HornsPosterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus: The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tibial Neuropathy: Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32)Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Noxae: Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sheep, Bighorn: A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Females lack horns. Males bear forward-curving horns, about 35-45 cm (14-18 in) long, with the base having a distinct band of ... Sometimes, they form herds consisting of about 20 members. They prefer to lie in grass or reed beds in the heat of the day and ... It gets its name from two Latin words: reduncas (meaning bent backwards and curved, while the horns are bent forwards) and ...
... the horns of the Mongolian saiga, however, reach a maximum length of 22 centimetres (8.7 in). Saigas form very large herds that ... Saiga horn's value is equal to rhinoceros horn, whose trade was banned in 1993. Cornu Antelopis is thought to be a cheaper ... Saiga's horns, meat and skin have commercial value and are exported from Kazakhstan. Saiga horn, Cornu Antelopis, is one of the ... Only males possess horns. These horns, thick and slightly translucent, are wax-coloured and show 12 to 20 pronounced rings. ...
The final form might vary in different males - the horns could form well-defined spirals, or could diverge in a structure ... Only males possess horns, whose maximum recorded length is 188 cm (74 in). Horns appear as cream-coloured nubs at around six ... Growth rings are visible on the horn sheaths, but the annual patterns might be difficult to comprehend. Though the horns might ... The horns have only one or two spirals, though a few males have been reported to have two-and-a-half turns. ...
He can also change into two distinct forms. He can resemble a dirty-yellow unicorn with eyes of flame, and a purple horn that ... In human form, he dual-wields two small weapons of his choice (such as daggers or darts), and likes to point at a victim to ... His horns are gray, too. He has watery red eyes and red, clawlike nails. He leans on a staff shod with iron. Agares commands 31 ... His skin, horns and tail are a dead, fishbelly-white color. Bathym's forked tail is short and curled like a pig's; he is most ...
Fresno Airports Master Plan - Working Paper #2: Inventory (PDF). Kimley-Horn. May 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017. "Fresno ... FAA Airport Master Record for FAT (Form 5010 PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective December 7, 2017. "Statistics". ...
There were long-legged, cursorial forms and squat, semi aquatic forms. Most species did not have horns. Rhinoceros fossils are ... which suggests that they lacked any form of horn. The nasal incision extends fairly far into the upper jaw, ending just ... "horn", translating as "Grandfather without horn". The species name is based on the confluent morphology of the teeth. The ...
The skull of Shringasaurus was rectangular with two large but short horns. These horns had a conical shape. It was a quadruped ... The quadrate has a dorsal end in the form of a hook, as occurs in other allokotosaurians. The crowns of the Vomerine are more ... Fragments of shells show that the base of the horn occupies the frontal width and the largest of the transverse width of the ... Like the ceratopsids, Shringasaurus had two frontal horns which it may have used to display. Shringasaurus was 3 to 4 meters ...
Rams have larger horns than ewes. The horns in two-horned sheep, and the lower horns in four-horned animals, grow in a spiral ... A breed society was formed in 1969, and a flock book was published from 1972. The Jacob was kept for centuries as a "park sheep ... The horns are normally black, but may be black and white striped; white horns are undesirable. Ideally, horns are smooth and ... Four-horned rams have two vertical centre horns which may be 61 cm (2 ft) or more in length, and two smaller side horns, which ...
There were long-legged, cursorial forms adapted for running and squat, semi aquatic forms. Most species did not have horns. ... The neural spines were long and formed a long "hump" along the back, where neck muscles and nuchal ligaments for holding up the ... The premolars only partially formed the pi pattern. Each molar was the size of a human fist; among mammals they were only ... Also in 1923, Borissiak created the subfamily Indricotheriinae to include the various related forms known by then. In 1939, ...
Its leaves vary in shape and size but they often curve up and come together to form a bowl shape. The small fruits are green, ... The flower has two distinct horns. Jepson Manual Treatment of Euphorbia crenulata USDA Plants Profile for Euphorbia crenulata ...
There is a standard form for the consimilarity class, analogous to the Jordan normal form. Hong, YooPyo; Horn, Roger A. (April ... Horn, Roger A.; Johnson, Charles R. (1985). Matrix analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38632-2. Zbl ... 1988). "A canonical form for matrices under consimilarity". Linear Algebra and its Applications. 102: 143-168. doi:10.1016/0024 ...
Laurence R. Horn. 1984. "A new taxonomy for pragmatic inference: Q-based and R-based implicature." In D. Schiffrin (ed.), ... Meaning, Form and Use in Context (GURT '84), 11-42. Washington: Georgetown University Press. Laurence R. Horn, 'A natural ... Horn 1989; Levinson 2000): "Has Anne ever eaten squid? No, she has never eaten that." Noveck p. 165 Musolino, Julien; Jeffrey ... Indirect speech act Implicate and Explicate Order Intrinsic and extrinsic properties Laurence Horn. ...
Horn, Jonathon C.; Reed, Alan D.; LaFree, Betty; Anderson, Adrienne (September 1, 1989). "National Register of Historic Places ... Registration Form: Mantle's Cave" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 7 November 2011. Goff, Sheila. "Mantle's Cave ...
Brown, G. B.; du Vigneaud, V. (1941) The Stereoisomeric Forms of Lanthionine. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 140, 767-771. ... Horn, M. J.; Jones, D. B.; Ringel, S. J. (1941) Isolation of a New Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid (Lanthionine) from Sodium ...
Mukerji, Dhan Gopal (1957). "Fruits form the Living Tree". In Bertha Mahony Miller and Elinor Whitney Field. Horn Book Papers. ... Horn Book Papers. Volume. 1. Boston: The Horn Book. pp. 53-58. Peterson, Linda Kauffman; Marilyn Leather Solt (1982). Newbery ... 1. Boston: The Horn Book. pp. 59-64. Elizabeth, Seeger (1957). "Dhan Mukerji and His Books". In Bertha Mahony Miller and Elinor ...
When forming Battle Bomber, Horn Bomber becomes the head, breastplate, a shoulder cannon and wings. The Divers are a group of ... When forming Tribomber or Battle Bomber, Bird Bomber becomes the left side of the combination, forming the arm, the waist and ... When forming Tribomber or Battle Bomber, Dino Bomber becomes the right side of the combination, forming the arm, the waist and ... When forming Might Kaiser with the Kaiser Machines, it forms the torso and the head. Kaiser Carrier (カイザーキャリア, Kaizaa Kyaria ...
A large animal with harmonious forms. Thick elastic and prominent skin; light brown coat, tending to straw; docile temperament ... small horns; sub-concave profile. The breed region is circumscribed almost exclusively to the Central Portugal in Aveiro ...
Horns may be 45-70 cm (18-28 in) long. Considerable variation in horn growth occurs, but they generally grow sideways out from ... Females form herds of five to 12 members, while males generally remain solitary. While the herd is feeding, one member will act ... The horns are terminated by sharp tips. The western hartebeest is mainly active during the day. A herbivore, it grazes during ...
They represent purity, and their horns purify. In book 4 a unicorn horn must be obtained from the centaurs of Grunhold in order ... Brogo - An enormous demon with an iron mask in the form of a very fat giant. He is one of the sons of Gorgrog, and said to be ... His "human" form is that of a foot-high male fairy with butterfly wings. He was raised by fairies, namely Shiara who currently ... Dullion A cruder form of their cousin the golem, made of less quality materials, and have no will of their own. They are ...
They are notable for their spectacular horns. Euxanthe wakefieldi at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms ...
True horns have a bone core that is covered in a permanent sheath of keratin, and are found only in the bovids. Antlers are ... This form of digestion has two advantages: plants that are indigestible to other species can be digested and used, and the ... In some species, these form an udder in the groin region. Secretory glands in the skin are present in virtually all species and ... South America was settled by even-toed ungulates only in the Pliocene, after the land bridge at the Isthmus of Panama formed ...
The horns are silent in all variations. The sixth movement is a rondo where the structure can be represented as "ABABA". ... The trio of the first minuet is for strings only and the Andantino third movement is in rondo form. The fourth movement is an ... The work is scored for oboe, two horns, two violins, viola and double bass. There are six movements: Molto allegro (in D major ... 11 for oboe, 2 horns & strings in D major, K. 251 at AllMusic Zaslaw, Neal and William Cowdery (1990) The Compleat Mozart: A ...
AK with cutaneous horn: A cutaneous horn is a keratinic projection with its height at least one-half of its diameter, often ... They usually form when skin gets damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or indoor tanning beds. AKs are considered ... Actinic cheilitis: When an AK forms on the lip, it is called actinic cheilitis. This usually presents as a rough, scaly patch ... 38-40% of cutaneous horns represent AKs. Pigmented AK: Pigmented AKs are rare variants that often present as macules or plaques ...
Contrary to Horn and Shepsle, Macey argues that coalitional drift and bureaucratic drift aren't necessarily opposing forces, ... Such regulation can take the form of statutory control or congressional oversight. Through statutory control, Congress aims to ... In 1989, Murray Horn and Kenneth Shepsle proposed that coalitional drift, the phenomenon of present legislation being ... Horn, Murray; Kenneth Shepsle (March 1989). "Commentary on 'Administrative Arrangements and the Political Control of Agencies ...
"Favored Trader Horn Third; JAMIN TRIUMPHS BY A HALF-LENGTH", The New York Times, August 2, 1959. Accessed February 17, 2009. ... Daily Racing Form. Retrieved 2015-10-14. Goldstein, Richard. "Joe Goldstein, Dogged New York Sports Promoter, Dies at 81", The ... with the Italian horse Tornese in second by half a length and betting favorite Trader Horn, an American entry, in third, 2¼ ... 2016 Daily Racing Form (DRF) October 25, 2014 article titled "Yonkers: Natural Herbie shows heart in International Trot Preview ...
The lateral border of the muscle forms the medial boundary of the triangular hollow known as the cubital fossa, which is ... the corticospinal tracts decussate and the signal goes down the lateral corticospinal tract until it reaches the ventral horns ... which together form the brachial plexus). Next, the signal goes down the median nerve branch of the brachial plexus and ...
The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of just ... Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the ... The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, ...
The Horn of Africa countrys hydropower potential of 45,000 megawatts is second only to the Democratic Republic of Congo on the ... The project forms part of a program to link nine regional countries to a single electricity grid by 2016. ...
... has extended its multimillion multi-phased Horn of Africa drought resilience programme with a US $16-million soft loan to ... AfDB extends Horn of Africa drought mitigation project to Djibouti and Sudan. In this section ... AfDB extends Horn of Africa drought mitigation project to Djibouti and Sudan. ... The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) has extended its multimillion multi-phased Horn of Africa drought resilience ...
The loss of horn creates a hollow space between the hoof wall and the sole creating a mealy or seedy condition that leads to ... Corns are bruises of the sole that occur at the angle formed by the wall and bar often on the inside buttresses of the front ... Hoof cracks do not unite from side to side, but rather new horn starts at the coronary band and grows down much like the growth ... development of a cheesy material, loss of supporting horn, and eventual rotation of the coffin bone. It is often a consequence ...
Researchers believe bad posture and cell phone addiction could cause horn-like growths on our skulls. ... X-rays revealed that 41 percent of people between 18 and 30-years-old had bony lumps that look like horns on the back of their ... Cell Phone Addiction May Cause Horns to Grown on Skulls. • A 2016 study found that 40 percent of participants under 30 ... The lumps look like horns and are uncommon in younger people. • Researchers believe bad posture and excessive cell phone use ...
Now theres a new one to add to the list: Researchers say excess phone use is causing small horns to form on the skulls of many ... Excess phone use causing small horns to form on young peoples skulls. By Gary Dinges [email protected] Thursday. Jun ... Now theres a new one to add to the list: Researchers say excess phone use is causing small horns to form on the skulls of many ... The horns have already garnered several nicknames, including "head horns" and "phone bones." ...
Now theres a new one to add to the list: Researchers say excess phone use is causing small horns to form on the skulls of many ... Excess phone use causing small horns to form on young peoples skulls. By Gary Dinges [email protected] Thursday. Jun ... Now theres a new one to add to the list: Researchers say excess phone use is causing small horns to form on the skulls of many ... The horns have already garnered several nicknames, including "head horns" and "phone bones." ...
Steve Horn, DeSmogBlog articles and opinion pieces published by Common Dreams, a non-profit independent media outlet publishing ... Steve Horn is a Madison, WI-based Research Fellow for DeSmogBlog and a freelance investigative journalist. Follow him on ...
Horn has represented businesses of all sizes with business and civil litigation. ...
From the Horn to Southern Africa similar destabilisation efforts were met with condemnation over attacks on political rallies. ... Major developments related to internal and external relations are taking place in Horn of Africa states. However, those new ... the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa. These two regions are of great geopolitical significance, much as they are also ...
Larry Horn is a moderate Republican and one of 15 Oregon residents who is running for President of the United States. He talked ... Larry Horn is a moderate Republican and one of 15 Oregon residents who is running for President of the United States. He talked ...
We are still trying to learn how the planets were formed. Most scientists think that they were formed from the left over gas ... Template:User:Robert Horning/Whole Book. How long is a year on this planet?[edit]. A year on Earth is about 365 and 1/4 days ... Template:User:Robert Horning/Whole Book. What is its surface like?[edit]. Plutos surface is covered with ice.[6] It is very ... Template:User:Robert Horning/Whole Book. Oberon[edit]. Oberon is the outermost of the major moons of Uranus. It is made of the ...
Trump: Violence in Media Shaping How Young Minds Are Being Formed. * Homemade Highlights: A Russian Duel for Figure Skating ... Ocwen, California Regulators Lock Horns. Shares Slide 36% as State Says Mortgage Servicer Hasnt Produced Requested Documents; ...
The female form is Gräfin. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names. before 1911: Carl Freiherr von Horn "Bavaria ... Carl Graf von Horn (February 16, 1847 - June 5, 1923) was a Bavarian Colonel General and War Minister from April 4, 1905 to ... Horn, Karl Graf von, House of the Bavarian history (HdBG). Streets of Regensburg[permanent dead link] (German), November 5, ...
"Natura 2000 Standard Data Form: Horns Kungsgård". August 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2014. "Horns kungsgård (Horns crown demesne ... Horns Kungsgård ("Horns crown demesne") is a nature preserve in the northern part of Öland, Sweden. It was founded as a model ... Horns Kungsgård was incorporated as a non-profit in 1979 and expanded in 2001, and is one of the protected areas of the Natura ... "Horns Kungsgård". Marineregions.org. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Johansen, Heidi Leigh (2006). Fodors Sweden. Fodor. p. 198. ISBN ...
Toot ones own horn definition, one of the bony, permanent, hollow paired growths, often curved and pointed, that project from ... a wind instrument, originally formed from the hollow horn of an animal but now usually made of brass or other metal or plastic ... horn. n. Old English horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), from Proto-Germanic ... horn-shaped objects and projecting parts (cf. Greek karnon "horn," Latin cornu "horn," Sanskrit srngam "horn," Persian sar " ...
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The Plastics Historical Society was formed in 1986 and was first to draw attention to the heritage of the plastics industry and ... Two Natural Plastics: Tortoiseshell and Horn. Home/Premium Content for Members, Virtual Museum, What are Plastics?/Two Natural ... Two Natural Plastics: Tortoiseshell and Horn This content is restricted to site members. If you are an existing member, please ... Form and Transparency: the acrylic creations of Abraham Palatnik July 31st, 2012 ...
... never form the horns in the first place. They do, the scientists say, but the nubile horn tissue is reabsorbed before the ... both sexes initially form the horns, even if one or both sexes reabsorb the horn tissue sometime before adulthood. ... Because all the Onthophagus beetles the scientists examined form horns during development, Moczek and colleagues also argue the ... Curious as to whether or not the horns had a function, the scientists destroyed the horn tissue of beetle larvae using ...
"De-horning reduces the reward for the poacher," said Raoul du Toit of the Lowveld Rhino Trust which operates in Zimbabwe. s ... The trade is so lucrative that poachers will kill a rhino for two inches of horn, which grows back like a fingernail.. ... The painless de-horning is seen as a deterrent but is short-term, expensive, time-consuming and risky with the notoriously ... "De-horning is not a stand alone strategy. It has got to work with other strategies," said Matipano.. ...
The horn ends in a wide flare. It is a development (c.1650) of the small hunting horn. Although sometimes used in a ... Music: Theory, Forms, and Instruments , * French horn Cite. French horn. French horn, brass wind musical instrument. ... The first important work to call for valved horns was Halévys opera La Juive. See Morley-Pegge, The French Horn (2d ed. 1973 ... The horn ends in a wide flare. It is a development (c.1650) of the small hunting horn. Although sometimes used in a more ...
Form: Upright or erect. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Datura_metel_Blanco1.35.jpg ... Thorn Apple, Angels Trumpet, Hindu Datura, Horn of Plenty, Downy Thorn Apple ...
Form: Upright or erect.. Physical Characteristics. Datura metel is a ANNUAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft) at a medium rate. It is ... Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible ... Thorn Apple, Angels Trumpet, Hindu Datura, Horn of Plenty, Downy Thorn Apple ...
Kokrajhar unit of Red Horn Division organized a National Integration Tour from January 27 to February 6 2019, under Operation ... A Correspondent GOLAGHAT: The Assam Tea Tribe Students Association (ATTSA) Golaghat branch committee was formed recently at an ... Guwahati: Kokrajhar unit of Red Horn Division organized a National Integration Tour from January 27 to February 6 2019, under ... Red Horn Division, Kokrajhar unit organized National Integration Tour. February 11, 2019 ...
Print and download Concert Etude for Solo Horn in F sheet music composed by Esa-Pekka Salonen arranged for French Horn. ... There are no reviews written for Concert Etude for Solo Horn in F. In order to write a review on digital sheet music you must ... The Related Products tab shows you other products that you may also like, if you like Concert Etude for Solo Horn in F. ... The Arrangement Details Tab gives you detailed information about this particular arrangement of Concert Etude for Solo Horn in ...
  • Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. (thearda.com)
  • The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) has extended its multimillion multi-phased Horn of Africa drought resilience programme with a US $16-million soft loan to Djibouti and a US $14-million grant to Sudan. (afdb.org)
  • The African Development Fund (ADF) loan and grant were approved by the AfDB Group's Board on Wednesday, June 17 in Abidjan, to finance phase three of the Drought Resilience and sustainable Livelihoods Programme in the Horn of Africa (DRSLP III) in the two countries. (afdb.org)
  • The DRSLP is a long-term programme to build communities' resilience to drought and climate change, improve their livelihood and promote regional integration in the Horn of Africa. (afdb.org)
  • Named for their massive, curling horns (which can grow to 50 inches in length) and known for their agility and perfect balance, Rocky Mountain bighorns (Ovis canadensis) are found only in the Rockies (usually above the timberline) in extremely rugged terrain. (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • Their horns are not shed annually like the antlers of deer and elk, but grow in length and circumference throughout the sheep's life (a pair can weigh nearly 30 pounds). (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • The dorsal horn (DH) in spinal cord relays the peripheral sensory information into the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Visceral hypersensitivity rats presented a decrease in afterhyperpolarization current ( I AHP ) and membrane SK2 channel protein in the spinal dorsal horn. (frontiersin.org)
  • Visceral hypersensitivity rats presented an increase in neuronal firing rate in the spinal dorsal horn. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects of PMA and of selective pharmacological blockers of Ca V 2 VDCC subtypes on nociceptive transmission at laminae II dorsal horn neurones were examined in mouse spinal cord slices. (mdpi.com)
  • PMA increased the mean frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) in dorsal horn neurones, without an effect on event amplitude or half-width. (mdpi.com)
  • These initial data demonstrate that PMA increases nociceptive transmission at dorsal horn neurones via actions on different Ca V 2 subtypes suggesting potential anti-nociceptive targets in this system. (mdpi.com)
  • Within the dorsal horn of the mammalian spinal cord, Ca V 2.1 and Ca V 2.2 subunits are strongly expressed in presynaptic terminals, whilst there is also evidence for presynaptic expression of Ca V 2.3 subunits in nociceptive pathways [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Heteromeric α/β glycine receptors regulate excitability in parvalbumin-expressing dorsal horn neurons through phasic and tonic glycinergic inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Spinal parvalbumin-expressing interneurons have been identified as a critical source of inhibition to regulate sensory thresholds by gating mechanical inputs in the dorsal horn. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that glycinergic inhibition provides critical control of excitability in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the dorsal horn and represents a pharmacological target to manipulate spinal sensory processing. (nih.gov)
  • The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is an important site for modality-specific processing of sensory information and is essential for contextually relevant sensory experience. (nih.gov)
  • This differs from GABA A receptors in the dorsal horn, where different receptor stoichiometries underlie phasic and tonic inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Yang Shao-Horn studies materials for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical energy storage and conversion, which is centered on examining the influence of surface chemistry and electronic structures of thin films and nanomaterials on lithium storage and catalytic activity of small molecules of energy consequence, and applying fundamental understanding in reaction mechanisms to design new materials for lithium storage and electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, water splitting, methanol oxidation and CO2 reduction. (mit.edu)
  • Professors Jeffrey Grossman and Yang Shao-Horn will lead the largest funded project focused on the. (mit.edu)
  • Professor Yang Shao-Horn co-authored a paper recently published by Nature Materials regarding supercapacitors that do not rely on carbon. (mit.edu)
  • Professors Yet-Ming Chiang and Yang Shao-Horn will be invited speakers at this year's Materials Processing Center symposium, Tuesday, October 18th. (mit.edu)
  • This year, Binghong Han, one of the DMSE graduate students under Yang Shao-Horn, was awarded the Chinese Government Award for Oustanding Students Abroad for his research in reaction and degradation mechanisms for oxygen electrochemical processes in fuel cells and batteries. (mit.edu)
  • Professor Gang Chen, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, writes, "Professor Yang Shao-Horn has been appointed the W.M. Keck Professor of Energy. (mit.edu)
  • The phenomenon was "totally unexpected" and may turn out to have some practical applications, says Yang Shao-Horn, the W.M. Keck Professor of Energy at MIT. (eurekalert.org)
  • My trusty Latin grammar (it had bloody better be trusty) says the neuter ending was -u, as in cornu = horn, gen.sg. (wordsmith.org)
  • A Seattle-based biotech startup called Pembient is introducing to the market a product that is genetically similar to rhinoceros horn but at a price lower than what poachers get. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • This horn matches rhinoceros horn when spectrographically tested," said Markus. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The keratins produced by the yeast will then replace the sheep's wool in the formulation process and the end result will be a horn that is even more similar to rhinoceros horn, he explained. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Before working on solid horns, the startup developed a lab-made rhinoceros horn powder and a brewery in Beijing was interested in incorporating this powder into a beer. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • We thought this was an acceptable use of the powder since rhinoceros horn is sometimes ground into distilled beverages. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • In fact, some of the users of rhinoceros horn we interviewed said they would prefer the convenience of a pre-made beverage to making one themselves," Markus said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • 2. A hard protuberance, such as an antler or projection on the head of a giraffe or rhinoceros, that is similar to or suggestive of a horn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the early 1990s in an effort to reduce the losses of rhinoceros to poaching, conservation organizations advocated the use of saiga antelope horn in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • X-rays revealed that 41 percent of people between 18 and 30-years-old had bony lumps that look like horns on the back of their skulls, say researchers at the University of the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. (menshealth.com)
  • Now there's a new one to add to the list: Researchers say excess phone use is causing small horns to form on the skulls of many young people. (goupstate.com)
  • A bizarre finding by researchers that sounds like something out of a science fiction plot - people growing horn-like structures on their skulls due to smartphone use - may in fact have a simple explanation: bone spurs. (nbcnews.com)
  • These lumps are not horns, but rather enthesophytes, abnormal growths found at attachment points in the tendon or ligaments. (menshealth.com)
  • Bone spurs - small bony growths that can form on the edges of bones - occur when inflammation damages the cartilage that cushions joints, and the body tries to repair the damage by growing more bone. (nbcnews.com)
  • Cutaneous horn usually arises due to an underlying epidermal lesion, the most common being verruca vulgaris (wart), actinic keratosis (a potentially pre-malignant lesion of dysplastic keratinocytes), or squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • But groups like IRF believe the synthetic rhino horn trade is potentially counterproductive in curbing the current poaching crisis. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • A malignancy has been reported at the base of a cutaneous horn in up to 20% of lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant lesions at the base of the horn usually are squamous cell carcinoma, although basal cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. (medscape.com)
  • An arete is very very thin piece of rock and very very sharp, which is almost always formed when 2 glaciers erode parrelel U-shaped valleys. (answers.com)
  • They are all formed by glaciers. (answers.com)
  • An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys, or else when two corrie glaciers erode bac … k-to-back. (answers.com)
  • An arête is a thin ridge of rock which is formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. (answers.com)
  • An arà ªte is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallelU-shaped valleys. (answers.com)
  • Periglacial features, which form independently of glaciers, are nonetheless a product of the same cold climate that favours the development of glaciers, and so are treated here as well. (britannica.com)
  • In map view, many large valley glacier systems, which have numerous tributary glaciers that join to form a large "trunk glacier," resemble the roots of a plant. (britannica.com)
  • A mountain peak begins its transformation into a horn when cirque glaciers form around it, above the mountain's snow line . (everything2.com)
  • If the climate goes through a warming phase , and the glaciers melt, the mountain will be exposed again, with remnants of the original glaciers lying in the bottoms of the cirques, and the horn rearing dizzyingly up above everything. (everything2.com)
  • Kokrajhar unit of Red Horn Division organized a National Integration Tour from January 27 to February 6 2019, under Operation Sadbhavna. (sentinelassam.com)
  • Cutaneous horn is a clinical diagnosis referring to a conical projection of cornified material above the surface of the skin that resembles a miniature horn. (medscape.com)
  • Demand for horns, which are made of the same material as fingernails, comes mainly from Vietnam and China, where they're worked into valuable carvings and are erroneously used as a cure-all in traditional medicine. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Asclepias asperula is a clump-forming, 1-2 ft. perennial with an upright or sprawling habit. (wildflower.org)
  • In Zimbabwe , where just 700 rhinos remain, anti-poaching units face military-like armed gangs who ruthlessly shoot the animals to hack off the distinctive horns for the Asian traditional medicine market. (blogspot.com)
  • In addition to de-horning, conservationists in Zimbabwe are fitting rhinos with microchips or transmitters to track them, while mounting foot patrols armed in some areas with AK-47 assault rifles. (blogspot.com)
  • The Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority -- which has a five-tonne store of severed rhino horns in Harare -- estimates the country now has 400 critically endangered black and 300 less threatened white rhinos. (blogspot.com)
  • White rhinos graze on a ranch belonging to John Hume , one of the rhino farmers who sued to overturn South Africa's ban on the domestic sales of rhino horn. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This ends a lengthy legal battle that pitted rhino owners, who farm rhinos like livestock and want to be able to sell their reserves of rhino horn once again, against the government's Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), which placed a moratorium on the trade in 2009 after a jump in poaching. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • But International Rhino Foundation (IRF), a US-based advocacy for preserving rhinos, said rhino horns continue to be traded illegally on the black market in Asian countries. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • De-horning reduces the reward for the poacher," said Raoul du Toit of the Lowveld Rhino Trust which operates in Zimbabwe 's arid southeast. (blogspot.com)
  • Steve Horn is a Madison, WI-based Research Fellow for DeSmogBlog and a freelance investigative journalist. (commondreams.org)
  • How are horns cirques and aretes related? (answers.com)
  • The arête is a thin ridge of rock that is left separating the two … valleys Arêtes can also form when two glacial cirques erode head wards towards one another, although frequently this results in a saddle-shaped pass, called a col. (answers.com)
  • The shared stoichiometry for phasic and tonic glycine receptors suggests pharmacology is unlikely to be able to selectively target each form of inhibition in PV+ INs. (nih.gov)
  • This invention relates to a method of forming a selectively perforate membrane suitable for high resolution screen printing by homogeneously irradiating a sheet of synthetic resin, e.g., a polycarbonate resin, with heavy fission fragments whereupon the sheet is selectively irradiated in an oxygen atmosphere. (google.ca)
  • United States Patent 1191 1111 3,852,134 Bean Dec. 3, 1974 METHOD FOR FORMING SELECTIVELY Primary EXaminerWilliam A. Powell PERFORATE BODIES Charles P. Bean, Schenectady, NY. (google.ca)
  • inventor Char/es P Bean His Attorne y PATENTEU SHEU 2 BF 2 lm/enfor Char/es P. Bean 1 2 His Affornev METHOD FOR FORMING SELECTIVELY PERFORATE BODIES This a continuation of application Ser. (google.ca)
  • This invention relates to a method of forming perforate bodies having high density, straight through apertures over a preselected area and, in particular, to the formation of selectively perforate bodies by the erasure of high solubility regions in a selectively etched body to permit enlargement of small diameter apertures in the body. (google.ca)
  • Today, the negative effects of environmental pollution are commonly evident in the form of unclean air and water, the two essential elements to sustain life. (somalilandpress.com)
  • One of these pond nightmares is Pithophora, commonly called horsehair algae, stag horn algae , thread algae, or cotton call algae. (hubpages.com)