Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).PeroxidasesOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Acatalasia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ampyrone: A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cytochrome-c Peroxidase: A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Benzene DerivativesSinglet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Scopoletin: Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Dianisidine: Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.MethemoglobinEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Sulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pyruvate OxidaseCell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Tetraoxanes: Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dental Enamel Permeability: The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Ditiocarb: A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)ThiomalatesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.DeoxyriboseMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture R19. May form explosive peroxides ...
They do form stable peroxides. Organogallium compounds can be synthesized by transmetallation, for example the reaction of ... Lewis acidity decreases in the order Al > Ga > In and as a result organogallium compounds do not form bridged dimers as ...
They do form stable peroxides. These alkylgalliums are liquids at room temperature, having low melting points, and are quite ... Attempting to dehydrate this adduct forms GaF 2OH·nH 2O. The adduct reacts with ammonia to form GaF 3·3NH 3, which can then be ... Gallium reacts with ammonia at 1050 °C to form gallium nitride, GaN. Gallium also forms binary compounds with phosphorus, ... forming gallate salts containing the Ga(OH)− 4 anion. Gallium hydroxide, which is amphoteric, also dissolves in alkali to form ...
... and the initial products in eicosanoid generation are themselves highly reactive peroxides. LTA4 can form adducts with tissue ... and PGD2 products formed in the pathways just cited can undergo a spontaneous dehydration reaction to form PGA2, PGA1, and PGJ2 ... certain eicosanoid-forming pathways do form R isomers and their S versus R isomeric products can exhibit dramatically different ... or aspirin-treated COX2 to form the lipoxins and epi-lipoxins or with P450 oxygenases or aspirin-treated COX2 to form Resolvin ...
PerR, responsive to peroxide; PerR monomers contain two binding sites and occur in zinc/iron and zinc/manganese forms. Zur, ...
Roughly 85% of the circulating T3 is later formed in the liver and anterior pituitary by removal of the iodine atom from the ... This reaction requires hydrogen peroxide. Iodine bonds carbon 3 or carbon 5 of tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin in a process ... Thyroperoxidase oxidises two I− to form I2. Iodide is non-reactive, and only the more reactive iodine is required for the next ... One MIT and one DIT are enzymatically coupled to form T3. The enzyme is thyroid peroxidase. The small amount of T3 could be ...
As an example of dissociation, hydrogen peroxide can undergo homolytic cleavage, with the O-O bond cleaving to form two ... This particular radical can further abstract H atoms, creating H2O2, or hydrogen peroxide; peroxides can further cleave ... O2 → 2O Atomic oxygen can then combine with more molecular oxygen to form ozone. O + O2 → O3 However, ozone can also be ... Benzoyl peroxide, much like azobisisobutyronitrile, is a white powder used as a photoinitiator in various commercial and ...
When stored in the presence of air or oxygen, ethers tend to form explosive peroxides, such as diethyl ether peroxide. The ... In addition to avoiding storage conditions likely to form peroxides, it is recommended, when an ether is used as a solvent, not ... This reactivity is similar to the tendency of ethers with alpha hydrogen atoms to form peroxides. Reaction with chlorine ... as any peroxides that may have formed, being less volatile than the original ether, will become concentrated in the last few ...
On standing VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode. VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture. ... The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. From its flake or pellet form PVC is ... It can be formed in the environment when soil organisms break down "chlorinated" solvents. Vinyl chloride that is released by ... The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. Many such ethane-based ...
Sulfur dioxide converts to sulfurous acid which forms hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide combines with residual tannins in the ...
This indamine is formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of ... oxidation of ortho-aminodiphenylamine with lead peroxide. The more complex phenazines, such as the naphthophenazines, ... By the entrance of amino or hydroxyl groups into the molecule dyestuffs are formed. The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines ... The rhodamines, which are closely related to the phthaleins, are formed by the condensation of the alkyl metaaminophenols with ...
The hexahydrate has two forms, a blue tetragonal form, and a green monoclinic form, with a transition temperature around 53 °C ... A Ni4+ hydroxide: nickel peroxide hydrate NiO2•H2O, can be made by oxidising with alkaline peroxide. It is black, and unstable ... Nickel also forms carbides and borides. Nickel boride can take the forms Ni2B (a green/black solid), NiB, Ni3B, o-Ni4B3 and m- ... Nickel with selenium forms several compounds Ni1−xSe 0≤x≤0.15, Ni2Se3, NiSe2 also known as a mineral penroseite. Nickel forms ...
forming the block/slab using industrial machine. processing the finished block/slab into tiles or other products. The most ... To aid curing, hydrogen peroxide is added. Prominent quartz countertop maker Caesarstone notes that 93% natural quartz ... After the block / slab is formed and cured (this usually takes between three and seven days depending on products and weather ...
"Catalysis of the unwinding of a DNA or RNA duplex." dnaB recQ "Catalysis of the integration of DNA possibly by forming a ... transient DNA-protein link." "Inhibition of the reactions brought about by dioxygen (O2) or peroxides. Usually the antioxidant ... "The joining of two lipid bilayers to form a single membrane." "Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its ... "A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet ...
... center to form S2− 2 group. Oxygen also behaves similarly, e.g. in peroxides such as H2O2. Examples: Iron disulfide (FeS2), e.g ... That is, the disulfide bond destabilizes the unfolded form of the protein by lowering its entropy. The disulfide bond may form ... where the protonated thiol form is favored relative to the deprotonated thiolate form. (The pKa of a typical thiol group is ... The native form of a protein is usually a single disulfide species, although some proteins may cycle between a few disulfide ...
With hydrogen peroxide the epoxide 8 is formed. Carvone may be cleaved using ozone followed by steam, giving dilactone 9, while ... The dextro-form, S-(+)-carvone is obtained practically pure by the fractional distillation of caraway oil. The levo-form ... For example, (S)-(+)-carvone was used to begin a 1998 synthesis of the terpenoid quassin: Carvone forms two mirror image forms ... The two forms are also referred to by the older names of laevo (L) referring to R-(-)-carvone, and dextro (D) referring to S ...
With hydrogen it forms water and hydrogen peroxide. Organic oxygen compounds are ubiquitous in organic chemistry. Sulfur's ... Oxygen ions often come in the forms of oxide ions (O2− ), peroxide ions (O2− 2), and hydroxide ions (OH− ). Sulfur ions ... For instance, sulfur forms the toxic sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. Tellurium also forms oxides. There are some chalcogen ... Sulfur can be found in elemental form or in the form of sulfide minerals, sulfate minerals, or sulfosalt minerals. Stars of at ...
The excess acid likely deactivates the hydrogen peroxide formed in C-O heterolysis. Magic acid also catalyzes electrophilic ... Protonated hydrogen peroxide is the active hydroxylating agent. Oxygenation of alkanes can be catalyzed by a magic acid-SO2ClF ... Examination of the solution with 1H-NMR showed a tert-butyl cation, suggesting that the paraffin chain that forms the wax had ... This ion is then cloven at higher temperatures, and reacts to release hydrogen gas and forms the t-amyl cation at lower ...
The related conjugate base is well known in the form of several salts such as potassium acid tellurite, KHTeO3. In contrast to ... Oxidation of its aqueous solution with hydrogen peroxide gives the tellurate ion. It is usually prepared as an aqueous solution ... In principle, tellurous acid would form by treatment of tellurium dioxide with water, i.e. hydrolysis. ...
When sufficient peroxides have formed, they can form a crystalline, shock-sensitive solid precipitate at the mouth of a ... The carbon-centred free radical thus formed is able to react with an oxygen molecule to form a peroxide compound. The process ... can form highly explosive organic peroxides upon exposure to oxygen and light. THF is normally more likely to form such ... The peroxide is able to oxidize the Fe2+ ion to an Fe3+ ion, which then forms a deep-red coordination complex with the ...
The superoxide anion is formed directly from the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is then formed ... In addition, hydrogen peroxide reduces to the hydroxyl radical, the most reactive radical and the one with the greatest ... It is not surprising that ROS production may be a form of chemical defense against predators, since at low levels it can damage ... In marine systems, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exists at concentrations of 10−8-10−9 M in the photic zone, but has been found in ...
In the Nef reaction, ketones form by hydrolysis of salts of secondary nitro compounds. In the Fukuyama coupling, ketones form ... In the Kornblum-DeLaMare rearrangement ketones are prepared from peroxides and base. In the Ruzicka cyclization, cyclic ketones ... Usually, the keto form is more stable than the enol. This equilibrium allows ketones to be prepared via the hydration of ... One of his new classes of compounds was "syndesmides", which were compounds formed by the combination of two or more simpler ...
Hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase activate a halogenating system, which leads to the creation of hypochlorite and the ... The phagosome of ingested material is then fused with the lysosome, forming a phagolysosome and leading to degradation. ... As in phagocytic immune cells, the resulting phagosome may be merged with lysosomes containing digestive enzymes, forming a ... It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. ...
Organic peroxides each have a peroxide bond (-O-O-), which is readily cleaved to give two oxygen-centered radicals. The oxyl ... The sulfate radical adds to an alkene forming radical sulfate esters, e.g. .CHPhCH2OSO3−, that add further alkenes via ... Inorganic peroxides function analogously to organic peroxides. Many polymers are often produced from the alkenes upon ... Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide is also common, and acetone peroxide is on rare occasions used as a radical initiator, too. ...
Carbamide peroxide reacts with water to form hydrogen peroxide. Carbamide peroxide has about a third of the strength of ... The bleaching agent is either carbamide peroxide, which breaks down in the mouth to form hydrogen peroxide, or hydrogen ... Bleaching methods generally use either hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide which breaks down into hydrogen peroxide. Common ... Hydrogen peroxide is an irritant and cytotoxic. At concentrations of 10% or higher, hydrogen peroxide is potentially corrosive ...
Usually, the keto form is more stable than the enol. This equilibrium allows ketones to be prepared via the hydration of ... In the Kornblum-DeLaMare rearrangement ketones are prepared from peroxides and base. ... With halogens to form an α-haloketone, a reaction that proceeds via an enol (see Haloform reaction) ... One of his new classes of compounds was "syndesmides", which were compounds formed by the combination of two or more simpler ...
What is benzoyl peroxide? Meaning of benzoyl peroxide medical term. What does benzoyl peroxide mean? ... Looking for online definition of benzoyl peroxide in the Medical Dictionary? benzoyl peroxide explanation free. ... Skin smarts: Spot treat any pimples you see forming, but dont cover your whole face in benzoyl peroxide or youll end up with ... benzoyl peroxide. dibenzoyl peroxide, a topical keratolytic with antibacterial and antipruritic properties, used in the ...
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Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0) Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0) Other information,welcome to ... ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0) Boiling point Melting point, ... Benzoyl peroxide is widely used as a catalyst in the polymerisation of molecules like styrene (phenylethene) to form ... Benzoyl Peroxide is a widely used organic compound of the peroxide family. Benzoyl Peroxide is often used in acne treatments , ...
Nodules: Nodules are forms of papules but are larger and deeper. Discusses how Depo-Provera One of the most common side effects ... Makeup Prone Best wrinkles and It is a synthetic corticosteroid used in treatment of certain forms of Benzoyl Peroxide (On the ... Acne Cleanser 10 Benzoyl Peroxide For Skin Oily Sensitive Makeup Prone Best how to Minimize the Size of Your Pores. More about ... Acne Cleanser 10 Benzoyl Peroxide For Skin Oily Sensitive Makeup Prone Best. TueL is a comprehensive skin care line that ...
New forms of micronized "microsphere" BPO allow for a slow release of BPO onto the skin which reduces the side effects. ... Benzoyl Peroxide (BPO) - The Good. Benzoyl Peroxide is a very effective treatment against acne, but it also can have ... Benzoyl Peroxide - The Ugly. In June 2014, The Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that some common over-the-counter ... Benzoyl Peroxide - The Bad As discussed above, some people experience undesirable, but not harmful, side effects from using BPO ...
It comes in a wide variety of topical forms, like gels, cremes, and bars, to help clear up your moderate to severe acne. ... What is Benzoyl Peroxide Wash?. A benzoyl peroxide wash is a cleanser, that works to unclogs pores, and fight acne causing ... Choosing A Benzoyl Peroxide Wash For Your Skin. Ive tried many of the top brands of Benzoyl Peroxide wash over the years, and ... Choosing A Benzoyl Peroxide Wash For Your Skin. *Best Benzoyl Peroxide Wash For Mild to Moderate Acne*#1 - Neutrogena Clear ...
Diluted Benzoyl Peroxide, Find details about China Diluted Benzoyl Peroxide, Food Additives from 27% / 32% Bpo / Diluted ... After added into flour, its main element benzoyl peroxide produces free form[O] in the catalysis of air and enzyme to oxidize ... Sales Agent Chemical Agent Release Agent China Peroxide Dispersing Agent Reducing Agent Peroxide Chemical Peroxide Compounds ... Peroxide Compounds Price Sodium Peroxide Price Optical Whitening Agent Price Wholesale Active Agent Wholesale Curing Agent ...
Benzoyl peroxide forms toxic free radicals of oxygen, which destroy P. Acnes since the bacteria cant live in an oxygen-rich ... Benzoyl Peroxide preparations for acne. Benzoyl peroxide falls into the category of drugs known as peroxides that are specially ... Results with Benzoyl Peroxide drugs:. When you first start using Benzoyl Peroxide preparation such as Persol gel 2.5% or 5%, ... Benzoyl Peroxide Prescription Drugs. March 23, 2018. March 26, 2018. Nancy JadeBenzoyl peroxide ...
Peroxide Forming Chemicals. Certain commonly used chemicals in the laboratory can form peroxides upon exposure to oxygen in air ... Class A: SEVERE PEROXIDE HAZARD Chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides without concentration.. Disposal Schedule:. ... Formation and accumulation of peroxides makes peroxide-forming chemicals low-power explosives that are sensitive to shock, ... Compounds known to autoxidize to form peroxides. *Ethers containing primary and secondary alkyl groups (never distill an ether ...
Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with the rapid form of resting cytochrome oxidase.. Weng LC1, Baker GM. ... The peroxide binding reaction was also associated with an increase in absorbance at 606 nm which correlated with the rate of ... The hydrogen peroxide binding reaction has been examined with alkaline-purified resting enzyme in order to avoid mixtures of ... At pH 8.8-9.0 (20 degrees C), the reactivity of resting enzyme was similar to the peroxide-free, pulsed conformer that has been ...
An inherently non-peroxide forming ether solvent, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane), has been ... An inherently non-peroxide forming ether solvent, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane), has been ... 2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon ... 2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon ...
A tunable decarboxylative alkylation of cinnamic acids with alkanes was developed to form alkenes or ketones under transition ... Peroxide promoted tunable decarboxylative alkylation of cinnamic acids to form alkenes or ketones under metal-free conditions† ... Peroxide promoted tunable decarboxylative alkylation of cinnamic acids to form alkenes or ketones under metal-free conditions J ... A tunable decarboxylative alkylation of cinnamic acids with alkanes was developed to form alkenes or ketones under transition ...
The chemical nature of the second hydrogen peroxide compound formed by cytochrome c peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. 2. ... The chemical nature of the second hydrogen peroxide compound formed by cytochrome c peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. 2. ... The chemical nature of the second hydrogen peroxide compound formed by cytochrome c peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. 2. ... The chemical nature of the second hydrogen peroxide compound formed by cytochrome c peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. 2. ...
Aczone rated 7.4/10 vs Aldactone rated 7.1/10 vs Benzoyl Peroxide Topical rated 8.1/10 in overall patient satisfaction. ... Compare Aczone vs Aldactone vs Benzoyl Peroxide Topical head-to-head for uses, ratings, cost, side effects, interactions and ... Benzoyl peroxide topical Remove Benzoyl peroxide topical from your drug comparison Add another drug to compare ... Benzoyl peroxide topical Remove Benzoyl peroxide topical from your drug comparison Add to compare. ...
Professional guide for Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, ... Benzoyl Peroxide and Erythromycin. Dosage Forms. Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for ... Dapsone (Topical): Benzoyl Peroxide may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dapsone (Topical). Specifically, the use of these ... Isotretinoin (Topical): Benzoyl Peroxide may diminish the therapeutic effect of Isotretinoin (Topical). Consider therapy ...
Hydrogen peroxide, Ascorbic acid, Acetone peroxide, Chlorine dioxide) by Form (Powder, Liquid), by Application (Bakery products ... Hydrogen peroxide  Ascorbic acid  Acetone peroxide  Chlorine dioxide  by Form:  Powder  Liquid  by Application:  Bakery ... Acetone peroxide, Chlorine dioxide) by Form (Powder, Liquid), by Application (Bakery products, Flour, Cheese, Others) and ... 5.3.4. Acetone Peroxide 5.3.4.1. Market estimates & forecasts, 2015-2025 (USD Billion) 5.3.4.2. Regional breakdown estimates & ...
... buy White Or Yellowish Powder Form Inorganic Peroxides Stable Oxygen release performance from China manufacturer. ... Home ProductsMagnesium Peroxide Powder. White Or Yellowish Powder Form Inorganic Peroxides Stable Oxygen release performance. ... Magnesium peroxide (MgO2) is an odorless fine powder peroxide with a white to off-white color. Magnesium is an ideal carrier ... Magnesium Peroxide Powder Water Treatment magnesium dioxide , Magnesium Peroxide Oxygen Powder For Agriculture ...
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Gel, 1.2%/5%: Each gram of Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel contains 12 mg clindamycin ... BENZOYL PEROXIDE (UNII: W9WZN9A0GM) (BENZOYL PEROXIDE - UNII:W9WZN9A0GM) BENZOYL PEROXIDE. 50 mg in 1 g. ... CLINDAMYCIN - BENZOYL PEROXIDE- clindamycin phosphate and benzoyl peroxide gel. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL ... Benzoyl peroxide has been shown to be a tumor promoter and progression agent in a number of animal studies. Benzoyl peroxide in ...
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS ACANYA Gel contains clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% in a topical gel in 50 gram ... Benzoyl Peroxide (UNII: W9WZN9A0GM) (Benzoyl Peroxide - UNII:W9WZN9A0GM). Benzoyl Peroxide. 25 mg in 1 g. ... Benzoyl peroxide has been shown to be a tumor promoter and progression agent in a number of animal studies. Benzoyl peroxide in ... Benzoyl peroxide is an antibacterial and keratolytic agent. The structural formula for benzoyl peroxide is represented below:. ...
... or may autopolymerize due to accumulation of peroxides when exposed to air. It is critical to minimize quantities of these ... Certain chemicals may form explosive peroxides when exposed to air, ... Peroxide-Forming Chemicals. Certain chemicals may form explosive peroxides when exposed to air, or may autopolymerize due to ... The following chemicals can form explosive levels of peroxides without concentrating. Containers should be dated when opened ...
Peroxide Forming Chemicals. Autoxidation in common laboratory solvents can lead to unstable and potentially explosive peroxide ... There are three categories of peroxide formers:. Group A chemicals which are form explosive levels of peroxides after prolonged ... Group B chemicals form peroxides that are hazardous only on concentration by distillation or evaporation. These chemicals ... Group C chemicals consist of monomers which form peroxides that can initiate explosive polymerization. Inhibited monomers ...
2D MaterialsAlloy & Alloy Forms Pure Metals & Metal Forms. Chemicals & Salts. All Chemicals & Salts Acetates Aluminides ... The direct peroxide-peroxide fuel cells with a 10 cm(3) min(-1) flow rate display the open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.85V and ... Simple fabrication of pineapple root-like palladium-gold catalysts as the high-efficiency cathode in direct peroxide-peroxide ... Simple fabrication of pineapple root-like palladium-gold catalysts as the high-efficiency cathode in direct peroxide-peroxide ...
However, the long-desirable target beryllium peroxide (BeO2) has not been reported, thus far. Currently, the application of ... Alloy & Alloy Forms Pure Metals & Metal Forms. Chemicals & Salts. All Chemicals & Salts Acetates Aluminides Ammonium Sulfates ... BeO2 crystallizes in FeS2-type structure, whose remarkable feature is that it contains peroxide group (O2(2-)) with an O-O ... However, the long-desirable target beryllium peroxide (BeO2) has not been reported, thus far. Currently, the application of ...
Peroxide Cure Fluoroelastomer FPO 3740 is a terpolymer with an intermediate Mooney viscosity and a fluorine content of 69.5%. ... FPO 3740 is packaged in bale form and is available in individual 27.5 lb. (12.5 kg) polyethylene bags in 55.1 lb. (25.0 kg) ... 3M™ Dyneon™ Peroxide Cure Fluoroelastomer FPO 3740 has a number of favorable attributes that make it suitable for use in ... Dyneon peroxide cure fluoroelastomer FPO 3740 can be compounded using standard water-cooled internal mixers or two-roll mills ...
Peroxide Cure Perfluoroelastomer PFE 60Z is a technically advanced peroxide-curable perfluoroelastomer, designed to meet the ... This product is packaged in crumb form and is available in 2 kg boxes. ... 3M™ Dyneon™ Peroxide Cure Perfluoroelastomer PFE 60Z is a technically advanced peroxide-curable perfluoroelastomer, designed to ... Dyneon peroxide cure perfluoroelastomer PFE 60Z has a fully fluorinated backbone structure and is designed to meet demanding ...
  • Benzoyl peroxide has an anti-inflammatory action and vitro studies suggest that this action arises from its ability to kill polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cells) in the pilosebaceous follicles and so prevent their release of reactive oxygen species such as peroxides which enhance tissue inflammation. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide is used as a bleaching agent for certain foods, an oxidizing agent, a polymerizing initiator in the manufacture of plastics, a curing agent for silicone rubber, and an ingredient in various industrial processes. (chemicalbook.com)
  • This formula takes a unique approach to treat imperfections with the association of two effective ingredients for the first time: (1) Lipo-Hydroxy-Acid (LHA), a pro-exfoliating molecule designed to micro-exfoliate the skin and stimulate cell renewal and (2) Benzoyl Peroxide to treat acne in an innovative micronized form. (thefreedictionary.com)
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