Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.DimethylformamideFormic Acid EstersTandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ethylene Chlorohydrin: Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Cytochromes a: A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes that have two imidazole nitrogens as axial ligands and an alpha-band absorption of 605 nm. They are found in a variety of microorganisms and in eucaryotes as a low-spin cytochrome component of MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Phytanic Acid: A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.XyloseFormaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.ThiazolesUrinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.AmidohydrolasesRats, Inbred F344Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.GlutaminaseStreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pyridinium CompoundsRumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
1 Ammonia dimer; 2a Water; 2 Water dimer; 3a Formic acid; 3 Formic acid dimer; 4a Formamide; 4 Formamide dimer; 5a Uracil; 5 ... This is a list of molecules recently tested: 1a Ammonia; ... 18 Benzene/ammonia; 19b Hydrogen cyanide; 19 Benzene/hydrogen ...
Ammonium formate as reagent: Ammonium formate first dissociates into formic acid and ammonia. Ammonia then performs a ... or adding formic acid to formamide. However, using just ammonium formate as the reagent produces the best yields. Using ... The hydroxyl is protonated using hydrogen from formic acid, which allows for water molecule to leave. This forms a carbocation ... The compound attacks hydrogen from the deprotonated formic acid from previous step, forming a carbon dioxide and an amine. ...
5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and its salts Formamide Formic acid Lithium metal Lithium aluminum hydride Magnesium metal (turnings ... Ammonia gas Ammonium formate Bromobenzene Carbonyldiimidazole Cyclohexanone 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane (e.g. freon 141B) ... gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone) Red Phosphorus White Phosphorus (Other names: Yellow Phosphorus) Hypophosphorous acid and ... Toluene Hydrochloric acid (including anhydrous Hydrogen chloride) Sulfuric acid Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) Sodium ...
... acid-catalyzed: HC(O)NH2 → HCN + H2O In the past, formamide was produced by treating formic acid with ammonia, which produces ... Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid. It is a clear liquid which is miscible with water ... TOXNet Formamide HSDB: Formamide Warheit DB1, Kinney LA, Carakostas MC, Ross PE (1989). "Inhalation toxicity study of formamide ... Formamide will begin to partially decompose into carbon monoxide and ammonia at 180 °C together with traces of hydrogen cyanide ...
Some routes proceed indirectly by first treating the methyl formate with ammonia to give formamide, which is then hydrolyzed ... ChemSub Online (Formic acid). Formic Acid Use in Beekeeping: Handbook and Manual of Treatments. Formic Acid Use by ants: ... Ants secrete the formic acid for attack and defense purposes. Formic acid was first synthesized from hydrocyanic acid by the ... Yields of up to 53% formic acid can be achieved. In the laboratory, formic acid can be obtained by heating oxalic acid in ...
... and since ammonium formate is also produced from formic acid, it can serve as a way of storing formic acid. Ammonium formate ... A side reaction of this is the decomposition of formamide to carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia. Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ammonium ... Formic acid can also be obtained by reacting ammonium formate with a dilute acid, ... Ammonium formate, NH4HCO2, is the ammonium salt of formic acid. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline solid. Acetone can ...
... or from the reaction between formic acid (HCOOH) with NH3. It has been suggested that in hydrothermal pores formamide may ... on high-energy particle irradiation of binary mixtures of ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO), ... "The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide ... amino acids, and carboxylic acids. The highest level of complexity was attained for the formamide/meteorite system, using ...
... between an amine-substituted pyrimidine and formic acid. Pyrimidine Simple aromatic rings Transition Transversion Gout, a ... Purine (1) is obtained in good yield when formamide is heated in an open vessel at 170 °C for 28 hours. This remarkable ... especially in the presence of ammonia. The Traube purine synthesis (1900) is a classic reaction (named after Wilhelm Traube) ... Uric acid (8) was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine (10), which was converted with HI and PH4I to give 2,6- ...
Formamide. 94 Glycerin. 83 Propylene glycol. 71 Formic acid. 52 Liquid ammonia. 30.2 ... It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an ... Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene.[9][8] ... Neutralization of a strong acid and a strong base gives a neutral salt.. ...
Liquid ammonia. 0.4 Liquid sulfur dioxide. 0.41 Methanol. 5.3 Formic acid. 192 ... Formamide. 62 Acetamide. 24.5 Dimethylformamide. 0.17-0.5 Solutions of KCl are common standards, for example for calibration of ... It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. ... It can be generated by treating potassium hydroxide (or other potassium bases) with hydrochloric acid: KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O. ...
... a reaction between phenylacetone and formamide, either using additional formic acid or formamide itself as a reducing agent, ... Another method is the reaction of phenylacetone with ammonia, producing an imine intermediate that is reduced to the primary ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...
Reductive amination with formic acid and ammonia via an imine intermediate Hofmann-Löffler reaction Haloamine ... Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form amides (the "Schotten-Baumann reaction"). ... carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... Reductive amination with formic acid and formaldehyde via an imine intermediate Reactions[edit]. Alkylation, acylation, and ...
9 May 2016). "The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of deuterated formamide and deuterated isocyanic acid in the interstellar ... "Observations of Formic Acid in Hot Molecular Cores", Astrophysical Journal, 552 (2): 654-663, Bibcode:2001ApJ...552..654L, doi: ... 2002), "Detection of Triply Deuterated Ammonia in the Barnard 1 Cloud", Astrophysical Journal, 571 (1): L55-L58, Bibcode: ... "Microwave Detection of Interstellar Formic Acid". Astrophysical Journal. 163: L41. Bibcode:1971ApJ...163L..41Z. doi:10.1086/ ...
Reductive amination with formic acid and ammonia via an imine intermediate Hofmann-Löffler reaction Haloamine ... Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form amides (the "Schotten-Baumann reaction"). ... carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... Like ammonia, amines are bases.[8] Compared to alkali metal hydroxides, amines are weaker (see table for examples of conjugate ...
... then pouring the mixture into hydrochloric acid. The magnesium silicide reacts with the acid to produce silane gas, which burns ... Ammonia, NH3. covalent nonmetal hydride. Water, H2O. covalent nonmetal hydride. Hydrogen fluoride, HF. covalent nonmetal ... It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid.[5] Silane is ... In all cases, these substances react with Brønsted-Lowry acids to produce some type of hydride of silicon that is dependent on ...
... pre-RNA nucleic acids have included peptide nucleic acid (PNA), threose nucleic acid (TNA) or glycol nucleic acid (GNA).[23][24 ... Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to conjugate an amino acid to the 3'-end of an RNA in order to use its chemical groups or ... A candidate nucleic acid is peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which uses simple peptide bonds to link nucleobases.[89] PNA is more ... Threose nucleic acid (TNA) has also been proposed as a starting point, as has glycol nucleic acid (GNA), and like PNA, also ...
Conjugate acid Hydrocyanonium Conjugate base Cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ...
Formic acid. *Isocyanoacetylene. *Ketene. *Methane. *Methoxy radical. *Methylenimine. *Propadienylidene. *Protonated ...
Reaction with acids[edit]. Sodium hydroxide reacts with protic acids to produce water and the corresponding salts. For example ... negligible in ammonia insoluble in ether slowly soluble in propylene glycol Solubility in methanol 238 g/L ... Acid and Base. References[edit]. *^ a b c "Material Safety Datasheet" (PDF). certified-lye.com.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... This type of reaction with a strong acid releases heat, and hence is exothermic. Such acid-base reactions can also be used for ...
or by treating formamide with potassium hydroxide[citation needed]: HCONH2 + KOH → KCN + 2H2O. About 50,000 tons of potassium ... KCN and sodium cyanide (NaCN) are widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of nitriles and carboxylic acids, ...
Formic acid. *Isocyanoacetylene. *Ketene. *Methane. *Methoxy radical. *Methylenimine. *Propadienylidene. *Protonated ...
... "a step along the path toward amino acids and nucleotides, the raw materials of proteins and DNA, respectively".[40][41] Further ... but those are lost in the dissolving of meteorite matter in acids, leaving only insoluble refractory minerals. Finding the ...
The aqueous solution consists of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonium sulfate (from excess ammonia). A ... The lignocellulosic route involves fermentation of the biomass to propionic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid which are then ... acrylic acid. acrolein Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], ... In the SOHIO process, propylene, ammonia, and air (oxidizer) are passed through a fluidized bed reactor containing the catalyst ...
soluble in ammonia, methanol, ethanol very slightly soluble in dimethylformamide, SO2 insoluble in dimethyl sulfoxide ... Because the salt is derived from a weak acid, sodium cyanide readily reverts to HCN by hydrolysis; the moist solid emits small ... Sodium cyanide reacts rapidly with strong acids to release hydrogen cyanide. This dangerous process represents a significant ...
Formic acid. *Isocyanoacetylene. *Ketene. *Methane. *Methoxy radical. *Methylenimine. *Propadienylidene. *Protonated ...
Formic acid. *Isocyanoacetylene. *Ketene. *Methane. *Methoxy radical. *Methylenimine. *Propadienylidene. *Protonated ...
1 Ammonia dimer; 2a Water; 2 Water dimer; 3a Formic acid; 3 Formic acid dimer; 4a Formamide; 4 Formamide dimer; 5a Uracil; 5 ... This is a list of molecules recently tested: 1a Ammonia; ... 18 Benzene/ammonia; 19b Hydrogen cyanide; 19 Benzene/hydrogen ...
... acid-catalyzed: HC(O)NH2 → HCN + H2O In the past, formamide was produced by treating formic acid with ammonia, which produces ... Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid. It is a clear liquid which is miscible with water ... TOXNet Formamide HSDB: Formamide Warheit DB1, Kinney LA, Carakostas MC, Ross PE (1989). "Inhalation toxicity study of formamide ... Formamide will begin to partially decompose into carbon monoxide and ammonia at 180 °C together with traces of hydrogen cyanide ...
Formamide Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to Formamide Other information,welcome to contact us. ... ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with Formamide Boiling point Melting point, ... It is made from formic acid or its ester with ammonia. It is also made from ammonia and carbon monoxide.. Formamide is used in ... Formamide is the simplest monocarboxylic acid amide, obtained by formal condensation of formic acid with ammonia. The parent o ...
... is a clear liquid with an ammonia like odor that and is miscible with water. As an amide that is derived from formic acid, ... ... Formamide, OmniSolv(R) FX0421 , 75-12-7 , CH3NO , Millipore Sigma Formamide, OmniSolv(R) is also referred to as methanamide, ... Ethyl Acetate, PestiSolv(R), also known as Ethyl ethanoate, is the ester of ethanol and acetic acid and is used primarily as a ... Ethyl Acetate, OmniSolv(R), also known as Ethyl ethanoate, is the ester of ethanol and acetic acid and is used primarily as a ...
... ammonia, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)formamide (HEF), N-(2-hydroxy ethyl)imidazole (HEI), N,N?-Bis(2-hydroxy ethyl)oxalamide (BHEOX) and ... N-(2-hydroxy ethyl)glycine (HEGly), in addition to four intermediate products formaldehyde, formic acid, glyoxal and oxalic ... The ammonia emission in the simulation results ranged within reasonable 9.6 - 14.6 ppmv. However, a rough estimation of the ...
The second activity generated formic acid (and NH3) plus formamide as reaction products, was oxygen independent, and had an ... formamide and ammonia. Cyanide-degrading activity (CDA) was localized to cytosolic cell fractions and was observed at substrate ... formic acid, formamide and ammonia. Cyanide-degrading activity (CDA) was localized to cytosolic cell fractions and was observed ... The second activity generated formic acid (and NH3) plus formamide as reaction products, was oxygen independent, and had an ...
... formic acid, acetic acid, other organic acids, amines, including triethylamine and pyridine, acetonitrile, dimethyl formamide, ... dimethylacetamide, and N-methylpyrrolidinone; and volatile inorganic compounds such as ammonia, bromine, iodine, sulfur dioxide ... Separator for producing aromatic carboxylic acids US7497896B2 (en) * 2003-04-18. 2009-03-03. Lair Liquide, Societe Anonyme A ... Separator, reactor, and process for producing aromatic carboxylic acid US20060266213A1 (en) * 2003-04-18. 2006-11-30. Lair ...
Formamide. 94 Glycerin. 83 Propylene glycol. 71 Formic acid. 52 Liquid ammonia. 30.2 ... It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an ... Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene.[9][8] ... Neutralization of a strong acid and a strong base gives a neutral salt.. ...
Pure ammonium formate decomposes into formamide and water when heated, and this is its primary use in industry. Formic acid can ... A side reaction of this is the decomposition of formamide to carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia. ... and since ammonium formate is also produced from formic acid, it can serve as a way of storing formic acid. ... Ammonium formate, NH4HCO2, is the ammonium salt of formic acid. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline solid. ...
Liquid ammonia. 0.4 Liquid sulfur dioxide. 0.41 Methanol. 5.3 Formic acid. 192 ... Formamide. 62 Acetamide. 24.5 Dimethylformamide. 0.17-0.5 Solutions of KCl are common standards, for example for calibration of ... It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. ... It can be generated by treating potassium hydroxide (or other potassium bases) with hydrochloric acid: KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O. ...
... samples confirm that HMTD readily decomposes under ambient conditions to form highly volatile products that include formic acid ... ammonia, trimethylamine and formamides.... 27207576. June 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A ... articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid ...
Were one of leading Formamide manufacturers and suppliers in China, please rest assured to buy. ... DeYuan provides online shopping for best factory price from china formamide with good price. ... Formic Acid%≤. 0.01. 0.15. 0.20. Ammonia%≤. 0.005. 0.05. 0.10. Methonal%≤. 0.15. 0.20. 0.50. ... Application of Formamide. Formamide is a chemical reactant or solvent in various chemical processes. It is mostly used as a ...
As a solvent water, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, formamide, formic acid, acetic acid, 2,2,2- ... Preferably, the nonsolvent is selected from the group consisting of water, alcohols having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, ammonia, ... As a solvent water, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, formamide, formic acid, acetic acid, 2,2,2- ... formamide, formic acid, acetic acid, 2,2,2-trichloro ethanol, toluene, tetrahydrofuran and mixtures thereof. ...
... formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, acetic acid, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, acetonitrile, hexane, methylene chloride, ... formamide, dioxane, hexamethylphosphorotriamide, perfluorohydrocarbon, methanol, ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol, formic acid, ... formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, acetic acid, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, acetonitrile, hexane, methylene chloride, ... formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, acetic acid, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, acetonitrile, hexane, methylene chloride, ...
j) Formic acid/formamide. (d) Dimethylamine HCl. (k) Ammonium formate. (e) Hydroxylamine HCl. (l) Formic acid/N-methylformamide ... m) Ammonia. (g) Ammonium hydroxide. Figure 1 - Reactions Using 3,4-MDP-2-P as a precursor in synthesis of MDA and some analogs ... Nitro alcohols may be reduced to the amino alcohol with zinc and sulfuric acid [124], zinc and acetic acid [125], sodium ... Figure 4 - Techniques for converting substituted cinnamic acids to to MDA Currently, alpha-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic ...
A stable dispersion of an aminoplast which is obtained by a process which comprises condensing ammonia, hydrazine or a organic ... formic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, thioacetic acid or maleic acid and, of course, ... addition or condensation products of N-carbonyl-sulphamic acid chloride with ammonia or a primary amine, maleic acid hydrazide ... methylol-containing mercapto fatty acid hydrazides obtained from methylthioglycollate and hydrazine; formamide; tertiary butyl ...
Formamide 94. Glycerin 83. Propylene glycol 71. Formic acid 52. Liquid ammonia 30.2. ... Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene.[9][11] ... It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an ... In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process, it is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. ...
The detection of formic acid was confirmed using isotopically labeled water-d2 with carbon monoxide, leading to formic acid-d2 ... we have examined the formation of formamide starting from a variety of carbon monoxide (CO) to ammonia (NH3) ices of varying ... which recombined with atomic hydrogen to produce formic acid. Similar processes are expected to produce formic acid within ... which recombined with atomic hydrogen to produce formic acid. Similar processes are expected to produce formic acid within ...
Liquid ammonia. 162. Liquid sulfur dioxide. 15. Methanol. 62.5-83.0. Formic acid. 61.8. ... Formamide. 57-85. Acetamide. 32.3 (41.5 °C). Dimethylformamide. 3.7-6.4. Dichloromethane. 0.009[9]. ...
In the process of preparing hexamethylenediamine by the catalytic hydrogenation of adiponitrile in the presence of ammonia ... Representative examples of RCOM compounds include methyl formate, ethyl formate, propyl formate, formamide, formic acid, ... containing amino groups bound to a carbon skeleton by reduction of carboxylic acids or esters thereof in presence of ammonia or ... 2-diaminocyc1ohexane produced without the formic acid. The activity or rate was 1.43 as compared to 1.15 without formic acid. A ...
Liquid ammonia 0.04 Liquid sulfur dioxide 0.041 Methanol 0.53 Formic acid 19.2 ... Formamide 6.2 Acetamide 2.45 Dimethylformamide 0.017 - 0.05 Reference:. Burgess, J. Metal Ions in Solution. (Ellis Horwood, New ... It is a by-product of the making of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. ...
... between an amine-substituted pyrimidine and formic acid.[15] ... Procedure:[8] Formamide (45 grams) was heated in an open vessel ... Using an ATP molecule, ammonia is added to the compound to become formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide. Another ATP molecule ... He synthesized it for the first time in 1899.[6] The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid (8), which had ... Purine (1) is obtained in good yield when formamide is heated in an open vessel at 170 oC for 28 hours.[8] ...
Keywords: Formic acid; Nitric acid; Platinum; Chemical denitration; Nuclear fuel reprocessing; Reductive regeneration of ... Besides as a reductant, ammonia also reacts with SO2 formed in the regeneration to form hydroxyamine sulfate at the outlet of ... Soluble reaction products-the ammonium nitrate and the formamide-undergo further a gradual degradation under the conditions of ... State of Ru on CeO2 and its catalytic activity in the wet oxidation of acetic acid by Saburo Hosokawa; Hiroyoshi Kanai; ...
Find out information about Acid of ants. or , HCO2H, a colorless, corrosive liquid with a sharp odor; it boils at 100.7°C; ... and solidifies at 8.4°C;. It has the lowest molecular weight and is... Explanation of Acid of ants ... For example, upon heating with an ammonia solution of silver oxide, it forms a "silver mirror." Formic acid is found in fir ... formamide, and dimethylformamide; and in the canning of juices. ... 77.4 percent formic acid; boiling point, 107.2°C). Formic acid ...
  • the essential amino acid methionine is manufactured by this route.The cyanohydrin of acetone is a precursor to methyl methacrylate. (bionity.com)
  • Deals in Dithranol, N, 1 Hexanesulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Monohydrate, Dimethyl Isosorbide, sulphuric acid, N N Diethyl P Phenylenediamine Sulfate, 1 Heptane Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Monhydrate, 1 Pentanesulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Monohydrate, N-Dimethyl-P-Phenylenediamine Dihydrochloride. (indianyellowpages.com)
  • In the presence of a catalyst, it can react with organic halide or alcohol to form formic esters. (chemicalbook.com)
  • In addition to properties typical of carboxylic acids (for example, the formation of salts and esters, called formates), it has reducing properties characteristic of aldehydes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They react with organic acids to form esters plus water. (blogspot.com)
  • The parital hydrolysis according to this in vention enables also the preparation of polymers which have the character of acid esters. (docme.ru)
  • It is known that copolymers of acrylonitrile which con can be prepared by dehydrochlorination of beta-chlor ethyl-phosphonic acid-bis-(beta-chlorethyl)-esters at a tain an excess of the acrylonitrile component enable the production of textile ?bers havinf1r excellent properties. (docme.ru)
  • In this case, it is often expedient or neces of acryloni-trile with esters of the vinyl phosphonic acid sary to operate under elevated pressure. (docme.ru)
  • 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein said effector molecule capable of sequestering an ion is calmodulin, metallothionein, a fragment thereof, or an amino acid sequence rich in at least one of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, and arginine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Conse¬quently, the formamide molecule is of high interest as it is considered as an important precursor in the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, and thus significant to further prebiotic chemistry, in more suitable environments. (nasa.gov)
  • Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribose-phosphate through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as formate ions transferred from the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate . (wikibooks.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide has been discussed as a precursor to amino acids and nucleic acids. (bionity.com)
  • The generated monomers and oligomers, such as amino acids, simple carbohydrates, and fatty acids are converted into organic alcohols, volatile fatty acids, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. (springer.com)
  • Some have proposed that hydrogen cyanide may have played a part in the origin of life , in terms of being a possible precursor to amino acids and nucleic acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For instance, the essential amino acid methionine is manufactured by this route. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 10 derivativeformulaprefixsuffix carboxylic acid- COOHcarboxy--oic acid sulfonic acid- SO 3 Hsulfo-sulfonic acid aldehyde- CHOformyl--al ketone= COoxo--one alcohol- OHhydroxy--ol thiol- SHsulfanyl--thiol amine- NH 2 amino--amine ether- O -R-oxy-ether sulfide- S -R-thio-sulfide halogen der. (slideplayer.com)
  • This finding is potentially significant because acetamide has an amide bond, similar to the essential bond between amino acids in proteins. (howlingpixel.com)
  • 2 Acids Inorganic Oxidizing Same as non oxidizing. (blogspot.com)
  • The semiaqueous cleaning composition of claim 1 additionally comprising a second organic acid, an inorganic acid, or mixture thereof, wherein the pH of the composition is between about 2 and 12. (sumobrain.com)
  • The semiaqueous cleaning composition of claim 2 comprising between about 0.01% and about 6% of an inorganic acid. (sumobrain.com)
  • We measured organic and inorganic gas-phase acids in the Front Range of Colorado to better understand their tropospheric sources and sinks using a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The more than 130 contributions reflect the importance of inorganic chemicals as finished products (e.g., fertilizers, lime and limestone), high-tech materials (e.g., glass ceramics, metallic glasses), and basic products for the organic chemical industry, such as mineral acids, oxidizing agents and halogens. (wiley.com)
  • 3. The process as claimed in step (i) of claim 1 , wherein dihydroxylation of compound of formula (II) is carried out with an oxidizing agent, selected from group comprising potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, chromic acid, peroxyacids or mixtures thereof, preferably, potassium permanganate, formic acid and sodium metabisulphite to form compound of formula (III). (sumobrain.com)
  • A semiaqueous cleaning composition for use with aluminum, copper, and lowk substrates, the cleaning composition comprising between about 1% to about 30% oxalic acid dihydrate, between about 0. (sumobrain.com)
  • The semiaqueous cleaning composition of claim 1 wherein the oxalic acid dihydrate concentration is between about 2% and about 20%, and wherein the pH is between about 4 and 7. (sumobrain.com)
  • The semiaqueous cleaning composition of claim 1 comprising about 3% to about 8% by weight oxalic acid dihydrate, about 22% to about 30% tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and about 64% to about 74% water. (sumobrain.com)
  • Exemplary of such mono mers with an a?inity for acid dyestuffs are unsaturated 25 phosphonic component of the above copolymer, said compounds which contain basic, preferably tertiary or component being polymerized subsequently with an excess of acrylonitrile, it is preferable to use the ?nished copoly exchangeable halogen which allow of incorporating into mers for performing the amination and saponi?cation. (docme.ru)
  • The resulted compound undergone Ullmann Reaction with piperidin-2-one in presence of CuI, potassium carbonate at 130° C. for 24 hours to give ethyl 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxylate, which is subsequently amidated by ammonia solution in ethylene glycol to give Apixaban. (justia.com)
  • Formic acid (HCO 2 H), over the years, has been explored thoroughly as a potential LOHC, and highly efficient catalysts for both H 2 loading and unloading have been designed by us and others. (greencarcongress.com)
  • For example, the conversion of olefins-the basic raw materials for the chemical industry-by carbonylation gives access to more valuable products such as aldehydes, alcohols, and carboxylic acid derivatives. (docme.ru)
  • Ethanol production from sorghum by a microwave-assisted dilute ammonia pretreatment. (statescale.tk)
  • Two of the five bases in nucleic acids , adenine ( 2 ) and guanine ( 3 ), are purines. (worldlibrary.net)
  • Several reports deal with the oxidative degradation of mono- and dinitroarenes ( 34 ), whereas for the degradation of trinitroarenes, such as picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol) or TNT, initial oxidative attack of the aromatic ring has not been described so far. (asm.org)
  • A novel reductive-degradation mechanism by an aerobic organism has been reported for the utilization of picric acid by Rhodococcus erythropolis HL PM-1 ( 17 ). (asm.org)