Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.
Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The act of BREATHING in.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
An opening or hole in the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by TRAUMA, injury, or pathological process.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.
Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.

Migration of the Duraloc cup at two years. (1/640)

We carried out 71 primary total hip arthroplasties using porous-coated, hemispherical press-fit Duraloc '100 Series' cups in 68 consecutive patients; 61 were combined with the cementless Spotorno stem and ten with the cemented Lubinus SP II stem. Under-reaming of 2 mm achieved a press-fit. Of the 71 hips, 69 (97.1%) were followed up after a mean of 2.4 years. Migration analysis was performed by the Ein Bild Rontgen Analyse method, with an accuracy of 1 mm. The mean total migration after 24 months was 1.13 mm. Using the definition of loosening as a total migration of 1 mm, it follows that 30 out of 63 cups (48%) were loose at 24 months.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (2/640)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

Popliteal artery occlusion as a late complication of liquid acrylate embolization for cerebral vascular malformation. (3/640)

Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the brain (BAVMs) by means of an endovascular approach with liquid acrylate glue is an established treatment modality. The specific hazards of this procedure are related to the central nervous system. In the case of unexpectedly rapid polymerization of the cyanoacrylate glue and adhesion of the delivering microcatheter to the BAVM, severing the catheter at the site of vascular access is considered an acceptable and safe management. We present a unique complication related to this technique that has not been described yet. Fragmentation and migration of the microcatheter, originally left in place, had caused popliteal artery occlusion, which required saphenous vein interposition, in a 25-year-old man. Suggestions for avoiding this complication are discussed.  (+info)

Pulmonary embolism caused by acrylic cement: a rare complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty. (4/640)

A pulmonary embolus of acrylic cement was present in a 41-year-old woman with Langerhans' cell vertebral histiocytosis (LCH) after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Chest radiograph and CT confirmed pulmonary infarction and the presence of cement in the pulmonary arteries. She was treated with anticoagulants, and responded favorably. This rare complication occurred because perivertebral venous migration was not recognized during vertebroplasty. Adequate preparation of cement and biplane fluoroscopy are recommended for vertebroplasty.  (+info)

Mid-term migration of a cemented total hip replacement assessed by radiostereometric analysis. (5/640)

We have previously reported the short-term migration of cemented Hinek femoral components using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We now report the mid-term migration. During the first 2 years after implantation the prosthesis subsided into varus and rotated internally. Between years 3 and 8 the prosthesis continued to rotate internally with the head moving posteriorly (0.07 mm/year, P=0.004). It also continued to fall into varus with the tip moving laterally (0.07 mm/year, P=0.04). The head (0.06 mm/year, P<0.0001), shoulder (0.04 mm/year, P=0.0001) and tip (0.04 mm/year, P=0.001) continued to migrate distally. There were two cases of failure due to aseptic loosening during the follow-up period. During the second year both of these had posterior head migration, which was abnormally rapid (>2 SD from the mean). We have demonstrated that a cemented implant has slow but significant levels of migration and rotation for at least 8 years after implantation. Our study confirms that implants with abnormally rapid posterior head migration during the second year are likely to fail.  (+info)

Management of a rare complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula. (6/640)

A 30-year-old woman with direct carotid cavernous fistula underwent endovascular treatment with detachable balloons via a transarterial route. The patient returned with diplopia 1 year after therapy. On cranial MR imaging, one of the balloons was detected in the proximal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein and was deflated percutaneously with a 22-gauge Chiba needle under CT guidance. The patient's symptoms resolved after balloon deflation. This case report presents a unique complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula and its management.  (+info)

Mid-term fixation stability of the EndoVascular Technologies endograft. EVT Investigators. (7/640)

AIM OF THE STUDY: to determine the positional stability of the EndoVascular Technologies (EVT) endograft after endovascular aneurysm repair during morphologic changes of the abdominal aorta during follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: all patients treated worldwide with an EVT endograft with an adequate postoperative and at least 12 months postoperative CT scan were included (n=125). Endograft migration was investigated by recording the position of the endograft attachment systems relative to the renal arteries and the aortic or iliac bifurcations. The vertical body axis served as a scale to quantify migration. Aortic cross-sectional areas were measured in the suprarenal aorta and in the proximal and distal aneurysm necks. Length changes of the infrarenal aorta during follow-up were measured, comparing the distance between the left renal artery and the aortic bifurcation. RESULTS: the median follow-up was 24 months (range 12-48 months). Graft migration was identified in 4 out of 125 patients (3%). Significant infrarenal aortic dilation was observed at the proximal and distal aneurysm neck during follow-up. However, aortic neck dilation was not associated with endograft migration. The length of the infrarenal aorta did not change significantly after endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: fixation by stents containing hooks of the EVT design appear to be effective in preventing migration of endografts with an unsupported trunk for up to four years. A stable position was maintained in spite of changes in cross-sectional areas of the aneurysm neck.  (+info)

Risks of spontaneous injury and extraction of an active fixation pacemaker lead: report of the Accufix Multicenter Clinical Study and Worldwide Registry. (8/640)

BACKGROUND: The Telectronics Accufix pacing leads were recalled in November 1994 after 2 deaths and 2 nonfatal injuries were reported. This multicenter clinical study (MCS) of patients with Accufix leads was designed to determine the rate of spontaneous injury related to the J retention wire and results of lead extraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MCS included 2589 patients with Accufix atrial pacing leads that were implanted at or who were followed up at 12 medical centers. Patients underwent cinefluoroscopic imaging of their lead every 6 months. The risk of J retention wire fracture was approximately 5.6%/y at 5 years and 4.7%/y at 10 years after implantation. The annual risk of protrusion was 1.5%. A total of 40 spontaneous injuries were reported to a worldwide registry (WWR) that included data from 34 672 patients (34 892 Accufix leads), including pericardial tamponade (n=19), pericardial effusion (n=5), atrial perforation (n=3), J retention wire embolization (n=4), and death (n=6). The risk of injury was 0.02%/y (95% CI, 0.0025 to 0. 072) in the MCS and 0.048%/y (95% CI, 0.035 to 0.067) in the WWR. A total of 5299 leads (13%) have been extracted worldwide. After recall in the WWR, fatal extraction complications occurred in 0.4% of intravascular procedures (16 of 4023), with life-threatening complications in 0.5% (n=21). Extraction complications increased with implant duration, female sex, and J retention wire protrusion. CONCLUSIONS: Accufix pacing leads pose a low, ongoing risk of injury. Extraction is associated with substantially higher risks, and a conservative management approach is indicated for most patients.  (+info)

"Foreign bodies" refer to any object or substance that is not normally present in a particular location within the body. These can range from relatively harmless items such as splinters or pieces of food in the skin or gastrointestinal tract, to more serious objects like bullets or sharp instruments that can cause significant damage and infection.

Foreign bodies can enter the body through various routes, including ingestion, inhalation, injection, or penetrating trauma. The location of the foreign body will determine the potential for harm and the necessary treatment. Some foreign bodies may pass through the body without causing harm, while others may require medical intervention such as removal or surgical extraction.

It is important to seek medical attention if a foreign body is suspected, as untreated foreign bodies can lead to complications such as infection, inflammation, and tissue damage.

Foreign bodies in the eye refer to any object or particle that is not normally present in the eye and becomes lodged in it. These foreign bodies can range from small particles like sand or dust to larger objects such as metal shavings or glass. They can cause irritation, pain, redness, watering, and even vision loss if they are not removed promptly and properly.

The symptoms of an eye foreign body may include:

* A feeling that something is in the eye
* Pain or discomfort in the eye
* Redness or inflammation of the eye
* Watering or tearing of the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Blurred vision or difficulty seeing

If you suspect that you have a foreign body in your eye, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. An eye care professional can examine your eye and determine the best course of treatment to remove the foreign body and prevent any further damage to your eye.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

A granuloma is a type of organized immune response that occurs when the body encounters a foreign substance that it cannot eliminate. A "foreign-body" granuloma specifically refers to this reaction in response to an exogenous material, such as a splinter, suture, or other types of medical implants.

Foreign-body granulomas are characterized by the formation of a collection of immune cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes, which surround and attempt to isolate the foreign material. Over time, this collection of immune cells can become walled off and form a well-circumscribed mass or nodule.

Foreign-body granulomas may cause localized symptoms such as pain, swelling, or inflammation, depending on their location and size. In some cases, they may also lead to complications such as infection or tissue damage. Treatment typically involves removing the foreign body, if possible, followed by anti-inflammatory therapy to manage any residual symptoms or complications.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

Penetrating eye injuries are a type of ocular trauma where a foreign object or substance pierces the outer layers of the eye and damages the internal structures. This can result in serious harm to various parts of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, or retina, and may potentially cause vision loss or blindness if not promptly treated.

The severity of a penetrating eye injury depends on several factors, including the type and size of the object that caused the injury, the location of the wound, and the extent of damage to the internal structures. Common causes of penetrating eye injuries include sharp objects, such as metal shards or glass fragments, projectiles, such as pellets or bullets, and explosive materials.

Symptoms of a penetrating eye injury may include pain, redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, floaters, or the presence of a foreign body in the eye. If you suspect that you have sustained a penetrating eye injury, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist or other healthcare professional with experience in treating eye trauma.

Treatment for penetrating eye injuries may include removing any foreign objects or substances from the eye, repairing damaged tissues, and administering medications to prevent infection and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the injury and restore vision. Preventing eye injuries is crucial, and appropriate protective eyewear should be worn when engaging in activities that pose a risk of eye trauma.

Giant cells, foreign-body, are a type of large multinucleated immune cell that forms in response to the presence of a foreign material or object in the body. These cells are formed when several individual immune cells, such as macrophages, fuse together around the foreign material in an attempt to engulf and destroy it. The resulting giant cell is characterized by its large size and the presence of multiple nuclei. Foreign-body giant cells are commonly seen in chronic inflammatory reactions to materials such as surgical implants, sutures, or other types of foreign bodies that cannot be eliminated by the immune system.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Respiratory aspiration is defined as the entry of foreign materials (such as food, liquids, or vomit) into the lower respiratory tract during swallowing, which includes the trachea and lungs. This can lead to respiratory complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or lung abscesses. Aspiration can occur in individuals with impaired swallowing function due to various conditions like neurological disorders, stroke, or anesthesia.

In medical terms, the orbit refers to the bony cavity or socket in the skull that contains and protects the eye (eyeball) and its associated structures, including muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and the lacrimal gland. The orbit is made up of several bones: the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone, and palatine bone. These bones form a pyramid-like shape that provides protection for the eye while also allowing for a range of movements.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "numismatics" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Numismatics is the study or collection of coins, tokens, and currency, including their history, design, and cultural significance. It is not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Surgical sponges are absorbent, sterile materials used in medical procedures to soak up bodily fluids and help maintain a clean surgical field. They are typically made from gauze material and come in various sizes and shapes to accommodate different surgical needs. Surgical sponges are carefully counted before and after a procedure to ensure that none are accidentally left inside the patient's body.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Animal migration is a seasonal movement of animals from one place to another, typically over long distances, to find food, reproduce, or escape harsh conditions. This phenomenon is observed in various species, including birds, mammals, fish, and insects. The routes and destinations of these migrations are often genetically programmed and can be quite complex. Animal migration has important ecological consequences and is influenced by factors such as climate change, habitat loss, and human activities.

Bronchography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the airways (bronchi) of the lungs, followed by X-ray imaging to produce detailed pictures of the bronchial tree. This diagnostic procedure was commonly used in the past to identify abnormalities such as narrowing, blockages, or inflammation in the airways, but it has largely been replaced by newer, less invasive techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans and bronchoscopy.

The process of bronchography involves the following steps:

1. The patient is sedated or given a local anesthetic to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
2. A radiopaque contrast material is introduced into the bronchi through a catheter that is inserted into the trachea, either via a nostril or through a small incision in the neck.
3. Once the contrast material has been distributed throughout the bronchial tree, X-ray images are taken from various angles to capture detailed views of the airways.
4. The images are then analyzed by a radiologist to identify any abnormalities or irregularities in the structure and function of the bronchi.

Although bronchography is considered a relatively safe procedure, it does carry some risks, including allergic reactions to the contrast material, infection, and bleeding. Additionally, the use of ionizing radiation during X-ray imaging should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits of the procedure.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

Cell migration inhibition refers to the process or agents that restrict the movement of cells, particularly in the context of cancer metastasis. Cell migration is a critical biological process involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell dissemination. Inhibiting cell migration can help prevent the spread of cancer to distant organs, thereby improving treatment outcomes and patient survival rates.

Various factors and mechanisms contribute to cell migration inhibition, such as:

1. Modulation of signaling pathways: Cell migration is regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks that control cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion molecules, and other components required for cell motility. Inhibiting specific signaling proteins or pathways can suppress cell migration.
2. Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications: The ECM provides structural support and biochemical cues that guide cell migration. Altering the composition or organization of the ECM can hinder cell movement.
3. Inhibition of adhesion molecules: Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are mediated by adhesion molecules, such as integrins and cadherins. Blocking these molecules can prevent cells from attaching to their surroundings and migrating.
4. Targeting cytoskeletal components: The cytoskeleton is responsible for the mechanical forces required for cell migration. Inhibiting cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin or tubulin, can impair cell motility.
5. Use of pharmacological agents: Several drugs and compounds have been identified to inhibit cell migration, either by targeting specific molecules or indirectly affecting the overall cellular environment. These agents include chemotherapeutic drugs, natural compounds, and small molecule inhibitors.

Understanding the mechanisms underlying cell migration inhibition can provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment and other diseases involving aberrant cell migration.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Penetrating head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. This can result in damage to specific areas of the brain, depending on the location and trajectory of the penetrating object. Penetrating head injuries can be caused by various objects, such as bullets, knives, or sharp debris from accidents. They are often severe and require immediate medical attention, as they can lead to significant neurological deficits, disability, or even death.

Masturbation is the self-stimulation of the genitals to achieve sexual pleasure or orgasm. It's a normal and healthy sexual behavior that is commonly practiced by people of all ages, gender identities, and sexual orientations. Masturbation is generally considered safe and has few, if any, negative physical side effects.

It's important to note that masturbation is a personal choice, and individuals should feel comfortable and unpressured in their decision to engage in this behavior or not. Some people may choose not to masturbate due to personal, cultural, or religious beliefs, while others may find it to be a valuable way to explore their bodies, learn about their sexual responses, and relieve sexual tension.

If you have any concerns or questions about masturbation, it's always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider who can provide you with accurate information and address any concerns you may have.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

A bronchoscope is a medical device that is used to examine the airways and lungs. It is a long, thin, flexible tube that is equipped with a light and a camera at its tip. The bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth and down the throat, allowing the doctor to visualize the trachea, bronchi, and smaller branches of the airway system.

Bronchoscopes can be used for diagnostic purposes, such as to take tissue samples (biopsies) or to investigate the cause of symptoms like coughing up blood or difficulty breathing. They can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to remove foreign objects from the airways or to place stents to keep them open.

There are several types of bronchoscopes, including flexible bronchoscopes and rigid bronchoscopes. Flexible bronchoscopes are more commonly used because they are less invasive and can be used to examine smaller airways. Rigid bronchoscopes, on the other hand, are larger and stiffer, and are typically used for more complex procedures or in emergency situations.

It is important to note that the use of bronchoscopes requires specialized training and should only be performed by healthcare professionals with the appropriate expertise.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Esophagoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the visual examination of the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This procedure is typically carried out using an esophagogastroduodenoscope (EGD), a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end.

During the procedure, the EGD is inserted through the mouth and down the throat into the esophagus, allowing the medical professional to examine its lining for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. The procedure may also involve taking tissue samples (biopsies) for further examination and testing.

Esophagoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, and other disorders affecting the esophagus. It may also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing polyps or foreign objects from the esophagus.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

The maxillary sinuses, also known as the antrums of Highmore, are the largest of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses located in the maxilla bones. They are air-filled cavities that surround the nasolacrimal duct and are situated superior to the upper teeth and lateral to the nasal cavity. Each maxillary sinus is lined with a mucous membrane, which helps to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe. Inflammation or infection of the maxillary sinuses can result in conditions such as sinusitis, leading to symptoms like facial pain, headaches, and nasal congestion.

Esophageal perforation is a medical condition that refers to a hole or tear in the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This condition can occur as a result of various factors such as trauma, forceful vomiting (Boerhaave's syndrome), swallowing sharp objects, or complications from medical procedures like endoscopy.

Esophageal perforation is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to severe complications such as mediastinitis (inflammation of the tissue surrounding the heart), sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the perforation, antibiotics to prevent infection, and supportive care to manage any associated symptoms or complications.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

The ear is the sensory organ responsible for hearing and maintaining balance. It can be divided into three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and the external auditory canal, which directs sound waves toward the eardrum. The middle ear contains three small bones called ossicles that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The inner ear contains the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, and the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Intestinal perforation is a medical condition that refers to a hole or tear in the lining of the intestine. This can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or stomach. Intestinal perforation allows the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes and bacteria, to leak into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to a serious inflammatory response known as peritonitis.

Intestinal perforation can be caused by various factors, including:

* Mechanical trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stab wounds)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
* Diverticulitis
* Appendicitis
* Intestinal obstruction
* Infections (e.g., typhoid fever, tuberculosis)
* Certain medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids)
* Radiation therapy
* Ischemic bowel disease (lack of blood flow to the intestines)

Symptoms of intestinal perforation may include sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and decreased bowel movements. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the perforation and remove any damaged tissue. Antibiotics are also administered to prevent infection. In severe cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy may be necessary.

Siderosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of iron in various tissues and organs, most commonly in the lungs. This occurs due to the repeated inhalation of iron-containing dusts or fumes, which can result from certain industrial processes such as welding, mining, or smelting.

In the lungs, this iron deposit can lead to inflammation and fibrosis, potentially causing symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, and decreased lung function. It is important to note that siderosis itself is not contagious or cancerous, but there may be an increased risk for lung cancer in individuals with severe and prolonged exposure to iron-containing particles.

While siderosis is generally non-reversible, the progression of symptoms can often be managed through medical interventions and environmental modifications to reduce further exposure to iron-containing dusts or fumes.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Cystotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision into the urinary bladder. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as to remove bladder stones, to take a biopsy of the bladder tissue, or to repair damage to the bladder.

During a cystotomy, a veterinarian or surgeon makes an incision in the bladder and then carefully inspects the interior of the organ. Any abnormalities, such as bladder stones or tumors, can be removed during the procedure. The incision is then closed with sutures or staples.

Cystotomy is typically performed under general anesthesia, and patients will need to recover in a veterinary hospital or surgical center for several days following the procedure. During recovery, they may require pain medication and antibiotics to prevent infection. It's important to follow all post-operative instructions carefully to ensure proper healing.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

Silicones are not a medical term, but they are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in medical devices and healthcare products. Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. They can exist in various forms such as oils, gels, rubbers, and resins.

In the medical context, silicones are often used for their unique properties, including:

1. Biocompatibility - Silicones have a low risk of causing an adverse reaction when they come into contact with living tissue.
2. Inertness - They do not react chemically with other substances, making them suitable for use in medical devices that need to remain stable over time.
3. Temperature resistance - Silicones can maintain their flexibility and elasticity even under extreme temperature conditions.
4. Gas permeability - Some silicone materials allow gases like oxygen and water vapor to pass through, which is useful in applications where maintaining a moist environment is essential.
5. Durability - Silicones have excellent resistance to aging, weathering, and environmental factors, ensuring long-lasting performance.

Examples of medical applications for silicones include:

1. Breast implants
2. Contact lenses
3. Catheters
4. Artificial joints and tendons
5. Bandages and wound dressings
6. Drug delivery systems
7. Medical adhesives
8. Infant care products (nipples, pacifiers)

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

Cosmetic techniques refer to medical or surgical procedures that are performed with the primary goal of improving the appearance or aesthetics of an individual. These techniques can be non-invasive, minimally invasive, or surgical in nature and may involve various treatments such as:

1. Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections: used to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the underlying muscles.
2. Dermal fillers: injected beneath the skin to add volume, smooth out wrinkles, and enhance facial features.
3. Chemical peels: a chemical solution is applied to the skin to remove damaged outer layers, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin.
4. Microdermabrasion: a minimally abrasive procedure that uses fine crystals or diamond tips to exfoliate and remove dead skin cells, resulting in a refreshed appearance.
5. Laser resurfacing: using laser technology to improve the texture, tone, and overall appearance of the skin by removing damaged layers and stimulating collagen production.
6. Micro-needling: a minimally invasive treatment that involves puncturing the skin with fine needles to promote collagen production and skin rejuvenation.
7. Facelift surgery (rhytidectomy): a surgical procedure that tightens loose or sagging skin on the face and neck, restoring a more youthful appearance.
8. Blepharoplasty: cosmetic eyelid surgery that removes excess fat, muscle, and skin from the upper and/or lower eyelids to improve the appearance of tired or aging eyes.
9. Rhinoplasty: nose reshaping surgery that can correct various aesthetic concerns such as a bulbous tip, crooked bridge, or wide nostrils.
10. Breast augmentation: surgical enhancement of the breasts using implants or fat transfer to increase size, improve symmetry, or restore volume lost due to aging, pregnancy, or weight loss.
11. Liposuction: a surgical procedure that removes excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, and arms, to contour and shape the body.

These cosmetic techniques aim to enhance an individual's appearance, boost self-confidence, and help them feel more comfortable in their own skin.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

A bezoar is a mass trapped in the gastrointestinal tract, typically in the stomach, that is composed of indigestible materials such as hair, fibers, or food particles. Bezoars can cause various symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and obstruction. They are more commonly found in people with certain conditions such as diabetes, mental health disorders, or those who have had gastric surgery. Treatment may involve medication or endoscopic removal of the bezoar.

Cell migration assays are a type of in vitro laboratory experiments used to study the movement or motility of cells, typically in the context of cellular migration during wound healing, cancer metastasis, inflammation, and embryonic development. These assays allow researchers to quantify and analyze the migratory behavior of various cell types under different experimental conditions.

There are several types of cell migration assays, including:

1. Boyden Chamber Assay: This is a classic and widely used assay that measures the directional migration of cells through a porous membrane towards a chemoattractant source. The cells are placed in the upper chamber, while the chemoattractant is added to the lower chamber. After a set period, the number of cells that have migrated through the membrane to the lower chamber is quantified.
2. Wound Healing Assay: Also known as a scratch assay, this method measures the migration of cells into a wounded area created on a confluent cell monolayer. The width of the wound is measured at different time points, and the rate of wound closure is calculated to determine the migratory capacity of the cells.
3. Transwell Assay: Similar to the Boyden Chamber assay, this method uses a porous membrane in a transwell insert placed in a well of a tissue culture plate. Cells are added to the upper chamber, and a chemoattractant is added to the lower chamber. After incubation, the cells that have migrated through the membrane are stained and quantified.
4. Dunn Chamber Assay: This assay measures the chemotaxis of cells in response to a gradient of chemoattractants. Cells are placed in the center of a circular chamber, and a chemoattractant source is positioned at one end of the chamber. The movement of cells towards the chemoattractant source is recorded and analyzed using time-lapse microscopy.
5. Microfluidic Assay: This assay uses microfabricated channels to create precise gradients of chemoattractants, allowing for the study of cell migration under more physiologically relevant conditions. Cells are introduced into one end of the channel, and their movement towards or away from the chemoattractant gradient is monitored using time-lapse microscopy.

These assays help researchers understand the mechanisms underlying cell migration and can be used to study various aspects of cell behavior, such as chemotaxis, haptotaxis, and durotaxis. Additionally, these assays can be employed to investigate the effects of drugs, genetic modifications, or environmental factors on cell migration, which is crucial for understanding disease progression and developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

The hypopharynx is the lower part of the pharynx, which is the muscular tube that extends from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and trachea. The hypopharynx lies posterior to the larynx and is divided into three regions: the pyriform (or piriform) sinuses, the postcricoid area, and the posterior pharyngeal wall. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and any abnormalities or diseases in this region can lead to swallowing difficulties, aspiration, and other serious medical conditions.

Soft tissue injuries refer to damages that occur in the body's connective tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These injuries can be caused by various events, including accidents, falls, or sports-related impacts. Common soft tissue injuries include sprains, strains, and contusions (bruises).

Sprains occur when the ligaments, which connect bones to each other, are stretched or torn. This usually happens in the joints like ankles, knees, or wrists. Strains, on the other hand, involve injuries to the muscles or tendons, often resulting from overuse or sudden excessive force. Contusions occur when blood vessels within the soft tissues get damaged due to a direct blow or impact, causing bleeding and subsequent bruising in the affected area.

Soft tissue injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. In some cases, these injuries may require medical treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or even surgery, depending on their severity and location. It is essential to seek proper medical attention for soft tissue injuries to ensure appropriate healing and prevent long-term complications or chronic pain.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

"Plastics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, plastics can refer to a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that are used in various medical applications due to their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into different shapes. Some examples include:

1. Medical devices such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments.
2. Packaging for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals.
3. Protective barriers like gloves and gowns used in medical settings.
4. Intraocular lenses and other ophthalmic applications.

It's important to note that the term "plastics" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general category of materials with diverse uses across different industries, including healthcare.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Macrophage migration-inhibitory factors (MIFs) are a group of proteins that were initially identified for their ability to inhibit the random migration of macrophages. However, subsequent research has revealed that MIFs have diverse functions in the immune system and other biological processes. They play crucial roles in inflammation, immunoregulation, and stress responses.

MIF is constitutively expressed and secreted by various cell types, including T-cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It functions as a proinflammatory cytokine that can counteract the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. MIF is involved in several signaling pathways and contributes to various physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Dysregulation of MIF has been implicated in numerous diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of MIFs is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Otolaryngology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders related to the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and head and neck region. It's also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) specialty. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management of conditions such as hearing and balance disorders, nasal congestion, sinusitis, allergies, sleep apnea, snoring, swallowing difficulties, voice and speech problems, and head and neck tumors.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

"Tamarindus" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is the genus name for the tamarind tree, which is scientifically known as "Tamarindus indica." The tamarind tree produces fruit that contains seeds surrounded by an edible pulp. This pulp is used in various culinary applications and also has traditional medicinal uses.

In traditional medicine, tamarind is used to treat conditions such as diarrhea, constipation, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that tamarind extract may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the appropriate dosages and safety precautions for using tamarind as a medicine.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Chemotaxis is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the movement of an organism or cell towards or away from a chemical stimulus. This process plays a crucial role in various biological phenomena, including immune responses, wound healing, and the development and progression of diseases such as cancer.

In chemotaxis, cells can detect and respond to changes in the concentration of specific chemicals, known as chemoattractants or chemorepellents, in their environment. These chemicals bind to receptors on the cell surface, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in the cytoskeleton and directed movement of the cell towards or away from the chemical gradient.

For example, during an immune response, white blood cells called neutrophils use chemotaxis to migrate towards sites of infection or inflammation, where they can attack and destroy invading pathogens. Similarly, cancer cells can use chemotaxis to migrate towards blood vessels and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Understanding chemotaxis is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

It applies to the chance of a piercing being forced out by the body. This is a body's natural reaction to a foreign object ... Like a case of a splinter or other foreign object, the body will try to push out foreign material, especially if it irritates ... Piercing migration is the process that occurs when a body piercing moves from its initial location. This process can be painful ... Contemporary body and ear piercing jewelry is much more balanced in its weight to gauge ratio, although migration is still ...
Performing Exile Foreign Bodies. Intellect Books Limited. 2017. ISBN 9781783208197. Alejandro Portes; Alex Stepick (1993). City ... Jorge Duany (1999). "Cuban communities in the United States: migration waves, settlement patterns and socioeconomic diversity ... The International Migration Review. 20 (1): 4-20. doi:10.1177/019791838602000101. JSTOR 2545681. PMID 12340641. S2CID 35188116 ...
"Silicon Valley's "Body Shop" Secret: Highly Educated Foreign Workers Treated Like Indentured Servants". NBC Bay Area. The ... L-1 Visa Sweatshop Aneesh Aneesh (2006). "Body Shopping". Virtual Migration. Duke University Press. pp. 39-40. ISBN ... Although the Indian body shop company could easily find lower paid workers in India for the job, the H-1B visa process would ... All body shops claim to have the ability to place Indian workers in almost any country using the resources and services of ...
The biggest risk that comes with a hip piercing is rejection or piercing migration. This is a result of your body recognizing a ... foreign object and pushing it out. Rejection rates vary depending on the person's skin, the activities a person partakes in ... With a needle, the surface piercing of the hip is done just like any other place on the body such as a nose piercing, or ear ... This piercing typically heals in one to three months, depending on the person's body. The best way to take care of your ...
The body was also responsible for the deportation of foreign national criminals at the end of sentences. The UK Border Agency's ... The agency managed the UK Government's limit on non-European economic migration to the UK. It was responsible for in-country ... The UK Border Agency occasionally removed foreign national criminals at the end of their prison terms. Over 5000 foreign ... Enforcement immigration officers wear body armour and carry handcuffs and ASP batons. Customs officers had wide-ranging powers ...
Even the presence of injected air is considered to be a "foreign body". Blood definitely is considered a foreign body, ... Cellular migration causing these cyst cavities was observed both in vitro and in vivo and cavitation was observed to be ... Repeated exposure to foreign body substances in the subarachnoid space or spinal injury can initiate auto-immune amnestic ... Many authors state that blood and its breakdown products acting as foreign-body substance in the subarachnoid space produce ...
The EVD is a foreign body inserted into the brain, and as such it represents a potential portal for serious infection. ... Migration After EVD placement, the drain is tunneled subcutaneously and secured with surgical sutures and/or surgical staples. ...
Though all Dunn's work deals with these topics, thematically, it can be divided into three bodies of literature: on foreign ... on forced migration. In 2000, Dunn accepted a joint appointment in the Department of Geography and the Program in International ...
... blunt or penetrating Foreign bodies, including splinters, dirt and debris Trauma Ionizing radiation Biological: Infection by ... survival and migration. Cancer cells use selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. On ... A substantial body of evidence implicates chronic inflammation as a critical driver of immune dysfunction, premature appearance ... Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli, and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma ...
Like macrophages in the rest of the body, microglia use phagocytic and cytotoxic mechanisms to destroy foreign materials. ... Yolk sac progenitor cells require activation colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) for migration into the brain and ... microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. The ... Due to the lack of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier), ...
Moore, Cerwyn (2015-05-27). "Foreign Bodies: Transnational Activism, the Insurgency in the North Caucasus and "Beyond"" (PDF). ... Caribbean Circuits: New Directions in the Study of Caribbean Migration, Center for Migration Studies: Patricia Pessar. Levitt, ... Rees, Martha, ed.: Special Issue: Costs of Transnational Migration, in Migration Letters, Vol. 6, No. 1, October 2009. Robinson ... Today, migration accounts for three fifths of population growth on western countries as a whole, a trend that shows no signs of ...
... when a smaller body of extension language is the guest invoking services in the larger body of host language, such as writing a ... some even permit migration of complex datatypes and/or objects across the language boundary. In most cases, an FFI is defined ... Foreign function interface Haskell 98 Foreign Function Interface Allegro Common Lisp FFI A Foreign Function Interface ... C Foreign Function Interface for Python. The goal is to provide a convenient and reliable way to call compiled C code from ...
... design strives to improve hydrophilicity because hydrophobicity can trigger the host's natural response to foreign bodies. The ... Tissue ingrowth and fibroblast migration have been shown to improve the mechanical strength of the artificial ligament, and ... The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a frequently injured human body structure that may cause secondary damages to the knees ... Biocompatibility is related to new tissue ingrowth, fibroblast migration, osseointegration of bone, reduction of inflammation, ...
In 1943 he emphasized the necessity of the "complete elimination of this foreign body" (the Jews) from the German people and ... migration movements and biographical and local cultural research. In these functions, he was significantly involved as a desk ...
Hungary's capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political ... International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe ... "Regime stability and foreign policy change: interaction between domestic and foreign policy in Hungary 1956-1994" (PhD ... Váli, Ferenc A, "The Foreign Policy of Hungary" in Kuhlman, James A (ed.), The Foreign Policies of Eastern Europe: Domestic and ...
... eye foreign bodies MeSH C21.866.392.500 - foreign-body migration MeSH C21.866.392.560 - foreign-body reaction MeSH C21.866. ... foreign-body MeSH C21.866.404.061 - femoral fractures MeSH C21.866.404.061.425 - hip fractures MeSH C21.866.404.061.425.500 - ... eye foreign bodies MeSH C21.866. - eye injuries, penetrating MeSH C21.866.260.275.500 - maxillofacial injuries ...
Norderstedt: BoD, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8334-5147-8. Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the ... Internal and international migration since 1945 has also changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 ... The name Alsace can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain". An alternative explanation is ... German is also taught as a foreign language in local kindergartens and schools. There is a growing network of schools proposing ...
... bodies and institutions with competence in foreign matters. The Foreign Service is composed for more than 215 diplomatic ... The Migration Affairs Office. The Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. The Cervantes Institute. The Pious ... The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation is organised in the following superior bodies: The Secretariat ... The Foreign Ministry is the nationwide department who oversees the Foreign Action of the Spanish regions and other ...
Belize is a member of the following multilateral bodies. African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) The Agency for ... International Organization for Migration (IOM) (observer) International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Non-Aligned Movement (NAM ... "Belize , Ministry of Foreign Affairs".[permanent dead link] "Countries and regions: Belize - Ministry for Foreign Affairs of ... "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea". In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the ...
Inward-pointing, mucus-covered papillae found in the fore region of the loggerhead's esophagus filter out foreign bodies, such ... During their migration from their nests to the sea, hatchlings are preyed on by dipteran larvae, crabs, toads, lizards, snakes ... During their seasonal migration, juvenile loggerheads have the ability to use both magnetic and visual cues. When both aids are ... The females then cover the egg chamber and body pit with sand, and finally return to the sea. This process takes one to two ...
... other state bodies - Ministry of National Security, Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), ... Labor migration is regulated by the "Law on Labor migration", Labor Code, and Migration Code of Azerbaijani Republic through ... "State Migration Program of the Republic of Azerbaijan" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-06-27. "Migration". ... Adopting Stated Migration Policy Concept, approving State Migration Program for 2006-2008, establishing State Migration Service ...
... one-person body functionally dependent directly on the Office of the Prime Minister but organically included within the Foreign ... discrepancies were found between the two countries in their approach to migration policies. In September 2018, the National ... 22 years after the end of his last tenure as member of the Government of Spain, Borrell assumed the portfolio of Foreign ... "Spain's foreign minister fined for insider trading, sparking calls to resign". "Josep Borrell Fontelles". Dialnet (in Spanish ...
Failures to resolve inflammatory responses may lead to foreign body reactions and the ultimate encapsulation of the implant ... In vitro observations of nanofibrous mesh have yielded evidence of cell migration and proliferation on the set[clarification ... Nanofibrous mesh currently also promotes a greater foreign body reaction and inflammatory response, which compromises the ... but biocompatibility ranges from how easily it is integrated to how severe the foreign body reaction is. A minimal response ...
... and is co-funded by Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and the consortium partners' parent bodies. Devpol ... migration programs alongside other migration pathways open to Pacific Islanders within the region and other temporary migration ... It is supported by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade through the Pacific Research Program. Devpol regularly hosts ... Making Pacific Migration Work (2010), Measuring Poverty and Gender Disparity (2011), Tuberculosis Control in the Torres Strait ...
... the Act of Ukraine on Intelligence Bodies and other norms and regulations of Ukraine are the principal guidance for the Foreign ... and illegal migration; providing counter measures to external threats that can affect National security of Ukraine, lives and ... Since 2019 on 27 January the "Day of Foreign Intelligence of Ukraine" is honoured. The modern-day Foreign Intelligence Service ... Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine Archived 2008-10-01 at the Wayback Machine Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine ...
A vascular snare is an endovascular device that is used to remove foreign bodies from inside arteries and veins. The snare ... Mitchell, WB; Bonn, J (July 2005). "Percutaneous retrieval of a Greenfield filter after migration to the left pulmonary artery ... being carried out of the body at the tip of the catheter. ...
... and foreign bodies from the stomach, through the small intestine, past the ileocecal sphincter, and into the colon. MMC ... It also serves to transport bacteria from the small intestine to the large intestine and to inhibit the migration of colonic ...
The conjugate formed is then recognized as a foreign body by the Langerhans cells (LCs) (and in some cases other Dendritic ... and their action serves either to promote or to inhibit the mobilization and migration of these LCs. As the LCs are transported ... Dermatitis can occur anywhere on the skin, but is most common on the hands (22% of people), scattered across the body (18%), or ...
... to obtain a work permit and get on migration registration in the Russian Federal Migration Service bodies. For foreign citizens ... According to the Federal Migration Service of Russia estimates, in Russia today there are 5 million working foreign nationals. ... A work permit or work visa is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. The foreign country where someone seeks to ... For foreign executives relocating to Singapore and applying for a PEP, their last drawn fixed monthly salary must be at least S ...
In the exhibit Foreign Bodies, Fernández takes on women's rights within her own culture. During her Ted Talk, Fernández spoke ... "Factbox: Eight artists spotlighting the human cost of migration". Reuters. 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2022-11-16. "Of Bodies and ... "Ana Teresa Fernandez , Foreign Bodies". Gallery Wendi Norris , San Francisco. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 2022-11-16. "Troka Troka". ... "Interview: Ana Teresa Fernández, "Foreign Bodies" at Gallery Wendi Norris". Archived from the original on ...
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body. ... Foreign Body Migration; Foreign-Body Migrations; Migration, Foreign-Body; Migrations, Foreign-Body ... Foreign-Body Migration. Subscribe to New Research on Foreign-Body Migration Migration of a foreign body from its original ... migrated or displaced or foreign-body migration or intrauterine device migration) AND (peritoneal or peritoneal cavity). ". ...
Ochsner Journal September 2022, 22 (3) 258-260; DOI: ...
... Yan-ting Wang, Xiao-dong Yang, Shao-hua Liu, Yan-hua Huang ... What Moved into the Lung? An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Migration ...
Foreign Bodies / complications* * Foreign-Body Migration / complications* * Foreign-Body Migration / diagnostic imaging ... Neck pain following migration of a ventriculocervical shunt Surg Neurol. 1983 Mar;19(3):285-7. doi: 10.1016/s0090-3019(83)80018 ...
It applies to the chance of a piercing being forced out by the body. This is a bodys natural reaction to a foreign object ... Like a case of a splinter or other foreign object, the body will try to push out foreign material, especially if it irritates ... Piercing migration is the process that occurs when a body piercing moves from its initial location. This process can be painful ... Contemporary body and ear piercing jewelry is much more balanced in its weight to gauge ratio, although migration is still ...
Foreign arms and the economic body. Will Davis. Many stories to tell: women in the construction of Brasília. Tânia Fontenele ... Of Migration is the second installment of "Feminist Architectural Histories of Migration," a multi-sited collection of works ... In this collection, we examine people, places, and things as diffracted through migration. Migration is an event and a concept ... Of Migration includes the following works, to be published on a rolling basis. Embracing the differentiation and multiplicity ...
Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein resulting from migration of a sharp esophageal foreign body.. Yahya A. Al-Qahtani and ... Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein resulting from migration of a sharp esophageal foreign body. ... Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein resulting from migration of a sharp esophageal foreign body. ... Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein resulting from migration of a sharp esophageal foreign body. ...
Magnetic resonance imaging identified a foreign body within the lower thoracic esophagus. During … ... Foreign-Body Migration / etiology * Foreign-Body Migration / therapy* * Gastrostomy / adverse effects* * Gastrostomy / ... Magnetic resonance imaging identified a foreign body within the lower thoracic esophagus. During esophagoscopy, the bolster was ...
... abdominal procedures may require further consideration by surgeons regarding its relatively unknown tendency for migration and ... Complications of synthetic mesh have been described in various hernia procedures including migration and erosion, but no ... Complications related to mesh include postoperative hematomas, seromas, foreign body reaction, adhesions, infection, and mesh ... The clinical presentation is varied and dependent on the site of migration. Migration of mesh into the bladder following ...
Minor problems include ocular surface irritation and a foreign-body reaction. Pyogenic granulomas may develop, requiring ... Plug extrusion or migration is not uncommon. The ophthalmologist can best avoid these complications by using a plug that is the ...
... migration, or adherence of choroid plexus, CSF debris, catheter position, inflammatory processes, and CSF overdrainage. Most ... "Perhaps body reaction to foreign body". One hundred nine respondents offered opinions about proximal shunt obstruction ... Choroid plexus growth, migration, or adherence. "Choroid plexus mobility and approximation to aperture in shunt catheter;" "The ... "The shunt is a foreign body and is walled off with scar tissue as it comes into contact with choroid plexus or ependyma;" " ...
Radiographic evaluation of the esophageal foreign body is warranted in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. ... Prompt treatment of an infant or child with a suspected esophageal foreign body is crucial because of the potential for severe ... Complete foreign body migration outside the esophagus is occult on esophagoscopic images, but it may be depicted on chest ... encoded search term (Esophageal Foreign Body Imaging) and Esophageal Foreign Body Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape ...
... foreign body reaction, organ damage, infection, mesh rejection, and fistula formation may occur after implantation of the mesh ... i,Presentation of Case,/i,. Here we report the case of an enterocutaneous fistula due to late mesh migration in a mentally ... However, enterocutaneous fistula due to mesh migration can occur as a very rare, late complication, for which diagnosis is very ... i,Discussion,/i,. Mesh is a foreign substance, because of that some of the complications including hematoma, seroma, ...
An Unusual case of Foreign Body Migration- Journal of Laryngology & Otology. Vol. 118, No 3, P 242-243. Co-Author. 2004. ... Migrating Oesophageal Foreign Bodies- Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol, 126,(2): 105-109, Co-author, June 2005. ...
Introduction: The surgical management of arrested sharp foreign bodies (FB) in the small bowel is often managed with a ... such as migration of the FB through the bowel wall, enterocolic fistula, aortic - duodenal fistula, and frank acute perforation ... Discussion: Any arrested sharp foreign body should be surgically removed in a timely fashion. The literature shows that longer ... The surgical management of ingested sharp foreign objects in the small bowel (adults): a case series and review of the ...
TRAI doubles down on the need for an industry led body to regulate cloud services October 3, 2023 ... This led to a which led to a forced migration of commercial DTH users (Sun DTH, Airtel and Reliance) to foreign satellite ... Department of Space failure to launch satellites forced DTH migration to foreign players: CAG. ... Obscene Takedowns: OTT Self Regulating Body DPCGC Learns Function Creep From the Censor Board. ...
... may also be secondary to a calcified endobronchial tumor or more rarely to an intrabronchial calcified foreign body that has ... The migration of these calcified ganglia is favored by respiratory and cardiac movements [2] . Lymph node calcification is ...
... risk of claustrophobia and migration of metallic materials/retained foreign bodies.. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed ...
Foreign body reaction. *Mesh migration or erosion. *Mesh shrinkage (contraction). *Needing another surgery ... Lawyers have questioned whether a similar risk could occur inside the hot and wet human body. ... 1.5 million after he suffered severe internal injuries when his hernia mesh patch broke inside his body. In 2011, C.R. Bard ...
This case involved an unusual presentation of complications due to migration of an orthodontic archwire. Although the problem ... The appearance of this opacity was consistent with a migrated brace wire, and this foreign body appeared to be the cause of the ... Trismus caused by a foreign body has only rarely been documented in the literature. In the case reported here, trismus was one ... Migrating foreign body: a new cause of trismus. J Laryngol Otol. 1995;109(10):990-1. ...
1), demonstrating a metallic linear density projected over the right ischium suggesting a needle fragment foreign body, which ... Cardiothoracic surgeons opinion was that removal of the foreign body would require surgery such as wedge resection or a right ... Direct charm needle migration has been reported, though it occurred through the skull and into the brain.2 Indeed, such cases ... Other causes of linear densities on X-ray radiographs and CT include artefact, iatrogenic or other foreign body material, and ...
... the tiny barbs on the awns surface promote forward motion and deeper migration of this foreign body invader. ... Foxtail foreign body penetration is always an urgent situation.. This is truly a situation where an ounce of prevention is ... Foxtail Grass Foreign Body in Domestic Animals. Renee DiPietro, CVT. Associate Veterinary Information Specialist. Pet Poison ... A dog persistently licking or biting between the toes may be the first indication that you pet has this type of foreign body ...
The in vivo results have shown that the composite material was efficient at resisting foreign-body reactions and the formation ... Promoted reparative macrophage migration. [87]. Au NPs. Decellularized omental matrices. Evaporation of Au for deposition. ... Biocompatibility, anti-bacterial, and in vivo resistance to foreign-body reactions. [68]. ... Ag nanoparticle porous hydrogel for simultaneous in vivo prevention of the foreign-body reaction and bacterial infection. ...
... detect and disrupt the use of hostile information campaigns and local proxies by foreign entities intending to interfere in ... domestic politics was introduced by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in Parliament on Monday (Sep 13). The Foreign ... Disclose migration facilities. All PSPs will be required to declare if they have been granted migration facilities by foreign ... Disclose involvement with foreign political or legislative bodies. Singapore citizens who are members of foreign political or ...
Spontaneous migration of foreign bodies in the spinal canal has been described, which may be associated with the onset of new ...
... the actual blockade of foreign bodies.. The slow, gradual unfurling of historical and circumstantial allusions in Arenas work ... Several of Arenas recent efforts have centred upon the migration crisis facing the Mediterranean. Europe November 11 2015 ( ... Arenas body of work invites comparison to Thomas Hirschhorns multi-media installation-events, dedicated to the legacy of ... to measurements of the artists own body - numbers which take transubstantiated form in, or as, Arenas sculptural ...
This in turn has led to a steep rise in the body count. According to data provided by the International Organization for ... Migration (IOM), at least 629 refugees died in June attempting to cross the Mediterranean to reach the EU - more than in any ... Information on German Foreign Policy: News + Interviews + Analyses + Background ...
Metastatic cells have acquired the abilities to break away from the primary tumor, translocate to distant sites in the body, ... At the cellular level, malignant cells have overcome restraints on cell growth and migration that result from physical linkages ... and colonize a foreign microenvironment (4). ... When malignant cells metastasize to distant sites in the body, ... migration, and survival (6, 24, 25). The molecular basis by which EphA2 regulates ECM adhesions remains largely unknown. ...
... to fibrose in naturally using the human bodys reaction to a foreign body or healing." Id., col. 4, lines 13-31. In arguing ... address[] the similar problems of leads adequately stimulating the nerves while limiting electrode migration"-a problem that ... a lead body extending between a proximal end and a distal end; a plurality of conductors within the lead body; a plurality of ... 5 length from an attached tine end to a free tine end, the attached tine end attached to the lead body from a tine attachment ...
Belgium, Turkey to form economic body. ANKARA - Hürriyet Daily News. Belgian Foreign Minister Reynders is seen here. Reynders ... migration, and the fight against organized crime. A meeting will then be held at the ministerial level in December. ... Witte said senior officials from two countries foreign, justice and home affairs ministries will come together in November to ... Foreign and Trade Minister Didier Reynders. Four-day visit to Turkey on Oct. 15-19 The large Belgian economic mission, led by ...
  • This is a body's natural reaction to a foreign object being inserted into the skin. (
  • Minor problems include ocular surface irritation and a foreign-body reaction. (
  • Mesh is a foreign substance, because of that some of the complications including hematoma, seroma, foreign body reaction, organ damage, infection, mesh rejection, and fistula formation may occur after implantation of the mesh. (
  • Displacement of dental implants into the maxillary sinus can violate the anatomic integrity and interfere with the physiologic mechanisms of the maxillary sinus, creating potential complications, like a foreign-body reaction of conventional sinusitis. (
  • 9 Also, the displacement of an implant into the maxillary sinus can result in a foreign-body reaction or a sinus infection secondary to peri-implantitis, 10 or it can remain uneventful for a long period. (
  • Should the fistula heal, the migration may stop, although it may be inclined to continue migrating, as the re-healed area of tissue may not be as strong as the original fistula was. (
  • This type of migration is sometimes accompanied by rejection due to improper drainage due to the length of piercing, as dead tissue builds up in the healing fistula. (
  • However, enterocutaneous fistula due to mesh migration can occur as a very rare, late complication, for which diagnosis is very difficult. (
  • Here we report the case of an enterocutaneous fistula due to late mesh migration in a mentally retarded, diabetic, 35-year-old male after umbilical hernia repair with composite dual mesh in 2010. (
  • In the literature, most cases of mesh-associated enterocutaneous fistula due to migration involved polypropylene meshes. (
  • Most reports of enterocutaneous fistula due to mesh migration involve polypropylene mesh [ 3 ]. (
  • Here we describe a case of enterocutaneous fistula due to late migration of a composite dual mesh 4 years after incisional hernia repair. (
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) with oral and intravenous contrast showed an ileal enterocutaneous fistula but revealed no mesh migration. (
  • such as migration of the FB through the bowel wall, enterocolic fistula, aortic - duodenal fistula, and frank acute perforation. (
  • Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein resulting from migration of a sharp esophageal foreign body. (
  • [ 5 ] Prompt treatment of an infant or child with a suspected esophageal foreign body is crucial because of the potential for severe complications. (
  • Radiographic evaluation of the esophageal foreign body is warranted in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. (
  • Contrast-enhanced CT should be performed if the plain radiograph is negative, if the contrast-enhanced esophagographic findings are positive, or if there is still a high suspicion of an esophageal foreign body is. (
  • Complications of synthetic mesh have been described in various hernia procedures including migration and erosion, but no previous report mentions this complication after liver resection. (
  • Although late occurrence of mesh migration is the rarest of these complications, the diagnosis is very difficult. (
  • Among these complications, mesh migration is relatively rare [ 9 ]. (
  • This case involved an unusual presentation of complications due to migration of an orthodontic archwire. (
  • 5 Extension of infection intracranially, aspergillosis connected with zinc endodontic obstruction materials, or malignant tumors are rare complications of sinus foreign bodies and pathologic conditions. (
  • The nose/nasal passages are also a common access point and migration of the awn can result in sneezing, nose bleeds, infection, significant pain, and breathing difficulty due to inflammation/swelling of the upper respiratory tract. (
  • foreign body, maxillary antrum, nasal regurgitation. (
  • The floods caused the displacement of more than 43,000 people, according to the latest statistics of the International Organization for Migration. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Kingdom of Morocco are co-organizing the Third Global Consultation on the Health of Refugees and Migrants. (
  • The non-contrast CT (Fig. 3) demonstrates a metallic linear foreign body density within a subsegmental branch of the right lower lobe pulmonary artery. (
  • A chronic calcified pulmonary embolus may be concurrent and difficult to differentiate from an embolised needle tip or other foreign body in the pulmonary arteries. (
  • Pulmonary Barotrauma Barotrauma is tissue injury caused by a pressure-related change in body compartment gas volume. (
  • It also provides some options for mitigating the adverse effects of migration and thus strengthening health systems. (
  • Mesh erosion and migration can present as acute intestinal obstruction, mass formation, bowel perforation, and chronic abdominal pain [ 10 - 13 ]. (
  • Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies. (
  • Pediatric emergency department (ED) visits due to ingestion of a foreign body are common, with the majority of cases ocurring in children younger than 4 years. (
  • Recommends plain radiography to assess the presence, location, size, configuration, and number of ingested foreign bodies if ingestion of radiopaque objects is suspected or type of object is unknown. (
  • Lawyers have questioned whether a similar risk could occur inside the hot and wet human body. (
  • Air accumulation in inappropriate areas of the chest cavity ( Pneumothorax) can also occur relative to inhalation, penetration, and migration of foxtail awns. (
  • The use of synthetic mesh in hepatectomies and other abdominal procedures may require further consideration by surgeons regarding its relatively unknown tendency for migration and erosion. (
  • This report presents an unusual case of synthetic mesh used in a liver resection and its eventual migration and intraluminal erosion into the stomach. (
  • Spontaneous migration of foreign bodies in the spinal canal has been described, which may be associated with the onset of new neurological symptoms or signs. (
  • all reported no cases of tissue migration, foreign body granulomas, allergenicity, or interference with the control of cell proliferation. (
  • Damage to the tissue surrounding the piercing can also cause migration. (
  • Like a case of a splinter or other foreign object, the body will try to push out foreign material, especially if it irritates the surrounding tissue. (
  • The "Field of the Invention" section of the specification states: This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus that allows for stimulation of body tissue, particularly sacral nerves. (
  • Aberrant tissue responses to persistent deposition of foreign bodies lead to organ fibrosis through orchestrated, yet poorly understood, mechanisms. (
  • next, the dentist should evaluate surrounding teeth and bone tissue through radiographic examination and soft tissue injuries to find the possible presence of foreign bodies 5 . (
  • Next, the course will explain the process of mediating the inflammatory response through the migration of neutrophils (the most common type of granulocytes that make up the majority of white blood cells in humans) to the site of action. (
  • The appearance of this opacity was consistent with a migrated brace wire, and this foreign body appeared to be the cause of the inflammation and associated trismus ( Figs. 1a-1d ). (
  • You will learn about the process of mediating the inflammatory response, the activation of various cells, and the procedure for recognizing foreign pathogens in the body in this free online course. (
  • In addition, they are exposed to diseases and pathogens during the migration itself, when they stopover in different places. (
  • The conditions surrounding migration and displacement act as factors of vulnerability and determine specific health needs for refugees, migrants and others who are forcibly displaced. (
  • The fractures may cause loss of masticatory function, alterations in occlusion, tooth migration, damages to surrounding tissues, esthetics and speaking impairment. (
  • Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla , or both maxilla and mandible , on a single film. (
  • 2 Most common foreign bodies associated with sinus perforation are displaced fractured roots, whole teeth, dental impression materials, dental burs, gutta-percha 3 and silver points, amalgam fillings, and dental implants. (
  • While progress remains slow, the Biden administration's October 2021 report on climate migration was a step in the right direction. (
  • When malignant cells metastasize to distant sites in the body, morbidity and mortality increase significantly (3) . (
  • Imaging revealed that the trismus was a complication related to the presence of a foreign body. (
  • Migration of foreign bodies into the maxillary sinuses is a relatively frequent complication in dental clinical practice. (
  • Foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus are not unusual findings. (
  • Below, post-operative tomographic scan of the same patient showing maxillary sinus free off the foreign body. (
  • Some of them like the one that resulted from a blast in a furnace, with a metallic foreign body in the maxillary sinus had presented in the emergency. (
  • 11 Nevertheless, cases of complete migration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus 7 , 9 , 12 or even into the sphenoid sinus 13 are rarely mentioned in the literature. (
  • abstract = "Bezoars are concretions of foreign matter in the gastrointestinal tract which may cause nonspecific symptoms, including epigastric discomfort, early satiety, and constipation, and rarely gastrointestinal obstruction. (
  • A non-contrast CT is a suitable protocol for troubleshooting the location of foreign bodies in the thorax. (
  • Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging identified a foreign body within the lower thoracic esophagus. (
  • If a child is referred from an outside institution, a repeat chest radiograph can be obtained to reconfirm the presence of the foreign body in the esophagus or confirm its passage beyond the esophagus, obviating a retrieval procedure. (
  • Reports have documented mesh migration and need for reoperation to retrieve the offending mesh and repair the adjacent organs. (
  • The pathological specimen and mesh migration to the intestine. (
  • This is not uncommon with tongue piercings, although the migration usually stops before the jewelry would exit the body. (
  • Plug extrusion or migration is not uncommon. (
  • Foreign bodies in the maxillary antra are not uncommon. (
  • Genome-wide microarray analyses of the lungs exposed to MWCNT identified a range of differentially expressed genes that potentially function in the regulation of the acute-to-chronic transition, through pathways of immune and inflammatory regulation, response to stress and extracellular stimuli, and cell migration and adhesion. (
  • The appropriate storage and release of calcium is essential for many cell activities, including cell growth and division (proliferation), cell movement (migration), and attachment of cells to one another (cell adhesion). (
  • In addition to proliferation and adhesion, calcium regulation in these cells appears to play an important role in maintaining the skin's barrier function, helping to keep foreign invaders such as bacteria out of the body. (
  • In 2010, Christopher Thorpe was awarded $1.5 million after he suffered severe internal injuries when his hernia mesh patch broke inside his body. (
  • Pressure, especially the pressure caused by improperly performed surface, navel, and eyebrow piercings often leads to migration. (
  • In his decades of experience, Body modification expert DaVo Wilkins has learned one crucial lesson about eyebrow piercings - they just don't work for everyone's body. (
  • Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred cross-sectional imaging tool for evaluating the full extent of cervicothoracic masses and the relationships between neurovascular structures, it is not the initial imaging method of choice for the workup for a retained foreign body or traumatic lesion. (
  • Other causes of linear densities on X-ray radiographs and CT include artefact, iatrogenic or other foreign body material, and charm needles. (
  • Foreign bodies in the maxillary antrum are not a rare entity, with most of them being iatrogenic in nature and most commonly follow dental procedures. (
  • However, free-text responses revealed that the respondents' understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of shunt obstruction was highly variable and included growth, migration, or adherence of choroid plexus, CSF debris, catheter position, inflammatory processes, and CSF overdrainage. (
  • Constantly surveilled yet paradoxically unseen, the bodies of dead migrants follow the tracks of the living on migratory routes. (
  • On their perilous journey to foreign lands, migrants come close to death or encounter it. (
  • The report underscored the growing link between climate change and migration and made the United States the first Group of Twenty member to propose a policy process that could potentially offer new legal status and protections to so-called "climate migrants. (
  • The next day, she sensed a foreign body in her eye, and she consulted an ophthalmologist. (
  • One idea is that small birds have a particularly good immune system because of seasonal migration, which means having to resist many different diseases at breeding, stopover and wintering sites. (
  • Location and careful removal of the awn, possibly as a surgical procedure may be necessary to limit ocular damage and awn migration. (
  • The Foreign Interference (Countermeasures) Act will give the Minister for Home Affairs the power to take down content deemed to be part of a hostile information campaign, MHA said in a news release. (
  • Foreign interference poses a serious threat to Singapore's political sovereignty and national security, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) said. (
  • The Government has considered laws against foreign interference from as early as February 2019, when then-Senior Minister of State for Law Edwin Tong referred Parliament to findings from the 2018 Select Committee on Deliberate Online Falsehoods, which said that foreign state-linked disinformation efforts were likely already occurring in Singapore. (
  • The regulatory measures in POFMA are comparable to those in the proposed Foreign Interference (Countermeasures) Act, with similar methods of application and appeal. (
  • The major limitation of the initial plain radiographic evaluation is the potential failure to visualize the nonradiopaque foreign body. (
  • The initial radiographic evaluation also can cause underestimation of the extent or degree of involvement, such as the amount of edema with foreign bodies that are retained for long periods. (
  • SINGAPORE: A proposed law to prevent, detect and disrupt the use of hostile information campaigns and local proxies by foreign entities intending to interfere in domestic politics was introduced by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in Parliament on Monday (Sep 13). (
  • Witte said senior officials from two countries' foreign, justice and home affairs ministries will come together in November to discuss cooperation on issue like terrorism, migration, and the fight against organized crime. (
  • The EU Council of Foreign Affairs reaffirmed its commitment to conclude and implement 'ambitious, broad-based and mutually-beneficial' EPCAs with the countries in the region. (
  • These Rules are mandatory for all Conservatory students who are subject to migration registration and who claim their visas through the Conservatory's Office for Foreign Students' Affairs. (
  • 1. The documents for migration registration must be executed by the Office for Foreign Students' Affairs on the next business day upon arrival of a foreign or stateless citizen to Russia . (
  • 2. In case of a disease or another reasonable excuse when a foreign or stateless citizen is unable to come and draw the necessary documents in person, he/she must contact the officers for foreign students' affairs by phone and to arrange the possible time period for his/her migration registration. (
  • 3. The tear-off part of the Notification on Arrival must be received at the Office for Foreign Students' Affairs within seven business days upon submission of the documents. (
  • 5. Authorized employees of the Office for Foreign Students' Affairs communicate with the local bodies of the Directorate of Russia's Federal Migration Service with no personal presence of the student , except for cases when such presence is required by the officers of the Federal Migration Service. (
  • From 80 to 90% of foreign bodies pass through the GI tract without consequence, 10-20% require removal by endoscopy, and less than 1% require surgery. (
  • The surgical management of arrested sharp foreign bodies (FB) in the small bowel is often managed with a concurrent approach that balances endoscopy, laparoscopy, and laparotomy for their removal. (
  • This case serves as a reminder of migration of composite dual meshes. (
  • The surgical management of ingested sharp foreign objects in the small bowel (adults): a case series and review of the literature. (
  • We report a case in which the migration of bezoars led to secondary gastrointestinal obstruction. (
  • Collective Security Council (CSC) - the supreme body, which includes the heads of the member-states. (
  • The Council of Ministers of Defense (CMD) - the consultative and executive body for the coordination of military policy, military construction and military-technical cooperation between the member-states. (
  • At the cellular level, malignant cells have overcome restraints on cell growth and migration that result from physical linkages and signals conveyed by cell-cell contacts (5) . (
  • A radiograph of his right groin was performed (Fig. 1), demonstrating a metallic linear density projected over the right ischium suggesting a needle fragment foreign body, which was not visible or apparent on clinical examination. (
  • Unusual foreign bodies like a bunch of hair, following a gunshot injury was also reported in literature [3]. (
  • One report1 showed that the pace of both internal migration and out-migration is increasing. (
  • The Thanatic Ethics project explores the social implications and aesthetic representations of the circulation of bodies in migratory spaces. (
  • Contemporary body jewelry is made from surgical grade implant materials, so with proper aftercare during the healing phase and good hygiene, this is rare. (
  • 4 It is widely recognized that prompt and conservative surgical intervention is desirable to remove these foreign bodies from paranasal sinuses but also to treat a possible hyperplastic or infected sinus mucosa. (
  • Foreign body in the maxillary antrum may present as an acute phenomenon or may remain silent for years. (
  • 1 However, only a few cases of migrating foreign bodies causing trismus have been reported. (
  • If the presence of a nonradiopaque object is suspected after the initial series of radiographs is obtained, contrast-enhanced esophagography is indicated to rule out a radiolucent foreign body. (
  • [ 11 ] Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is not radiopaque or when the presence of a retained object is highly suspected. (
  • Foxtail Awns pose a risk as an insidious and dangerous foreign body for domestic animals, most commonly dogs. (
  • T-lymphocytes recognise a foreign substance, an antigen, on the surface of foreign or infected cells. (
  • The most common form of migration is the way that heavy small gauge earrings will migrate downwards out of the earlobe, as is common in older women who have worn earrings most of their lives. (
  • Small esophageal foreign bodies, such as button batteries, may also be difficult to visualize on plain radiographs alone. (
  • It is therefore difficult to develop a clear regional picture about the precise scope of migration in Africa. (
  • What is the complex network of cells and proteins that defends the body against infection? (
  • Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film). (
  • They are being joined by representatives of ministries, health professional regulatory bodies, United Nations agencies, development partners, technical experts from the 3 WHO regions and participants from development, education, finance, migration and trade sectors during the 2-day meeting. (