Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
An agent that blocks the release of adrenergic transmitters and may have other actions. It was formerly used as an antihypertensive agent, but is now proposed as an anti-arrhythmic.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The position or attitude of the body.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Breaks in bones.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.
The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A type of permanent damage to muscles and nerves that results from prolonged lack blood flow to those tissues. It is characterized by shortening and stiffening of the muscles.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
To move about or walk on foot with the use of aids.
The body location or part from which tissue is taken for TRANSPLANTATION.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.
Freedom from activity.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The shaft of long bones.
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The act of constricting.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Glucose in blood.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods to repair breaks in tissue caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.

Role of endothelin in the increased vascular tone of patients with essential hypertension. (1/2055)

We investigated the possible role of endothelin in the increased vasoconstrictor tone of hypertensive patients using antagonists of endothelin receptors. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses (strain-gauge plethysmography) to intraarterial infusion of blockers of endothelin-A (ETA) (BQ-123) and endothelin-B (ETB) (BQ-788) receptors, separately and in combination, were measured in hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects. In healthy subjects, BQ-123 alone or in combination with BQ-788 did not significantly modify FBF (P=0.78 and P=0.63, respectively). In hypertensive patients, in contrast, BQ-123 increased FBF by 33+/-7% (P<0.001 versus baseline), and the combination of BQ-123 and BQ-788 resulted in a greater vasodilator response (63+/-12%; P=0.006 versus BQ-123 alone in the same subjects). BQ-788 produced a divergent vasoactive effect in the two groups, with a decrease of FBF (17+/-5%; P=0.004 versus baseline) in control subjects and transient vasodilation (15+/-7% after 20 minutes) in hypertensive patients (P<0.001, hypertensives versus controls). The vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1 was slightly higher (P=0.04) in hypertensive patients (46+/-4%) than in control subjects (32+/-4%). Our data indicate that patients with essential hypertension have increased vascular endothelin activity, which may be of pathophysiological relevance to their increased vascular tone. In these patients, nonselective ETA and ETB blockade seems to produce a greater vasodilator effect than selective ETA blockade.  (+info)

Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. (2/2055)

1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors.  (+info)

The maximum shortening velocity of muscle should be scaled with activation. (3/2055)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) in Hill's mechanical model (A. V. Hill. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 126: 136-195, 1938) should be scaled with activation, measured as a fraction of the maximum isometric force (Fmax). By using the quick-release method, force-velocity (F-V) relationships of the wrist flexors were gathered at five different activation levels (20-100% of maximum at intervals of 20%) from four subjects. The F-V data at different activation levels can be fitted remarkably well with Hill's characteristic equation. In general, the shortening velocity decreases with activation. With the assumption of nonlinear relationships between Hill constants and activation level, a scaled Vmax model was developed. When the F-V curves for submaximal activation were forced to converge at the Vmax obtained with maximum activation (constant Vmax model), there were drastic changes in the shape of the curves. The differences in Vmax values generated by the scaled and constant Vmax models were statistically significant. These results suggest that, when a Hill-type model is used in musculoskeletal modeling, the Vmax should be scaled with activation.  (+info)

Sympathetic nervous system activity and alpha-adrenergic responsiveness in older hypertensive humans. (4/2055)

We have previously demonstrated in normotensive humans an age-associated increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity combined with appropriate downregulation of alpha-adrenergic responsiveness. Impaired downregulation of alpha-adrenergic responsiveness, despite a comparable level of SNS activity, could contribute to higher blood pressure in older hypertensive humans. We measured arterial plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels and the extravascular NE release rate (NE2) derived from [3H]NE kinetics (to assess systemic SNS activity), and platelet and forearm arterial adrenergic responsiveness in 20 normotensive (N) and in 24 hypertensive (H), otherwise healthy, older subjects (60-75 yr). Although plasma NE levels were similar (N 357 +/- 27 vs. H 322 +/- 22 pg/ml; P = 0.37), NE2 tended to be greater in the hypertensive group (H 2.23 +/- 0.21 vs. N 1.64 +/- 0.20 microgram. min-1. m-2; P = 0. 11), and the NE metabolic clearance rate was greater (H 1,100 +/- 30 vs. N 900 +/- 50 ml/m2; P = 0.004). In the hypertensive group, there was a greater alpha-agonist-mediated inhibition of platelet membrane adenylyl cyclase activity and a NE- but not ANG II-mediated decrease in forearm blood flow. Compared with normotensive subjects, in older hypertensive subjects 1) NE metabolic clearance rate is increased, 2) systemic SNS activity tends to be increased, and 3) arterial and platelet alpha-adrenergic responsiveness is enhanced. These results suggest that heightened SNS activity coupled with enhanced alpha-adrenergic responsiveness may contribute to elevated blood pressure in older hypertensive humans.  (+info)

The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease. (5/2055)

We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine is impaired in hypertriglyceridemic humans with normal levels of plasma LDL cholesterol. (6/2055)

OBJECTIVES: Patients with high triglyceride (of which very low density lipoproteins [VLDL] are the main carriers), but with normal low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, were examined for in vivo endothelium function status. BACKGROUND: Very low density lipoproteins inhibit endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, vasorelaxation in vitro. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 1) healthy volunteers (n = 10; triglyceride 1.24+/-0.14 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.99+/-0.24 mmol/liter); 2) hypertriglyceridemic (n = 11; triglyceride 6.97+/-1.19 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.17+/-0.2 mmol/liter, p < 0.05); and 3) hypercholesterolemic (n = 10; triglyceride 2.25+/-0.29 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 5.61+/-0.54 mmol/liter; p < 0.05) patients. Vasoactive responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemia were determined using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography. RESULTS: Responses to acetylcholine (37 microg/min) were significantly dampened both in hypercholesterolemic (% increase in forearm blood flow: 268.2+/-62) and hypertriglyceridemic patients (232.6+/-45.2) when compared with controls (547.8+/-108.9; ANOVA p < 0.05). Responses to sodium nitroprusside (at 1.6 microg/min: controls vs. hypercholesterolemics vs. hypertriglyceridemic: 168.7+/- 25.1 vs. 140.6+/-38.9 vs. 178.5+/-54.5% increase), noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemic responses were not different among the groups examined. CONCLUSIONS: Acetylcholine responses are impaired in patients with pathophysiologic levels of plasma triglycerides but normal plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. The impairment observed was comparable to that obtained in hypercholesterolemic patients. We conclude that impaired responses to acetylcholine normally associated with hypercholesterolemia also occur in hypertriglyceridemia. These findings identify a potential mechanism by which high plasma triglyceride levels may be atherogenic independent of LDL cholesterol levels.  (+info)

Endothelial dysfunction, impaired endogenous fibrinolysis, and cigarette smoking: a mechanism for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. (7/2055)

BACKGROUND: Effective endogenous fibrinolysis requires rapid release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from the vascular endothelium. Smoking is a known risk factor for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction, and it causes endothelial dysfunction. We therefore examined the effects of cigarette smoking on substance P-induced tPA release in vivo in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood flow and plasma fibrinolytic factors were measured in both forearms of 12 smokers and 12 age- and sex-matched nonsmokers who received unilateral brachial artery infusions of substance P (2 to 8 pmol/min). In both smokers and nonsmokers, substance P caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow and local release of plasma tPA antigen and activity (P<0.001 for all) but had no effect on the local release of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Compared with nonsmokers, increases in forearm blood flow (P=0.03) and release of tPA antigen (P=0.04) and activity (P<0.001) caused by substance P were reduced in smokers. The area under the curve for release of tPA antigen and activity decreased by 51% and 53%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking causes marked inhibition of substance P-induced tPA release in vivo in humans. This provides an important mechanism whereby endothelial dysfunction may increase the risk of atherothrombosis through a reduction in the acute fibrinolytic capacity.  (+info)

Task-dependent modulation of 15-30 Hz coherence between rectified EMGs from human hand and forearm muscles. (8/2055)

1. Recent reports have shown task-related changes in oscillatory activity in the 15-30 Hz range in the sensorimotor cortex of human subjects and monkeys during skilled hand movements. In the monkey these oscillations have been shown to be coherent with oscillatory activity in the electromyographic activity of hand and forearm muscles. 2. In this study we investigated the modulation of oscillations in the electromyogram (EMG) of human volunteers during tasks requiring precision grip of two spring-loaded levers. 3. Two tasks were investigated: in the 'hold' task, subjects were required to maintain a steady grip force (ca 2.1 N or 2.6 N) for 8 s. In the 'ramp' task, there was an initial hold period for 3 s (force ca 2.1 N) followed by a linear increase in grip force over a 2 s period. The task ended with a further steady hold for 3 s at the higher force level (ca 2.6 N). 4. Surface EMGs were recorded from five hand and forearm muscles in 12 subjects. The coherence of oscillatory activity was calculated between each muscle pair. Frequencies between 1 and 100 Hz were analysed. 5. Each subject showed a peak in the coherence spectra in the 15-30 Hz bandwidth during the hold task. This coherence was absent during the initial movement of the levers. During the ramp task the coherence in the 15-30 Hz range was also significantly reduced during the movement phase, and significantly increased during the second hold period, relative to the initial hold. 6. There was coherence between the simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and EMG during steady grip in the hold task; this coherence disappeared during the initial lever movement. Using a single equivalent current dipole source model, the coherent cortical activity was localized to the hand region of the contralateral motor cortex. This suggests that the EMG-EMG coherence was, therefore, at least in part, of cortical origin. 7. The results are discussed in terms of a possible role for synchrony in the efficient recruitment of motor units during maintained grip.  (+info)

Types of Forearm Injuries:

1. Fractures: Breakage of one or more bones in the forearm is a common injury. The most common fracture is a radial head fracture, which affects the upper end of the radius bone.
2. Sprains and strains: Overstretching or tearing of ligaments and muscles in the forearm can occur due to sudden twisting or bending movements.
3. Tendon injuries: Injuries to tendons, which connect muscles to bones, are common in the forearm. Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon, while tendon rupture is a more severe injury.
4. Nerve injuries: Compression or damage to nerves in the forearm can cause numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
5. Contusions: Bruises caused by direct blows to the forearm can result in pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Symptoms of Forearm Injuries:

1. Pain: Sudden, sharp pain or a dull ache in the forearm, wrist, or hand may indicate an injury.
2. Swelling and bruising: Inflammation and discoloration in the affected area can occur due to bleeding under the skin.
3. Limited mobility: Difficulty moving the wrist, hand, or fingers can be a sign of a forearm injury.
4. Numbness or tingling: Decreased sensation in the hand or fingers may indicate nerve damage.
5. Deformity: Visible deviations from the normal shape of the forearm or wrist may indicate a more severe injury.

Treatment for Forearm Injuries:

1. Rest and ice: Allowing the affected area to rest and applying ice can reduce pain and inflammation.
2. Compression: Wrapping the forearm with an elastic bandage can help reduce swelling.
3. Elevation: Keeping the affected arm above heart level can promote blood flow and reduce swelling.
4. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can alleviate discomfort.
5. Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the affected hand and wrist.
6. Immobilization: In some cases, a cast or splint may be used to immobilize the forearm and allow healing.
7. Surgery: In severe cases of nerve damage or tendon rupture, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged tissue.

Types of Ulna Fractures:

There are several types of ulna fractures, depending on the location and severity of the injury. These include:

1. Distal Humerus-Ulna (DHU) fracture: A break between the ulna and humerus bones near the wrist joint.
2. Mid-shaft ulna fracture: A break in the middle portion of the ulna bone.
3. Proximal ulna fracture: A break at the base of the ulna bone, nearest to the elbow joint.
4. Monteggia fracture: A combination of a proximal ulna fracture and a dislocation of the radial head (a bone in the forearm).

Symptoms of Ulna Fractures:

Patients with ulna fractures may experience pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility and difficulty grasping objects. In some cases, there may be an audible snapping or popping sound when the injury occurs.

Diagnosis of Ulna Fractures:

Ulna fractures are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, X-rays and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. In some cases, an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bones.

Treatment of Ulna Fractures:

The treatment for ulna fractures depends on the severity and location of the injury. Non-surgical treatments may include immobilization with a cast or splint, pain management with medication and physical therapy to regain strength and range of motion. Surgical intervention may be necessary in more severe cases or those that do not respond to non-surgical treatment.

Complications of Ulna Fractures:

As with any fracture, there is a risk of complications with ulna fractures including infection, nerve damage, and poor healing. In some cases, the fracture may not properly align, leading to long-term functional issues such as loss of grip strength or limited mobility.

Prevention of Ulna Fractures:

While it is not possible to completely prevent ulna fractures, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of injury. These include wearing protective gear during sports and physical activities, maintaining good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise, and taking steps to prevent falls such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment.

Prognosis for Ulna Fractures:

The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, with most patients experiencing a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist. It is important to follow the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare provider and attend all scheduled follow-up appointments to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Conclusion:

Ulna fractures are a common injury that can occur as a result of sports, falls, or other traumatic events. The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, but it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and follow-up care, most patients experience a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist, so it is important to be aware of the risk factors and seek medical attention if any concerns or symptoms arise.

Types of Radius Fractures:

1. Stable fracture: The bone is broken but still in place.
2. Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of place.
3. Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into several pieces.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone.

Symptoms:

1. Pain in the arm or forearm.
2. Swelling and bruising.
3. Limited mobility or deformity of the arm.
4. Difficulty moving the arm or wrist.

Diagnosis:

1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment:

1. Minor fractures may be treated with immobilization in a cast or brace.
2. Displaced or comminuted fractures may require surgical intervention to realign and stabilize the bone.
3. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the arm.

Complications:

1. Infection.
2. Nerve damage.
3. Delayed healing.
4. Malunion or nonunion of the fracture, which can cause long-term complications.

Prevention:

1. Wear protective gear during sports and physical activities.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain on the arm.
3. Maintain good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise.

In some cases, hyperemia can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. For example, if hyperemia is caused by an inflammatory or infectious process, it may lead to tissue damage or organ dysfunction if left untreated.

Hyperemia can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, organs, and other tissues. It is often diagnosed through physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for hyperemia depends on its underlying cause, and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.

In the context of dermatology, hyperemia is often used to describe a condition called erythema, which is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin due to increased blood flow. Erythema can be caused by various factors, such as sun exposure, allergic reactions, or skin infections. Treatment for erythema may include topical medications, oral medications, or other therapies depending on its underlying cause.

The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.

Some common examples of CTDs include:

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.

It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.

Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.

Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.

Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.

Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.

Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.

Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.

Note: A malunited fracture is sometimes also referred to as a "nonunion fracture" or "fracture nonunion".

1. Fractures: A break in one or more of the bones in the hand or wrist.
2. Sprains and strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments or tendons in the hand or wrist.
3. Cuts and lacerations: Deep cuts or puncture wounds to the skin and underlying tissue.
4. Burns: Damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by heat, electricity, or chemicals.
5. Amputations: The loss of a finger or part of a finger due to trauma or surgical intervention.
6. Crush injuries: Injuries caused by a heavy object falling on the hand or fingers.
7. Nerve damage: Damage to the nerves in the hand, causing numbness, tingling, or loss of function.
8. Tendon and ligament injuries: Injuries to the tendons and ligaments that connect muscles and bones in the hand.
9. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A common condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the wrist.
10. Thumb injuries: Injuries to the thumb, including fractures, sprains, and strains.

Treatment for hand injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and may include immobilization, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated hand injuries can lead to long-term complications and decreased function.

This definition of ischemic contracture refers to a specific type of contracture that occurs as a result of decreased blood flow to the affected muscles. This can be caused by various factors such as injury, surgery, or systemic conditions like diabetes or peripheral artery disease. The reduced blood flow leads to a buildup of lactic acid and other metabolic waste products in the muscle tissue, causing it to become inflamed and scarred. As the muscle fibers degenerate and are replaced by fibrous tissue, the muscle becomes shorter and less flexible, leading to restricted movement and pain.

Ischemic contracture can occur in any muscle group, but is most common in the legs and arms. Treatment for ischemic contracture usually involves physical therapy and exercises to improve range of motion and strength, as well as medications to manage pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release or lengthen the affected muscle or tendon.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Compartment syndrome can occur in any compartment of the body but is most common in the arms and legs. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Direct trauma: A sharp blow to the compartment can cause bleeding or swelling within the compartment, leading to increased pressure.
2. Blunt trauma: A blunt force, such as a fall or a car crash, can cause bleeding or swelling within the compartment.
3. Overuse injuries: Repetitive stress or overuse can cause inflammation and swelling within the compartment, leading to increased pressure.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infections can cause swelling and increased pressure within the compartment.
5. Poor circulation: Reduced blood flow to the compartment can lead to decreased oxygen delivery and increased metabolic waste buildup, which can cause pain and swelling.

Symptoms of compartment syndrome may include:

1. Pain: Pain is the most common symptom of compartment syndrome, and it is usually severe and localized to the affected compartment.
2. Swelling: Swelling within the compartment can cause pain and difficulty moving the affected limb.
3. Weakness: As the pressure within the compartment increases, muscle weakness and loss of sensation may occur.
4. Numbness or tingling: Compartment syndrome can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected limb.
5. Paresthesia: Burning, shooting, or stabbing pain may be felt in the affected limb.

If left untreated, compartment syndrome can lead to serious complications, including nerve damage, muscle damage, and even loss of the affected limb. Treatment typically involves surgical release of the affected compartment to relieve pressure and restore blood flow.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including:

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, commonly caused by repetitive motion or injury.
2. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle, similar to carpal tunnel syndrome but affecting the lower leg.
3. Cubital tunnel syndrome: Compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, often caused by repetitive leaning or bending.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet (the space between the neck and shoulder), often caused by poor posture or injury.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: A broader term for damage to the peripheral nerves, often caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, or other systemic conditions.
6. Meralgia paresthetica: Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the thigh, commonly caused by direct trauma or compression from a tight waistband or clothing.
7. Morton's neuroma: Compression of the plantar digital nerves between the toes, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repetitive stress on the feet.
8. Neuralgia: A general term for pain or numbness caused by damage or irritation to a nerve, often associated with chronic conditions such as shingles or postherpetic neuralgia.
9. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of sudden, extreme pain in the face, often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve.
10. Neuropathic pain: Pain that occurs as a result of damage or dysfunction of the nervous system, often accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.

The medical term for tennis elbow is lateral epicondylitis. It is characterized by pain and inflammation on the bony prominence on the outside of the elbow, known as the lateral epicondyle. The pain may be worse when gripping or twisting objects, and it can also radiate down the arm.

Tennis elbow is caused by overuse or repetitive strain on the tendons that connect the forearm muscles to the bone. It can be triggered by activities such as tennis, golf, or rowing, but it can also occur from simple actions like gripping a steering wheel or twisting open a jar.

Treatment for tennis elbow usually involves rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged tendon tissue. Prevention is key, so it's important to take regular breaks from repetitive activities and incorporate stretching exercises into your daily routine to keep the muscles and tendons flexible and healthy.

There are several types of heat stress disorders, including:

1. Heat exhaustion: This is a condition that occurs when the body loses too much water and salt, usually through excessive sweating, and is unable to cool itself effectively. Symptoms include dizziness, nausea, headaches, fatigue, and cool, clammy skin.
2. Heat stroke: This is a more severe condition that occurs when the body's temperature control system fails, causing the body temperature to rise rapidly. Symptoms include high fever (usually over 103°F), confusion, slurred speech, and seizures.
3. Heat rash: This is a common condition that occurs when the skin's sweat glands become blocked and swell, causing inflammation and discomfort.
4. Sunburn: This is a condition that occurs when the skin is exposed to too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, leading to redness, pain, and peeling skin.
5. Heat-related illnesses: These are conditions that occur when the body is unable to cool itself effectively in hot environments, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, headaches, and fatigue.

Heat stress disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including high temperatures, humidity, intense physical activity, and wearing heavy or dark clothing that traps heat. They can also be caused by certain medications, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease.

Treatment for heat stress disorders usually involves moving to a cooler location, drinking plenty of fluids, taking a cool bath or shower, and resting in a shaded area. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary to treat symptoms such as dehydration, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.

Prevention is key when it comes to heat stress disorders. This can be achieved by taking steps such as wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing, staying in shaded areas, and drinking plenty of fluids. It is also important to avoid strenuous activity during the hottest part of the day (usually between 11am and 3pm) and to take regular breaks to cool off in a shaded area.

Overall, heat stress disorders can be serious conditions that require prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for these disorders, individuals can stay safe and healthy during the hot summer months.

There are several types of osteoporosis, including:

1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.

The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:

1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:

1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.

Examples of 'Fractures, Closed' in a sentence:

* The patient suffered a closed fracture of his wrist after falling from a bike.
* The doctor diagnosed a closed fracture of the ankle and prescribed rest and physical therapy for recovery.
* The athlete was unable to continue playing due to a closed fracture of the collarbone.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Symptoms of GSD-V typically appear during infancy or childhood and may include:

* Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
* Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
* Myopathy (muscle weakness)
* Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease)
* Developmental delay
* Intellectual disability

GSD-V is caused by mutations in the PI4K gene, which is located on chromosome 12. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

There is no cure for GSD-V, but treatment may include a high-carbohydrate diet, sugar supplements, and enzyme replacement therapy in some cases. Management of the disorder typically involves monitoring blood sugar levels, avoiding fasting, and taking medications to prevent hypoglycemia. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for GSD-V varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any additional health issues. With proper management, many individuals with GSD-V can lead active and productive lives, but the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated or poorly managed.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

Types: There are several types of arm injuries, including:

1. Fractures: A break in one or more bones of the arm.
2. Sprains: Stretching or tearing of ligaments that connect bones to other tissues.
3. Strains: Tears in muscles or tendons.
4. Dislocations: When a bone is forced out of its normal position in the joint.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which can cause pain and stiffness in the arm.
6. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction.
7. Cuts or lacerations: Open wounds on the skin or other tissues of the arm.
8. Burns: Damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by heat, chemicals, or electricity.
9. Nerve injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and sensation in the arm.
10. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that can affect any part of the arm.

Symptoms: The symptoms of arm injuries can vary depending on the type and severity of the injury. Some common symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, deformity, and difficulty moving the arm.

Diagnosis: A healthcare professional will typically perform a physical examination and may use imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to diagnose arm injuries.

Treatment: Treatment for arm injuries can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical interventions. The goal of treatment is to relieve pain, promote healing, and restore function to the affected arm.

Also known as nonunion or malunion.

Note: This term is not intended to be used as a substitute for proper medical advice. Do you have a specific question about your condition? Please ask your healthcare provider for more information.

The condition is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the formation of bones. It is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations and not inherited from either parent.

The symptoms of multiple hereditary exostoses can vary in severity and may include:

* Painful bone growths
* Limited mobility
* Deformity of affected limbs
* Short stature
* Difficulty walking or standing

There is no cure for multiple hereditary exostoses, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Pain medication
* Physical therapy
* Orthotics or assistive devices
* Surgery to remove or reshape the bone growths

If you suspect that you or your child may have multiple hereditary exostoses, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A geneticist or orthopedic specialist can perform tests such as imaging studies (X-rays, CT scans) and blood tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the condition.

Preventing Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndrome Prevention of ulnar nerve compression syndrome includes avoiding activities that aggravate the condition and wearing protective gear such as wrist splints or padding on the elbow to reduce pressure on the nerve. Physical therapy exercises may also be helpful in improving circulation and reducing swelling around the nerve.

There are several types of ulnar nerve compression syndromes, including:

Cubital tunnel syndrome: This is the most common type of ulnar nerve compression syndrome and occurs when the nerve becomes compressed as it passes through the cubital tunnel in the elbow.

Gymnastics is a sport that can be particularly challenging for people with ulnar nerve compression syndrome, as it involves repetitive movements that can exacerbate the condition. However, with proper management and support, many gymnasts are able to continue participating in their sport while managing their symptoms.

Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndrome and Gymnastics: A Review of the Literature

Ulnar nerve compression syndrome is a condition that affects the ulnar nerve, which runs down the arm and into the hand. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including repetitive motion injuries, direct trauma to the nerve, or pressure from surrounding tissue. Gymnasts are particularly susceptible to developing this condition due to the repetitive and overhead nature of their sport. In this review of the literature, we will examine the relationship between ulnar nerve compression syndrome and gymnastics, as well as current treatment options for the condition.

Repetitive stress injuries are common in gymnastics, particularly in the elbow and wrist. The repetitive nature of gymnastic movements can cause inflammation and swelling in the tissues surrounding the nerve, leading to compression and irritation of the nerve. This can result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

Studies have shown that gymnasts are at a higher risk of developing ulnar nerve compression syndrome than the general population. One study found that 16% of elite female gymnasts reported symptoms of ulnar nerve compression syndrome, compared to only 4% of healthy controls. Another study found that gymnasts who performed more than 20 hours of training per week were at a higher risk of developing the condition.

The diagnosis of ulnar nerve compression syndrome in gymnasts can be challenging, as the symptoms are often similar to those of other conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tendonitis. A thorough medical history and physical examination is essential for proper diagnosis. Imaging studies such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Treatment of ulnar nerve compression syndrome in gymnasts typically involves a combination of conservative measures such as physical therapy, bracing, and medication, as well as surgical intervention in severe cases. Conservative treatment may include stretching and strengthening exercises to improve flexibility and reduce inflammation, as well as changes to the gymnast's training routine to avoid exacerbating the condition. Bracing and taping can also be used to provide support and protection to the nerve. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.

In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve compression on the nerve. Surgery involves releasing or decompressing the nerve, and can be performed under general anesthesia or with local anesthesia and sedation. The goal of surgery is to relieve pressure on the nerve and allow it to heal.

Prevention of ulnar nerve compression syndrome in gymnasts is important, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes. This includes proper training techniques, appropriate equipment use, and regular monitoring for signs of injury or compression.

Lymphedema can be primary or secondary. Primary lymphedema is a rare inherited condition, while secondary lymphedema is caused by factors such as surgery, radiation therapy, infection, or injury to the lymphatic system.

Symptoms of lymphedema may include swelling, pain, redness, and tightness in the affected limb. Treatment options for lymphedema include compression garments, exercises, manual lymph drainage, and pneumatic compression. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove excess tissue or to create new lymphatic pathways.

Lymphedema can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life, causing discomfort, limited mobility, and social stigma. However, with proper management and care, it is possible to control symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.

There are two main types of hyperhidrosis: primary and secondary. Primary hyperhidrosis is idiopathic and has no identifiable cause, while secondary hyperhidrosis is caused by another medical condition or medication. Some common triggers for secondary hyperhidrosis include anxiety, stress, fever, infection, and certain medications such as antidepressants and beta blockers.

Symptoms of hyperhidrosis can vary in severity and can include:

* Excessive sweating on the palms, soles, face, or underarms
* Sweating that is not related to heat or physical activity
* Sweating that worsens at night or in cold temperatures
* Sweating that interferes with daily activities
* Skin irritation and infections due to excessive sweating

Hyperhidrosis can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for hyperhidrosis depend on the severity of symptoms and the underlying cause, but may include:

* Antiperspirants or deodorants that contain aluminum chloride or other active ingredients to reduce sweating
* Prescription medications such as beta blockers, anticholinergics, or botulinum toxin injections to reduce sweating
* Surgical procedures such as sympathectomy (nerve surgery) to destroy the nerves that regulate sweating
* Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding triggers and wearing loose, breathable clothing to manage symptoms.

It's important to note that hyperhidrosis can have a significant impact on quality of life, and seeking medical attention is recommended if symptoms are severe or persistent.

Some common types of somatosensory disorders include:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is a condition that affects the peripheral nerves outside of the central nervous system. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, infections, and certain medications.
2. Neuralgia: This is a chronic pain disorder that is characterized by episodes of intense pain, often accompanied by numbness or tingling.
3. Sensory ataxia: This is a condition that affects the sensory nerves and can cause difficulties with balance, coordination, and spatial awareness.
4. Dystonia: This is a movement disorder that can cause involuntary contractions of muscles, leading to abnormal postures or movements.
5. Restless leg syndrome: This is a condition characterized by an uncomfortable sensation in the legs, often described as a creeping or crawling feeling. It can be accompanied by an urge to move the legs to relieve the discomfort.
6. Paresthesia: This is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the skin, often in the hands and feet.
7. Hyperesthesia: This is a condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to touch, temperature, or other sensory stimuli.
8. Hypersensitivity to sound or light: This is a condition where individuals may experience discomfort or pain from ordinary sounds or lights that would not normally cause discomfort.
9. Tactile defensiveness: This is a condition where individuals may have an abnormal aversion to certain textures or sensations, such as the feel of clothing or the taste of certain foods.
10. Sensory processing disorder: This is a condition where the brain has difficulty processing and integrating sensory information from the environment, leading to difficulties with sensory integration and motor planning.

It's important to note that these conditions are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may experience overlapping symptoms or multiple conditions at once. It's also worth noting that these conditions can be present in individuals of all ages, genders, and backgrounds.

Ulnar neuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Pressure on the nerve at the elbow (cubital tunnel syndrome)
2. Pressure on the nerve at the wrist (guardian syndrome)
3. Injury or trauma to the nerve
4. Compression from a benign tumor or cyst
5. Nerve compression due to repetitive motion or overuse
6. Nerve damage due to diabetes, alcoholism, or other systemic conditions.

Symptoms of ulnar neuropathy can include:

1. Numbness or tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger
2. Pain or burning sensation in the elbow, forearm, or hand
3. Weakness in the hand, making it difficult to grip or perform manual tasks
4. Wasting away of the muscles in the hand (atrophy)
5. Difficulty coordinating movements or performing fine motor tasks

Diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and electromyography (EMG) testing to evaluate the function of the nerve and muscles. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition and can include:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion in the hand and wrist
2. Medications to relieve pain or inflammation
3. Surgery to release pressure on the nerve or remove a tumor/cyst
4. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition.

The symptoms of Colles' fracture can include pain and swelling in the wrist and forearm, as well as limited mobility and deformity of the affected hand. Treatment typically involves immobilization of the wrist in a cast or splint for several weeks to allow the bone to heal properly. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bones.

Colles' fracture is classified into three types based on the extent of displacement and the presence of other injuries:

* Type 1: Non-displaced fracture with minimal displacement (less than 2 mm).
* Type 2: Displaced fracture with moderate displacement (greater than 2 mm but less than 50%).
* Type 3: Comminuted fracture with severe displacement (greater than 50%).

Overall, Colles' fracture is a relatively common and treatable injury that can be successfully managed with appropriate immobilization and/or surgical intervention. However, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time to prevent complications such as infection, nerve damage, or long-term disability.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

In hyperinsulinism, the body produces too much insulin, leading to a range of symptoms including:

1. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar): Excessive insulin can cause blood sugar levels to drop too low, leading to hypoglycemic symptoms such as shakiness, dizziness, confusion, and rapid heartbeat.
2. Weight gain: Hyperinsulinism can lead to weight gain due to the body's inability to effectively use glucose for energy production.
3. Fatigue: Excessive insulin can cause fatigue, as the body's cells are not able to effectively use glucose for energy production.
4. Mood changes: Hyperinsulinism can lead to mood changes such as irritability, anxiety, and depression.
5. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS are at a higher risk of developing hyperinsulinism due to insulin resistance.
6. Gestational diabetes: Hyperinsulinism can occur during pregnancy, leading to gestational diabetes.
7. Acanthosis nigricans: A condition characterized by dark, velvety patches on the skin, often found in the armpits, neck, and groin area.
8. Cancer: Hyperinsulinism has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer.
9. Cardiovascular disease: Excessive insulin can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.
10. Cognitive impairment: Hyperinsulinism has been linked to cognitive impairment and an increased risk of dementia.

There are several causes of hyperinsulinism, including:

1. Insulin-producing tumors: Tumors that produce excessive amounts of insulin can lead to hyperinsulinism.
2. Familial hyperinsulinism: A genetic disorder that affects the regulation of insulin secretion and action.
3. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction: Dysfunction in the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, can lead to hyperinsulinism.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as steroids and certain psychiatric drugs can cause hyperinsulinism.
5. Pituitary tumors: Tumors in the pituitary gland can lead to excessive secretion of growth hormone, which can stimulate insulin production.
6. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy: Women with diabetes during pregnancy may experience hyperinsulinism due to increased insulin resistance and higher insulin levels.
7. Gestational diabetes: High blood sugar during pregnancy can lead to hyperinsulinism.
8. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS may experience hyperinsulinism due to insulin resistance and high insulin levels.
9. Cushing's syndrome: An endocrine disorder caused by excessive cortisol production can lead to hyperinsulinism.
10. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as thyroid disorders, adrenal gland disorders, and pituitary gland disorders can also cause hyperinsulinism.

It's important to note that some individuals with hyperinsulinism may not experience any symptoms, while others may experience a range of symptoms, including:

1. Weight gain
2. Fatigue
3. Headaches
4. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
5. Memory loss and difficulty concentrating
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety and depression
7. Skin problems, such as acne and thinning skin
8. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke
9. Growth retardation in children
10. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

If you suspect that you or your child may have hyperinsulinism, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order blood tests to determine if hyperinsulinism is present and what may be causing it. Treatment options for hyperinsulinism will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, medications such as metformin or other anti-diabetic drugs may be prescribed to help regulate blood sugar levels and reduce insulin production. In other cases, surgery or lifestyle changes may be necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage hyperinsulinism and prevent or manage related health complications.

Radial neuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Trauma or injury to the nerve
* Compression or entrapment of the nerve
* Nutritional deficiencies
* Infections
* Autoimmune disorders

Symptoms of radial neuropathy can include:

* Pain, numbness, or tingling in the back of the forearm and hand
* Weakness or paralysis of the muscles at the front of the forearm and wrist
* Difficulty flexing the wrist or fingers
* Decreased sensation in the thumb, index finger, and half of the ring finger

Diagnosis of radial neuropathy is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electromyography (EMG) or nerve conduction studies (NCS).

Treatment of radial neuropathy depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, or other symptoms
* Surgery to relieve compression or entrapment of the nerve
* Injections of corticosteroids or other medications to reduce inflammation
* Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition.

Congenital hand deformities are present at birth and can be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development. They can affect any part of the hand, including the fingers, thumb, or wrist. Some common congenital hand deformities include:

1. Clubhand: A deformity characterized by a shortened hand with the fingers and thumb all bent towards the palm.
2. Clinodactyly: A deformity characterized by a curved or bent finger.
3. Postaxial polydactyly: A deformity characterized by an extra digit on the little finger side of the hand.
4. Preaxial polydactyly: A deformity characterized by an extra digit on the thumb side of the hand.
5. Symbrachydactyly: A deformity characterized by a shortened or missing hand with no or only a few fingers.

The symptoms of congenital hand deformities can vary depending on the type and severity of the deformity. Some common symptoms include:

1. Limited range of motion in the affected hand.
2. Difficulty grasping or holding objects.
3. Pain or stiffness in the affected hand.
4. Abnormal finger or thumb position.
5. Aesthetic concerns.

The diagnosis of congenital hand deformities is usually made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment options for congenital hand deformities can vary depending on the type and severity of the deformity and may include:

1. Surgery to correct the deformity.
2. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength.
3. Bracing or splinting to support the affected hand.
4. Orthotics or assistive devices to help with daily activities.
5. Medications to manage pain or inflammation.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that your child may have a congenital hand deformity, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:

* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:

* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.

It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.

Synonyms: cartilage tumor, chondroid tumor, chondromatosis.

Etymology: From the Greek words "chondros," meaning cartilage, and "oma," meaning tumor.

Examples of Chondroma in a sentence:

1. The patient was diagnosed with a chondroma in their knee joint, which was causing pain and stiffness.
2. The surgeon removed the chondroma from the patient's lung, which had been compressing the bronchus and causing difficulty breathing.
3. The chondroma in the patient's heart was monitored with regular imaging studies to ensure it did not grow or cause any further complications.
4. The patient was advised to avoid heavy lifting or bending to prevent exacerbating their chondroma in the spine.

Pruritus can be acute or chronic, depending on its duration and severity. Acute pruritus is usually caused by a specific trigger, such as an allergic reaction or insect bite, and resolves once the underlying cause is treated or subsides. Chronic pruritus, on the other hand, can persist for months or even years and may be more challenging to diagnose and treat.

Some common causes of pruritus include:

1. Skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and contact dermatitis.
2. Allergic reactions to medications, insect bites, or food.
3. Certain systemic diseases such as kidney disease, liver disease, and thyroid disorders.
4. Pregnancy-related itching (obstetric pruritus).
5. Cancer and its treatment, particularly chemotherapy-induced itching.
6. Nerve disorders such as peripheral neuropathy and multiple sclerosis.
7. Infections such as fungal, bacterial, or viral infections.
8. Parasitic infestations such as scabies and lice.

Managing pruritus can be challenging, as it often leads to a vicious cycle of scratching and skin damage, which can exacerbate the itching sensation. Treatment options for pruritus depend on the underlying cause, but may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines, immunomodulatory drugs, and other medications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to address the underlying condition and provide symptomatic relief.

In conclusion, pruritus is a common symptom with many possible causes, ranging from skin disorders to systemic diseases and infections. Diagnosis and management of pruritus require a comprehensive approach, involving both physical examination and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause, as well as appropriate treatment options to provide relief and prevent complications.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

There are several types of photosensitivity disorders, including:

1. Photodermatitis: This is a common condition that causes skin redness, itching, and blisters after exposure to UV radiation. It can be triggered by medications, certain plants, or even some cosmetics.
2. Solar urticaria: This condition causes hives and other skin symptoms after exposure to sunlight. The triggers can include not only UV radiation but also heat, wind, or cold.
3. Photosensitive epilepsy: This is a rare condition that can cause seizures in individuals who have a history of epilepsy. Exposure to certain types of light, especially flickering lights or bright colors, can trigger seizures.
4. Chronic actinic dermatitis: This condition causes skin inflammation and sensitivity to UV radiation, leading to redness, itching, and burning. It is more common in older adults and those with fair skin.

The symptoms of photosensitivity disorders can vary depending on the type of condition and the individual. Common symptoms include:

* Skin redness and irritation
* Itching and burning sensations
* Blisters or hives
* Swelling and inflammation
* Eye irritation or vision problems
* Headaches or fatigue
* Seizures (in the case of photosensitive epilepsy)

Photosensitivity disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some individuals may be more susceptible to photosensitivity due to their genetic makeup.
2. Medications: Certain medications, such as antibiotics and antipsychotics, can cause photosensitivity as a side effect.
3. Plants or other environmental factors: Exposure to certain plants or other environmental triggers can cause photosensitivity in some individuals.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as lupus or porphyria, can increase the risk of developing photosensitivity.

There is no cure for photosensitivity disorders, but there are several treatment options available to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include:

1. Avoiding triggers: Individuals with photosensitive conditions should avoid exposure to triggers such as sunlight or certain chemicals.
2. Protective clothing and gear: Wearing protective clothing and gear, such as hats and long sleeves, can help prevent skin exposure to UV radiation.
3. Medications: Topical creams and ointments, oral medications, or injectable treatments may be prescribed to manage symptoms such as itching and inflammation.
4. Phototherapy: Exposure to specific wavelengths of light, such as UVB or PUVA, can help improve skin conditions in some individuals.
5. Lifestyle modifications: Avoiding triggers, protecting the skin, and managing underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of complications associated with photosensitivity disorders.

It is important to note that photosensitivity disorders can be unpredictable, and the severity of symptoms can vary from person to person and over time. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a photosensitivity disorder, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Terms related to 'Humeral Fractures' and their definitions:

Displaced Humeral Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken and out of place.

Non-Displaced Humeral Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken but still in its proper place.

Greenstick Fracture: A type of fracture that occurs in children, where the bone bends and partially breaks but does not completely break through.

Comminuted Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken into several pieces.

Open Fracture: A fracture that penetrates the skin, exposing the bone.

Closed Fracture: A fracture that does not penetrate the skin.

Operative Fracture: A fracture that requires surgery to realign and stabilize the bones.

Conservative Fracture: A fracture that can be treated without surgery, using immobilization and other non-surgical methods.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

There are several possible causes of orthostatic hypotension, including:

1. Deconditioning: This is a common cause of orthostatic hypotension in older adults who have been bedridden or hospitalized for prolonged periods.
2. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers and vasodilators, can cause orthostatic hypotension as a side effect.
3. Heart conditions: Conditions such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and structural heart defects can lead to orthostatic hypotension.
4. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, can cause orthostatic hypotension.
5. Vasomotor instability: This is a condition where the blood vessels constrict or dilate rapidly, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can lead to a decrease in oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, causing orthostatic hypotension.
7. Dehydration: Dehydration can cause a drop in blood volume and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
8. Hypovolemia: This is a condition where there is a low volume of blood in the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
9. Sepsis: Sepsis can cause vasodilation and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
10. Other causes: Other causes of orthostatic hypotension include adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and certain genetic conditions.

Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension may include:

* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Fainting
* Blurred vision
* Nausea and vomiting
* Headaches
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Confusion

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Your healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of your orthostatic hypotension. Treatment will depend on the specific cause, but may include medications to raise blood pressure, fluid replacement, and addressing any underlying conditions.

Flushing can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as beta-blockers, aspirin, and some antidepressants. In addition, flushing can be a sign of an underlying condition that affects blood flow or blood vessels, such as Raynaud's disease or lupus.

Treatment for flushing will depend on the underlying cause. For example, if flushing is caused by an allergic reaction, medications such as antihistamines may be prescribed. If the flushing is caused by a medical condition, treatment will focus on managing that condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers, wearing protective clothing, and using cool compresses can help reduce flushing.

It is important to seek medical attention if flushing is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing. Your healthcare provider can diagnose the underlying cause of flushing and recommend appropriate treatment.

There are several types of hypercholesterolemia, including:

1. Familial hypercholesterolemia: This is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood.
2. Non-familial hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is not inherited and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as a high-fat diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
3. Mixed hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of both LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood.

The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as a lipid profile, which measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia usually involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, and may also include medication, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels.

Types of occupational dermatitis include:

1. Contact dermatitis: This occurs when the skin comes into contact with an allergen or irritant substance, such as chemicals, metals, or plants.
2. Irritant contact dermatitis: This is caused by exposure to substances that can cause inflammation and damage to the skin, such as detergents, cleaning products, or chemicals.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This occurs when the skin comes into contact with an allergen, causing an immune response and inflammation. Common allergens include nickel, chromate, and fragrances.
4. Photoallergic contact dermatitis: This is caused by exposure to certain substances that react with sunlight to produce a skin reaction.
5. Urticaria and angioedema: These are hives and swelling that can occur as a result of exposure to certain substances or conditions, such as food, insect bites, or infections.

Symptoms of occupational dermatitis can vary depending on the type of condition and the severity of exposure. They may include:

* Redness and inflammation
* Itching and burning sensations
* Blisters or sores
* Dry, scaly skin
* Flaking or peeling skin
* Skin thickening or pigmentation

Diagnosis of occupational dermatitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and patch testing to identify specific allergens or irritants. Treatment may involve avoiding exposure to the allergen or irritant, topical creams or ointments, oral medications, or immunotherapy.

Prevention of occupational dermatitis includes implementing safety measures such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, using gloves and barrier creams, and following proper hygiene practices. Employers can also take steps to reduce exposure to potential allergens or irritants by modifying work processes, providing education and training, and establishing a healthy work environment.

In conclusion, occupational dermatitis is a common condition that affects millions of workers worldwide. It can cause significant discomfort, impaired quality of life, and lost productivity. By understanding the causes and symptoms of occupational dermatitis and taking steps to prevent and treat it, employers and employees can work together to create a safer and healthier work environment.

Blisters are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface, which causes the top layer of skin to separate from the underlying layer. This separation creates a space that fills with fluid, forming a blister. Blisters can also be caused by burns, chemical exposure, or other types of injury.

There are different types of blisters, including:

1. Friction blisters: These are the most common type of blister and are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface. They are often seen on the hands, feet, and buttocks.
2. Burn blisters: These are caused by burns and can be more severe than friction blisters.
3. Chemical blisters: These are caused by exposure to chemicals and can be very painful.
4. Blisters caused by medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as epidermolysis bullosa (a genetic disorder that affects the skin), can cause blisters to form easily.

Blisters can be treated in several ways, depending on their size and location. Small blisters may not require treatment and can heal on their own within a few days. Larger blisters may need to be drained and covered with a bandage to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Preventing blisters is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. To prevent blisters, it is important to:

1. Wear properly fitting shoes and clothing to reduce friction.
2. Use lubricating creams or powders to reduce friction.
3. Take regular breaks to rest and allow the skin to recover.
4. Avoid using harsh chemicals or detergents that can cause irritation.
5. Keep the affected area clean and dry to prevent infection.

In conclusion, blisters are a common and uncomfortable condition that can be caused by a variety of factors. While they can be treated and managed, prevention is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. By taking steps to prevent blisters and seeking medical attention if they do occur, individuals can reduce their risk of developing this uncomfortable condition.

1. Skull deformities: Synostosis can lead to abnormal growth and shape of the skull, which can cause visual disturbances, hearing loss, and other complications.
2. Respiratory problems: Fused bones in the skull can reduce the size of the nasal passages and sinuses, making it harder to breathe properly.
3. Neurological issues: Synostosis can press on the brain and spinal cord, leading to headaches, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
4. Vision problems: The fusion of bones can cause double vision or other visual disturbances, which can affect a child's ability to learn and develop normally.
5. Hearing loss: In some cases, synostosis can lead to hearing loss due to the abnormal growth of the bones in the middle ear.
6. Sleep apnea: Synostosis can cause the airway to be narrowed or blocked, leading to sleep apnea and other breathing problems.
7. Dental problems: Fused bones in the skull can affect the alignment of teeth and lead to dental problems such as crowding, misalignment, or tooth loss.
8. Speech difficulties: Synostosis can cause speech difficulties due to the abnormal growth of the bones in the mouth and throat.
9. Feeding difficulties: Fused bones in the skull can make it harder for a child to eat properly, leading to feeding difficulties and malnutrition.
10. Emotional and social challenges: Children with synostosis may experience emotional and social challenges due to their appearance or difficulty with basic functions such as eating and breathing.

Treatment for synostosis usually involves a combination of surgery, physical therapy, and other supportive care to help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Thalamic diseases can result from various causes, including genetic mutations, infections, trauma, and stroke. Some common thalamic diseases include:

1. Thalamic stroke or infarction: This occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the thalamus, leading to cell death and loss of thalamic function.
2. Thalamic tumors: These are abnormal growths that can develop in the thalamus, either benign or malignant.
3. Thalamic lesions: These are areas of damage or degeneration in the thalamus, which can result from trauma, stroke, or other conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
4. Thalamic migraine: This is a type of migraine that is associated with activation of the thalamus and can cause severe headaches, visual disturbances, and other symptoms.
5. Thalamic pain disorders: These are conditions characterized by chronic pain that is thought to be related to dysfunction in the thalamus.
6. Thalamic sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, such as narcolepsy or insomnia.
7. Thalamic cognitive disorders: These are conditions that affect cognitive function, such as memory loss, attention deficits, and language difficulties.

Thalamic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as the thalamus is a complex structure that is involved in many brain functions. However, advances in neuroimaging and other diagnostic tools have improved our ability to identify and understand these conditions. Treatment options for thalamic diseases vary depending on the specific condition and can range from medications and lifestyle changes to surgery and other interventions.

Pseudarthrosis is also known as "false joint" or "pseudoarthrosis." It is a relatively rare condition but can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Treatment options for pseudarthrosis may include further surgery, bone grafting, or the use of orthobiologics such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote healing.

In some cases, pseudarthrosis can be associated with other conditions such as osteomyelitis (bone infection) or bone cancer. It is essential to seek medical attention if there are signs of pseudarthrosis, such as persistent pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected limb, to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

It's important to note that the term "pseudarthrosis" should not be confused with "osteoarthritis," which is a degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. While both conditions can cause joint pain, they have different underlying causes and require distinct treatment approaches.

* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone tissue, leading to fragile bones and an increased risk of fractures.
* Rickets: A vitamin D-deficient disease that causes softening of the bones in children.
* Osteomalacia: A condition similar to rickets, but affecting adults and caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
* Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance in bone metabolism and an increase in bone resorption.
* Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little PTH, leading to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Bone diseases, metabolic are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate bone metabolism. Treatment depends on the specific underlying cause of the disease and may include medications, dietary changes, or surgery.

* Numbness or tingling in the fingers and thumb, especially the index and middle fingers
* Pain in the wrist, hand, or fingers
* Weakness in the hand, making it difficult to grip or hold objects
* Tingling or burning sensations in the fingers and thumb
* Loss of dexterity and coordination in the hand

CTS can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse for long periods of time
* Injury to the wrist or hand
* Fluid retention during pregnancy or menopause
* Anatomical variations, such as a narrower carpal tunnel or a thicker median nerve
* Other medical conditions, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or rheumatoid arthritis

Treatment for CTS can range from conservative methods, such as physical therapy, splints, and medication, to surgical intervention. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated CTS can lead to permanent nerve damage and disability.

There are several types of keratosis, including:

1. Actinic keratosis: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to sunlight, characterized by rough, scaly patches on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, and hands.
2. Seborrheic keratosis: A benign growth that appears as a rough, waxy or pigmented spot on the skin, often on the back, chest, or face.
3. Cutaneous keratosis: A condition characterized by the formation of horny scales or plates on the surface of the skin, often seen in conditions such as psoriasis or eczema.
4. Oral keratosis: A condition that affects the mucous membranes of the mouth and is characterized by the formation of thick, white patches.
5. Lichen planus keratosis: A condition that causes flat, rough, dark brown or purple patches on the skin, often accompanied by itching and burning sensations.

Keratosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination and may require a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the type of keratosis and its severity, and may include topical medications, cryotherapy, or surgical removal.

The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:

1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.

2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.

3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.

4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.

5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.

Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:

1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.

2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.

3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:

1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.

2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.

3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.

It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.

Example sentences:

1. The patient experienced a spasm in their leg while running, causing them to stumble and fall.
2. The doctor diagnosed the patient with muscle spasms caused by dehydration and recommended increased fluids and stretching exercises.
3. The athlete suffered from frequent leg spasms during their training, which affected their performance and required regular massage therapy to relieve the discomfort.

There are several types of erythema, including:

1. Erythema migrans (Lyme disease): A rash that occurs due to an infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and is characterized by a red, expanding rash with a central clearing.
2. Erythema multiforme: A condition that causes small, flat or raised red lesions on the skin, often triggered by an allergic reaction to medication or infection.
3. Erythema nodosum: A condition that causes small, painful lumps under the skin, usually due to an allergic reaction to medication or infection.
4. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A viral infection that causes a red rash on the face, arms, and legs.
5. Erythema annulare centrifugum: A condition that causes a ring-shaped rash with raised borders, often seen in people with autoimmune disorders or taking certain medications.

Treatment for erythema depends on the underlying cause, and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, or antibiotics. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual skin changes or symptoms, as some types of erythema can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Dislocation is a term used in medicine to describe the displacement of a bone or joint from its normal position, often due to injury or disease. This can cause pain, limited mobility, and potentially lead to long-term complications if left untreated.

There are several types of dislocations that can occur in different parts of the body, including:

1. Shoulder dislocation: The upper arm bone (humerus) is forced out of the shoulder socket.
2. Hip dislocation: The femur (thigh bone) is forced out of the hip socket.
3. Knee dislocation: The kneecap (patella) is forced out of its normal position in the knee joint.
4. Ankle dislocation: The bones of the ankle are forced out of their normal position.
5. Elbow dislocation: The humerus is forced out of the elbow joint.
6. Wrist dislocation: The bones of the wrist are forced out of their normal position.
7. Finger dislocation: One or more of the bones in a finger are forced out of their normal position.
8. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation: The jawbone is forced out of its normal position, which can cause pain and difficulty opening the mouth.

Dislocations can be caused by a variety of factors, including sports injuries, car accidents, falls, and certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis or degenerative joint disease. Treatment for dislocations often involves reducing the displaced bone or joint back into its normal position, either through manual manipulation or surgery. In some cases, physical therapy may be necessary to help restore strength and range of motion in the affected area.

Source: Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012.

Brachial plexus neuropathies refer to a group of disorders that affect the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that run from the neck and shoulder down to the hand and fingers. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms including weakness, numbness, and pain in the arm and hand.

The brachial plexus is a complex network of nerves that originates in the spinal cord and branches off into several nerves that supply the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus neuropathies can occur due to a variety of causes such as injury, trauma, tumors, cysts, infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic mutations.

There are several types of brachial plexus neuropathies, including:

1. Erb's palsy: A condition that affects the upper roots of the brachial plexus and can cause weakness or paralysis of the arm and hand.
2. Klumpke's palsy: A condition that affects the lower roots of the brachial plexus and can cause weakness or paralysis of the hand and wrist.
3. Brachial neuritis: An inflammatory condition that causes sudden weakness and pain in the arm and hand.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: A condition where the nerves and blood vessels between the neck and shoulder become compressed, leading to pain and weakness in the arm and hand.
5. Neurodegenerative conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and peripheral neuropathy.

The symptoms of brachial plexus neuropathies can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Weakness or paralysis of the arm and hand
* Numbness or loss of sensation in the arm and hand
* Pain or aching in the arm and hand
* Muscle wasting or atrophy
* Limited range of motion in the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints
* Decreased grip strength
* Difficulty with fine motor skills such as buttoning a shirt or tying shoelaces.

Brachial plexus neuropathies can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or EMG, and nerve conduction studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and severity of the symptoms, but may include:

* Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion
* Occupational therapy to improve fine motor skills and daily living activities
* Medications such as pain relievers or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Injections of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged nerve tissue.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Osteoporotic fractures can occur in any bone, but they most commonly affect the spine, hips, and wrists. The risk of developing osteoporotic fractures increases with age, and certain factors such as family history, lifestyle habits (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption), and medical conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) can also contribute to the development of osteoporosis and associated fractures.

There are several types of osteoporotic fractures, including:

1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae in the spine collapse due to weakened bone density, causing back pain, loss of height, and a stooped posture.
2. Hip fractures: These are breaks in the thigh bone (femur) or pelvis that can be caused by falls or other injuries, and can lead to complications such as blood clots, pneumonia, and surgical intervention.
3. Wrist fractures: These occur when the bones of the wrist break due to a fall or other injury, and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
4. Fractures of the ribs and long bones: These are less common but can still cause significant pain and disability.

The diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures is typically made through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, and may also involve blood tests to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and other factors. Treatment for osteoporotic fractures typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle modifications, and surgical interventions to help restore bone strength and prevent further fractures.

1. Essential tremor: This is the most common type of tremor, and it is characterized by a rhythmic shaking of the hands, arms, legs, or head. It can be inherited and can worsen over time.
2. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, including tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Dystonia: A movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and spasms, which can result in tremors.
4. Huntington's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to involuntary movements, including tremors.
5. Medication-induced tremors: Certain medications, such as those used to treat psychosis, can cause tremors as a side effect.
6. Alcohol or drug withdrawal: Stopping the use of certain substances can cause tremors as part of the withdrawal process.
7. Metabolic disorders: Conditions such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) can cause tremors.
8. Trauma: A head injury or other trauma can sometimes cause tremors.

Tremors can be diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history, as well as through imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for tremors depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. In some cases, tremors can be managed with techniques such as physical therapy, relaxation exercises, or deep brain stimulation.

Etymology: Named after the Italian physician Giovanni Maria Monteggia (1740-1824), who first described the injury in his work "De fracturis" in 1777.

Synonyms: Monteggia-Mann fracture, ulna shaft fracture with ulnar collateral ligament tear.

Prevalence: Uncommon, accounting for approximately 1% of all forearm fractures.

Causes and risk factors: A direct blow to the ulnar aspect of the forearm, such as a fall onto an outstretched hand or a sports injury, can cause this type of fracture. It is more common in young adults and children.

Symptoms: Pain and swelling in the forearm, difficulty moving the wrist and fingers, and a distinctive "pop" or "click" sound when the fracture occurs.

Diagnosis: A physical examination, X-rays, and sometimes CT scans or MRI scans are used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment: Treatment typically involves immobilization of the affected arm in a cast or splint for 4-6 weeks, followed by gradual range of motion exercises and strengthening exercises. Surgery may be required in some cases to realign the bones and repair the ulnar collateral ligament.

Prognosis: The prognosis is generally good, with most patients recovering full use of their arm within 3-6 months. However, some patients may experience residual stiffness or weakness in the wrist and hand.

1. Complete paralysis: When there is no movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
2. Incomplete paralysis: When there is some movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
3. Localized paralysis: When paralysis affects only a specific part of the body, such as a limb or a facial muscle.
4. Generalized paralysis: When paralysis affects multiple parts of the body.
5. Flaccid paralysis: When there is a loss of muscle tone and the affected limbs feel floppy.
6. Spastic paralysis: When there is an increase in muscle tone and the affected limbs feel stiff and rigid.
7. Paralysis due to nerve damage: This can be caused by injuries, diseases such as multiple sclerosis, or birth defects such as spina bifida.
8. Paralysis due to muscle damage: This can be caused by injuries, such as muscular dystrophy, or diseases such as muscular sarcopenia.
9. Paralysis due to brain damage: This can be caused by head injuries, stroke, or other conditions that affect the brain such as cerebral palsy.
10. Paralysis due to spinal cord injury: This can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident, or diseases such as polio.

Paralysis can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, work, and participate in social and recreational activities. Treatment options for paralysis depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or assistive technologies such as wheelchairs or prosthetic devices.

The main features of scleroderma, limited, include:

1. Skin thickening and hardening on the hands and face, which can be painful and limit movement.
2. Swelling and inflammation in the fingers (called "hand pitting").
3. Thickening and tightening of the skin on the face, which can cause facial distortion.
4. Inflammation of the digestive tract, leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation.
5. Increased risk of kidney problems and high blood pressure.
6. Muscle weakness and fatigue.
7. Joint pain and stiffness.
8. Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes discoloration and pain in the fingers and toes when exposed to cold or stress).

Scleroderma, limited, is a chronic disease, and there is no cure. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and slow disease progression. Physical therapy and lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise and stress management techniques, can also help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Some common types of hand dermatoses include:

1. Contact dermatitis: This is a type of eczema that occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen. It can cause redness, itching, and dryness on the hands.
2. Psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the hands.
3. Eczema: This is a general term for a group of conditions that cause dry, itchy skin. It can affect the hands as well as other parts of the body.
4. Dermatitis herpetiformis: This is a condition that causes small blisters or bumps on the skin, often in conjunction with other symptoms such as fever and joint pain.
5. Urticaria: This is a condition that causes hives or itchy, raised welts on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and environmental exposures.
6. Angioedema: This is a condition that causes swelling of the deeper layers of skin, often in conjunction with hives or other symptoms.
7. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum: This is a condition that affects people with diabetes and causes raised, darkened areas on the skin, often on the hands and feet.
8. Hand eczema: This is a type of eczema that specifically affects the hands, causing dryness, itching, and redness on the palms and soles.

Treatment for hand dermatoses depends on the underlying cause and can include topical creams or ointments, medications, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding irritants and allergens, keeping the hands moisturized, and protecting them from extreme temperatures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected skin or repair damaged tissue.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms on your hands, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The exact cause of vasovagal syncope is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and blood pressure). It can be triggered by a variety of factors, including:

* Strong emotions such as fear or anxiety
* Pain or discomfort
* Intense physical activity
* Dehydration or low blood sugar
* Certain medications

During a vasovagal syncope episode, the person may experience symptoms such as:

* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blurred vision
* Nausea or vomiting
* Sweating
* Feeling of impending doom or loss of control
* Eventually, fainting or falling to the ground

Diagnosis of vasovagal syncope is typically made based on a combination of symptoms and physical examination findings. Tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or blood tests may be ordered to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for vasovagal syncope usually involves addressing any underlying triggers, such as managing stress or avoiding certain stimuli that may cause the episodes. In some cases, medications such as beta blockers or antidepressants may be prescribed to help regulate the heart rate and blood pressure.

Phantom limbs can cause a range of sensations, including pain, itching, tingling, and numbness. The sensations can be mild or severe and may vary in intensity over time. In some cases, individuals may also experience phantom movements or sensations of the missing limb, such as the sensation of fingers closing or toes wiggling.

Phantom limbs are relatively common in individuals who have had a limb amputated, but they can also occur in individuals with nerve damage or other conditions that affect the nervous system. Treatment for phantom limbs usually involves a combination of physical therapy and medication to manage pain and other symptoms. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure on remaining nerves or to release scar tissue that is causing discomfort.

In addition to the medical definition, the term "phantom limb" can also be used more broadly to describe any missing or lost body part that continues to cause sensations or pain. This can include missing fingers, toes, or other body parts that are no longer present but continue to cause symptoms.

Overall, phantom limbs are a complex and fascinating phenomenon that highlights the remarkable ability of the human brain to adapt and adjust to changes in the body. While they can be uncomfortable and disruptive, there are many effective treatments available to help manage phantom limb symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Prevalence:

Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.

Causes:

The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.

Symptoms:

Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.

Diagnosis:

Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.

Treatment:

Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.

Complications:

Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

Some common causes of paresthesia include:

1. Nerve compression or entrapment: This can occur when a nerve is pinched or compressed due to injury, tumors, or other conditions.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease can cause paresthesia by damaging the nerve cells.
3. Stroke or cerebral vasculitis: A stroke or inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain can cause paresthesia.
4. Migraines: Some people experience paresthesia during a migraine episode.
5. Nutritional deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as B12 and B6, as well as other nutrients, can cause paresthesia.
6. Infections: Certain infections, such as Lyme disease, can cause paresthesia.
7. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause nerve damage and result in paresthesia.
8. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as lymphoma, can cause paresthesia by damaging the nerves.
9. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus can cause paresthesia by attacking the body's own tissues, including the nerves.

Paresthesia can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, so it is important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or recurring episodes of numbness, tingling, or burning sensations. A thorough examination and diagnostic testing can help determine the cause of the paresthesia and appropriate treatment can be recommended.

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases can result from a variety of causes, including:

1. Trauma or injury
2. Infections such as Lyme disease or HIV
3. Autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome
4. Genetic mutations
5. Tumors or cysts
6. Toxins or poisoning
7. Vitamin deficiencies
8. Chronic diseases such as diabetes or alcoholism

Some common Peripheral Nervous System Diseases include:

1. Neuropathy - damage to the nerves that can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
2. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS and PNS, causing a range of symptoms including numbness, weakness, and vision problems.
3. Peripheral Neuropathy - damage to the nerves that can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
4. Guillain-Barré syndrome - an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and paralysis.
5. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease - a group of inherited disorders that affect the nerves in the feet and legs, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
6. Friedreich's ataxia - an inherited disorder that affects the nerves in the spine and limbs, leading to coordination problems and muscle weakness.
7. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) - an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the nerves, leading to pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - a progressive neurological disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, atrophy, and paralysis.
9. Spinal Muscular Atrophy - an inherited disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
10. Muscular Dystrophy - a group of inherited disorders that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other causes of muscle weakness. If you are experiencing persistent or severe muscle weakness, it is important to see a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:

1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.

Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Some common causes of syncope include:

1. Vasovagal response: This is the most common cause of syncope and is triggered by a sudden drop in blood pressure, usually due to sight of blood or injury.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the brain, causing syncope.
3. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, syncope can occur.
4. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause decreased oxygen delivery to the brain, leading to syncope.
5. Dehydration: Lack of fluids and electrolytes can lead to a decrease in blood pressure, causing syncope.
6. Medication side effects: Certain medications can cause syncope as a side effect, such as vasodilators and beta-blockers.
7. Neurological disorders: Syncope can be a symptom of neurological conditions such as seizures, migraines, and stroke.
8. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and panic attacks can also cause syncope.

Diagnosis of syncope is based on a thorough medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests. Treatment of syncope depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, medication, and in some cases, surgical intervention.

In summary, syncope is a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions that can be caused by cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological factors. A thorough diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to determine the underlying cause and prevent complications.

Quadriplegia can be classified into two types:

1. Complete quadriplegia: This is when all four limbs are paralyzed and there is no movement or sensation below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete quadriplegia: This is when some movement or sensation remains below the level of the injury, but not in all four limbs.

The symptoms of quadriplegia can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. They may include:

* Loss of movement in the arms and legs
* Weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the arms and legs
* Decreased or absent sensation in the arms and legs
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Difficulty with walking, standing, or sitting
* Difficulty with performing daily activities such as dressing, grooming, and feeding oneself

The diagnosis of quadriplegia is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment for quadriplegia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Assistive devices such as braces, walkers, or wheelchairs
* Medications to manage pain, spasticity, or other symptoms
* Surgery to repair or stabilize the spinal cord or other affected areas.

Overall, quadriplegia is a severe condition that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. However, with appropriate treatment and support, many people with quadriplegia are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are different types of contractures, including:

1. Scar contracture: This type of contracture occurs when a scar tissue forms and tightens, causing a loss of movement in the affected area.
2. Neurogenic contracture: This type of contracture is caused by nerve damage and can occur after an injury or surgery.
3. Post-burn contracture: This type of contracture occurs after a burn injury and is caused by scarring and tightening of the skin and underlying tissues.
4. Congenital contracture: This type of contracture is present at birth and can be caused by genetic or environmental factors.

Signs and symptoms of contractures may include:

1. Limited range of motion
2. Pain or stiffness in the affected area
3. Skin tightening or shrinkage
4. Deformity of the affected area

Treatment options for contractures depend on the severity and cause of the condition, and may include:

1. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
2. Bracing to support the affected area and prevent further tightening
3. Surgery to release or lengthen the scar tissue or tendons
4. Injections of botulinum toxin or other medications to relax the muscle and improve range of motion.

Posted: (5 days ago) A traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part due to an external force, such as a car accident or a workplace injury. It can be partial or complete, and it can affect any limb or digit. There are several types of traumatic amputations, including:

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Traumatic Amputation - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Posted: (2 days ago) Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part due to an external force, such as a car accident or a workplace injury. The severity of the trauma can vary widely, from minor lacerations to severe crushing injuries that result in the loss of multiple limbs.

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Traumatic Amputation | Definition, Causes, Symptoms ...
Posted: (10 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a type of amputation that occurs as a result of an external force or trauma, such as a car accident, workplace injury, or other acute injury. In this article, we will discuss the definition, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic amputation.

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Traumatic Amputation | OrthoInfo - AAOS
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part due to an external force, such as a car accident or a workplace injury. The severity of the trauma can vary widely, from minor lacerations to severe crushing injuries that result in the loss of multiple limbs.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, and Treatment | Physio ...
Posted: (5 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a type of amputation that occurs as a result of an external force or trauma, such as a car accident, workplace injury, or other acute injury. In this article, we will discuss the types, causes, and treatment of traumatic amputation.

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Traumatic Amputation - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf
Posted: (6 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a loss of a body part due to an external force or trauma, such as a car accident or workplace injury. The severity of the trauma can vary widely, from minor lacerations to severe crushing injuries that result in the loss of multiple limbs.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Posted: (7 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a medical condition where a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (6 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and ...
Posted: (13 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment ...
Posted: (10 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment ...
Posted: (7 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation | Definition, Causes, Symptoms ...
Posted: (5 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment ...
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment ...
Posted: (6 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, Symptoms ...
Posted: (8 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and ...
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment ...
Posted: (5 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment ...
Posted: (5 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (2 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (1 week ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (3 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (2 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (4 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Traumatic Amputation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Posted: (3 days ago) Traumatic amputation is a serious medical condition that occurs when a body part is severed due to an external force or trauma. This can be caused by accidents such as car crashes, falls, or workplace injuries. The symptoms of traumatic amputation can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the affected body part.

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Symptoms of hypovolemia may include:

* Decreased blood pressure
* Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Confusion or disorientation
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weakness or fatigue

Treatment of hypovolemia typically involves fluid resuscitation, which may involve the administration of intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, or other appropriate interventions to restore blood volume and pressure. In severe cases, hypovolemia can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and death if left untreated.

It is important for medical professionals to quickly identify and treat hypovolemia in order to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes.

Some common types of skin diseases include:

1. Acne: a condition characterized by oil clogged pores, pimples, and other blemishes on the skin.
2. Eczema: a chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin.
3. Psoriasis: a chronic autoimmune skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches on the skin.
4. Dermatitis: a term used to describe inflammation of the skin, often caused by allergies or irritants.
5. Skin cancer: a type of cancer that affects the skin cells, often caused by exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds.
6. Melanoma: the most serious type of skin cancer, characterized by a mole that changes in size, shape, or color.
7. Vitiligo: a condition in which white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of pigment-producing cells.
8. Alopecia: a condition characterized by hair loss, often caused by autoimmune disorders or genetics.
9. Nail diseases: conditions that affect the nails, such as fungal infections, brittleness, and thickening.
10. Mucous membrane diseases: conditions that affect the mucous membranes, such as ulcers, inflammation, and cancer.

Skin diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or blood tests. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, light therapy, or surgery.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of skin diseases include protecting the skin from UV radiation, using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding exposure to known allergens or irritants. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for many skin conditions.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Hyperoxia can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs, particularly the lungs and brain. In severe cases, hyperoxia can lead to respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

There are several ways to diagnose hyperoxia, including:

1. Blood tests: These can measure the levels of oxygen in the blood.
2. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a test that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Pulse oximetry: This is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood by shining a light through the skin.

Treatment for hyperoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: This involves administering oxygen to the patient through a mask or nasal tubes.
2. Medications: These may be used to treat any underlying conditions that are causing hyperoxia.
3. Mechanical ventilation: In severe cases, this may be necessary to support the patient's breathing.

In summary, hyperoxia is a condition where there is too much oxygen in the body, and it can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs. Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or other tests, and treatment may involve oxygen therapy, medications, or mechanical ventilation.

The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.

Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.

The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:

1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.

However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:

1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.

In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.

There are several types of facial neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of skin cancer and typically appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch on the face.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of skin cancer can appear as a firm, flat or raised bump on the face and can be more aggressive than basal cell carcinoma.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer and can appear as a dark spot or mole on the face.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of facial neoplasm develops in the oil-producing glands of the face.
5. Eyelid tumors: These can include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, as well as other types of benign tumors such as papillomas and pyogenic granulomas.
6. Parotid gland tumors: These can include pleomorphic adenoma, a type of benign tumor that is the most common parotid gland tumor, and malignant tumors such as pleomorphic carcinoma.
7. Salivary gland tumors: These can include benign tumors such as pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor, as well as malignant tumors such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
8. Osteosarcoma: This is a rare type of bone cancer that can affect the facial bones.
9. Chondrosarcoma: This is a type of cartilage cancer that can affect the facial bones and can be benign or malignant.
10. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in various parts of the body, including the face.

Treatment for facial tumors depends on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are important for achieving the best possible outcomes.

There are several types of edema, including:

1. Pitting edema: This type of edema occurs when the fluid accumulates in the tissues and leaves a pit or depression when it is pressed. It is commonly seen in the skin of the lower legs and feet.
2. Non-pitting edema: This type of edema does not leave a pit or depression when pressed. It is often seen in the face, hands, and arms.
3. Cytedema: This type of edema is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the limbs, particularly in the hands and feet.
4. Edema nervorum: This type of edema affects the nerves and can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected area.
5. Lymphedema: This is a condition where the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the arms or legs.

Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and blood tests. Treatment options for edema depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, and compression garments. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to remove excess fluid or tissue.

MND is often fatal, usually within 2-5 years of diagnosis. There is currently no cure for MND, although various treatments and therapies can help manage the symptoms and slow its progression.

The most common types of MND are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). ALS is characterized by rapid degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis. PLS is a slower-progressing form of MND that affects only the lower motor neurons.

MND can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, and exposure to toxins. It is often diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for MND, including stem cell therapy, gene therapy, and drugs that target specific molecules involved in the disease process.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

Hyperalgesia is often seen in people with chronic pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia, and it can also be a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures. Treatment options for hyperalgesia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include pain management techniques, physical therapy, and medication adjustments.

In clinical settings, hyperalgesia is often assessed using a pinprick test or other pain tolerance tests to determine the patient's sensitivity to different types of stimuli. The goal of treatment is to reduce the patient's pain and improve their quality of life.

The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.

Some common causes of shoulder pain include:

1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.

These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Example sentences:

1. The runner experienced a muscle cramp in her leg during the marathon, causing her to slow down and almost drop out.
2. After experiencing frequent muscle cramps, the patient was diagnosed with hypokalemia, a condition characterized by low potassium levels.
3. During pregnancy, muscle cramps are common due to changes in hormone levels and increased pressure on the musculoskeletal system.
4. The elderly man's muscle cramps were caused by a lack of physical activity and dehydration, which can be a challenge for older adults.
5. Proper stretching and warm-up exercises can help prevent muscle cramps in athletes, especially those participating in endurance sports.

The term "osteomyelitis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "myelitis," meaning inflammation of the spinal cord. The condition is caused by an infection that spreads to the bone from another part of the body, such as a skin wound or a urinary tract infection.

There are several different types of osteomyelitis, including:

1. Acute osteomyelitis: This type of infection occurs suddenly and can be caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Chronic osteomyelitis: This type of infection develops slowly over time and is often caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
3. Pyogenic osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through a skin wound or other opening.
4. Tubercular osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is often associated with tuberculosis.

Symptoms of osteomyelitis can include fever, chills, fatigue, swelling, redness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.

Preventing osteomyelitis involves taking steps to avoid infections altogether, such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated against certain diseases, and seeking medical attention promptly if an infection is suspected.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:

* Loss of sensation below the level of the injury
* Weakness or paralysis below the level of the injury
* Pain or numbness in the back, arms, or legs
* Difficulty breathing or controlling bladder and bowel functions
* Changes in reflexes or sensation below the level of the injury.

Spinal injuries can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:

* X-rays or CT scans to assess the alignment of the spine and detect any fractures or dislocations
* MRI scans to assess the soft tissues of the spine and detect any damage to the spinal cord
* Electromyography (EMG) tests to assess the function of muscles and nerves below the level of the injury.

Treatment for spinal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include:

* Immobilization using a brace or cast to keep the spine stable
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms
* Rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and recreational therapy to help restore function and mobility.

In summary, spinal injuries can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Symptoms may include loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis, pain, difficulty breathing, and changes in reflexes or sensation. Diagnosis is typically made using X-rays, MRI scans, and EMG tests, and treatment may involve immobilization, medications, and rehabilitation therapies.

The symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Numbness or tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger
* Weakness in the hand, making it difficult to grip objects
* Pain or aching in the elbow or forearm
* Tendency to drop objects due to weakness or loss of sensation
* Difficulty coordinating movements with the hands

Cubital tunnel syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Direct trauma to the elbow
* Repeated pressure on the ulnar nerve, such as from leaning on an elbow or sleeping with the arm in an awkward position
* Fluid retention or swelling in the cubital tunnel
* Thickening of the tissue around the nerve
* Abnormal bone growth or cartilage formation in the cubital tunnel
* Previous fracture or dislocation of the elbow

Diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of electrical tests such as nerve conduction studies or electromyography. Treatment options for cubital tunnel syndrome can include:

* Rest and avoidance of activities that exacerbate the condition
* Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion in the hand and wrist
* Anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and pain
* Orthotic devices, such as a brace or pad, to protect the elbow and nerve
* Surgery to release or decompress the compressed nerve.

Types of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic Nerve Injury: This type of injury occurs due to direct trauma to the nerve, such as a blow or a crush injury.
2. Compression Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
3. Stretch Injury: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is stretched or overstretched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
4. Entrapment Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or trapped between two structures, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.

Symptoms of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups
2. Numbness or tingling in the affected area
3. Pain or burning sensation in the affected area
4. Difficulty with balance and coordination
5. Abnormal reflexes
6. Incontinence or other bladder or bowel problems

Causes of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Trauma, such as a car accident or fall
2. Sports injuries
3. Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive motions in the workplace or during sports activities
4. Compression or entrapment of nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tarsal tunnel syndrome
5. Infections, such as Lyme disease or diphtheria
6. Tumors or cysts that compress or damage nerves
7. Vitamin deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency
8. Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus
9. Toxins, such as heavy metals or certain chemicals

Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion
2. Medications to manage pain and inflammation
3. Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged nerves
4. Electrical stimulation therapy to promote nerve regeneration
5. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy to stimulate healing
6. Stem cell therapy to promote nerve regeneration
7. Injection of botulinum toxin to relieve pain and reduce muscle spasticity
8. Orthotics or assistive devices to improve mobility and function

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

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However, Forearm was killed during a fight with Serpent Society member Anaconda, who broke his neck. Forearm had an extra set ... Feeling betrayed, Forearm parts ways with the team.[volume & issue needed] When he surfaced next Forearm was part of a fighting ... Forearm was also killed during this reality in an explosion. Forearm appears in the X-Men television series episode "Secrets ... 2 #47 (March 1993) Forearm at Marvel.com Uncannyxmen.net character bio on Forearm Uncannyxmen.net entry on Mutant Liberation ...
Forearm may refer to: Forearm, the structure and distal region of the upper limb Forearm (firearm component), the component of ... a firearm between the receiver and the muzzle Forearm (comics), a fictional Marvel villain also known as Michael McCain This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Forearm. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change ...
... and sometimes also a barrel-band to secure the forearm to the barrel (as seen in the photo at right). Some forearms are ... In firearms, the forearm (also known as the fore-end/forend, handguard or forestock) is a section of a gunstock between the ... Near the front of the forearm there is often an underside sling swivel stud, ...
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... serves as a site of attachment for muscles of the forearm, and transfers loads placed on the forearm. The interosseous membrane ... Additionally, as the forearm moves from pronation to supination, the interosseous membrane fibers change from a relaxed state, ... The interosseous membrane of the forearm (rarely middle or intermediate radioulnar joint) is a fibrous sheet that connects the ... They once again become relaxed as the forearm enters pronation. The interosseous membrane is composed of five ligaments: - ...
The medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve) branches from the medial cord of the brachial ... It then descends on the front of the ulnar side of the forearm, distributing filaments to the skin as far as the wrist, and ... to the back of the forearm, and descends on its ulnar side as far as the wrist, distributing filaments to the skin. It ...
The anterior compartment of the forearm (or flexor compartment) contains the following muscles: The muscles are largely ... Compartment syndrome Posterior compartment of the forearm "Topographical Anatomy of the Upper Limb - Listed Alphabetically". ...
Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm Cross-section through the ... The posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm is a nerve found in humans and other animals. It is also known as the dorsal ... It is a cutaneous nerve (a nerve that supplies skin) of the forearm. It arises from the radial nerve in the posterior ... and then along the back of the forearm to the wrist, supplying the skin in its course, and joining, near its termination, with ...
Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm Cross-section ... It supplies the skin of the lower two-thirds of the dorso-lateral surface of the forearm, communicating with the superficial ... The volar branch (ramus volaris; anterior branch) descends along the radial border of the forearm to the wrist, and supplies ... The dorsal branch (ramus dorsalis; posterior branch) descends, along the dorsal surface of the radial side of the forearm to ...
Anterior compartment of the forearm Forearm Upper limb Transverse section across distal ends of radius and ulna. Transverse ... The supinator and the anconeus are the two extensor muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm that do not pass ... The muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm are innervated by the radial nerve and its branches. The radial nerve ... There are generally twelve muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm, which can be further divided into superficial, ...
The fascial compartments of the forearm are the posterior compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the ... forearm. v t e (Articles lacking sources from February 2021, All articles lacking sources, Muscles of the upper limb, All stub ...
... forearm - 14"; neck - 18"; chest - 45"; waist - 34"; thigh - 22"; calf - 18". There is another side to this story that, when ...
... forearm - 15½″; neck - 22″; chest - 52″; waist - 34″; thigh - 26¾″; calf - 18″. He also rose to prominence when the governing ...
The distal part of the upper limb between the elbow and the radiocarpal joint (wrist joint) is known as the forearm or "lower" ... The nerve passes into the forearm. The ulnar nerve, origin C8-T1, is a continuation of the medial cord of the brachial plexus. ... In West Africa, the Bambara use forearm to symbolize the spirit, which is a link between God and man. Symbolic gestures of ... It then continues into the forearm. The deep artery of the arm travels through the lower triangular space with the radial nerve ...
However, Lawlor broke his forearm before the match and was replaced by ACH as Riddle's opponent in the semifinal. Barrington ... "LAWLOR BREAKS FOREARM; OUT OF WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP TOURNAMENT". Major League Wrestling. February 27, 2018. Retrieved 12 September ...
On June 28, Dickerson was recalled from El Paso when Jon Jay broke his forearm. Dickerson remained as the regular left fielder ... Cassavell, AJ (June 28, 2016). "Jay's forearm broken; OF placed on DL". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved February 28, 2019. ...
forearm, ell, cubit. James Robinson (of Boston.) (1857). The American elementary arithmetic. J.P. Jewett & co. p. 94. Retrieved ... the combined length of the forearm and extended hand). The word literally means "arm", and survives in the form of the modern ...
... forearm well muscled; long, broad, straight level back; well sprung ribs; thick, wide and long loins well covered with firm ...
... "the forearm bridle". The parallel text in 1 Chronicles 18:1 reads "Gath and its daughters (nearby villages)". The list of ...
On June 20, placed LHP Rich Hill on the 10-day injured list with a left forearm strain, recalled RHP J. T. Chargois and RHP ... On July 15, placed IF/OF Chris Taylor on the 10-day injured list with a fractured left forearm, recalled RHP Casey Sadler and ... On June 11, placed LHP Scott Alexander on the 10-day injured list with left forearm inflammation and recalled LHP Caleb ... Gurnick, Ken (June 20, 2019). "Hill placed on IL with forearm strain". mlb.com. Retrieved June 20, 2019. Gurnick, Ken (June 21 ...
Arm and forearm - Strong. Thigh - long and large but shallow muscle mass. Buttocks - for tending to decline and arched. ...
"Posterior arm & forearm regions". Anatopedia. Retrieved 11 October 2020. This article incorporates text in the public domain ...
Forms the right forearm. Armored Equipment Carrier 13 (Rugger #13): Piloted by Modoch. Forms the left forearm. All-Terrain ... Sendak has a cybernetic prosthetic left shoulder and forearm connected by an energy binder that allows him to attack from a ... Modok pilots the Armored Equipment Carrier (#13) that forms the left forearm of Voltron. Marvin (Tasuku Izu) (voiced by Michael ... She pilots the Rotating Personnel Carrier (#12) that forms the right forearm of Voltron. Modok (Mack Chukker) (voiced by ...
Bones of left forearm. Anterior aspect. Nerves of the left upper extremity. Brachialis muscle (labeled in green text) This ... Brachialis labeled at center left.) Muscles of forearm, including insertion of brachialis tendon. Cross section. (Brachialis ... and does not participate in pronation and supination of the forearm. The brachialis muscle In classical Latin bracchialis means ...
Cross-section through the middle of the forearm. Posterior surface of the forearm. Deep muscles. Transverse section across ... Like all the muscles in the posterior forearm, ECR brevis is supplied by a branch of the radial nerve. It is an extensor, and ... The fibres end approximately at the middle of the forearm in the form of a flat tendon, which is closely connected with that of ... In human anatomy, extensor carpi radialis brevis is a muscle in the forearm that acts to extend and abduct the wrist. It is ...
Size forearm 38 cm; Size wrist 24 cm; Size dress USA 22; Max overhead lift 90 kg; Max dumbbell arm 75 kg. Tazzie described ...
The forearm crutch typically gives a user the support of the cane but with additional forearm support to assist in mobility. ... The forearm portion helps increase balance, lateral stability and also reduces the load on the wrist. A walker (also known as a ... These crutches have bands that encircle the forearms and handles for the patient to hold and rest their hands on to support the ... "Description of Forearm Crutch". Ceredigion, UK: SafetyNet Systems. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved 25 ...
The photographer made sure that their disabilities were hidden; Kelly was positioned so her missing forearm was hidden, Sophie ... about her missing forearm. Sophie didn't want to dwell on disability and wanted to enjoy the evening. When the judges saw the ... just being made apparent that her forearm is missing. Sophie made suggestions of what she could do, and her photo was of her ...
... forearm pass (Czechoslovakia, 1958); and backrow attack (Poland, 1974). The long and significant tradition of the sport in the ...
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The dexterity of the upper limb depends on a combination of hand and wrist function and forearm rotation. ... The forearm is a complex anatomic structure serving an integral role in upper extremity function. ... The dexterity of the upper limb depends on a combination of hand and wrist function and forearm rotation. The forearm bones can ... encoded search term (Forearm Fractures) and Forearm Fractures What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The dexterity of the upper limb depends on a combination of hand and wrist function and forearm rotation. ... The forearm is a complex anatomic structure serving an integral role in upper extremity function. ... encoded search term (Forearm Fractures) and Forearm Fractures What to Read Next on Medscape ... Forearm Fractures Workup. Updated: Nov 18, 2021 * Author: Gopikrishna Kakarala, MBBS, MS, MRCSEd; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman ...
... forearms, and wrists. Supports the arm at a position of home row on typical keyboards Reduces occurrences of repetitive motion ... A modular Wrist and Forearm Support dock, which is a fully-adjustable, articulated support for elbows, ... Comfort Keyboard Articulating Forearm Support. * A modular Wrist and Forearm Support dock, which is a fully-adjustable, ...
By performing the forearm routine in this fashion you will feel a pump like you never felt before and a complete workout of the ... Upper Forearm Movement This Is Intense But Gets Results!. By Paul Robert Veenendall. Expert Author Paul Robert Veenendall. Take ... Try this and you will know why this separates the men from the boys want to be a herculean man? Do your upper forearm routine ... Once you do you will never go back to any other training for the upper forearms you used before. Now this is most likely your ...
Learn more about Forearm Plank Rocks from SELF, a wellness site dedicated to giving you accurate and genuinely helpful ...
These high-impact plastic forearm guards designed for kids offer giant-gate-bashing coverage, so you can focus on your line. ... These high-impact plastic forearm guards designed for kids offer giant-gate-bashing coverage, so you can focus on your line. ...
Winchester 94 forearm The Art of the Rifle: Bolt, Lever, and Pump Action ... Winchester 94 forearm In 1951 or so Winchester shortened the forearm of the model 94 carbine by an inch or so. Can I replace ... My forearm has some damage and I have a chance to buy the longer version at a good price Thanks ... It says the longer forearms are 9 1/8 in length and the newer, shorter ones are 7 7/8. More importantly to my question it says ...
A forearm fracture is a break in one or both bones of the forearm. ... Adult forearm fractures. Ortho Info-American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to ... Forearm Fracture. (Broken Arm; Radial Fracture; Ulnar Fracture). by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA ...
The pain manifests in my right inner mid-forearm (the pitch playing arm) and my right lower bicep. I tried playing (the ... I should mention its the thumbside of the forearm that hurts.. CH ...
This X-ray shows broken (fractured) forearm bones (radius and ulna).
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... and cardiovascular forearm exercises with pictures showing how to do the exercises properly. Muscle anatomy and forearm pain is ... Forearms. I am lacking in bicep size compared to my forearms.I have hit the biceps fairly hard but still have not acheived much ... I have noticed some pain in my forearms that I never used to get. Its about 1/2 way up my forearm on the outside. It seems to ... its been more than a year now, and my only progress has been with my forearms. why cant i put on any muscle? in fact, it ...
2011)‎. Forearm hydatid cyst: an unusual presentation. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17 (‎12)‎, 994-995, 2011 ...
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Bad Bunny has a portrait of a pair of eyes on his left forearm. Fans have speculated that it is a tribute to Berlingeri. The ... Bad Bunnys Realistic Eyes Forearm Tattoo Bad Bunny has a portrait of a pair of eyes on his left forearm. Fans have speculated ...
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Tagged: hanging on forearms Forearm Hanging Drill To Strengthen Your Back, Shoulders, and Abs. By Erwan Le Corre, MovNat ...
Children who break their forearm after just a mild trauma may have underlying bone health conditi ... Their forearm bones could take less pressure before breaking. They had a thinner outer bone layer (cortical bone), as well as ... Bone strength and structural deficits in children and adolescents with a distal forearm fracture due to mild trauma. Farr JN, ... They examined 115 children ages 8 to 15 who had sustained a distal forearm fracture (DFF). About half of the breaks resulted ...
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New York Jets expect QB Mike White to be recovered by next game after exiting loss with forearm injury. *Facebook ... his forearm stiffened, and he couldnt grip the ball. White said hes not sure when the injury happened, but he felt it after ... quarterback was interrupted Thursday night with a first-quarter injury to his right forearm, but the team expects him to be ...
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Forearm MT (cm) was measured on the right arm using a portable B-mode ultrasound imaging device and linear-array probe. For ... Previous studies have reported that decreases in muscle size of the forearm may contribute to age-related deficits in wrist ... However, we are aware of no previous studies that have examined the contribution of forearm muscle size to age-related ... PURPOSE: To determine the effects of age on forearm muscle size [muscle thickness (MT)] and handgrip maximal and rapid force ...
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  • Guideline] BOAST - early management of the paediatric forearm fracture. (medscape.com)
  • As a result of the complex arrangement of neurovascular structures surrounding the radius and ulna, surgical approaches to the forearm for fracture fixation require particular care in planning and execution. (medscape.com)
  • Fractures of both bones of the forearm are usually classified according to the level of fracture, the pattern of the fracture, the degree of displacement, the presence or absence of comminution or segment bone loss, and whether they are open or closed. (medscape.com)
  • A forearm fracture is a break in one or both bones of the forearm. (epnet.com)
  • X-ray image of a child's forearm fracture. (nih.gov)
  • They examined 115 children ages 8 to 15 who had sustained a distal forearm fracture (DFF). (nih.gov)
  • Bone strength and structural deficits in children and adolescents with a distal forearm fracture due to mild trauma. (nih.gov)
  • This x-ray shows broken (fractured) forearm bones (radius and ulna). (medlineplus.gov)
  • McQueen MM. Epidemiology of fractures of the forearm. (medscape.com)
  • In the treatment of fractures of the forearm, the radial bow and proper interosseous space must be maintained for normal motion to be achieved. (medscape.com)
  • We report here a case of forearm hydatid cyst with an unusual presentation. (who.int)
  • Also imperative is to include the elbow and wrist joint in the radiographs of forearm fractures to ensure that radial head and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) injuries are not missed. (medscape.com)
  • The dexterity of the upper limb depends on a combination of hand and wrist function and forearm rotation. (medscape.com)
  • A modular Wrist and Forearm Support dock, which is a fully-adjustable, articulated support for elbows, forearms, and wrists. (askjan.org)
  • Previous studies have reported that decreases in muscle size of the forearm may contribute to age-related deficits in wrist flexion strength. (wku.edu)
  • I have a tribal wrap on my left forearm and the underside didnt hurt too bad, just towards the wrist is where it really hurt. (hipforums.com)
  • but yeah, it's on the wrist and underside of forearm, it would hurt like hell. (hipforums.com)
  • Mike White 's storybook run as the New York Jets ' quarterback was interrupted Thursday night with a first-quarter injury to his right forearm, but the team expects him to be recovered by next week, setting up a big quarterback decision for coach Robert Saleh. (espn.com)
  • I got a vicodin monster on my right forearm that hurt like hell because the guy went too deep. (hipforums.com)
  • The effect of malunion on functional outcome after plate fixation of fractures of both bones of the forearm in adults. (medscape.com)
  • The forearm bones can be considered struts linking the two halves of a condylar joint formed by the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) and the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). (medscape.com)
  • Their forearm bones could take less pressure before breaking. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, anytime you flex the the elbows or wrists, you put stress on the forearm muscles. (101bodybuilding.com)
  • I'd like to get tatoos on the underside of my forearms and wrists, like flowers or something abstract, no ideas yet, but, I heard it is really painful and I have very sensitive skin and I'm ultra sensitive to pain AND I hate needles. (hipforums.com)
  • This keeps constant tension on the upper forearms through the squeezing of the bar and the tension on the muscles by keeping the bar parallel to the waist rather than bring the bar down to thighs and relaxing the tension on the upper forearms muscle group. (webnewswire.com)
  • By performing the forearm routine in this fashion you will feel a pump like you never felt before and a complete workout of the upper forearm muscles like you never felt before. (webnewswire.com)
  • This will mold, shape, build, your forearm muscles for size and strength like having a vise grip. (webnewswire.com)
  • Forearm muscles are involved in nearly every exercise for the upper body. (101bodybuilding.com)
  • Built to give you more strength in your fingers because they strengthen and support the finger muscles that lie in the forearm. (cepcompression.com)
  • These forearm protectors have some special, elastic velcro straps. (woodenswords.com)
  • In practice, our "Light" Forearm Protectors are an elastic HEMA protective gear, fitting every forearm. (woodenswords.com)
  • An anatomic and mechanical study of the interosseous membrane of the forearm: pathomechanics of proximal migration of the radius. (medscape.com)
  • Afterwards six vascular occlusions by inflation of an upper arm cuff were done to achieve low oxygenation in the forearm . (bvsalud.org)
  • Adult forearm fractures. (epnet.com)
  • To test repeatability the sensors were repositioned 20 times during hemodynamic steady state on the adult forearm . (bvsalud.org)
  • It says the longer forearms are 9 1/8 in length and the newer, shorter ones are 7 7/8. (thefiringline.com)
  • Also notes that many collectors consider the shorter forearm as undesirable. (thefiringline.com)
  • Take a barbell with a weight you can do reverse forearm curls of 3 sets at 8-10 reps each with ten seconds of rest between sets. (webnewswire.com)
  • To determine the effects of age on forearm muscle size [muscle thickness (MT)] and handgrip maximal and rapid force characteristics in young and old females. (wku.edu)
  • It will prevent the forearm protectors from losing a given shape, what can happen after a longer time without using. (woodenswords.com)
  • Val Guin is recognized as a leader and innovator in the massage industry, through the creation of her best-selling DVD series, Val Guin's Forearm Dance™ Massage, Original and Essentials . (atpeacemedia.com)
  • Moreover, these deficits were found in other skeletal areas and were not specific to just the forearm. (nih.gov)
  • An infra-red active-marker three-dimensional motion analysis system measured the movement of the fingertip, hand, forearm, upper arm and trunk. (cdc.gov)
  • Bad Bunny has a portrait of a pair of eyes on his left forearm. (popsugar.com)
  • Each has 2 straps that holds the item secured to the forearm so that the item will not move during sparring. (kungfu4less.com)
  • The significant relationships observed between MT and PF and RFD in the young and old females perhaps suggest that these age-related declines in forearm muscle size may play an important role in the lower handgrip maximal and rapid force values observed in older adults. (wku.edu)
  • Forearms muscle training program should be taken just as seriously as any other body part if you want to develop a truly quality physique. (101bodybuilding.com)
  • Aging, Forearm Muscle Size, and Handgrip Strength" by Chinonye C. Agu-Udemba, Ethan Mitchell et al. (wku.edu)
  • However, we are aware of no previous studies that have examined the contribution of forearm muscle size to age-related differences in handgrip strength, and more specifically, the age-related differences in handgrip maximal and rapid force characteristics. (wku.edu)
  • These findings demonstrated that forearm muscle size and handgrip PF and RFD decrease in old age. (wku.edu)
  • As a result, practitioners may consider implementing training programs aimed at increasing MT of the forearm in the elderly which may be beneficial for improving muscle size as well as handgrip maximal and rapid force production. (wku.edu)
  • I have noticed some pain in my forearms that I never used to get. (myfit.ca)
  • Her Forearm Dance Technique is a proven method of addressing client tightness and pain, while at the same time it alleviates the stress that a massage therapist's body can experience from doing multiple sessions in a day. (atpeacemedia.com)
  • Once you do you will never go back to any other training for the upper forearms you used before. (webnewswire.com)
  • I learned this many years ago and after using it once continued and never was sorry never went back to conventional forearm training. (webnewswire.com)
  • Right now my schedule is:Mon/Thurs-back,biceps,and forearms. (myfit.ca)
  • When White got back to the sideline, his forearm stiffened, and he couldn't grip the ball. (espn.com)
  • I am lacking in bicep size compared to my forearms.I have hit the biceps fairly hard but still have not acheived much gain in size. (myfit.ca)
  • Most Affective Way to Build Forearms size? (myfit.ca)
  • Can I replace the forearm of my 1953 model 94 with the earlier longer style without any modifications? (thefiringline.com)
  • What "Configuration Type", "Tang Style", and "Forearm Bracket" is your Citori? (midwestgunworks.com)
  • The forearm and barrel nut are made of 6061-T6 aluminum and hardcoated to military specifications. (yhm.net)
  • These forearm compression sleeves offer maximum stability, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and an extra boost of energy. (cepcompression.com)
  • A 23-year-old woman presented to Sahloul Hospital, Sousse in February 2009 with a history of a slow-growing mass on her forearm over the past 65 days. (who.int)
  • Children who break their forearm after just a mild trauma may have underlying bone health conditions, according to recent research funded in part by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, and published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. (nih.gov)
  • Our forearm protectors are also very flexible, what makes them easy in fitting to the user's arms. (woodenswords.com)
  • Val Guin will address how the correct, effective, and safe use of the thumbs combined with the power of the forearm makes for a very satisfying massage. (atpeacemedia.com)
  • Designed for mountaineers and fitness gurus alike, CEP's Compression Forearm Sleeves are your ideal companion. (cepcompression.com)
  • She had been putting olive oil on and massaging her forearm many times. (who.int)
  • The forearm is a complex anatomic structure serving an integral role in upper-extremity function. (medscape.com)
  • Singh S, Bhatia M, Housden P. Cast and padding indices used for clinical decision making in forearm fractures in children. (medscape.com)