Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.FuraldehydePleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.GlyoxalRadioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Fluids and Secretions: Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.ArthritisBlood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Radicular Cyst: Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)KetosesElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Milk, HumanChromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Dentigerous Cyst: Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Asclepiadaceae: The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Accidents, AviationFibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Clopenthixol: A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
  • The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. (mit.edu)
  • However little work has been done in describing fluid dynamics, and specifically the shear rates. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Notably, alterations in blood flow dynamics and interactions between blood proteins and biomaterial surface chemistry may lead to the formation of thrombus. (aps.org)
  • The aim of the course is to survey and discuss the role of fluid dynamics and turbulence on particle formation processes in crystallization and precipitation with a particular focus on primary nucleation, growth and aggregation. (cism.it)
  • The role of fluid dynamics and turbulence in crystallization and precipitation processes is crucial as it affects the creation and redistribution of supersaturation through mixing, it influences the local nucleation rate and gives an important contribution in determining the final nucleation and growth rates. (cism.it)
  • Secondary processes are also strongly influenced by fluid dynamics. (cism.it)
  • In particular, mechanistic models, computational fluid dynamics and population balances (including the method of classes and the method of moments) have been widely applied to investigate the elementary subprocesses (macro-, meso-, micro-mixing, chemical reaction, nucleation, growth and aggregation of particles), trying to characterize the corresponding time constants (which must be known to provide proper modeling and scale- up of the overall process). (cism.it)
  • In particular, homogeneous models will be compared with computational fluid dynamics models, highlighting potentials and limitations. (cism.it)
  • We investigated the effect of progressive haemodilution on the dynamics of fibrin clot formation and clot microstructure using a novel rheological method. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • This would lead to developing a process to enhance the physicochemical properties of bagasse fibres and hence the dewatering process.J. This paper describes an approach that would utilise surface chemistry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to improve our understanding of bagasse pulp dewatering process. (scribd.com)
  • Results of comprehensive particle image velocimetry measurements investigating the dynamics of turbulent jets in a rotating fluid are presented. (cambridge.org)
  • The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). (springer.com)
  • Due to the practical importance of such effects, efforts have been made to understand how fluid flow and mixing impact on the overall crystallization/precipitation process (considering, for instance, reactive crystallisation/precipitation and antisolvent crystallization/ precipitation with supercritical fluids applied as the antisolvents). (cism.it)
  • The use of supercritical fluids, such as CO2, for polymer foam formation has become popular in the last decade. (scirp.org)
  • For example, transported particulate solids from the formation may clog a wellbore, limiting or completely stopping production of the fluid. (google.com)
  • and continuously circulating the drilling fluid during the drilling of the wellbore. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Reducing drilling fluid pressure invasion into the wall of a borehole is one of the most important factors in maintaining wellbore stability. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Parameters of the reservoir formation in the mathematical model are adjusted in order to provide for consistency of at least one quantitative physical characteristic of the wellbore-reservoir system obtained by means of modeling with the same quantitative physical characteristic obtained by registration, and properties of the reservoir and of the produced fluids are determined as parameters providing for consistency. (justia.com)
  • Artificial lift is an operation aimed at enhancement of production of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by means of creating a negative differential pressure between the reservoir and the wellbore, and then-between the bottomhole zone of the well and the surface in such a way as to first induce inflow of the fluid from the reservoir into the well and then to force out these fluids to the surface. (justia.com)
  • Analytical models of the response function were considered for various "well-reservoir" configurations: a linear source, a well with consideration of compressibility of the wellbore and a zone of local permeability reduction in an infinite homogeneous reservoir layer, a well with a hydraulically fractured formation, dual porosity reservoirs, or composite reservoirs with consideration of compressibility of the wellbore and the zone of local permeability reduction. (justia.com)
  • The composition of the present invention comprises a wellbore fluid having dispersed therein a fluid loss control agent comprising a polyester polymer. (google.com.au)
  • Although IL-7Rα is mainly expressed in T cells, IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) is able to be expressed in CD19-positive B cells and monocytes of synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) in RA patients. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions These finding suggest that IL-7 may directly affect monocyte differentiation in osteoclast cells in inflammatory condition, such as synovial fluid of RA, and blocking IL-7 or IL-7Rα as therapy may give a new pathway to treatment of bone erosion in patient with RA. (bmj.com)
  • Synovial fluid macrophages are capable of osteoclast formation and resorption. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As inflammatory synovial fluids contain an increase in the number of macrophages and an increase in the amounts of RANKL, TNFalpha and IL-1alpha, these findings suggest that one means whereby bone erosions may form in rheumatoid or crystal arthritis is by differentiation of synovial fluid macrophages into osteoclasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The shrinkage that takes place in the residual wall is affected by the rheological changes in the polymer caused by temperature change and also by the thermal properties of the penetration fluid. (hindawi.com)
  • The void formation occurred due to the different temperature distribution and volumetric shrinkage in the direction of the residual wall in the curved area with a hollow section. (hindawi.com)
  • The minerals will be analyzed with a mass spectrometer to find the δ 18 O values, which can determine the fluid source and approximate the temperature at which the alteration took place. (beloit.edu)
  • 6) Fluid loss: It should exhibit a very low fluid loss (preferably under one cc.) even when contaminated and upon being heated to an elevated temperature. (google.co.uk)
  • At room temperature the fluid inclusions are liquid-rich, with 20 volume % bubble (B20 inclusions). (edu.au)
  • The polymer degrades in the presence of water at an elevated temperature to form small molecules which are soluble in a fluid in the subterranean formation. (google.com.au)
  • Therefore, knowledge of flowback water/rock interactions is important to understand the changes within the formation and effects on hydraulic fracturing performance. (onepetro.org)
  • Therefore, if flowback water without any treatment is reused in hydraulic fracturing, formation damage is more likely to occur from blockage of pores. (onepetro.org)
  • From the viewpoint of the acoustics, the response function coincides with lumped hydraulic impedance of the formation in the zone of its adjoining to the well. (justia.com)
  • As distinct from the standard harmonic tests, the suggested method pertains to a higher frequency range (10-100 Hz) and estimates the response function of the formation indirectly, through its hydraulic resistance at the measurement point, for example, at the intake of the electric submersible pump. (justia.com)
  • Background information on production for the three major categories of hydraulic fluids that are the subject of this profile is summarized below. (cdc.gov)
  • Most hydraulic fluid products involve special formulations or mixtures marketed under specific trade names. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, many of the constituent chemicals used in hydraulic fluids appear in a variety of other products or applications ranging from lubricants to plasticizers. (cdc.gov)
  • Since hydraulic fluids have not been viewed as the most serious forms of toxicants or site contaminants, there are as yet no reporting requirements for the Toxics Release Inventory (EPA 1995) for hydraulic fluids or any of the major chemical constituents in the three categories of hydraulic fluids discussed below or listed in Tables 3-l through 3-3. (cdc.gov)
  • Mineral Oil Hydraulic Fluids. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact nature of each of these additives appears to be trade secret information since none of the Material Safety Data Sheets describing the hydraulic fluids presented in this profile identify these materials. (cdc.gov)
  • Mineral oil hydraulic fluids are not listed on the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), so a listing of manufacturing sites cannot be generated from this inventory. (cdc.gov)
  • Much of the publicly available information on mineral oil-based hydraulic fluid production derives from surveys conducted in the late 1970s so it is often difficult to determine which facilities or companies presently carry out significant production activities. (cdc.gov)
  • B. Ott and G. Caneba, "Solubility of Supercritical CO 2 in Polystyrene during Foam Formation via Statistical Associated Fluid Theory (SAFT) Equation of State," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering , Vol. 9 No. 5, 2010, pp. 411-426. (scirp.org)
  • and more particularly the present invention relates to injecting a mixture of oxidizing gas and steam into a lateral conduit in a partially depleted petroleum-containing formation to produce a combustible product gas. (google.com)
  • Friction reducers or other additives present in fluids can cause further formation damage. (onepetro.org)
  • In the proposed lubrication mechanism the agarose fluid gel micro particles under specific conditions of entrainment velocity U, normal load W and elasticity E, interact with the lubricating surfaces, resulting in a localised increase in friction. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, the solids being transported may substantially increase fluid friction, thereby increasing pumping requirements, and may cause significant wear in production equipment, particularly in the pumps and seals used in the production process. (google.com)
  • unwanted influxes of formation fluids from permeable rocks penetrated and also often to form a thin, low permeability filter cake which temporarily seals pores, other openings and formations penetrated by the bit. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The lateral connecting hole is packed with a permeable material so that the connecting hole has a permeability in excess that of the underground formation. (google.com)
  • Osteoclast formation and lacunar resorption was seen in RANKL-treated cultures of SF macrophages isolated from OA, RA and PPA joints with the largest amount of resorption noted in RA and PPA SF macrophage cultures. (ox.ac.uk)
  • M-CSF in combination with RANKL or TNFalpha/IL-1alpha was required for osteoclast formation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Discussions of the operations of injection of fluids into, and withdrawal from, geological formations link the chapters, each devoted to a particular technical aspect or scientific issue, or to a particular energy resource. (springer.com)
  • Fluid Injection in Deformable Geological Formations will be of interest to academic and industrial researchers in a wide variety of fields, including computational mechanics, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics, engineering seismology, petroleum engineering, reservoir engineering, and engineering geology. (springer.com)
  • In fluid-assisted injection molding, the distribution of the residual wall thickness on the inside and outside of the curved area is different, and void is formed due to the effect of the shrinkage on the outside where the residual wall thickness is thicker. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, the different effects on void formation in residual wall during fluid-assisted injection molding were analyzed, and water and silicone oil that had different thermal properties were used for the fluids. (hindawi.com)
  • After i.p. injection, peaks approached 3 mM in both fluids. (pnas.org)
  • and withdrawing the instrument following the injection with said fluid remaining within the eye such that the drug has a therapeutic effect on the eye. (google.se)
  • The Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir is now in Period B of the mesodiagenesis, which has undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as mechanical compaction, Pore-lining chlorite cement, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation and dissolution, and carbonate cementation. (springer.com)
  • Three types of carbonate cements (early siderite, medium ferrocalcite and late ankerite) were identified in the Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the model is useful for fluid identification, which is one of the most outstanding problems for carbonate reservoir description. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • A wide range of agarose concentration was studied (1% to 4%) resulting in fluid gel particles having different values of elasticity E, ranging from 5 kPa to 140 kPa, which were shown to alter their tribological behaviour, modifying the critical velocity required to induce entrainment of the particles, Uentr. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Fluid gel systems of the same elasticity E but of different particles sizes were also investigated. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The size of individual particles or molecular units is a function of formation conditions (e.g., pH, ionic strength, nano-confinement, solute composition) in the hydrated layer. (osti.gov)
  • Precipitation is instead defined as the rapid formation through a chemical reaction of insoluble solid particles from a liquid solution, often under high supersaturation conditions. (cism.it)
  • When flowback of proppant occurs, the proppant particles become undesirable contaminants in the manner of any undesired formation particulate solids, since they can cause the same operational difficulties. (google.com)
  • However, because of complex interactions between injected water and reservoir rocks, induced fractures may be blocked by impurities carried by flowback and mineral precipitation by water/rock interactions, which causes formation damage. (onepetro.org)
  • This study shows that a simple filtration process applied to the flowback water allows for reinjection of the flowback water without further complication to the water/rock interaction, and does not cause significant formation damage in the fractures. (onepetro.org)
  • The addition of specific fibrous, platelet, and/or fibrous and platelet compositions in mixtures with particulates for or during well treatment procedures such as fracturing and gravel packing decreases or eliminates the undesirable transport or flowback of proppant or formation particulates. (google.com)
  • Undesired transport or flowback of formation or particulate solids during the production of oil or other fluids from a subterranean formation can be a serious problem in production operations. (google.com)
  • In some instances, undesired particulate flowback may be the result, not of formation characteristics, such as a lack of consolidation, but of the flowback of proppant utilized in a fracturing operation. (google.com)
  • A method for recovering hydrocarbons by injecting a mixture of oxidizing gas and steam into a lateral conduit in a hydrocarbon-containing formation to produce a product gas and, based on values contained in such gas, controlling the reactions between mixtures of oxidizing gas and steam and hydrocarbons. (google.com)
  • controlling the reactions between the mixtures of oxidizing gas and steam and the petroleum in the formation to optimize production of product gas in the formation. (google.com)
  • Huang, S.H. and M. Radosz, Equation of State for Small, Large, Polydisperse, and Associating Molecules: Extension to Fluid Mixtures. (scirp.org)
  • However, in patients with fluid-retaining states, such as congestive heart failure and end-stage renal disease, both prevalence and severity of SA are increased. (frontiersin.org)
  • What is the mechanism of pleural fluid formation in congestive heart failure (CHF)? (pearls4peers.com)
  • The formation of fluid gels in a rheometer, using well-defined, flow patterns and cooling rates have been described. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) was used to characterise flow phenomena occurring in a pin stirrer heat exchanger for a 1 Pa s glycerol solution and a 2% agar fluid gel. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Experiments were conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratio (~200,000 m-1) and 90 °C in the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus for 1.5-years to facilitate the formation of thick altered layers and allow for the effluent solution chemistry to be monitored continuously. (osti.gov)
  • A model for the time-dependent flow of CO2-saturated fluid through a leaky well is presented. (rjlg.com)
  • This difference is created by the direction of the flow of blood and the imbalance in solutes created by the net movement of water favoring the tissue fluid. (bionity.com)
  • The vortex flow-dependent feature of SMC alignment suggests a role for nonuniform fluid shear stress in regulating the pattern formation of SMCs. (northwestern.edu)
  • Although abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow has been implicated in the development of idiopathic scoliosis 2 , the molecular mechanisms operating downstream of CSF flow remain obscure. (nature.com)
  • Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature. (nature.com)
  • Cilia-driven fluid flow in the zebrafish pronephros, brain and Kupffer's vesicle is required for normal organogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Formation of lipoidal steroids in follicular fluid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The presence of high levels of lipoidal pregnenolone in follicular fluid has recently been established although no evidence has been presented concerning its possible origin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our observations indicated that pregnenolone, an important precursor steroid, was acylated at a similar rate as cholesterol in follicular fluid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similar studies were subsequently conducted with serum obtained from a pool of normal women and women undergoing follicular stimulation which showed little difference to the results obtained in follicular fluid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further studies using dehydroepiandrosterone, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, estradiol and dihydrotestosterone were were also performed to monitor their respective lipoidal conversion percentages in follicular fluid which revealed a marked difference of conversion rates between steroids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The indirect identification of the lipoidal pregnenolone derivatives formed in follicular fluid was also conducted by incubating radiolabelled pregnenolone in follicular fluid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. (plos.org)
  • Pelzer ES, Allan JA, Theodoropoulos C, Ross T, Beagley KW, Knox CL (2012) Hormone-Dependent Bacterial Growth, Persistence and Biofilm Formation - A Pilot Study Investigating Human Follicular Fluid Collected during IVF Cycles. (plos.org)
  • first reported the presence of bacteria within follicular fluid that had been collected at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval. (plos.org)
  • In addition, in our recent study, we isolated numerous microorganisms from follicular fluid. (plos.org)
  • The microorganisms were present as asymptomatic colonizers or as contaminants that were introduced into the follicular fluid at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval . (plos.org)
  • This observation prompted our current study to investigate follicular fluid as a medium to support the growth of microorganisms. (plos.org)
  • We also hypothesised that microorganisms present in human follicular fluids could persist over time and form biofilms in the ovarian follicular fluid. (plos.org)
  • Thirty-six follicular fluid specimens were randomly selected for testing and included equal numbers of clear and blood-stained fluids. (plos.org)
  • follicular fluid the fluid in a developing ovarian follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2017 ). Specifically, Bakken and Eagle Ford contributed for more than 80% of total US oil production from these tight formations (Yu et al. (springer.com)
  • ICTFE 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Thermal and Fluids Engineering . (waset.org)
  • ICFE 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Fluids Engineering . (waset.org)
  • Formation fluid refers to the naturally occurring liquids and gases contained in geologic formations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most of the previous studies in this area recommended that CO 2 would be the best EOR technique to improve oil recovery in these formations, pilot tests showed that natural gases performance clearly exceeds CO 2 performance in the field scale. (springer.com)
  • Secondly, different molar-diffusivity rates for miscible gases have been simulated to find the diffusivity level in the field scale by matching the performance for some EOR pilot tests which were conducted in Bakken formation of North Dakota, Montana, and South Saskatchewan. (springer.com)
  • Accordingly, the rich and lean gases have shown a better performance to enhance oil recovery in these tight formations. (springer.com)
  • Gelation of hydrocolloids under shear conditions results in a weak gel which is capable of sustaining elastic mechanical deformation at small strains but which flows if subjected to higher deformations (fluid gels). (bham.ac.uk)
  • In Tahe Oilfield, the elastic properties of different fluid zones indicate that bulk modulus and Young's modulus are more sensitive to fluid than shear modulus, the Lame constant, and Poisson's ratio. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that, in experimental models with vascular polymer implants designed for the observation of neointima formation and SMC migration under defined fluid shear stress, nonuniform shear stress possibly plays a role in regulating the direction of SMC migration and alignment in the neointima of the vascular implant. (northwestern.edu)
  • It was found that fluid shear stress inhibited cell growth, and the presence of nonuniform shear stress influenced the distribution of total cell density and induced the formation of cell density gradients, which in turn directed SMC migration and alignment. (northwestern.edu)
  • In contrast, uniform fluid shear stress in a control model influenced neither the distribution of total cell density nor the direction of SMC migration and alignment. (northwestern.edu)
  • These observations suggest that nonuniform shear stress may regulate the pattern formation of SMCs, possibly via mediating the gradient of cell density in the neointima of vascular polymer implants. (northwestern.edu)
  • The course delivers a comprehensive overview of mixing and fluid mechanics effects on particle primary nucleation and aggregation for crystallization processes and hence will be particularly attractive to graduate students, PhD candidates, young researchers and faculty members in applied physics and (chemical, mechanical) engineering. (cism.it)
  • 2014. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling. (springer.com)
  • Combination of field measurements of chemical composition and oxidative potential with model simulation can provide critical insights into ROS formation by ambient particulate matter in the human respiratory tract. (healtheffects.org)
  • The composition of tissue fluid depends upon the exchanges between the cells in the tissue and the blood . (bionity.com)
  • This means that tissue fluid has a different composition in different tissues and in different areas of the body. (bionity.com)
  • The composition of geothermal fluids vary with their setting, which can directly impact the capacity for metal transport and deposition. (beloit.edu)
  • Composition of fluids accompanied melts differentiation within the mantle and crust has also been described. (uran.ua)
  • Metatonality Dnepropetrovsk complex and age stages of their formation (geological setting, composition of Shrimp radiology. (uran.ua)
  • It's one of nature's universal principles governing the shape of solute spreading and it can be used to optimize results in many industries that deal with chemicals dissolved in fluid flows. (phys.org)
  • The team, including graduate students Manuchehr Aminian and Francesca Bernardi, and postdoctoral scholar Daniel Harris, has revealed one of nature's universal principles governing how fluids spread solute in microfluidic environments. (phys.org)
  • Pre-Main Stage brines were not likely involved in Main Stage vein formation, and the role of pre-Main Stage vapor in the formation of Main Stage veins is not known. (edu.au)
  • He has especially focused on the couplings of thermal, hydraulical, electrical, chemical and mechanical natures that are ubiquitous in fluid saturated porous media. (springer.com)
  • Both surface tension and contact angle have a direct influence on capillary pressure, which is the main driving force for fluid penetration into the porous media. (onepetro.org)
  • A particular area of expertise is the formation of nanostructures in silicon and porous silicon using a variety of chemical and laser-based techniques. (wiley.com)
  • Osteoclast differentiation was assessed by expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin receptor (VNR), F-actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Respiratory particle deposition can lead to the release of ROS in the epithelial lining fluid due to catalytic reactions cycles of redox-active components including soluble transition metal ions and organic compounds with lung antioxidants. (healtheffects.org)
  • The extrathoracic region was found to have higher ROS concentrations compared to the bronchial and alveolar regions due to higher particle deposition into epithelial fluid with lower volume. (healtheffects.org)
  • Understanding the fluid involved in sodic-calcic alteration is crucial to understanding element mobility and deposition in metasomatism processes. (beloit.edu)