Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Paralyses, Familial Periodic: A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Sleep Paralysis: A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)Tick Paralysis: Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.Paralysis, Hyperkalemic Periodic: An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Dicistroviridae: A family of invertebrate RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Paralysis, Obstetric: Paralysis of an infant resulting from injury received at birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Laryngoplasty: Restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of a defective or damaged LARYNX.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Enterovirus InfectionsAndersen Syndrome: A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.Myotonia: Prolonged failure of muscle relaxation after contraction. This may occur after voluntary contractions, muscle percussion, or electrical stimulation of the muscle. Myotonia is a characteristic feature of MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Channelopathies: A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Myotonia Congenita: Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Doxapram: A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Neuromuscular Monitoring: The use of peripheral nerve stimulation to assess transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, especially in the response to anesthetics, such as the intensity of NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE by NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Pseudocholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterases.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
All forms of botulism lead to paralysis that typically starts with the muscles of the face and then spreads towards the limbs. ... In severe forms, botulism leads to paralysis of the breathing muscles and causes respiratory failure. In light of this life- ... After this time, paralysis generally improves as new neuromuscular connections are formed. In some abnormal cases, physicians ... The most common form in Western countries is infant botulism. This occurs in infants who are colonized with the bacterium in ...
Bubbles of poison form as the frog's skin begins to blister. The dart tips are prepared by touching them to the toxin, or the ... Nerve paralysis is almost instantaneous. Other accounts say that a stick siurukida ("bamboo tooth") is put through the mouth of ... The neuron can no longer send signals and this results in paralysis. Although generally classified as a neurotoxin, ... which suggests that the unprotonated form may be more active. Currently, no effective antidote exists for the treatment of ...
This disease can also present as hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and there is debate as to whether the two disorders are ... Facts About Myopathies , MDA Publications Eulenburg A (1886). "Über eine familiäre durch 6 Generationen verfolgbare Form ... Paramyotonia congenita FAQ at the Periodic Paralysis News Desk. The site also hosts a mailing list for patients with the ... Although more typical of the periodic paralytic disorders, patients with PC may also have potassium-provoked paralysis. PC ...
In frostbite, crystals form, increasing the pressure of remaining tissue and fluid causing the cells to burst. Under extreme ... Internal factors causing necrosis include: trophoneurotic disorders; injury and paralysis of nerve cells. Pancreatic enzymes ( ... Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury ... There are also very specific forms of necrosis such as gangrene (term used in clinical practices for limbs which have suffered ...
This is commonly called "Analysis paralysis." The challenge is to sift through and focus on only the most critical information ... Two particular forms of unconscious bias Gladwell discusses are implicit association tests and psychological priming. Gladwell ...
These cause paralysis upon ingestion, much like curare. Coral bean grows best in sandy soils and has moderate salt tolerance. ... The plant forms a woody caudex. Toxic alkaloids, including erysopine, erysothiopine, erysothiovine, erysovine, erythrinine, ...
Koffigoh then formed a second transition government in January 1992 with substantial participation by ministers from the ... Frequent political paralysis and intermittent violence marked this period. Following a vote by the transitional legislature ( ... Nine days later, President Grunitzky formed a government in which all parties were represented. During the next several years, ... In April 1991, the government began negotiations with newly formed opposition groups and agreed to a general amnesty that ...
... complete paralysis, Class C - paralysed from T7 to T10 segment - incomplete paralysis, Class D - paralysed from T11 to L2 ... Club throw involved throwing a wooden object in the form of a club. Classification: Class A - paralysed above segment T10 - ... complete paralysis; Class B - paralysed above segment T10 - incomplete paralysis; Class C - paralysed below segment T10; Class ... Classification: Class A - paralysed above segment T10 - complete paralysis; Class B - paralysed above segment T10 - incomplete ...
Erb-Charcot paralysis: a rare form of spinal syphilis; named with French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Erb's point: an ... Erb-Duchenne palsy, also known as Erb's palsy or brachial plexus palsy: a muscular paralysis during childbirth; named with ... Erb-Charcot disease - spastic spinal paralysis). Handbuch der Krankheiten des Nervensystems. (Textbook on disorders of the ... Ueber die spastische Spinalparalyse (Tabes dorsal spasmodique, Charcot); (On spastic spinal paralysis), 1877. Handbuch der ...
At higher concentrations, paralysis, seizures, and coma can result. In case of ingestion, nausea and vomiting may occur. Skin ... In humans, exposure to chloromethane during pregnancy may cause the fetus' lower spinal column, pelvis, and legs to form ... contact, when in the form of a refrigerated liquid, may result in frostbite. Contact with the eyes may result in dim vision, ...
The epitheliotropic form is typically of T-cell origin and is also called mycosis fungoides. The non-epitheliotropic form is ... Central nervous system involvement can cause seizures or paralysis. Eye involvement, seen in 20 to 25 percent of cases, can ... The same forms of lymphoma that are found in dogs also occur in cats, but gastrointestinal is the most common type. Lymphoma of ... The non-epitheliotropic form can have a wide variety of appearances, from a single lump to large areas of bruised, ulcerated, ...
"Westphal's syndrome": A familial form of intermittent hypocalcaemic paralysis. Die Konträre Sexualempfindung: Symptom eines ... He also demonstrated a relationship between tabes dorsalis (nerve degeneration in the spinal cord) and paralysis in the ...
... is a chronic syndrome that tends to begin earlier in life than other forms of depression-usually beginning ... Leaden paralysis (i.e., heavy, leaden feelings in arms or legs); Long-standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity ( ... In general, atypical depression tends to cause greater functional impairment than other forms of depression. ...
The simplest form of treatment for far-sightedness is the use of corrective lenses, eyeglasses or contact lenses. Eyeglasses ... Functional hyperopia Caused by paralysis that interferes eye's ability to accommodate. There are also three categories severity ...
It occurs as white crystals that react slowly with water to form hydrogen cyanide. Cyanogen iodide is prepared by combining I2 ... Cyanogen iodide may cause convulsions, paralysis and death from respiratory failure. It is a strong irritant and may cause ... Generally, cyanogen iodide is used for destroying all lower forms of life. Cyanogen iodide was first synthesized in 1824 by the ...
In Klumpke's paralysis, a form of paralysis involving the muscles of the forearm and hand, a characteristic sign is the clawed ... This results in a form of paralysis known as Klumpke's paralysis. Injury to the brachial plexus can happen in numerous ... "either before or after they have joined to form the lower trunk. The subsequent paralysis affects, principally, the intrinsic ... The most severe form of injury is nerve root avulsion, which usually accompanies high-velocity impacts that commonly occur ...
Choking in sport can be considered a form of analysis paralysis. It is often an over-used, or even derisive term in the sports ...
While signing the form, Pierce notices a scratch on Radar's hand. Radar tells him that a mutt that sticks around the camp bit ... Meanwhile, Pierce is trying to treat a patient with hysterical paralysis. Radar is feeding his animals World War II surplus ... Radar then interrupts Pierce, who is making out with Nurse Baker, so that he can sign a patient's release form. ... Freedman and that, by sending him home, his guilt will only serve to reinforce his hysterical paralysis. Finally, Corporal ...
Cayman (Evan Murayama) - Reptilian form. Could only turn back to his human form for a short period due the pain it caused. ... Reaper (Pantu Hurageb) - Secretes a substance that causes paralysis. Last seen being sucked into Abyss' dimension. Shuriken ( ... One of the consequences was that a new team of Exiles was formed and included among them characters from the main Marvel ... Set after the controversial "Black September" event with Marvel and Malibu Comics, this series featured a group formed with ...
A batibat takes the form of a huge, old, fat woman that resides in trees. They usually come in contact with humans when the ... Brugada syndrome Sleep apnea Sleep paralysis Pesanta Lietuvēns Ramos, Maximo D. (1971). Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology ... When a person does sleep near it, the batibat transforms to its true form and attacks that person. It sits upon the chest of ...
The alkaline gut contents escape into the blood, causing paralysis and death. One of these toxins has been shown to form pores ... Parasporal body is a crystalline protein that forms around a spore in some bacteria that acts as a toxin precursor[further ... For example, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus form a solid protein crystal, the parasporal body, next to their ...
In its pure form, it is rarely seen. The most common cause is penetrating trauma such as a gunshot wound or stab wound to the ... Treatment is directed at the pathology causing the paralysis. If it is because of trauma such as a gunshot or knife wound, ... It can advance from a typical Brown-Séquard syndrome to complete paralysis. It is not always permanent and progression or ... Brown-Séquard syndrome (also known as Brown-Séquard's hemiplegia, Brown-Séquard's paralysis, hemiparaplegic syndrome, ...
The posterior cord takes nerves from the upper, lower, and middle trunk, so ultimately the radial nerve is formed from the ... It can be compressed against the humerus by crutches, causing crutch paralysis. Symptoms of damage to the deep branch of the ... Another area of potential entrapment is the arcade of Frohse, a fibrous arch formed from the proximal part of the superficial ... In some cases of spontaneous paralysis of the nerve, releasing this fibrous band released pressure on the nerve and restored ...
It is caused by the injury, paralysis, and illness of the larynx. Conversion disorder can cause loss of speaking ability. Feral ... Anarthria is a severe form of dysarthria. The coordination of movements of the mouth and tongue or the conscious coordination ...
He noted three different forms: Ascending paralysis without sensory signs or symptoms. Ascending paralysis with concomitant ... In 1859, he documented ten cases (five of his own, five he read about,) of the disorder, and termed them "ascending paralysis ... He is credited with discovering the paralytic disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (also known as Landry's ascending paralysis, but ... Progressing generalised disorder with paralysis and sensory signs. He died in Auteuil in 1865, having caught cholera from ...
... , also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection ...
n. A temporary inflammation of the nerves, causing pain, weakness, and paralysis in the extremities and often progressing to ... Guillain-Barre syndrome - a form of peripheral polyneuritis characterized by pain and weakness and sometimes paralysis of the ... He says there were also two confirmed cases of Zika-related Guillain Barre, which can cause temporary paralysis and in some ... A temporary inflammation of the nerves, causing pain, weakness, and paralysis in the extremities and often progressing to the ...
There are multiple forms of botulism. All forms can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies. The three main forms of ... If given before paralysis is complete, antitoxin can prevent worsening of symptoms, but it will not reverse paralysis that has ... Two other forms of botulism also have occurred. Adult intestinal botulism is very rare and occurs among adults by the same ... Muscle paralysis starts with the face and progresses down the body to the trunk, arms, and legs. Infants with botulism appear ...
This may be in the form of hallucinations and at least 30% of people experience it once in their lifetime. The percentage may ... Different causes of sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis has more of risk factors compared to causes which are mainly dependent on ... Preventing and handling sleep paralysis episodes. Handling sleep paralysis is important to be able to be okay with it. ... you have ever experienced sleep paralysis. People who have had sleep paralysis have a rough time coping with day to day ...
Sarcoidosis-associated vocal cord paralysis is uncommon. In general, vocal cord paralysis is usually bilateral or left-sided, ... Given the patients improvement with nodal resection, we suspect in this case the vocal cord paralysis was caused by nerve ... Laryngoscopy revealed right vocal cord paralysis. A CT scan of the neck/chest identified diffuse mediastinal lymphadenopathy ... In sarcoidosis, isolated right vocal cord paralysis has never been reported. Granulomatous invasion of the laryngeal nerves ( ...
2 synonyms for Guillain-Barre syndrome: infectious polyneuritis, Landrys paralysis. What are synonyms for Guillain Barre ... a form of peripheral polyneuritis characterized by pain and weakness and sometimes paralysis of the limbs. Synonyms. * ... Landrys paralysis,type:2},{name:multiple neuritis,type:4},{name:polyneuritis,type:4}]},/script, ,svg width= ... a condition which affects the nervous system and paralyses sufferers, her family said last night.. Flu vaccine death ...
There are many causes of facial paralysis that can affect the form and function of the face. Neurological damage, which can ... If you are living with facial paralysis, you have options to improve the function and form of your face. While cosmetic ... Facial paralysis most commonly affects one side of the face and can be temporary or permanent. For those with facial paralysis ... Cosmetic Treatments for Facial Paralysis. June 25th, 2019 Posted in Facial Paralysis Comments Off on Cosmetic Treatments for ...
Vocal cord paralysis, mostly affects only one vocal cord. If both of your vocal cords are affected, you may have difficulties ... you to seek a qualified medical practitioner before putting to use any advice/tips given by our team or any third party in form ... Vocal cord paralysis may also be an effect of viral infection or a neurological disorder. It may be treated with voice therapy ... Vocal cord paralysis, mostly affects only one vocal cord. If both of your vocal cords are affected, you may have difficulties ...
On a Rare Form of Infantile Paralysis (?) Br Med J 1875; 2 :395 ... On a Rare Form of.... *On a Rare Form of Infantile Paralysis ... On a Rare Form of Infantile Paralysis (?). Br Med J 1875; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.769.395 (Published 25 September ...
It may have been the strangest form of "analysis paralysis" that we encounter from time to time. The symptoms are similar to ... Home » Blog » Doctor Marketing » The Strangest Form of Analysis Paralysis (and How to Cure It) ...
... assessed as paralysis at 8.4 nmol injected into abdominal region measured after 32 hr. ... Insecticidal activity against adult form of Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) ...
A Bulbar Form of General Paralysis (Vagus syndrome with emotional crises) [Forme bulbaire de la paralysie generale (Syndrome du ... A Bulbar Form of General Paralysis (Vagus syndrome with emotional crises) [Forme bulbaire de la paralysie generale (Syndrome du ... A Bulbar Form of General Paralysis (Vagus syndrome with emotional crises) [Forme bulbaire de la paralysie generale (Syndrome du ... A Bulbar Form of General Paralysis (Vagus syndrome with emotional crises) [Forme bulbaire de la paralysie generale (Syndrome du ...
Giving your dog a raw chicken to gnaw on may seem like a generous treat, but it could cause paralysis and even death, according ... But this new research says that feeding your dog raw chicken could cause paralysis, and veterinarians are recommending that ... This similarity confuses the immune system which attacks the bodys own nerves, resulting in paralysis. ... a condition that causes nerve damage and paralysis. Dr. Matthias le Chevoir, the studys lead researcher and a neurology ...
A Palestinian Authority steeped in paralysis and corruption. Hasan Abu Nimah The Electronic Intifada 18 February 2004 ...
Europes new crisis plan will hopefully stop the panic. This column explores the remaining issues - the sharing the burden of transnational bank losses and restarting the inter-bank lending market. It suggests a technical change to the guarantees that would produce a better result.
Lasting Impact: My Miraculous Recovery From Total Paralysis, by John Miksa, with Scott P. Leary, M.D. (Tate Publishing and ... many of whom have complete or partial paralysis, or paraplegia. But now there is hope that some of them may soon be able to ... motorized exoskeleton device to help people with lower body paralysis due to a spinal cord injury stand on their own two feet ...
Buy How to Eradicate Emotional Paralysis-Guide Book for Single Moms by Nicole Lee (Paperback) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu ... This form does not constitute legal advice and nothing that you read or are provided on this web site should be used as a ... The form of notice specified below is consistent with the DMCA, which can be found at the U.S. Copyright Office website, http ... To report this review as inappropriate, please complete this short form.. Email Address *. ...
Vincristine Side Effects Can Cause Paralysis. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations issued a ... Fill out the form below to receive a free confidential consultation.. Notice: JavaScript is required for this content.. /* ... You are here: Home / Defective Drugs / Vincristine / Vincristine Side Effects Could Lead To Paralysis Lawsuits ... Fill out this form for FREE,. Immediate, Case Evaluation. Notice: JavaScript is required for this content.. /* FIELDS STYLES ...
Night terrors are really terrifying and somehow always seem to come together with personal spiritual struggles in some religious setting and often during crisis. I think the onset could also be of trauma or other personal and household problems. Some
If you or a loved one suffered a spinal cord injury and have been diagnosed with Paralysis, please fill out the form at the ... Paralysis Accident Injury Lawsuits. Posted: November 10, 2016. Paralysis Accident Lawsuits. Paralysis Accident is the complete ... Gardasil Associated with Paralysis. Posted: July 28, 2008. Gardasil Vaccine May Cause Paralysis. Gardasil has been implicated ... Tagged With: Acute, Pancreatitis, Paralysis, Side Effects, Viibryd. Cervical Cancer Vaccine Blamed for UK Girls Paralysis. ...
Although bodily paralysis is a natural element of sleep, problems can arise if the sleeper suddenly wakens but fails to shake ... Sleep paralysis; what it is and how I overcame it. ... Have you ever experienced sleep paralysis in any form?. *. Yes ... Shaking Off The Paralysis. Having (partially) woken from a sleep only to find that you are in sleep paralysis, the primary ... What Is Sleep Paralysis?. Typically, when we enter the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage of sleep, ie the stage when most of our ...
Appeal for driver of white Renault Clio seen beating dog into semi-paralysis ... Appeal for driver of white Renault Clio seen beating dog into semi-paralysis ...
The most common external causes for paralysis include the occurrence of a stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury and multiple ... Paralysis is caused by multiple conditions, which may be classified as those which affect the muscles themselves, and those ... Ariel Louwrier discusses the development of pre-formed tau and alpha-synuclein fibrils for research into Alzheimers and ... The most important causes of paralysis are:. Myopathy. Conditions which cause paralysis by directly inducing muscle weakness ...
The form below is not enabled.. Name. Email. Confirm Email. Daytime Phone. Would you like to receive notifications via text?. ... Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is caused by injury to the nerve to the affected vocal fold. The injury to the vocal ... Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Patients with UVFP may have ... Inclusion criteria - clinical diagnosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis - older than 18 years of age - intact ansa ...
This form of treatment has been met with a 65% response rate. In its more advanced stages, decompression surgery becomes ... Home » Services » Center for Paralysis and Reconstructive Nerve Surgery » Center for Treatment of Paralysis and Reconstructive ... We offer a wide variety of procedures designed to restore form and function to patients who have suffered from disfiguring or ... Spinal cord injury often results in paralysis and loss of sensation to portions of the body. Individuals may lose sensation to ...
Paralysis can occur in localised or generalised forms, or it may follow a certain pattern. Most paralyses caused by nervous- ... some forms of periodic paralysis, including sleep paralysis, are caused by other factors.[12] [13] ... About 1 in 50 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with some form of paralysis, transient or permanent.[1] The word comes ... Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss ...
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