenic ... Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Antibodies show synonyms for this antigen * bmp-7 ... Images for product: anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) (AA 305-345) antibody ...
Distinct roles of type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors in the formation and differentiation of cartilage. Genes Dev. ... Bone. Formation by autoinduction. Science. 1965;150:893-899. [PubMed]. 15. Wozney JM. The bone morphogenetic protein family and ... Organogenesis and pattern formation in the mouse: RNA distribution patterns suggest a role for bone morphogenetic protein-2A ( ... Identification of type I receptors for osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-4. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16985-16988 ...
Reddi AH (1995). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ... GDF6 has been shown to play an important role in the patterning of the epidermis and bone and joint formation. GDF6 induces ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ...
Bone morphogenic factors,bone morphogenic proteins,BMPs,rhBMP-7,BMP-2,BMP-2,BMP-2A,BMP-7,BMP-7,Osteogenic protein-1,OP-1,rhBMP- ... 7,Dibotermin alfa,Dibotermin alfa,Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (human recombinant rhBMP-2) ... bone morphogenic proteins; BMPs. Literature References: Multifunctional cytokines that induce formation of cartilage and bone; ... Title: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. Additional Names: Bone morphogenic factors; ...
BMPs were originally identified as protein regulators of cartilage and bone formation. They are also involved in embryogenesis ... Immunogen: Purified, E. coli-derived, recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3b (rhBMP-3b). ... BMP3b staining paraffin-embedded human cartilage. HRP-DAB reagents (brown color) were used for the detection. ... BMP3b staining paraffin-embedded human cartilage. HRP-DAB reagents (brown color) were used for the detection. ...
Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of ... a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) was evaluated. Once serum conditions compatible with growth were re- ... Furthermore SMDCs formed bone and cartilage tissues in vivo when placed inside of diffusion chambers and in demineralized bone ... recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein)-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were ...
... which are involved in inducing cartilage and bone formation, embryogenesis and morphogenesis of various tissues and organs. In ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, Osteogenin, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (Osteogenic), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3A, BMP-3A, BMP ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3, BMP3A, BMP3.. Introduction. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) is one of the BMPs, some of which ... BMP-3 protein was lyophilized from a 0.2µm filtered concentrated solution in 30% Acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA. ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins in the formation and repair of cartilage, bone, and joints Workshop on Skeletal Growth and ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. ... Here we show that the short ear region contains the gene for a TGF beta-related protein called bone morphogenetic protein 5 ( ... This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the ...
  • They have an important role during embryonic development on the embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Bmp5 is expressed in many skeletal precursors, different enhancers control expression in individual bones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Remarkably, we show here that different enhancers also exist for highly restricted spatial subdomains along the surface of individual skeletal structures, including ribs and nasal cartilages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transgenic, null, and regulatory mutations confirm that these anatomy-specific sequences are sufficient to trigger local changes in skeletal morphology and are required for establishing normal growth rates on separate bone surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Individual enhancers in BMP genes provide a genomic mechanism for controlling precise growth domains in particular cartilages and bones, making it possible to separately regulate skeletal anatomy at highly specific locations in the body. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We hope to develop a family of bone growth factor or BMP/TGF-b (bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta)-binding materials that can be employed in clinical situations where there is a need to retain the growth factors at the skeletal site where they are implanted in order to enhance their activity and promote bone growth and the successful integration of bone grafts or artificial joints into the skeleton. (grantome.com)
  • Ferretti, J., "Perspectives of pQct Technology Associated To Biomechanical Studies in Skeletal Research Employing Rat Models," Bone (1995) 17:353S-364S. (patentgenius.com)
  • Bone remodeling is a normal physiological process that maintains skeletal integrity after skeletal development by removing small foci of damaged or effete bone from bone surfaces and replacing them with new bone ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We have recently been most interested in the activity of overlapping BMP antagonists in development of the axial skeleton, where BMP signaling must first be prevented to allow formation of the skeletal precursors, and then permitted to permit the differentiation of these precursors ( 13 ). (berkeley.edu)
  • Dynamic imaging of the growth plate cartilage reveals multiple contributors to skeletal morphogenesis Nat Commun. (usc.edu)
  • The alveolar bone proper is 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick and is consisted of a Harversian system and lamellated and bundle bone. (periobasics.com)
  • The need for an optimal crown-implant ratio similar to the dentate-crown root ratio is discredited biomechanically, but aligning alveolar restoration of the segmental alveolar bone continues to be thought of as favorable for gingival alveolar bone health. (quintpub.com)
  • Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. (springeropen.com)
  • The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. (springeropen.com)
  • Moreover, when the alveolar bone defect is large, several bone grafts are necessary. (medsci.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of an allogeneic bone matrix (ABM) Grafton® to regenerate new bone, new cementum, and a new periodontal ligament around teeth previously contaminated by bacterial plaque. (biohorizons.com)
  • Dr. Petrigliano's surgical interests include arthroscopic shoulder repair, knee ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair and transplantation, and elbow ligament reconstruction. (usc.edu)
  • However, the expansion of monolayers can cause rapid chondrocyte dedifferentiation, leading to loss of the original cell phenotype [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They induce the expression of osteoblast phenotype (i.e. increase in alkaline phosphatise activity in bone cells). (periobasics.com)
  • The composition comprises an osteogenic protein, a calcium phosphate material as a carrier, and an effective amount of an effervescent agent. (google.ca)
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-018-9807-7 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • The global bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) market size is expected to reach over USD 644.6 million by 2024, based on a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing incidence of spinal fusion, trauma, and small bone surgeries coupled with demand for faster bone recovery are the key drivers affirming growth of BMP market. (marketresearch.com)
  • Although rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 are used in the treatment of a variety of bone-related conditions including spinal fusions and nonunions, the risks of this off-label treatment are not understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is "little debate or controversy" about the effectiveness of rhBMP-2 to grow bone to achieve spinal fusions, and Medtronic generates $700 million in annual sales from their product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant BMP-2 is under clinical investigation for treatment of bone degeneration diseases, spinal injuries, and orthodontic pathologies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Researchers are moving closer to a new approach for improving spinal fusion procedures and repairing broken or defective bones that avoids an over-production of bone that commonly occurs in current treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry Bone and cartilage formation while in the spinal columns were assayed by Alizarin Red S Toluidine Blue staining. (topoisomerasesignaling.com)
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated that the BMP-2 protein can enhance spinal fusion. (thejns.org)
  • Although autogenous bone is the most widely used graft material for spinal fusion, demineralized bone matrix preparations are available as alternatives or supplements to autograft. (biohorizons.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three different commercially available demineralized bone matrix products for inducing spinal fusion in an athymic rat model. (biohorizons.com)
  • Comparative clinical testing of demineralized bone matrices is indicated in order to determine which preparations are best suited for promoting successful spinal fusion in humans. (biohorizons.com)
  • Radiographic knee chondrocalcinosis was present if there was definite linear cartilage calcification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 34 OPG-deficient mice develop severe medial and intimal arterial calcification in conjunction with high-turnover osteoporosis driven by excessive osteoclast formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to identify novel eggshell proteins by examining the transcriptome of the uterus during calcification of the eggshell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A developmental process is a morphologically observable event such as limb bud formation or the development of digits. (medscape.com)
  • The AER and PZ work as a functional unit responsible for the outgrowth of the limb along the proximodistal axis, and the marginal blood vessel may convey messenger proteins that integrate this process. (medscape.com)
  • The underlying morphogenetic process was structurally and molecularly similar to the temporal and spatial progression of limb bone development in embryos. (pnas.org)
  • It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins , is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb development and fracture repair. (gutenberg.org)
  • in muscle-less limbs, tendons develop in the autopod but do not extend into the zeugopod, and in the absence of limb cartilage the zeugopod segments of tendons develop despite the absence of tendons in the autopod. (biologists.org)
  • The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in primary osseous tumors (n=15) with a potential of osteogenesis and/or chondrogenesis was re-evaluated by using a recently characterized monoclonal antibody raised by using rhBMP-2 as an immunogen in a streptavidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GEP was highly expressed in rapidly cycling epithelial cells such as cells in the immune system and in the nerve system ( 1 - 4 , 6 ), as well as in cartilage cells ( 7 ). (ijbs.com)
  • BMP has reported outstanding results over bone graft, such as lack of donor morbidity, extensive surgical procedure, higher recovery time, pain & numbness, and high cost. (marketresearch.com)
  • In theory, the BMP-binding properties of cBBP make it an ideal candidate for a BMP carrier in SBGS (synthetic bone graft substitutes). (grantome.com)
  • Our long-term objective is to develop less expensive, more effective synthetic bone graft substitutes for use in orthopedic applications. (grantome.com)
  • Long-term studies have determined implant success in sinus floor bone graft settings. (quintpub.com)
  • It remains uncertain, however, how much of a role sinus graft directed osseointegration has compared with residual bone implant osseointegration. (quintpub.com)
  • 52 58 Bone has been shown to form in the sinus bone graft by migration from the sinus floor into an osteoconductive scaffold. (quintpub.com)
  • Pluripotent cells in the sinus membrane also participate in bone formation such that the entire periphery of the graft consolidates in advance of the central portion of the graft. (quintpub.com)
  • (quintpub.com)
  • Despite the material used and the technique employed, the primary determinant of bone formation in the sinus floor is by early vascularization of the graft matrix. (quintpub.com)
  • Space maintenance is required for sinus bone graft consolidation to occur. (quintpub.com)
  • The proven clinical success of Grafton DBM in multiple forms gives clinicians the ideal bone graft for the specific application. (biohorizons.com)
  • Treatments thus far involve the use of frames to stabilize bone and of osteo-inductive agents (such as BMP) to increase the amount of bone deposition at the site of injury. (springer.com)
  • It has now been shown that noninductive materials with slow resorption profiles can work better at forming and maintaining bone than inductive materials such as maxillofacial or extremity autografts and allografts. (quintpub.com)
  • Thus, dysregulation of such protein, which regulates embryogenesis or organogenesis may cause tumorigenesis and metastasis. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, the field of regenerative medicine has shown promising developments in the repair of damaged cartilage. (hindawi.com)