Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Nitroso CompoundsEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.CitrullineCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Indazoles4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.OxadiazolesExhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Mice, Inbred C57BLTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.HydrazinesGraphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.DiethylaminesTumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.QuinoxalinesAmidinesVascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Manganese Compounds: Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.PurinonesIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
"Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... PGI2, prostacyclin, binds to IP receptors that catalyze cAMP formation. This process is mediated via GTP-binding protein Gs and ... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ...
... oxide and water resulted in formation of phenylacetic acid. Similarly, treatment with silver (I) oxide and ammonia formed ... Small and medium cyclic substrates are constrained in the s-cis conformation. When the α-diazo ketone is in the s-cis ... In this last case, the reaction is sensitive to the transition metal; silver (I) oxide or other Ag(I) catalysts work well and ... Another common use is in ring-contraction methods; if the α-diazo ketone is cyclic, the Wolff rearrangement results in a ring- ...
... is a cyclic diketone used in organic chemistry to determine whether a compound contains an aldehyde group. ... Dimedone is prepared from mesityl oxide and diethyl malonate. Dimedone usually comes in the form of white crystals. It is ... Cyclohexanediones in general can be used as catalysts in the formation of transition-metal complexes. Other uses include ...
Cyclic amine oxides (5, 7-10-membered nitrogen containing rings) can also undergo internal syn elimination to yield acyclic ... The reaction begins with the formation of a selenophosphonium salt which reacts with the alcohol to form an oxaphosphonium salt ... and subjected to high temperatures for thermal syn elimination of the β-hydrogen and amine oxide through a cyclic transition ... oxide shows how conformational effects and the stability of the transition state affect product composition for cyclic ...
Diacetone alcohol, mesityl oxide, and 3-hydroxy-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexan-1-one are intermediates. A side product is β- ... Isophorone is an α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketone. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic peppermint-like odor, although ... The formation of HH photodimers is favored over HT photodimers with increasing polarity of the medium. Isophorone is produced ... Epoxidation with basic hydrogen peroxide affords the oxide. Isophorone is degrade by attack of hydroxyl radicals. When exposed ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation upon electrical field stimulation cause relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. ... While studying cyclic GMP, Ignarro read a paper by Ferid Murad, who demonstrated that nitric oxide elevates cyclic GMP levels. ... Formation of free nitric oxide from Larginine by nitric oxide synthase: direct enhancement of generation by superoxide ... He is the founder of the Nitric Oxide Society, and founder and editor-in-chief of Nitric Oxide Biology and Chemistry.[3] ...
... of iron oxides. Some of the oldest known rock formations, formed over 3,700 million years ago, include banded iron layers. ... to the extent that the banding is assumed to result from cyclic variations in available oxygen. It is unclear whether these ... Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are ... The formations are abundant around the time of the great oxygenation event, 2,400 million years ago (mya or Ma), and become ...
Simple epoxides are often referred to as oxides. Thus, the epoxide of ethylene (C2H4) is ethylene oxide (C2H4O). Many compounds ... An intramolecular epoxide formation reaction is one of the key steps in the Darzens reaction. In the Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring. This ring approximates an equilateral triangle, which makes it strained, ... The dominant epoxides industrially are ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, which are produced respectively on the scales of ...
The oxidation of the furan ring leads to the formation of an unstable epoxide (cyclic ester with a three-atom ring), so an ... By reacting with propylene oxide, lactone (V) is formed. Decarboxylation is achieved by gently heating lactone in the presence ... Furan is heterocyclic, which means that it is cyclic, but one or more of the ring atoms is not a carbon atom. In the case of ... Via the formation of subsequently an imine, enamine and an iminium ion, a bis-GSH pyrrole adduct (18) is formed. Another ...
... stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), ... Rho-kinase also decreases nitric oxide synthase activity, which reduces nitric oxide concentrations. Lower levels of nitric ... Vrolix, M; Raeymaekers, L; Wuytack, F; Hofmann, F; Casteels, R (Nov 1, 1988). "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates ... "Nitric oxide activity is deficient in spasm arteries of patients with coronary spastic angina". Circulation. 94 (3): 266-71. ...
Zeylanoxides are cyclic thiosulfinates containing the 1,2-dithiolane-1-oxide ring, isolated from the tropical weed Sphenoclea ... Kubec, R; Kim, S; Musah, RA (2002). "S-Substituted cysteine derivatives and thiosulfinate formation in Petiveria alliacea--Part ... Asparagusic acid S-oxide and brugierol are other natural 1,2-dithiolane-1-oxides occurring in Asparagus o cinalis and Brugiera ... Z)-Butanethial S-Oxide and 1-Butenyl Thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-Butenylcysteine S-Oxide Precursor from Allium siculum". J ...
Effects on bone formation had been seen in growing, juvenile and adolescent rats. In juvenile rats, the changes consisted of ... The first nitric oxide (NO) independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator, YC-1, a synthetic benzylindazole derivative, was ... NO binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates the synthesis of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine ... Giaid A, Saleh D (July 1995). "Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary ...
When soluble it functions as a receptor for nitric oxide (NO) (see figure 1). Formation of cGMP initiates several reactions in ... Their function is to degrade intracellular second messengers such as cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine ... PDEs are enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3,5-monophospahate (cGMP), which ... cyclic guanosine monophosphate from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP). Cyclic GMP binds to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase ( ...
The formation of hydroperoxides is effected extensively by enzymes. This process is used industrially on a very large scale for ... Many epoxides are prepared using peroxides as reagents, such as the Halcon process that gives propylene oxide. The Sharpless ... This method can also yield cyclic peroxides. The four-membered dioxetanes can be obtained by 2+2 cycloaddition of oxygen to ... Drying oils, as found in many paints and varnishes function via the formation of hydroperoxides. Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, ...
... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... Nitric oxide dimer N2O2 is formed when nitric oxide is cooled. Nitric oxide reacts with acetone and an alkoxide to a ... were identified as precursors of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), an anesthetic, or ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ...
... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ... Nitrous oxide in biological systems can be formed by an enzymatic or non-enzymatic reduction of nitric oxide. In vitro studies ... Monitoring nitric oxide status by saliva testing detects the bioconversion of plant-derived nitrate into nitric oxide. A rise ...
... usually carbon-carbon bond formation from Au(I), and C-X (X = O, N) bond formation from the Au(III) state, due to that ion's ... Hong C. Shen summarized homogeneous reactions forming cyclic compounds into 4 main categories: heteroatom nucleophilic addition ... cycloaddition reactions with early example the cycloaddition of an nitrile oxide with an alkyne. Other reactions are the use of ... Homs, Anna; Escofet, Imma; Echavarren, Antonio M. "On the Silver Effect and the Formation of Chloride-Bridged Digold Complexes ...
Cyclic dienes fare better than the corresponding acyclic dienes because in order to react, the diene must be in the s-cis ... After formation of a metal enolate, dissociation of halide generates a positively charged oxyallyl intermediate. This electron- ... positions are usually required to stabilize the oxyallyl cation and prevent isomerization to cyclopropanones and allene oxides ... Reactions of cyclic dienes tend to favor the compact over the extended TS (this is particularly true for furan). In addition, ...
They suggested that it is a cyclic hydroxamic acid related to pyridine. It can be reduced to a neutral deoxyaspergillic acid, ... When aspergillic acid reactions with iron trichloride (FeCl3), there is the formation of green cupric salt. This suggests that ... Because of this, aspergillic acid has been assigned the corresponding l-oxide or tautomeric pyridine hydroxamic acid structure ... aspergillic acid is a hydroxamic acid derivative, which is also confirmed by the formation of deoxyaspergillic acid by dry ...
Thrombus formation on an intact endothelium is prevented by nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and CD39. Endothelial cells are ... Resting platelets maintain active calcium efflux via a cyclic AMP activated calcium pump. Intracellular calcium concentration ... Formation of this platelet plug (primary hemostasis) is associated with activation of the coagulation cascade with resultant ... Beale LS (1864). "On the Germinal Matter of the Blood, with Remarks upon the Formation of Fibrin". Transactions of the ...
Nitric oxide and PGI2 stimulate soluble guanylate cyclase and membrane bound adenylate cyclase, respectively. The cyclic ... The Notch receptor and cell-signaling pathway have been demonstrated to be essential to vasculogenesis and the formation of ... For example, cyclic nucleotides can relax arterial smooth muscle without reductions in crossbridge phosphorylation, a process ... The proliferation is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is inhibited by nitric oxide. The embryological ...
Five toxins have been isolated from S. scabies that induce the formation of scabs on potato tubers. They are classed as 2,5- ... It is synthesised by a protein synthetase encoded by the txtA and txtB genes, forming a cyclic dipeptide which is then ... The dipeptide is then nitrated by an enzyme similar to mammalian nitric oxide synthase at the four position on the tryptophan ... thought to be linked to the repression of the nitric oxide synthase gene involved in its synthesis. Scopoletin has been ...
It is a cyclic secondary amine, also classified as a saturated heterocycle. It is a colourless liquid that is miscible with ... It is used to activate ketones and aldehydes toward nucleophilic addition by formation of enamines: Hall, H. K. (1957). " ... Pyrrolidine is produced by treatment of 1,4-butanediol with ammonia over an oxide catalyst. Many modifications of pyrrolidine ... Relative to many secondary amines, pyrrolidine is distinctive because of its compactness, a consequence of its cyclic structure ...
... , or 1,3-propylene oxide, is an heterocyclic organic compound with the molecular formula C 3H 6O, having a four-membered ... The oxetane ring can also be formed through diol cyclization as well as through decarboxylation of a six-membered cyclic ... Collective Volume, 3, p. 835 Willenbring, Dan, and Dean J. Tantillo.. "Mechanistic possibilities for oxetane formation in the ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. C. R. Noller (1955). "Trimethylene Oxide". Organic Syntheses. 29: 92. ; ...
A pair of valence tautomers with formula C6H6O are benzene oxide and oxepin. Other examples of this type of tautomerism can be ... Tautomerizations are catalyzed by:[citation needed] bases, involving a series of steps: deprotonation, formation of a ... a cyclic form of amide-imidic acid tautomerism in 2-pyridone and derived structures such as the nucleobases guanine, thymine, ... formation of a delocalized cation, and deprotonation at a different position adjacent to the cation). Two specific further ...
Hormonal activity, such as occurs during menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne. During puberty ... and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their appearance.[61] Rare complications from acne or its ... Particles that release nitric oxide into the skin to decrease skin inflammation caused by C. acnes and the immune system have ... The earliest pathologic change is the formation of a plug (a microcomedone), which is driven primarily by excessive growth, ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ...
The understanding of the formation and biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) has grown extensively during the past two ... Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate.. Martin E1, Davis K, Bian K, Lee YC, Murad F. ... With the discoveries of the biological effects of NO and nitrovasodilators on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, with the ...
Electrostatic interactions positively regulate K-Ras nanocluster formation and function. Mol Cell Biol 28:4377-4385. doi: ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ... AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent ...
Conversely, treatment of hippocampal slices with an NO donor or cyclic guanosine monophosphate analogue induced MISs. NOS ... PSD-95 promotes synaptogenesis and multiinnervated spine formation through nitric oxide signaling. Irina Nikonenko, Bernadett ... Enhancement of nitric oxide production by association of nitric oxide synthase with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors via ... Role of NO in MIS formation. If NO is indeed responsible for MIS formation, their frequency should increase by exogenous ...
Nitric oxide (NO) formation from nitrovasodilators occurs independently of hemoglobin or non-heme iron. Eur J Pharmacol 1987; ... The released NO subsequently induces soluble guanyl cyclase, thereby increasing intracellular cyclic GMP levels (5-8). ... L-Arginine is the physiological precursor for the formation of nitric oxide in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Biochem ... Isolation of nitric oxide synthase, a calmodulin-requiring enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 682-685.. *CrossRef , ...
... reactive nitrogen oxide species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; sGC, soluble-type guanylyl cyclase; SIN-1, 3- ... Regulation by mitochondrial superoxide and NADPH oxidase of cellular formation of nitrated cyclic GMP: potential implications ... Regulation by mitochondrial superoxide and NADPH oxidase of cellular formation of nitrated cyclic GMP: potential implications ... Regulation by mitochondrial superoxide and NADPH oxidase of cellular formation of nitrated cyclic GMP: potential implications ...
In this respect nicorandil is very similar to nitrogen oxide-containing vasodilators. ... Relationship between relaxation and cyclic GMP formation caused by nicorandil in canine mesenteric artery. ... Kukovetz WR, Holzmann S, Wurm A, Pöch G (1979) Evidence for cyclic GMP-mediated relaxant effects of nitro-compounds in coronary ... Endoh M, Yamashita S, Taira N (1982) Positive inotropic effect of amrinone in relation to cyclic nucleotide metabolism in the ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1 β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of ... L-arginine stimulates cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate formation in rat islets of Langerhans and RINm5F insulinoma cells: ... Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibition, nitric oxide and hydroperoxide on insulin release induced by various ... Interleukin-1 beta effects on cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in cultured rat islets of Langerhans-arginine-dependence and ...
1991) NMDA receptor activation in rat hippocampus induces cyclic GMP formation through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. ... 1999) Autoregulation of nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic GMP signalling in mouse thoracic aorta. Br J Pharmacol ... 1991) Excitatory amino acid receptors coupled to the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in rat cerebellum during development. J ... 2001) The effects of phosphodiesterase inhibition on cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP accumulation in the hippocampus of the rat. ...
1991) NMDA receptor activation in rat hippocampus induces cyclic GMP formation through the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. ... 1995) Nitric oxide induces c-fos gene expression via cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat ... 1993) A cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene is highly expressed in the limbic system of the rat ... cyclic monophosphothioate (Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS), and Sp-adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphothioate (Sp-cAMPS) from Biolog Life; ...
... ethane dioxide with hydrogen peroxide leads to an extended crystalline network based on the formation of hydrogen bonds with ... leads to the stereoselective formation of two dioxolanes. Both cyclic peroxides have been obtained in crystalline forms ... Selective synthesis and stabilization of peroxides via phosphine oxides F. F. Arp, S. H. Ahn, N. Bhuvanesh and J. Blümel, New J ... This peroxide is stabilized by forming strong hydrogen bonds to the phosphine oxide groups within an extended network, which ...
Urine concentrations of catecholamines, arginin vasopressin and cyclic GMP Blood concentration of nitric oxide.. *Total energy ... Intravenous pamidronate prevents femoral bone loss and renal stone formation during 90-day bed rest. J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Nov ... Plasma concentrations of arginin vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, renin, endothelin, cyclic GMP and catecholamines. ... Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during ...
Nitric oxide (NO) has long been implicated in the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and other types of synaptic ... Nitric oxide (NO) has long been implicated in the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and other types of synaptic ... NMDA receptor activation in rat hippocampus induces cyclic GMP formation through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Neurosci ... 2004). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase knock-out mice show impaired cognitive performance. Nitric Oxide 10, 130-140. doi: ...
... oxide and water resulted in formation of phenylacetic acid. Similarly, treatment with silver (I) oxide and ammonia formed ... Small and medium cyclic substrates are constrained in the s-cis conformation. When the α-diazo ketone is in the s-cis ... In this last case, the reaction is sensitive to the transition metal; silver (I) oxide or other Ag(I) catalysts work well and ... Another common use is in ring-contraction methods; if the α-diazo ketone is cyclic, the Wolff rearrangement results in a ring- ...
... cyclic silicones out the door. by Canadian Chemical News; Business Business, international Chemicals, plastics and rubber ... 23) The role of the nitrogen oxide is to facilitate formation of hydroxy radicals H[O.sup.*]), which is the environmental ... Cyclic siloxanes do not fall into such a category. [D.sub.4]-[D.sub.6] have been extensively investigated for their behaviour ... APA style: Environment Canada considers banning silicones in Canada: cyclic silicones out the door.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. ...
However, transduction of c-di-AMP signaling in bacteria and the role of c-di-AMP in biofilm formation are not well understood. ... Taken together, our studies reveal a new role of c-di-AMP in mediating biofilm formation through a CabPA/VicR/GtfB signaling ... Interestingly, only CabPA deficiency inhibited both the increased biofilm formation and the upregulated expression of GtfB ... we determined that increased c-di-AMP levels by deletion of the pdeA gene coding for a PDE promoted biofilm formation in ...
Correspondingly, aspirin enhanced NO synthase activity (citrulline formation) and intracellular cyclic GMP accumulation in ... Aspirin Protects Endothelial Cells From Oxidant Damage Via the Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway. Nina Grosser, Henning Schröder ... Conclusions- Our data suggest that endothelial NO synthase is a site of action of aspirin and that the NO/cyclic GMP system ... This study investigates the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in antioxidant cellular protection induced by aspirin. ...
Correspondingly, aspirin enhanced NO synthase activity (citrulline formation) and intracellular cyclic GMP accumulation in ... Polte T, Schröder H. Cyclic AMP mediates endothelial protection by nitric oxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998; 251: 460-465 ... Akaike T, Maeda H. Quantitation of nitric oxide using 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO). Methods ... The citrulline formation was completely depressed by the l-arginine antagonist L-NAME at 1000 μmol/L26,27⇓ (data not shown for ...
Nitric oxide modulates bacterial biofilm formation through a multicomponent cyclic-di-GMP signaling network. Mol Cell 46:449- ... TrichCH4B biofilm formation.Since TSM increases NO formation by Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B and NO induces biofilm formation, we ... Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B. Minxi Rao, Brian C. Smith, Michael ... Nitric oxide regulation of cyclic di-GMP synthesis and hydrolysis in Shewanella woodyi. Biochemistry 51:2087-2099. doi:10.1021/ ...
This lead to formation of fresh oxide scales and this process continued throughout the cyclic corrosion study. The weight gain ... Afterwards, the formation of oxides depends on the penetration of oxygen through the existing oxide layers. ... Formation of a thin oxide rich layer on the surface of Cr3C2-NiCr coating and NiCrAl coating on Ni and Fe based superalloys ... Formation of oxides on the surface of MCrAlY (M=Ni or Co) based coating during hot corrosion in presence of sulphate film is ...
Peaks correspond to oxide formation (*), oxide reduction (**), H+ adsorption (◊◊), and H+ desorption (◊) on Pt metal surfaces ... B) Cyclic voltammograms recorded in diluted sulfuric acid (pH 0.9) during a uniaxial stretch cycle to 45% strain. Cyclic ... 3, A and B). Cyclic voltammograms of the composite electrodes remained unchanged when the implant was stretched up to a strain ... The implant, the chemotrode, and the seven embedded electrodes withstood the cyclic deformation, displaying minimal variation ...
Impact on nitric oxide-mediated formation of cyclic GMP. J Biol Chem. 1993; 268: 1842-1846. ... Chronic exercise in dogs increases coronary vascular nitric oxide production and endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase gene ... the formation of intact eNOS dimers caused by both oscillatory shear stress and laminar shear was blunted and monomer formation ... critical for nitric oxide bioavailability and role in angiotensin II uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Proc Natl ...
... impact on nitric oxide-mediated formation of cyclic GMP. J Biol Chem1993;268:1842-6. ... Schobersberger W , Hoffmann G, Grote J, et al. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by neopterin in vascular ...
Inhibition of platelet function by cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases.- 8. Pharmacological ... 1. Platelet activation and aggregation: rationale for combining antithrombotic drugs.- 2. Role of nitric oxide in endothelial ... modification of platelet-derived cyclooxygenase product formation and its consequences for platelet-vessel wall interactions.- ...
... multiple research groups have observed that inhalation of nitric oxide leads to the formation of nitric oxide metabolites in ... J Cyclic Nucleotide Res 1979; 5:211-24Gruetter, CA Barry, BK McNamara, DB Gruetter, DY Kadowitz, PJ Ignarro, L ... nitric oxide), or 8% oxygen balance nitrogen supplemented with nitric oxide (Hypoxia + nitric oxide) for 60 min. * P , 0.05 ... nitric oxide), or 8% oxygen balance nitrogen supplemented with nitric oxide (Hypoxia + nitric oxide) for 60 min. * P , 0.05 ...
  • Therefore, tissue superoxide production and subsequent peroxynitrite formation exert a major influence on vascular homeostasis and NO bioavailability in both experimental models and human disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Rat studies demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) decreases both the production and bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). L-arginine (LA) provides the precursor for the production of NO. We hypothesized that LA dietary supplementation will preserve NO production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) causing renal microvascular vasodilation and increased glomerular blood flow and thus increasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (hindawi.com)
  • While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. (jove.com)
  • The inhibitory actions of TNF + LPS are mediated by the intraislet production and release of IL-1 followed by IL-1-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by β cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase, found in Müller cells and in retinal pigment epithelium, may be involved in normal phagocytosis of the retinal outer segment, in infectious and ischemic processes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most inflammatory diseases are associated with an increase of the inducible form of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, three metal complexes of 3-benzoyl-7-methoxycoumarin (L1) were synthesized and characterized using UV/ Vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal studies, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 HNMR), cyclic voltammetric analysis and antimicrobial activities with the aim of studying the nature of the chelating characteristics of the coumarin ligand with the metals. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Special potential scan programs were designed for cyclic voltammetric development of β-NiOOH or γ-NiOOH/ β-NiOOH mixtures on the surface of nickel or nickel-chromium (80:20) alloy electrodes in NaOH 0.10 M. The programs consisted on changing the anodic or cathodic switching limit to facilitate the chemical reactions taking place either between Ni(II) hydroxides or between Ni(III) oxides-hydroxides. (scirp.org)
  • The released NO subsequently induces soluble guanyl cyclase, thereby increasing intracellular cyclic GMP levels ( 5-8 ). (wiley.com)
  • Bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a soluble molecule that functions as a second messenger in bacteria ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Excitatory amino acids, including glutamate, can bind to specific receptors subtypes [ N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) and kainate] on neurons to stimulate the release of nitric oxide. (physiology.org)
  • Thus the release of nitric oxide via activation of nNOS represents a major pathway for the control of cerebral arteriolar diameter and cerebral blood flow. (physiology.org)
  • A dietary supplement includes resveratrol in a therapeutically effective amount to permit release of nitric oxide (NO) during sexual stimulation and at least one polyphenol in a therapeutically effective amount to inhibit formation of type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE-5). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We and others have shown that the cellular mechanism by which IL-1 mediates an inhibitory effect on islet function and induces islet destruction involves the expression of iNOS 3 and the increased production of nitric oxide ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Treatment of rat islets with IL-1 results in a time-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion that is associated with a similar time-dependent production of nitric oxide ( 8 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In most instances, this is accompanied by the induction of iNOS activity and the subsequent production of nitric oxide in both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Treatment of pancreatic islets with interleukin 1 (IL-1) results in a time-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the metabolism of L-arginine to nitric oxide. (biochemj.org)
  • In this report IL-1 beta is shown to induce the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in a time-dependent fashion that mimics the time-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion by IL-1 beta. (biochemj.org)
  • The formation of cGMP does not appear to mediate the inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta on insulin secretion since a concentration of cycloheximide (1 microM) that blocks IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nitric oxide formation does not prevent cGMP accumulation, thus dissociating the two events. (biochemj.org)
  • Platelet inhibition is important to prevent thrombotic episodes or the formation of blood clot and consequently preventing heart attacks and strokes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2 ⇓ This effect is considered to be attributable to the platelet inhibitory action of aspirin, which results from irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thromboxane formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the protective effects of sildenafil against hypertension in pregnancy and feto-placental growth restriction induced by NO inhibition, and if sodium nitrite-derived NO formation influences sildenafil effects. (ovid.com)
  • Zinc (100-150 μM) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-1β-induced NO formation in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The presentations addressed the mechanisms of inhibition and regulation of cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase enzymes by nitric oxide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. (unt.edu)
  • Thus, it can be suggested that a stable proportion of Ni(II)/Ni(III) oxides-hydroxides was obtained on the electrode surfaces. (scirp.org)
  • In contrast to the standard Li-O 2 cells, which cycle via the formation of Li 2 O 2 , we used a reduced graphene oxide electrode, the additive LiI, and the solvent dimethoxyethane to reversibly form and remove crystalline LiOH with particle sizes larger than 15 micrometers during discharge and charge. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study investigates the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in antioxidant cellular protection induced by aspirin. (ahajournals.org)
  • To obtain insights into the cardiac sites of chymase-dependent Ang II formation, we examined the cellular localization and regional distribution of chymase in the human heart. (jci.org)
  • Some of these miRNAs, such as miR-143/145 and miR-126, have been shown to be protective during vascular remodeling, whereas others, such as miR-21, may promote the cellular response that leads to neointima formation. (physiology.org)
  • In contrast, indigo carmine (10 −4 mol/L) had no effect on the vasodilation induced by isoproterenol (an activator of adenylyl cyclase), indicating that indigo carmine selectively inhibits nitric oxide-mediated responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, PSD-95 overexpression combined with small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation or the pharmacological blockade of NOS prevented axon differentiation into varicosities and multisynapse formation. (rupress.org)
  • Structural and functional studies of pyruvate carboxylase regulation by cyclic di-AMP in lactic acid bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Elevated plasma glucose, as commonly seen in types I and II diabetes mellitus, is known to result in endothelial dysfunction, a condition characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent regulation of vascular tone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This is achieved via regulation of P450-dependent prostacyclin, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Diamond J, Janis RA (1978) Increases in cyclic GMP levels may not mediate relaxant effects of sodium nitroprusside, verapamil and hydralazine in rat vas deferens. (springer.com)
  • Kukovetz WR, Holzmann S, Wurm A, Pöch G (1979) Evidence for cyclic GMP-mediated relaxant effects of nitro-compounds in coronary smooth muscle. (springer.com)
  • 11. The composition of claim 10 wherein the metal oxide abrasive is selected from the group consisting of alumina, ceria, germania, silica, titania, zirconia, or mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 14. The composition of claim 13 wherein the metal oxide aggregates have a size distribution less than about 1.0 micron and a mean aggregate diameter less than about 0.4 micron. (google.ca)
  • 32 . The method of claim 29 wherein the metal oxide layer has a thickness of about 30 Å to about 80 Å. (google.es)
  • 38 . The method of claim 29 wherein the metal oxide comprises two different metals. (google.es)
  • 39 . The method of claim 29 wherein the metal oxide layer further comprises silicon. (google.es)
  • c) at least one stabilizer and (d) at least one auxiliary ingredient wherein the metal-oxide layered pigment comprises at least two layers and wherein the at least film one film-former and at least one stabilizer are each added at a concentration of about 0.05 to about 15 weight % based on the weight of the composition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Bacterial nitric oxide (NO) signaling via h eme- n itric oxide/ ox ygen binding (H-NOX) proteins regulates biofilm formation, playing an important role in protecting bacteria from oxidative stress and other environmental stresses. (asm.org)
  • To address this deficiency, we have developed negatively charged cyclic hydroxylamines such as 1-hydroxy-4-phosphonooxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (PP-H) for the detection of reactive oxidant species as a diagnostic tool for extracellular inflammation-induced oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • 1 The selectivity of inhaled nitric oxide for the pulmonary vasculature is attributed to its high affinity for the heme moiety of hemoglobin and its rapid conversion, in the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin, to nitrate and methemoglobin. (asahq.org)
  • However, transduction of c-di-AMP signaling in bacteria and the role of c-di-AMP in biofilm formation are not well understood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum , may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. (asm.org)
  • Second, we found that biofilm formation of TdΔ214 was substantially repressed (∼6.0-fold reduction). (asm.org)
  • Collectively, the results reported here indicate that TDE0214 plays important roles in motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of the spirochete. (asm.org)
  • Sphingomonas paucimobilis, an oligotroph, is well recognized for its potential for biofilm formation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The intensity of biofilm formation of this strain on different plumbing materials was examined by using 1 × 1 cm2 pieces of six different pipe materials, i.e. polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), aluminium (Al), copper (Cu) and rubber (R) and observing by. (environmental-expert.com)
  • These results also suggest that nitric oxide mediates IL-1 beta-induced inhibitory effects on the pancreatic beta-cell by functioning as an effector molecule responsible for the destruction of iron-sulphur centres of iron-containing proteins, resulting in an impairment of mitochondrial function. (biochemj.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of IL-1-induced nitric oxide production on islet function and viability are mediated, in part, by the targeting and disruption of mitochondrial electron transport (complexes I and II) and islet aconitase activity ( 8 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1993 -- Bush, P.A., Aronson, W.J., Rajfer, J., Ignarro, L.J. The L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway mediates inhibitory nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurotransmission in the corpus cavernosum of human and rabbit. (duke.edu)
  • Ozonolysis in the presence of pyridine involves an unprecedented organocatalyzed decomposition of carbonyl oxides via the formation and fragmentation of zwitterionic peroxyacetals. (unl.edu)
  • The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this work, nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC), a nitric oxide donor, was topically applied to the antennae of fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus . (eje.cz)