Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Hypervitaminosis A: A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.gamma-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tocotrienols: Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma: Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Milk, HumanBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Dehydroascorbic Acid: The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.L-Gulonolactone Oxidase: An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.CystathionineNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Pyridoxal Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.beta-Carotene 15,15'-Monooxygenase: A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular: A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.NepalDeficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Dihydrotachysterol: A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Riboflavin Deficiency: A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)CobamidesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.United StatesAnthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The name "vitamin C" always refers to the l-enantiomer of ascorbic acid and its oxidized forms, such as dehydroascorbate (DHA ... "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect.[29] Other symptoms ... "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... vitamin B9); DMG: dimethylglycine; dTMP: thymidine monophosphate; dUMP: deoxyuridine monophosphate; FAD+ flavine adenine ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... Novel forms of CoQ10 with increased water-solubility[edit]. Facilitating drug absorption by increasing its solubility in water ... I.". International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 42 (2): 291-305. PMID 5053855.. ... II". International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 42 (3): 413-434. PMID 5086647.. ...
This vitamer is one of two active coenzymes used by vitamin B12-dependent enzymes and is the specific vitamin B12 form used by ... Preparation of the Reduced Forms of Vitamin B12 and of Some Analogs of the Vitamin B12 Coenzyme Containing a Cobalt-Carbon Bond ... Methylcobalamin physically resembles the other forms of vitamin B12, occurring as dark red crystals that freely form cherry- ... Vitamin B12. References[edit]. *^ L. R. McDowell. Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. Booksgoogle.com. Retrieved 28 January ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... This form of bilirubin is excreted from the liver in bile. Excretion of bilirubin from liver to biliary canaliculi is an active ... In other species, it also produces similar substances such as cobalamin (vitamin B12).[citation needed] ... Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase.[13] ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as coenzymes themselves (e.g., vitamin C). However, vitamins do have other ... Vitamins and derivatives[edit]. Cofactor. Vitamin. Additional component. Chemical group(s) transferred. Distribution ... Vitamin K. None. Carbonyl group and electrons. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes Ascorbic acid [38]. Vitamin C. None. Electrons ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) catalyzes the transfer of ... In the reduced form of plastocyanin, His-87 will become protonated with a pKa of 4.4. Protonation prevents it acting as a ... In aqueous solution, carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3. This reaction is very slow in the absence of a ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position ...
Active forms. vitamins. *TPP / ThDP (B1). *FMN, FAD (B2). *NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH (B3) ... Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme ... It is the principal form in which riboflavin is found in cells and tissues. It requires more energy to produce, but is more ... forms occurs in the various oxidoreductases. FMN is a stronger oxidizing agent than NAD and is particularly useful because it ...
Vitamin A(one of many chemical forms). Vitamin A supplementation plays an important role,[3] specifically vitamin A deficiency ... "Guidelines for Use of Vitamin A Supplements" (PDF). Vitamin Angels. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2014. ... Vitamin A supplement[3]. Childhood blindness is an important cause contributing to the burden of blindness.[4] Blindness in ... "Vitamin A - Health Professional Fact Sheet". ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-17.. ...
Corals must therefore form a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen fixing organism, in this case the subject of this study, ... They also help produce vitamins. Symbiotic bacteria can live near hydrothermal vents. They usually have a mutual relationship ... In addition to this dinoflagellate, coral also form relationships with bacteria, archae and fungi. The problem is that these ... Corals have been found to form characteristic associations with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Corals have evolved in ...
Yamagata K (2014). "Roles of HNF1α and HNF4α in pancreatic β-cells: lessons from a monogenic form of diabetes (MODY)". Vitamins ... Mutations in the HNF4A gene are associated with a form of diabetes called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). ... "Polyamines modulate the interaction between nuclear receptors and vitamin D receptor-interacting protein 205". Molecular ...
Also known as vitamin B12, this form of cobalamin is a required cofactor of methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Even with a functional ... Methylmalonyl CoA requires vitamin B12 to form succinyl-CoA. When the amount of B12 is insufficient for the conversion of ... Vitamin B12 is also needed for the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to Succinyl-CoA. Mutations leading to defects in vitamin B12 ... Treatment for all forms of this condition primarily relies on a low-protein diet, and depending on what variant of the disorder ...
reduced form of vitamin C). Bottom: dehydroascorbic acid. (nominal oxidized form of vitamin C) ... Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It is actively imported into the endoplasmic ... transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA)[3] in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary ... "The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C". The Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved 2010-11-10.. ...
A [1,7]-hydride shift then forms vitamin D3. Another example is in the proposed biosynthesis of aranotin, a naturally occurring ... The first step involves a photochemically induced conrotatory ring opening of 7-dehydrocholesterol to form pre vitamin D3. ... Also, the formed product would be in a ground state rather than an excited state. According to the frontier molecular orbital ... The type of rotation determines whether the cis or trans isomer of the product will be formed. The Nazarov cyclization reaction ...
β-Carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as needed, thus making it a form of vitamin A for ... resulting in carotenes not being a form of vitamin A for this species); while cats can convert a trace of β-carotene to retinol ... about a trial with a goal to determine if vitamin A (in the form of retinyl palmitate) and β-carotene (at about 30 mg/day, ... Forms of carotene[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ...
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D2. Most dermatologists ... Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The vitamin D natural selection ... A rare X-linked dominant form exists called vitamin D-resistant rickets or X-linked hypophosphatemia. Cases have been reported ... "CDark Skin Color & Vitamin D". Retrieved 2 June 2012. Meschino Health. "Complete Guide to Vitamin D". Retrieved 2 June 2012. ...
She later helped Rutgers University in New Jersey form a nutrition lab as part of its School of Pharmacy. She pursued history ... In 1913, Davis and McCollum identified what they termed fat-soluble A and water-soluble B, renamed later vitamins A and B, ... Marguerite Davis (September 16, 1887 - September 19, 1967) was an American biochemist, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with ... Prengaman, Kate (Fall 2013). "The Birth of Vitamin A". OnWisconsin. Wisconsin Alumni Association. Retrieved June 10, 2016. ...
... or 25,000 international units of vitamin A); 80 milligrams of the dietary mineral zinc, in the form of zinc oxide; and two ... "High levels" in this case were defined to be: 500 milligrams of vitamin C; 400 international units of vitamin E; 15 milligrams ... "Effects of a Combination of Beta Carotene and Vitamin A on Lung Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease". New England Journal of ... Bausch & Lomb was a collaborator in the study and provides vitamins pre-packaged with this formulation, sold commercially as ...
The leche form has an elongated root and milky juice while the agua form has a top-shaped to oblate root, a more watery ... It is also a good source of vitamin C.[14] Storage[edit]. ... The two cultivated forms of P. erosus are jicama de agua and ... Jícama is high in carbohydrates in the form of dietary fiber (notably inulin).[13] It is composed of 86-90% water; it contains ...
Most prosthetic groups are formed from vitamins. Conjugated proteins are classified on the basis of the chemical nature of ... Each heme group contains an iron ion (Fe2+) which forms a co-ordinate bond with an oxygen molecule (O2), allowing hemoglobin to ...
Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) is the active form of vitamin D3. It has numerous functions involved in blood ... Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestinal tract, leading to elevated levels of plasma calcium, ... It follows that an increase in vitamin D3 intake should lead to a decrease in bone resorption - it has been shown that oral ... Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine ...
For this reason, it may be recommended to supplement with vitamin B6 while taking phenelzine. The pyridoxine form of B6 is ... "Effect of forms of vitamin B6 on acute toxicity of hydrazines". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2 (4): 403-409. doi: ... Transaminases such as GABA-transaminase have been shown to be dependent upon vitamin B6 and may be involved in a potentially ... Malcolm, D. E.; Yu, P. H.; Bowen, R. C.; O'Donovan, C.; Hawkes, J.; Hussein, M. (1994). "Phenelzine reduces plasma vitamin B6 ...
... is a form of vitamin D, also known as vitamin D4.[2] It has the systematic name (5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-seco ... Lumisterol, a constituent of vitamin D1. References[edit]. *^ a b Nomenclature of Vitamin D Archived 2017-08-23 at the Wayback ... "Vitamin d(4) in mushrooms". PLoS ONE. 7 (8): e40702. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040702. PMC 3411670. PMID 22870201.. .mw-parser ... Vitamin D4 is found in certain mushrooms.[3] See also[edit]. *Forms of vitamin D, the five known forms of vitamin D ...
... of vitamin C and moderate levels (10-19% DV) of several B vitamins and vitamin K (table).[20] ... This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived.. Northern European annuals. Used in Europe and North ...
After that, DES was primarily prescribed in pill form. DES also was included in some prenatal vitamins. In the late 1960s ...
Doctors Best Tocotrienols is a natural vitamin E. Tocotrienols may help cardiovascular support while maintaining healthy ... LAMBERTS Vitamin E (Natural Form)-100 x 250iu Capsules £12.95 Add to basket ... Doctors Best Tocotrienols - Natural Vitamin E - 60 x 50mg Softgels. £16.95 Was £19.22. saving you 12% 169 reward points ... Below are reviews of Best Tocotrienols - Vitamin E - 60 x 50mg Softgels by bodykind customers. If you have tried this product ...
... vitamin D binding protein)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Vitamin D Binding Protein pAb (GTX109955) is tested in Human, Mouse ... Vitamin D Binding Protein antibody (group-specific component ( ... Form Supplied. Liquid. Concentration. 1 mg/ml (Please refer to ... Green: Vitamin D Binding Protein protein stained by Vitamin D Binding Protein antibody (GTX109955) diluted at 1:500.. Blue: ... Green: Vitamin D Binding Protein protein stained by Vitamin D Binding Protein antibody (GTX109955) diluted at 1:500.. Blue: ...
... iodine and vitamin D; and the lack of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in most plant-based sources. However, via the ... This included the sufficiency of energy and protein; the adequacy of vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, ... Supplemental vitamin B12 products typically contain cyanocobalamin, although other forms such as methylcobalamin and ... Vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin produced in the skin, is essential for calcium absorption and bone health, and ...
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is of animal origin, whereas vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is a form acceptable to vegans. Vitamin ... Vitamin A/beta carotene. Because preformed vitamin A is found only in animal foods, vegans get all of their vitamin A from ... Vitamin D. Vitamin D status depends on sunlight exposure and intake of vitamin D fortified foods or supplements. Sun exposure ... vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, n-3 fatty acids, and iodine. A vegetarian, including vegan, diet can meet ...
Of all the forms of Vitamin B12 it is the least painful for the patient to inject. After introduction into the body it provides ... These individuals need to use other forms of Vitamin B12.. Methylcobalamin is more bioactive and can be given intramuscularly, ... In my practice I use different forms of Vitamin B12. In this article I explain some of the differences between cyanocobalamin, ... Hydroxocobalamin is the most bioactive form of Vitamin B12 and mostly given intravenously as intramuscular injections are very ...
The term "vitamin D" refers to several different forms of this vitamin. Two forms are important in humans: vitamin D2, which is ... A vitamin D mixture in milk has also been used.. *. For fall prevention, 100-15,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 has been ... A dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D2 has been injected, followed by doses taken by mouth: 1 gram of vitamin D2, 800 IU of vitamin ... Vitamin D has also been taken by mouth in the following forms and doses: 100,000 IU of vitamin D2 every four months for 36 ...
... a world leading nutritional supplement manufacturer announced today that it has formed a joint venture with GNC Holdings, Inc. ... International Vitamin Corporation (IVC) forms joint venture with GNC. Tuesday, March 5, 2019 General News ... www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/international-vitamin-corporation-ivc-forms-joint-venture-with-gnc-300806877.html ... About International Vitamin Corporation. For more than half a century IVC has been producing some of the highest quality ...
... aids in increasing absorption of B group vitamins into the blood stream and produce maximum efficacy. ... Liquid B complex vitamins, a great tasting and natural flavored preparation, ... Liquid Vitamin B Complex. Liquid vitamin B complex is a formulation of B-complex vitamins constituted exactly in the ideal ... There are eight principal vitamins that constitute vitamin B complex. These are as follows:. *Thiamine (vitamin B1) ...
Fox Chase Researchers Show Vitamin A Derivative Can Inhibit Early Forms Of Breast Cancer. by Sam Savage ... Retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, could be a promising cancer therapy because it affects cell growth, proliferation, ... In three-dimensional cultures containing a collagen matrix, normal-like cells formed tubules resembling a normal mammary gland ... which form when invasive cells are injected into the mammary fat pad of mice and show all of the characteristics of fully ...
In an innovative study that promises to reduce production costs for the most potent form of vitamin K -- Menaquinone-7, Penn ... Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vitamins, Yeast ... Novel method promises to reduce production costs for potent form of vitamin K. *Download PDF Copy ... In an innovative study that promises to reduce production costs for the most potent form of vitamin K -- Menaquinone-7, Penn ...
... forming collagen and acting as an antioxidant to keep free radicals from damaging your cells. Both vitamin C powders... ... "best form vitamins,vitamin C powder,vitamin C form]"} Get the latest tips on diet, exercise and healthy living.. ... Slow-release forms of vitamin C may not be as well-absorbed, however, as study results are mixed with this form of vitamin C. ... Chewable tablets and powdered forms of vitamin C supplements expose your teeth to more acid than vitamin C pills, which can ...
... film-forming colloids and reducing sugars, b) converting this dispersion into dry vitamin and/or carotenoid products in powder ... is used as film-forming colloid, and the dry powders obtainable via this process are described. ... form and c) thermally curing the powder at from 60 to 180 C., wherein gelatin in combination with one or more organic amino ... A process for preparing stable dry powders which are insoluble in hot water and which contain fat-soluble vitamins and/or ...
Prenatal Vitamin Supplements Market report categorizes the global market by Dosage Form (Capsule, Powder and Gummy), ... Also referred to as prenatal vitamins, they are available in the form of artificial supplements, however, should be consumed as ... This has augmented the demand for high quality prenatal vitamin supplements. The prenatal vitamin supplements market in Latin ... The global prenatal vitamin supplements market include capsule, powder, and gummy based on dosage. Of these, the capsule ...
Prenatal Vitamin Supplements Market report categorizes the global market by Dosage Form (Capsule, Powder and Gummy), ... "Prenatal vitamin supplements are increasingly prescribed during 10 weeks of conception, which is a chief driver of the market ... These vitamin supplements are also prescribed to reduce the chances of prenatal defects. The increasing incidence of Down ... "The global prenatal vitamin supplements market is expected to gain momentum as leading players forge strategic partnerships," ...
Getting enough vitamin C in the form nature intended. EATING WELL. May 26, 1992,By Colleen Pierre, R.D. , Colleen Pierre, R.D., ... Fruits high in vitamin C (one serving meets the RDA) include a kiwi fruit (75 mg), a medium mango (57 mg), a navel orange (80 ... Vegetables high in vitamin C include a cup of raw (163 mg) or cooked (135 mg) broccoli, six to eight medium brussels sprouts ( ... Fruits with moderate amounts of vitamin C (one-fourth the RDA or more) include one-fourth of a honey dew melon (23 mg), a ...
Geri-Form is a highly palatable supplement formulated to prevent and correct nutritional deficiencies in the aging dog or cat. ... Geri-Form Pet Vitamins. Vitamins For Geriatric Dogs & Cats. Geri-Form is a highly palatable supplement formulated to prevent ... vitamin A acetate 1,000 IU, vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulfite) 0.3 mg, vitamin B12 (cobalamin concentrate) 10 mcg, vitamin ... Vitamins: Choline (as choline chloride) 40 mg, inositol 25 mg, vitamin E (DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate) 15 IU, niacinamide 10 mg ...
The Different Forms of Vitamin C Q In reading your article on the best way to take vitamin C, a question came up. I have been ... The natural and synthetic forms of L-ascorbic acid (pure vitamin C) are chemically identical-and so, therefore, are their ... Finally, there are some fat-soluble forms of vitamin C, such as ascorbyl palmitate. Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw combine calcium ... You are here: Home > May 2006 Magazine > The Different Forms of Vitamin C ...
Trials of oral active forms of vitamin D. We found two randomised controlled trials of active forms of vitamin D that met our ... of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95 ... vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α- ... Finally, active forms of vitamin D do not appear to be more effective than 700-1000 IU of supplemental vitamin D for fall ...
Vitamin E is the most important fat soluble antioxidant and performs best in combination with other antioxidants. ... in feeding stuffs to delay their oxidative spoilage and thus protect oxidation-sensitive lipids and nutrients such as vitamins ... Vitamin E is added to the feed in the form of α-tocopherol-acetate. This only obtains its active antioxidative form after the ... Vitamin E - the cell-protection vitamin. Vitamin E is for certain the most important fat-soluble antioxidant in the animal ...
Pet-Form is a tasty chewable vitamin-mineral supplement for a dogs growing and active years by Vet-A-Mix. Also indicated as a ... Pet-Form Chewable Tablets. Vet-A-Mix Pet-Form is a tasty chewable vitamin-mineral supplement for dogs and cats.. ... Vitamin A palmitate, DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, Thiamine mononitrate, Manganese sulfate, Zinc oxide, Vitamin B12 supplement, ...
The tissue profile of metabolically active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 differs in vitamin B12-depleted rats treated with ... The tissue profile of metabolically active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 differs in vitamin B12-depleted rats treated with ... The tissue profile of metabolically active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 differs in vitamin B12-depleted rats treated with ... The tissue profile of metabolically active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 differs in vitamin B12-depleted rats treated with ...
Browse protein powders, weight gainers, by protein type and form to best match your health goals. ... All orders placed through this website are subject to Vitamin World acceptance, in its sole discretion. This means that Vitamin ... All orders placed through this website are subject to Vitamin World acceptance, in its sole discretion. This means that Vitamin ... Copyright 2018 Vitamin World USA Corporation , Site Map , Privacy Policy , Terms Of Use ...
A form of vitamin B3 significantly reduces the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Monday, January 28, 2019 by: Mary Miller Tags ... Related: Vitamin B3 can reduce skin cancer risk by 23%.). How vitamin B3 reduces your risk of skin cancer. A study that was ... Nicotinamide is the active form of vitamin B3 or niacin. It is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and ... A form of vitamin B3 significantly reduces the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer ...
Though vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms, all of this work is focused on the tocotrienol form, also known as ... The commonly known form of vitamin E belongs to a variety called tocopherols.. • TCT is not abundant in the American diet but ... Little-Known Form of Vitamin E Helps Brain Resist and Recover from Stroke Damage. * ... "This form of vitamin E helped us identify three major checkpoints in stroke-related neurodegeneration that were not known ...
Elderly people with high serum vitamin E levels are less likely to suffer from memory disorders than their peers with lower ... Studies investigating the link between vitamin E and memory disorders have usually focused on a single form of vitamin E, ... namely α-tocopherol, which is also used in vitamin E supplements. However, vitamin E exists in eight different natural forms, ... "Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults." Experimental Gerontology ...
  • Vitamin E status, neurological function quantitated by a specific scoring system, and clinical and biochemical parameters were monitored during therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Some have alleged that a vegan diet could offer potential performance benefits due to the antioxidant (polyphenols), micronutrient (vitamin C, E) and carbohydrate-rich foods typical of plant-based diets assisting training and enhancing recovery [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promoted by some for alleged health benefits such as reduced risk of heart disease, lower LDL, blood pressure, type II diabetes and cancer [ 2 , 3 ], veganism is a form of vegetarianism that prohibits the consumption of animal products [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the advent of recent technologies enabling easier method of filling capsules with different dosage forms such as liquids, powders, and pellets, the demand for the same is expected to remain high even in the forthcoming years. (sbwire.com)
  • Lamberts vitamin E capsules present Vitamin E in its natural form of d-alpha-tocopherol, which is how it occurs in foodstuffs such as nuts and vegetable oils. (expresschemist.co.uk)
  • Free Form Amino Acid capsules, provided by Douglas Laboratories, contain a nutritionally balanced mixture of essential, conditionally essential, and important non-essential amino acids in their physiological L-crystalline forms. (pickvitamin.com)
  • INDICATIONS Free Form Amino Acid capsules may be a useful nutritional adjunct for individuals who wish to obtain a balanced spectrum of nutritionally important amino acids. (pickvitamin.com)
  • The new process, assuming it can be scaled up to industrial production, is important because recent studies conducted by universities in the Netherlands and UCLA School of Medicine, among others, show essential health benefits associated with large doses of vitamin K -- especially the Menaquinone-7 form, known as MK-7. (news-medical.net)
  • High doses of vitamin E are particularly important in high-performance animals to maintain good health and for the quality of the flesh and fatty tissue. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • For a while now the use of other antioxidants, such as flavonoid-rich plant extracts, e.g. green tea extract and grape marc, as an alternative to high doses of vitamin E has been a topic for discussion. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Many of the diseases which require 3 X larger doses of vitamin D to treat as to prevent are those which the digestion becomes worse: such as Cystic Fibrosis, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Pre-dissolved liquid vitamins enable the gastrointestinal tract to accelerate the process of nutrient absorption. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • This is one of the first studies to provide evidence that a safe nutrient - a vitamin - can alter microRNA biology to produce a favorable disease outcome," says Chandan Sen, PhD , Associate Dean for Research at Ohio State University Medical Center, and senior author of the study. (prohealth.com)
  • Breast cells have receptors for vitamin D, raising the possibility that the nutrient could help regulate the division and proliferation of such cells. (physicianformulas.com)
  • Simple nutrient forms of iron or sodium can be considered in this manner because of their straightforward biochemistry, but not selenium, which has a very complex biochemistry of which many nutritionists and physicians are completely unaware. (wholefoodsmagazine.com)
  • A unique aspect of vitamin D as a nutrient is that it can be synthesized by the human body through the action of sunlight. (nap.edu)
  • The term "vitamin A" makes it sound like there is one particular nutrient called "vitamin A," but that is not true. (whfoods.org)
  • Synthetic ascorbic acid tends to be just as bioavailable as natural ascorbic acid, and powders, pills and chewable forms of vitamin C are also equally bioavailable, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. (livestrong.com)
  • I remember back as a kid when my daily vitamin regiment consisted of a chewable multi and maybe a vitamin C pill when inflicted with the flu or cold. (guardianlv.com)
  • Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. (sdrugs.com)
  • Should I Take Vitamin C in Powder or Pill Form? (livestrong.com)
  • It's important to store vitamin C powder somewhere very dry, however, not in your bathroom or kitchen, or the powder in the open packages could start to become unstable and form clumps. (livestrong.com)
  • context":"http:\/\/schema.org","@type":"NewsArticle","headline":"Should I Take Vitamin C in Powder or Pill Form? (livestrong.com)
  • 6. The process of claim 7 wherein, in step b) of the process, the dispersion is converrted into dry viatmin and/or carotenoid products in powder form by spraying into hydrophobic silica or a metal salt of a higher fatty acid. (google.es)
  • Vitamin and carotenoid products in powder form are generally known and are used in large quantities in the pharmaceutical industry and in the food and animal feed industries. (google.es)
  • Vitabrid C12 Face Powder is an advanced form of vitamin C that penetrates the skin and is time-released over a period of 12 hours which works to brighten the skin and combat dullness (providing 24-hour vitamin C delivery if used twice a day). (godubai.com)
  • This powder form Vitamin C cosmetic is mixed on the spot with any moisturizer, liquid skincare product or water to assure most effective use. (godubai.com)
  • Vitabrid C12's SPOT Powder is a targeted formula that delivers active vitamin C to the skin over the course of 12 hours to effectively clear and repair the complexion. (godubai.com)
  • In three-dimensional cultures containing a collagen matrix, normal-like cells formed tubules resembling a normal mammary gland, while the transformed cells also gave rise to solid masses. (redorbit.com)
  • Its highly potent Vitamin C complex helps brighten and minimize fine lines and wrinkles through collagen synthesis. (godubai.com)
  • It is well known in the skin care community that vitamin C has several benefits such as skin brightening through melanin inhibition, skin tone firming, wrinkle reduction and collagen synthesis among others. (godubai.com)
  • Drinking collagen in a delicious form! (haircarepanda.com)
  • The product contains fish collagen, sodium, vitamin C and potassium. (haircarepanda.com)
  • Vitamin C supports proper collagen production to maintain the good functioning of your skin. (haircarepanda.com)
  • Improves tissue respiration, stimulates the synthesis of proteins (collagen, enzymes, structural and contractile proteins of skeletal and smooth muscle, the myocardium), protects against oxidation of vitamin A. Inhibits the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and selenium (a component of microsomal electron transport system). (sdrugs.com)
  • Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system," noted one study published in 2017. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Now mounting evidence suggests (but doesn't prove) that vitamin C may play a role in preventing many kinds of cancers, hardening of the arteries, cataracts and birth defects, as well as reducing high blood pressure and common cold symptoms. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Some studies have shown that Vitamin E decreases symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and certain types of breast disease. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Other roles of Vitamin D include: influencing cell growth (proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells), neuromuscular and immune function, inflammation processes, reducing asthma symptoms and regulating healthy body weight. (foodtips.org)
  • Vitamin B2 can assist with alleviating stress as well as reducing symptoms of depression that are brought on by digestive disorders that generally affects women with endometriosis during the menstrual cycle. (worldwidehealth.com)
  • Although there is no evidence that vitamin B12 alone reduces the risk of breast cancer, population studies have shown that women who get more folate in their diet have lower risk of breast cancer. (umm.edu)
  • Vitamin B12 works with folate in the body, so it may help reduce breast cancer risk. (umm.edu)
  • Liquid vitamin B complex is a formulation of B-complex vitamins constituted exactly in the ideal percentage to assimilate carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Liquid vitamin B complex is easier to absorb and causes an instant effect in the body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Every component of the liquid vitamin B complex has its unique qualities and performs specific functions within the body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • According to some studies liquid vitamins are easily absorbed in the body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Natural News ) Your body needs regular exposure to the sun in order to synthesize vitamin D. However, you can sometimes have too much of a good thing. (naturalnews.com)
  • Given that essentially every tissue in the body has a receptor for vitamin D, it is hard to overestimate its importance. (forresthealth.com)
  • A sugar-free C-SALTS™ drink can be mixed up in a few seconds, making it a healthy, convenient way to get the daily vitamin C your body needs. (nutri.com)
  • But sublingual vitamins are altogether more effective than those that come in pill form due to a superior absorption rate into the body in terms of both speed and efficacy. (guardianlv.com)
  • Effects of vitamin B12 on human circadian body temperature rhythm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Glutathione is found in high concentration in the liver, where it binds to heavy metals such as mercury and lead, chemical pollutants, carcinogens and transforms them into form that can be easily flushed out of the body. (1stnaturals.com)
  • Vitamin C raises glutathione by helping the body manufacture it. (1stnaturals.com)
  • All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy. (umm.edu)
  • These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. (umm.edu)
  • Without intrinsic factor, your body cannot absorb vitamin B12. (umm.edu)
  • Once a food has been consumed, these carotenoid forms of vitamin A may be converted by the body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (whfoods.org)
  • Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are three carotenoid forms of vitamin A that can be converted by our body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (whfoods.org)
  • If you are a person who avoids animal foods and you are trying to obtain more retinoid forms of vitamin A by consuming plant foods that are high in carotenoids, you might get a very large amount of carotenoids yet still be unable to convert these carotenoid forms of vitamin A into the retinoid form that is also required by the body for proper physiological functioning. (whfoods.org)
  • In addition to the harmony between human beings and their environment exhibited in the many sources of vitamin E, the complex coordination of the human body is seen in the function of vitamin E to counteract metabolic by-products. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Of these, α-tocopherol (also written as alpha-tocopherol) has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and using this form (Brigelius-Flohé and Traber 1999). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Consuming enough vitamin C is important to help improve functioning in various parts of the body and keep your immunity in good shape. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Your body is a complex organism, dependent upon the interactions and interrelationships of organs, enzymes, vitamins and hormones. (mercola.com)
  • Both vitamins K1 and K2 have important functions in your body. (mercola.com)
  • Your body has limited storage capacity for vitamin K2, but can recycle the vitamin so it can be used multiple times. (mercola.com)
  • We are not only finally seeing recognition that vitamin K2 is woefully insufficient in the diet, but there is a growing body of evidence that pharmaceuticals further exacerbate the problem of our limited vitamin K2 status, delivering potentially dangerous consequences for human health. (mercola.com)
  • Vitamin B3 is found to help the manufacturing of hormones such as cortisone and the sex hormone estrogen in a woman's body. (worldwidehealth.com)
  • Promotes cardiovascular system health Supports strong, healthy bones Supports blood health Provides vitamin K1, K2 as MK-4, and K2 as MK-7 Potency and quality guaranteed Our body utilizes three important forms of vitamin K to achieve optimal. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • This helps the body form and maintain strong bones. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Although all forms of vitamin K ultimately provide similar benefits and risks to the human body, K1 and K2 vary slightly in their clinical indications. (livestrong.com)
  • The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding with oxidised feeding stuffs not only leads to exposing the animals with a high number of free radicals, thus inducing oxidative stress, it also leads to decreased vitamin E content in the tissue which has a negative impact on animal health and the quality of foods of animal origin. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • K1 comes from eating green vegetables, where vitamin K2 comes predominately from fermented foods. (glutenfreesociety.org)
  • People who are concerned about heart disease should try to get enough B vitamins from healthy foods. (umm.edu)
  • Important note: we want to make it clear that we added up all forms of vitamin A (including carotenoids like beta-carotene) when we created the list of vitamin A-rich foods below. (whfoods.org)
  • Anyone needing to focus on vitamin A benefits related to eye health (for example, prevention of age-related macular degeneration) would need to develop a meal plan that not only included foods that were rich in vitamin A, but more specifically, rich in these two specific carotenoid forms of the vitamin. (whfoods.org)
  • At first glance, it looks like we need to eat both animal and plant foods in order to get both retinoid and carotenoid forms of vitamin A. In some instances, that is true. (whfoods.org)
  • Need a reason to include more of citrus, tomatoes, broccoli, and other vitamin-C rich foods in your diet? (medicaldaily.com)
  • Even eating foods with vitamin K can reduce the effectiveness of warfarin. (mercola.com)
  • But what's perhaps less well known is that another type of the vitamin can be found in foods such as salmon, mackerel, sardines and egg yolks. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Vitamin B6 is widely distributed in foods in both its free and bound forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooking, storage, and processing losses of vitamin B6 vary and in some foods may be more than 50%, depending on the form of vitamin present in the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • I took 50,000 units capsule once a week for four weeks , and then one D3 1000IU each day for six months and my vitamin D levels went down instead of up, from 19 low to 17 lower. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • It would appear that it is not just bone that requires vitamin D for normal function but nearly all other tissues as well, particularly blood vessels and the immune system. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Promotes cardiovascular system health Supports immune system health 1,000 IU (670 mg) of vitamin E per soft gel An exclusive blend of the entire vitamin E family Potency and quality guaranteed E-Gems® Elite 1,000 IU (670 mg) is an exclusive. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • Supports a healthy heart Promotes immune system health Provides the full biological potency of vitamin E Provides 400 IU (268 mg) of vitamin E Potency and quality guaranteed E-Gems® Plus 400 IU (268 mg) provides the most biologically active. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • Proper nutrition can boost you immune system as a form of protection. (unh.edu)
  • During the eight-year follow-up, it was discovered that higher total serum levels of vitamin E, and higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol and total tocotrienols in particular, seemed to protect against memory disorders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Accordingly, measuring the levels of vitamin E from serum is the most reliable way to determine whether they are sufficiently high. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Increased levels of vitamin K are associated with lower rates of low-energy fracture incidence in children and adolescents, according to a new study that supports the bone health benefits of the vitamin. (nutraingredients.com)
  • est levels of Vitamin D3, a preferred form of Vitamin D, Centrum is a complete multivitamin for both men and women. (shape.com)
  • Adequate levels of Vitamin D will protect you on a genetic level from many civilization and chronic diseases like cancer, autoimmune, cardiovascular and infectious diseases, for example flu or colds. (foodtips.org)
  • Average exposure to sun needed to produce adequate levels of Vitamin D3 is approximately 10 to 15 minutes twice a week. (foodtips.org)
  • Normal levels of Vitamin D in healthy people are in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L or 20 - 40 ng/mL. (foodtips.org)
  • Many people completely forgot how the correction of very low levels of vitamin D completely cured the scourge of rickets, Professor Dalgleish added. (anabolicminds.com)
  • more than ] 3% at vitamin B-6 intakes from 2 to 2.9 mg/d in all subgroups, and at intakes from 3 to 4.9 mg/d in smokers, the elderly, non-Hispanic blacks, and current and former oral contraceptive users. (prohealth.com)
  • Vitamin B complex is extremely important for the optimal activity of the nervous system. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Vitamins B1, B12 and B6 are important for the proper management and appropriate performance of the nervous system. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Vitamin D also plays an important role in immune health and overall general health. (forresthealth.com)
  • studies suggest that vitamin E is important for sperm production and overall vaginal health in women. (expresschemist.co.uk)
  • Furthermore, in Table 4 are the data for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which is another important vitamin D3 metabolite produced from 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 in the kidney. (kentfeeds.com)
  • Based on our pilot study, we hypothesize that besides vitamin D, vitamin K plays an important role in bone health in children. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is an especially important vitamin for maintaining healthy nerve cells, and it helps in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. (umm.edu)
  • These retinoid forms can be especially important with respect to pregnancy and childbirth, infancy, childhood growth, night vision, red blood cell production, and resistance to infectious disease. (whfoods.org)
  • Vitamin K's benefits may not be widely-known, but it's one of the most important anti-aging therapies. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • l as a boost of an important vitamin for optimal absorbency. (shape.com)
  • The important forms for humans are D2 and D3. (foodtips.org)
  • It is therefore very important to be able to accurately and reliably measure the different forms of vitamin D in order to monitor levels and to make sure they are maintained in the normal range. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Promotes energy production Supports cellular health A high-potency blend of the important B vitamins Easy-to-swallow soft gels Potency and quality guaranteed B-100 Gels are a high-potency blend of the important B-complex vitamins, which are. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. (bmj.com)
  • Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94). (bmj.com)
  • This only obtains its active antioxidative form after the acetate groups have been hydrolysed in the small intestine. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • It relies on patented Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) technology, billed as proprietary organic-inorganic hybrid technology that encapsulates active vitamin C between bio-friendly mineral layers such as stabilizing zinc, to deliver it continuously for over 12 hours. (godubai.com)
  • This vitamin D metabolite is the active form of vitamin D3. (kentfeeds.com)
  • four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, extracted from vegetable oils that are present in their natural, fully active, unesterified form. (newrootsherbal.com)
  • Vitamin E may be expressed as alpha-tocopherol equivalents (ATE), which refer to the biologically-active (R) stereoisomer content. (drugs.com)
  • The classical actions of vitamin D-which by itself is inactive-are due to the functions of the active metabolite, calcitriol. (nap.edu)
  • The oxidized α-tocopheroxyl radicals produced in this process may be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol , or ubiquinol (Wang and Quinn 1999). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Vitamin B2 includes the active co-enzyme forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that helps to transport vitamin b2 into the red blood cell as well as maintaining the red blood cell formation. (worldwidehealth.com)
  • Though vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms, all of this work is focused on the tocotrienol form, also known as TCT. (prohealth.com)
  • Many people know that the main source of vitamin D is from exposure to sunlight because humans produce a type of vitamin D naturally from the action of sun on the skin," Professor Naughton said. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Unfortunately, very few food sources naturally contain vitamin D and the general population as a results fail to meet the requirements. (frontiersin.org)
  • The review paper associated medications used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes with an inhibition of vitamin K2 processes. (mercola.com)
  • The research found a shared mechanism between the blood thinner warfarin, statin medications and vegetable oils in the inhibition of vitamin K dependent processes. (mercola.com)
  • Statin medications, developed to reduce cholesterol levels, also have a negative impact on your vitamin K2 absorption and inhibit CoQ10 , 10 both necessary for a healthy cardiovascular system. (mercola.com)
  • The Mayo Clinic reports that an inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract can cause a type of anemia called pernicious anemia. (guardianlv.com)
  • Results Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. (bmj.com)
  • In males, plasma PLP decreased with age after adolescence only in nonusers of supplemental vitamin B-6. (prohealth.com)
  • Note that supplemental vitamin C resulted in a 46% increase (P (kentfeeds.com)