**Calculi**: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.

**Urinary Calculi**: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.

**Ureteral Calculi**: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.

**Kidney Calculi**: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.

**Urinary Bladder Calculi**: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.

**Dental Calculus**: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.

**Lithotripsy**: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

**Salivary Duct Calculi**: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.

**Ureteroscopy**: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.

**Nephrostomy, Percutaneous**: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.

**Salivary Gland Calculi**: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.

**Lithotripsy, Laser**: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.

**Prostatic Diseases**: Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.

**Urolithiasis**: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.

**Calcium Oxalate**: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.

**Urography**: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.

**Salivary Calculi**: The presence of calculi in a salivary duct or gland.

**Gallstones**: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.

**Cholelithiasis**: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).

**Reference Books, Medical**: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.

**Urologic Surgical Procedures**: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.

**Magnesium Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.

**Cystinuria**: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.

**Calcium Phosphates**: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.

**Colic**: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.

**Kidney Pelvis**: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.

**Ethylene Glycol**: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.

**Postcholecystectomy Syndrome**: Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.

**Urology**: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.

**Urologic Diseases**: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.

**Diverticulum**: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

**Hydronephrosis**: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.

**Holmium**: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.

**Apatites**: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Lithiasis**: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.

**Cystic Duct**: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.

**Pyelonephritis, Xanthogranulomatous**: A chronic inflammatory condition of the KIDNEY resulting in diffuse renal destruction, a grossly enlarged and nonfunctioning kidney associated with NEPHROLITHIASIS and KIDNEY STONES.

**Testicular Diseases**: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.

**Cholangiography**: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.

**Bile Duct Diseases**: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.

**Submandibular Gland Diseases**

**Oxalates**: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.

**Oxalic Acid**: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.

**Hypercalciuria**: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.

**Triazines**: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.

**Kidney Calices**: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)

**Urine**: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.

**Dental Prophylaxis**: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.

**Urachus**: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.

**Periodontal Index**: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.

**Uric Acid**: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.

**Gingivitis**: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.

**Ureteroscopes**: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the ureter.

**Persia**: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)

**Ureteral Diseases**: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.

**Dental Pellicle**: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.

**Hyperoxaluria**: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.

**Oral Hygiene Index**: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.

**Cystoscopy**: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

**Endoscopes**: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.

**Scrotum**: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.

**Nephrolithiasis**: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.

**Nephrocalcinosis**: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.

**Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde**: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.

**Urethral Obstruction**: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.

**Dental Plaque**: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.

**Cystoscopes**: Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.

**Nigella sativa**: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains alpha-hederin, a triterpene saponin in the seeds, and is the source of black seed oil.

**Pedaliaceae**: The sesame family of the order Lamiales that are mainly herbs and shrubs growing in warm regions.

**Cholecystectomy**: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.

**Dysuria**: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.

**Potassium Citrate**: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.

**Knowledge of Results (Psychology)**: A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.

**Potassium Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.

**Hematuria**: Presence of blood in the urine.

**Sialography**: Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.

**Tooth Discoloration**: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)

**Anuria**: Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.

**Cystostomy**: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.

**Pharmaceutic Aids**: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.

**Gingival Pocket**: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.

**Ultrasonography**: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.

**Ureteral Obstruction**: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.

**Urethral Diseases**: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.

**Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic**: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.

**Lasers, Solid-State**: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.

**Parotid Diseases**

**History, Medieval**: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.

**Urinalysis**: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.

**Citrates**

**Spectrophotometry, Infrared**: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Root Planing**: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.

**Pyelonephritis**: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.

**Alcian Blue**: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.

**Tomography, Spiral Computed**: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.

**Periodontal Diseases**: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.

**Iran**

**Metabolic Diseases**: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Calcium Carbonate**: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.

**Operative Time**: The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.

**Petroselinum**: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.

**Dental Plaque Index**: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.

**Pancreatic Diseases**: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.

**Dental Scaling**: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.

**Urinary Tract Infections**: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.

**Cholecystitis**: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.

**Propantheline**: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.

**Endoscopy**: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.

**Phosphates**: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.

**Crystallization**: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Gallbladder**: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.

**Pancreatic Ducts**: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.

**Gingival Hemorrhage**: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.

**Sphincter of Oddi**: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.

**Cholecystography**: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.

**Islam**: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.

**Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance**: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.

**Urinary Bladder**: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.

**Common Bile Duct**: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.

**Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic**: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.

**Proteus Infections**: Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.

**Citric Acid**: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Magnesium**: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.

**Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction**: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.

**Retroperitoneal Space**: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.

**Ureter**: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.

**Radiography, Abdominal**: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.

**Durapatite**: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

**Urinary Retention**: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).

**Optical Fibers**: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.

**Powder Diffraction**: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.

**Sulfadiazine**: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.

**Methods**: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.

**Calcinosis**: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.

**Oral Hygiene**: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**Kidney Diseases**: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.

**Gallbladder Diseases**: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.

**Choledocholithiasis**: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.

**Kidney**: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Paraplegia**: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.

**Urinary Tract**: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.

**Oral Health**: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.

**Urinary Catheterization**: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.

**Cystine**: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.

**Ampulla of Vater**: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

**Silicon**: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].

**Phosphorus**: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.

**Nephrectomy**: Excision of kidney.

**Diphosphates**: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.

**Microscopy, Electron, Scanning**: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.

**Periodontal Pocket**: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Calcium**: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

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**calculus**of constructions and its derivatives. Automath; ST type theory; some**forms**of combinatory logic; others defined in the ... Many systems of type theory, such as the simply-typed lambda**calculus**, intuitionistic type theory, and the**calculus**of ... it is called a normal**form**. A system of type theory is said to be strongly normalizing if all terms have a normal**form**and any ... Simply typed lambda**calculus**which is a higher-order logic; intuitionistic type theory; system F; LF is often used to define ...It was then merged with part of the constituency of Newham South to

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**calculus**. If a k-**form**is thought of as measuring the flux through an infinitesimal k- ... The exterior derivative of this (n − 1)-**form**is the n-**form**d ω V = div V ( d x 1 ∧ d x 2 ∧ ⋯ ∧ d x n ) . {\displaystyle d\ ... A smooth function f : M → ℝ on a real differentiable manifold M is a 0-**form**. The exterior derivative of this 0-**form**is the 1- ... The exterior derivative of a differential**form**of degree k is a differential**form**of degree k + 1. If f is a smooth function (a ...... such that the first fundamental

**form**is of the**form**d s 2 = ( f 1 ( x ) + f 2 ( y ) ) ( d x 2 + d y 2 ) . {\displaystyle ds^{2 ... Gelfand, I.M. & Fomin, S.V. (2000).**Calculus**of variations. Dover. ISBN 0-486-41448-5. (Translated from the Russian by R. ... big (}f_{1}(x)+f_{2}(y){\big )}\left(dx^{2}+dy^{2}\right).\,} Sometimes a metric of this**form**is called a Liouville metric. ...This constituency was

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**calculus**(Input: Terms in the eta-long beta-normal**form**. Output: higher-order patterns): Baumgartner, ...**Calculus**of constructions: Pfenning, Frank (Jul 1991). "Unification and Anti-Unification in the**Calculus**of Constructions" (PDF ...Other equivalent

**forms**for the Hessian are given by Hess ( f ) ( X , Y ) = ⟨ ∇ X grad f , Y ⟩ {\displaystyle {\mbox{Hess}}(f)(X ... Callahan, James J. (2010). Advanced**Calculus**: A Geometric View. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-4419-7332 ... Neudecker, Heinz; Magnus, Jan R. (1988). Matrix Differential**Calculus**with Applications in Statistics and Econometrics. New ... Jacobian matrix Hessian equations Binmore, Ken; Davies, Joan (2007).**Calculus**Concepts and Methods. Cambridge University Press ...Sunderland North, as can be inferred from the name,

**formed**the northern part of the City of Sunderland. At the 2010 general ... "Election Data 1987". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. "Election ... "Election Data 1997". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. "Election ... "Election Data 2005". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. ...Pitman, "Special

**Forms**in Lisp", p. 179. Steele and Gabriel, "The Evolution of Lisp", pp. 245-248 Wand, "The Theory of Fexprs ... John N. Shutt, "vau-**calculi**and the theory of fexprs", talk, New England Programming Languages and Systems Symposium Series ( ... At the 1980 Conference on Lisp and Functional Programming, Kent Pitman presented a paper "Special**Forms**in Lisp" in which he ... Kent M. Pitman, "Special**Forms**in Lisp", Proceedings of the 1980 ACM Conference on Lisp and Functional Programming, 1980, pp. ...In single-variable

**calculus**, we drop some information. We retain only the linear map, in the**form**of a scalar multiplying agent ... The usual fundamental theorem of**calculus**for single-variable**calculus**has the following local generalization. If a g {\ ...**form**on any smooth manifold, all the terms in this equation make sense, so for any such**form**we can ask whether or not it ...**form**on G {\displaystyle G} (cf. Lie algebra valued**form**) defined by ω G ( X g ) = ( T g L g ) − 1 X g {\displaystyle \omega _{ ...**Calculus**: Conceived of differential

**calculus**. Discovered the derivative. Discovered the differential coefficient. Developed ... they

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**form**the next layer, the same formula was used, but the bricks were arranged transversely. The process was then repeated ...

Perloff (2008). Microeconomics Theory & Applications with

**Calculus**. Pearson. p. 193. Hirschey (2003) p. 238.[full citation ... "A theorem on homogeneous functions and extended Cobb-Douglas**forms**". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 73 (10): 3747-3748. ...For a curve given by the equation F(x, y)=0, if the equation of the tangent line at R=(x0, y0) is written in the

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**calculus**of variations; Imperial College Press, London (2004), 2nd ed. (2009), 3rd ed (2014); According to ... PDF The pullback equation for differential**forms**; with G. Csato et O. Kneuss, Birkhaüser, PNLDE Series, New York, 83 (2012). ... He is a specialist of the**calculus**of variations and of partial differential equations. He has written several articles and ... 922 (1982). PDF According to WorldCat, the book is held in 419 libraries Direct methods in the**calculus**of variations; Springer ...Unit vectors are

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**formed**in 2005 from parts of the old Clydesdale, Hamilton North and Bellshill and Hamilton South ... Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs - Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1) "Election Data 2015". Electoral**Calculus**. ... BBC - Election 2010 - Lanark & Hamilton East "Election Data 2005". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October ... Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. ...Easingwold, Thirsk and surrounding villages joined rural Ryedale to

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**calculus**introduces the exterior algebra of differential**forms**adroitly into the**calculus**... The exterior algebra is also used in multivariable**calculus**, as the differential**forms**of higher degree belong to the exterior ... If ei, i = 1, 2, ..., n,**form**an orthonormal basis of V, then the vectors of the**form**e i 1 ∧ ⋯ ∧ e i k , i 1 < ⋯ < i k , {\ ... It was thus a**calculus**, much like the propositional**calculus**, except focused exclusively on the task of formal reasoning in ...This

**form**is, in reality, a microcrystalline agglomerate that takes the shape of a biconcave disc. Weddellite crystals are ... Together, whewellite and weddellite are the most common renal**calculi**. Weddellite occurs as authigenic crystals in sea floor ... Weddellite (CaC2O4·2H2O) is a mineral**form**of calcium oxalate named for occurrences of millimeter-sized crystals found in ... Occasionally, weddellite partially dehydrates to whewellite,**forming**excellent pseudomorphs of grainy whewellite after ...Space

**forms**A Riemannian manifold is a space**form**if its sectional curvature is equal to a constant K. The Riemann tensor of a ... ISBN 0-691-08542-0. Synge J.L., Schild A. (1949). Tensor**Calculus**. first Dover Publications 1978 edition. pp. 83; 107. ISBN 978 ... ISBN 0-691-01146-X. Lovelock, David; Rund, Hanno (1989) [1975]. Tensors, Differential**Forms**, and Variational Principles. Dover ... and by contracting with the metric twice we find the explicit**form**: R a b c d = K ( g a c g d b − g a d g c b ) {\displaystyle ...Chernoff-Hoeffding Theorem (additive

**form**)[edit]. Let q = p + ε. Taking a = nq in (1), we obtain:. Pr. (. 1. n. ∑. X. i. ≥. q. ... Therefore, we can easily compute the infimum, using**calculus**:. d. d. t. (. p. e. (. 1. −. q. ). t. +. (. 1. −. p. ). e. −. q. t ... Multiplicative**form**(relative error)[edit]. Multiplicative Chernoff Bound. Suppose X1, ..., Xn are independent random variables ... Multiplicative**form**[edit]. Set Pr(Xi = 1) = pi. According to (1), ... Additive**form**(absolute error)[edit]. The following Theorem is ...The constituency was

**formed**by the division of Lanarkshire constituency. The constituency was split in 1997 to**form**Hamilton ... "Election Data 1987". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017. "Election Data ... Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017. " ... 1992". Electoral**Calculus**. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ......

**forming****calculus**. Certain types of chemicals called pyrophosphates help to decrease**calculus**buildup by stopping the growth of ... Coral Dental**calculus**is the other name is dirt in his mouth attached to the teeth in the long term so that over time will ... To remove**calculus**or tartar should not be done alone or using an object or chemical drugs that are not clear. To clean the ... For**calculus**did not return to our teeth, we can do some tartar precautions as follows below:. 1. Diligent brushing your teeth ...Percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance for treatment of renal

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In patients who

**form**group I**calculi**, with neither hypercalciuria nor high urinary phosphate concentrations, the urine may ... The**calculi****forming**these round objects exhibited an uneven compact surface composed of closely connected rounded structures. ...**Calculi**of patients with high urinary phosphate concentrations are**formed**at urinary supersaturation with respect to ... Each**calculus**, however, contained spheres of only one type, i.e., either all smooth or all spiky. Group I and II**calculi**had ...**Forming**good men and good citizens since 1776.. Hampden-Sydney, VA 23943 (434) 223-6000 Contact the College ...

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- Material and Methods: Twelve samples of phosphate renal calculi were obtained, 4 from patients with low phosphaturia and 6 from patients with high urinary phosphate concentrations. (scirp.org)
- Results: Non-infectious phosphate renal calculi of patients with low phosphaturia consist of poorly crystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite, whereas those of patients with high urinary phosphate concentrations consist of poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with some amount of calcium oxalate crystals. (scirp.org)
- Conclusion: In patients with low phosphaturia, the non-infectious phosphate renal calculi are formed in urine near pH 7 and contain only poorly crystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite. (scirp.org)
- Non-infectious calcium phosphate renal calculi, representing around 10% of all renal stones , are composed of either biological hydroxyapatite (BHAP) alone (i.e., poorly crystalline calcium-deficient hydroxylapatite containing magnesium as a minor element), or also contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and/or dihydrate as a second minor constituent . (scirp.org)
- Recently a large study of all types of calcium phosphate calculi, including those associated with urinary tract infection that also contain struvite, showed that hypercalciuria was present in 87% of patients with brushite-containing calculi and in 60% of those with hydroxyapatite stones, whereas renal tubular acidosis was associated with hydroxyapatite stones showing a peculiar morphology . (scirp.org)
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- Staghorn calculi , also sometimes called coral calculi , are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. (radiopaedia.org)
- For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis . (radiopaedia.org)
- Staghorn calculi are the result of recurrent infection and are thus more commonly encountered in women 6 , those with renal tract anomalies, reflux, spinal cord injuries, neurogenic bladder or ileal ureteral diversion. (radiopaedia.org)
- The vast majority of staghorn calculi are radiopaque and appear as branching calcific densities overlying the renal outline and may mimic an excretory phase IVP. (radiopaedia.org)
- Staghorn calculi are radiopaque and conform to the renal pelvis and calyces, which are often to some degree dilated. (radiopaedia.org)

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- A continuation of Calculus I to include further techniques of integration, Taylor approximations, sequences and series. (linfield.edu)

- The majority of staghorn calculi are symptomatic, presenting with fever, haematuria, flank pain and potentially septicaemia and abscess formation. (radiopaedia.org)
- Staghorn calculi are composed of struvite (MAP, magnesium ammonium phosphate) and are usually seen in the setting of recurrent urinary tract infection with urease-producing bacteria (e.g. (radiopaedia.org)
- Staghorn calculi need to be treated surgically ( PCNL ) +/- ESWL and the entire stone removed, including small fragments, as otherwise, these residual fragments act as a reservoir for infection and recurrent stone formation. (radiopaedia.org)
- If left untreated, staghorn calculi result in chronic infection and eventually may progress to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis 5 . (radiopaedia.org)
- In the latter situation, the opaque collecting system may be attributed to contrast rather than the calculus, especially when staghorn calculi are bilateral. (radiopaedia.org)

- Building on previous texts in the Modular Mathematics series, in particular 'Vectors in Two or Three Dimensions' and 'Calculus and ODEs', this book introduces the student to the concept of vector calculus. (worldcat.org)
- Browse other questions tagged calculus matrices multivariable-calculus vectors matrix-calculus or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)

- The idea of limits, is essentially figuring out when a discrete epsilon can still lead us to the true value of f(x) (if this trick works, we call it a continuous function, and can use calculus with it. (ycombinator.com)

- I've taken higher level mathematics classes up to Multivariable calculus (Calculus III) and Engineering classes inclu. (purplemath.com)

- In patients with high urinary phosphate concentrations and hypercalciuria, the calculi are formed in urine near pH 6 and consist of both poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite and some amount of calcium oxalate crystals. (scirp.org)
- All stones containing calcium phosphate form in urine at higher pH [3- (scirp.org)
- Calcium stones are formed by increased calcium levels in urine and alkaline urine. (brightkite.com)
- They form alkaline urine and urease-producing bacterial pathogens called Proteus, Klebsiella, or Pseudomonas, presenting infections like urinary tract infections. (brightkite.com)
- Uric acid calculi are a waste product that is generally expressed and passed out of the body through urine. (brightkite.com)
- Urine is a concentrated solution of waste material containing water, urea (pronounced: yoo-REE-uh, a waste product that forms when proteins are broken down), salts, amino acids, byproducts of bile from the liver, ammonia, and any substances that cannot be reabsorbed into the blood. (kidshealth.org)
- Urinary calculi are formed by urine that is supersaturated with salts. (sah-eschweiler.de)
- Bladder or vesical stones form following infection or stasis of urine in the bladder. (medindia.net)
- what are the structural and functional units of the kidneys involved in forming urine? (studystack.com)
- Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine. (medicinenet.com)

- Mineralization of dental plaque results in dental calculus [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- What drug or an alternative that can remove easily and harmlessly the dental calculus called tartar? (hubpages.com)
- Coral Dental calculus is the other name is dirt in his mouth attached to the teeth in the long term so that over time will harden and petrified that it's hard to brush your teeth cleaned. (hubpages.com)

- To remove calculus or tartar should not be done alone or using an object or chemical drugs that are not clear. (hubpages.com)
- cannot remove calculus. (encyclopedia.com)

- These calcium phosphate crystals eventually harden within plaque, forming calculus. (hubpages.com)
- Struvite accounts for approximately 70% of the composition of these calculi and is usually mixed with calcium phosphate thus rendering them opaque on both plain films and CT. (radiopaedia.org)

- Tutor has to teach subject according to Chinese school Form 1 syllabus. (tuitionplaza.com)
- Varsity Tutors also offers resources like free Calculus 1 Practice Tests to help with your self-paced study, or you may want to consider an Calculus 1 tutor . (varsitytutors.com)

- Kidney stones are hard deposits that form in the kidneys. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although they form in the kidneys, kidney stones can affect any part of the urinary tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Kidney stones are also called calculi or urolithiasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Basil contains compounds known to help stabilize uric acid levels, making it harder for kidney stones to form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Natural kidney stones treatment dissolves reanal calculi simply and stops their formation in the future. (pr.com)
- Kidney stones are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) formed inside the kidney tissue. (pr.com)
- Open surgery of kidney stones has become a very rare form of therapy. (sah-eschweiler.de)
- A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. (medicinenet.com)

- Struvite calculi are capable of growing large enough to form straghorn calculus. (brightkite.com)
- These calculi form struvite stones. (brightkite.com)

- Indeterminate Forms and l''Hospital''s Rule. (bookdepository.com)

- 1. Write the ratio in the simplest form. (jiskha.com)

- His book, Calculus and Analytic Geometry , was first published in 1951 and has since gone through multiple revisions. (ecampus.com)
- Plane analytic geometry, parametric equations, including polar form. (linfield.edu)
- Course is the first in calculus and analytic geometry. (oakton.edu)

- Introduction to differential calculus and use in optimization. (linfield.edu)

- One reason there are many different typed lambda calculi has been the desire to do more (of what the untyped calculus can do) without giving up on being able to prove strong theorems about the calculus. (wikipedia.org)

- If you desire to enroll in a chemistry course whose enrollment is full, please submit the information requested in the Chemistry Department's Unofficial Waitlist Form . (plu.edu)
- Submitting this form documents your request and helps the Chemistry Department in its attempts to accommodate enrollment requests to the extent possible. (plu.edu)

- Most of the Foundation's underwater download everyday calculus discovering quality describes on its digital watercraft social from the American heritage, and those comprehensive species that like are shadow exploration are as physically located and sold, with about the branches' good height running individually told scientists to tomb them. (thelostdogs.com)

- Graphing with Calculus and Calculators. (bookdepository.com)

- Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus ) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution . (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus consists of constructing lambda terms and performing reduction operations on them. (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus is Turing complete , that is, it is a universal model of computation that can be used to simulate any Turing machine . (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus may be untyped or typed . (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus has played an important role in the development of the theory of programming languages . (wikipedia.org)
- Functional programming languages implement the lambda calculus. (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus is also a current research topic in Category theory . (wikipedia.org)
- The lambda calculus was introduced by mathematician Alonzo Church in the 1930s as part of an investigation into the foundations of mathematics . (wikipedia.org)
- Subsequently, in 1936 Church isolated and published just the portion relevant to computation, what is now called the untyped lambda calculus. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1940, he also introduced a computationally weaker, but logically consistent system, known as the simply typed lambda calculus . (wikipedia.org)
- Until the 1960s when its relation to programming languages was clarified, the lambda calculus was only a formalism. (wikipedia.org)
- Thanks to Richard Montague and other linguists' applications in the semantics of natural language, the lambda calculus has begun to enjoy a respectable place in both linguistics and computer science. (wikipedia.org)
- There is a bit of controversy over the reason for Church's use of the Greek letter lambda (λ) as the notation for function-abstraction in the lambda calculus, perhaps in part due to conflicting explanations by Church himself. (wikipedia.org)
- Deductive lambda calculus considers what happens when lambda terms are regarded as mathematical expressions. (wikipedia.org)
- One interpretation of the untyped lambda calculus is as a programming language where evaluation proceeds by performing reductions on an expression until it is in normal form. (wikipedia.org)
- Alonzo Church invented the lambda calculus in the 1930s, originally to provide a new and simpler basis for mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
- However soon after inventing it major logic problems were identified with the definition of the lambda abstraction: The Kleene-Rosser paradox is an implementation of Richard's paradox in the lambda calculus. (wikipedia.org)
- The existence of these paradoxes meant that the lambda calculus could not be both consistent and complete as a deductive system. (wikipedia.org)
- Combinatory logic is closely related to lambda calculus, and the same paradoxes exist in each. (wikipedia.org)
- Later the lambda calculus was resurrected as a definition of a programming language. (wikipedia.org)
- Lambda calculus is the model and inspiration for the development of functional programming languages. (wikipedia.org)
- This is not a criticism of pure lambda calculus, and lambda calculus as a pure system is not the primary topic here. (wikipedia.org)
- The problems arise with the interaction of lambda calculus with other mathematical systems. (wikipedia.org)
- Function application will be represented using the lambda calculus syntax. (wikipedia.org)
- The untyped lambda calculus is implemented by performing reductions on a lambda term, until the term is in normal form. (wikipedia.org)
- The intensional interpretation of equality is that the reduction of a lambda term to normal form is the value of the lambda term. (wikipedia.org)
- To: [email protected] Subject: Re: Recursive types in polymorphic lambda calculus Cc: [email protected] Dear Phil: I can give you a bit of the history of the functorial type approach, as far as I know it. (upenn.edu)
- 1988. Lambek's typelogical grammars, so viewed, could be seen to realize Montague's compositionality program in an uncompromising way, with the lambda calculus and type theory providing powerful tools to study derivational and lexical semantics. (stanford.edu)
- The mapping associates syntactic derivations with semantic readings, expressed as terms of the simply typed linear lambda calculus. (stanford.edu)

- URINARY CALCULI. (google.com)
- In many cases, urinary calculi remain undetected during the entire life time or are suddenly diagnosed for the first time in connection with a ureteral colic. (sah-eschweiler.de)
- In addition to these, however, there are also other factors such as anatomic anomalies, metabolic disorders and genetic factors which can promote the development of urinary calculi. (sah-eschweiler.de)
- The therapy of symptomatic urinary calculi is manifold. (sah-eschweiler.de)

- Calculus of predispositions is a basic part of predispositioning theory and belongs to the indeterministic procedures. (wikipedia.org)

- This course provides the calculus content oriented toward applications in computer and communication networks courses. (centennialcollege.ca)
- Calculus With Applications for the Life Sciences was written for the one- or two-semester applied calculus course for life science students with a focus on incorporating interesting, relevant, and realistic applications. (platekompaniet.no)
- Calculus needs these everyday applications and intuitions beyond 'Oh, let's pretend we're trying to calculate the trajectory of a moving particle. (ycombinator.com)
- Thomas' Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Single Variable, Thirteenth Edition , introduces readers to the intrinsic beauty of calculus and the power of its applications. (indigo.ca)
- The two-part treatment offers a rigorous presentation of tensor calculus as a development of vector analysis as well as discussions of the most important applications of tensor calculus. (doverpublications.com)
- The course, which is based on an interactive electronic text written as a series of Mathematica notebooks, fully integrates the numeric, symbolic and graphic capabilities of Mathematica as tools to explore calculus concepts, methods and applications. (wolfram.com)