Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The act of BREATHING in.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The act of BREATHING out.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (1/4775)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/4775)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (3/4775)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (4/4775)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Decline in FEV1 related to smoking status in individuals with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ). (5/4775)

Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency predisposes to emphysema development. Highly variable rates of decline in lung function are reported in PiZZ individuals. The annual decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; delta FEV1) was analysed in relation to smoking status in a cohort of 608 adult PiZZ individuals included in the Swedish national AAT deficiency register. Delta FEV1 was analysed in 211 never-smokers, in 351 exsmokers, and in 46 current smokers after performing at least two spirometries during a follow-up time of 1 yr or longer (median 5.5 yrs, range 1-31). The adjusted mean delta FEV1 in never-smokers was 47 mL x yr(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 41-53 mL x yr(-1)), 41 mL x yr(-1) (95% CI 36-48 mL x yr(-1)) in exsmokers, and 70 mL x yr(-1) (95% CI 58-82 mL x yr(-1)) in current smokers. A dose-response relationship was found between cigarette consumption and delta FEV1 in current smokers and exsmokers. In never-smokers, a greater delta FEV1 was found after 50 yrs of age than before. No sex differences were found in delta FEV1. In conclusion, among PiZZ individuals, the change in forced expiratory volume in one second is essentially the same in never-smokers and exsmokers. Smoking is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the change in forced expiratory volume in one second.  (+info)

Expiratory and inspiratory chest computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in cigarette smokers. (6/4775)

This study evaluated small airway dysfunction and emphysematous destruction of lung parenchyma in cigarette smokers, using chest expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). The degree of emphysematous destruction was classified by visual scoring (VS) and the average HRCT number at full expiration/full inspiration (E/I ratio) calculated in 63 male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers (group A). The Brinkman smoking index (BI), defined as cigarettes x day(-1) x yrs, was estimated. Sixty-three smokers were divided into three groups by PFT: group B1 (n=7), with normal PFT; group B2 (n=21), with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL,CO) > or = 80% predicted, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% pred and/or residual volume (RV) > 120% pred; and group B3 (n=35), with DL,CO < 80% pred, FEV1 < 80% pred and/or RV > 120% pred. Heavy smokers (BI > or = 600) (n=48) showed a significant increase in emphysema by both VS and E/I. E/I was significantly elevated in both group B2 (mean+/-SD 0.95+/-0.05) and B3 (0.96+/-0.06) compared with group B1 (0.89+/-0.03). VS could not differentiate group B2 (3.9+/-5.0) from B1 (1.1+/-1.6). These findings suggest that the expiration/inspiration ratio reflects hyperinflation and airway obstruction, regardless of the functional characteristics of emphysema, in cigarette smokers.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (7/4775)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (8/4775)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Forced expiratory volume (FEV) measures how much air a person can exhale during a forced breath. The amount of air exhaled may be measured during the first (FEV1), second (FEV2), and/or third seconds (FEV3) of the forced breath. Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the total amount of air exhaled during the FEV test...
흡연은 폐 질환, 호흡기 질환들을 일으키는 주요 원인으로,11,23 그중 COPD 환자들은 안정 시 호흡과 폐활량의 감소를 보이며,6 이로 인한 호흡곤란은 활동량 감소와 함께 호흡근의 약화를 초래한다.7,8. 보이타 치료는 일반적으로 뇌성마비 아동의 운동 기능 손상을 개선시키고자 하는 목적으로 적용되었으며,24 이에 따른 결과로 자세 조절과 호흡 근육의 활성화 및 들숨 시 가로막의 근 활성을 보고하였다.25,26 최근 많은 임상 연구자들은 호흡 기능 향상을 위해 보이타 치료를 적용하였으며,18-20,26 뇌성마비 아동뿐만이 아닌 정상 성인을 대상으로 보이타 치료를 적용한 논문이 보고되고 있다.27 따라서, 본 연 구에서는 젊은 흡연 남성을 대상으로 보이타 치료를 적용하여 FVC와 FEV1의 변화를 알아보고자 하였다.. 본 연구 결과 대상자 모두 보이타 치료 후 FVC가 ...
흡연은 폐 질환, 호흡기 질환들을 일으키는 주요 원인으로,11,23 그중 COPD 환자들은 안정 시 호흡과 폐활량의 감소를 보이며,6 이로 인한 호흡곤란은 활동량 감소와 함께 호흡근의 약화를 초래한다.7,8. 보이타 치료는 일반적으로 뇌성마비 아동의 운동 기능 손상을 개선시키고자 하는 목적으로 적용되었으며,24 이에 따른 결과로 자세 조절과 호흡 근육의 활성화 및 들숨 시 가로막의 근 활성을 보고하였다.25,26 최근 많은 임상 연구자들은 호흡 기능 향상을 위해 보이타 치료를 적용하였으며,18-20,26 뇌성마비 아동뿐만이 아닌 정상 성인을 대상으로 보이타 치료를 적용한 논문이 보고되고 있다.27 따라서, 본 연 구에서는 젊은 흡연 남성을 대상으로 보이타 치료를 적용하여 FVC와 FEV1의 변화를 알아보고자 하였다.. 본 연구 결과 대상자 모두 보이타 치료 후 FVC가 ...
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These may be an effective and less expensive method of preventing equipment contamination. The influence of commercially available in-line filters on forced expiratory measures, such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) has not been well characterised. A low-impedance barrier device was found not to have a significant effect on FVC and FEV1 14, whereas a barrier filter has been shown to cause small but significant reductions in FEV1 (-44 mL) and peak expiratory flow (PEF; -0.47 L·s−1), but did not appear to affect DL,CO, alveolar volume or TLC 15. Although significant differences between measurements with and without filters have been demonstrated for FVC, FEV1, airway resistance and specific airway conductance (sGaw) 16, these differences were unrelated to the average values of the measurements (except for sGaw), and the limits of agreement were within the range of intra-individual short-term repeatability for almost all of the function indices. ...
Our findings suggest that a higher total intake of fruits, and of apples in middle-aged adults in Europe, was associated with a slower FEV1 decline; whilst the intake of apples, bananas, tomatoes, herbal tea and vitamin C was associated with a slower FVC decline. These associations remained robust even after adjustment for relevant potential confounders, and our results suggest that these protective effects are likely of greater impact in those who have quit smoking. The intake of fruits and vegetables in the adult participants of the present study averaged just over 400 g (four fruits), with Germany reporting the lowest intake (265 g) and Norway reporting the highest (445 g).. Ageing and smoking are established risk factors for a steeper lung function decline in adults [22]; the role of diet, however, is less clear [23]. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is limited to very few studies, which have shown no effect of β-carotene or α-tocopherol [24, 25] on lung function. These ...
Effects of ambient (spirometer) temperature on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) changes over a work shift under actual field conditions were studied by reviewing data from 1,899 cotton workers who completed spirometric examinations both before and after a work shift as a part of an epidemiological survey. A total of 302 (15.9 percent) spirometric examinations were performed when the tem
Objective: The measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and its decline over time are prognostic indicators of early chronic airflow obstruction resulting in various pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants within genes encoding for cytokines may be associated with the age-related rate of FEV1 decline. Methods: Singl
There was no significant difference between treatment groups in: forced expiratory volume at one second, mean difference 0.33 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to 3.48); forced vital capacity, mean difference 0.29 (95% confidence interval -6.58 to 7.16); % weight for height, mean difference -0.82 (95% confidence interval -3.77 to 2.13); body mass index, mean difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval -0.42 to 0.42); or in the incidence of ototoxicity, relative risk 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 7.96). The percentage change in creatinine significantly favoured once-daily treatment in children, mean difference -8.20 (95% confidence interval -15.32 to -1.08), but showed no difference in adults, mean difference 3.25 (95% confidence interval -1.82 to 8.33 ...
The clinical significance of an isolated reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1); i.e., low FEV(1), but normal forced vital capacity [FVC] and FEV(1)/FVC) has not been established. To examine the clinical features of subjects
Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) Rate of Decline From Day 1 to 30 Days After Completion of Double Blinded Treatment [ Time Frame: Day 1 to 30 days after completion of double blinded treatment between Day 1 and 4 years plus 30 days ...
Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) Rate of Decline From Day 1 to 30 Days After Completion of Double Blinded Treatment [ Time Frame: Day 1 to 30 days after completion of double blinded treatment between Day 1 and 4 years plus 30 days ...
To investigate the relationship between airflow limitation and airway inflammation in smokers, we examined paraffin-embedded bronchial biopsies obtained from 30 smokers: 10 with severe airflow limitation, eight with mild/moderate airflow limitation, and 12 control smokers with normal lung function. …
Another exceedingly useful clinical pulmonary test, and one that is also simple, is to make a record on a spirometer of the forced expiratory vital ca
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The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P,0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P,0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) ...
Using a spirometer. A procedure to obtain measurements of lung capacities such as vital capacity and forced expiratory volumes - STUDY SHEET ...
Problem:SLP (Session Long Project) The dataset FEV.sav contains 6 variables: ID, age in years, FEV=forced expiratory volume in liters, height in inches, sex 0=female, 1=male, and smoke=current smoking s ...there is moreshow.
; van Hout, B. F. FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 Tadacip manufacturers пPhenotype ппTherapy on demand Permanent therapy пMild nonpersisting asthma пOccasional Taddacip attacks.
结果:369位病人入选,共220位随机化并接受了benralizumab或安慰剂治疗。相对于安慰剂组,治疗组患者口服糖皮质激素量减少了25%,两种benralizumab给药方案所在的试验组,其中位口服糖皮质激素量相对于基线减少了75%(两组间比P,0.001)。benralizumab组口服糖皮质激素减少的患者比例约超过了安慰剂组的4倍。在次要终点中,每4周benralizumab注射组中患者的每年加重率要比安慰剂组低55%(边缘率,0.83 vs. 1.83, P=0.003);每8周benralizumab注射组中患者的每年加重率要比安慰剂组低70%(边缘率, 0.54 vs. 1.83, P,0.001)。在28周时,相对于安慰剂组,两种benralizumab给药组均对患者的第1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)无显著影响。Benralizumab在多项哮喘症状指标中的效应不一,一些显示出显著的变化,而另一些则没有显著的变化。不良反应的发生率在benralizumab给药组和安慰剂组中大致相当 ...
my pulmanary doc is over does things..ive noticed this..i went there 1 time my blod p was high i have this..was 150/110....my whole 10 min was on this...its been...
SPOŠTOVANI. Pred kratkim sem opravila sistematski pregled. Dobila sem izvide laboratorijskih preiskav po pošti domov, sedaj pa me Zanima kaj ...
In this report, AFO prevalence is higher when the PREO criterion is applied. About 8.5% of all subjects had PREO-POSTN, whereas 3% had a PREN-POSTO spirometric pattern. In adjusted analysis, we found no difference in COPD features and outcomes between PREO-POSTN and PREN-POSTO subjects. Although both prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry are associated with chronic bronchitis, dyspnoea, exercise capacity and COPD radiographic findings, models that include postbronchodilator spirometric measures perform better than those with prebronchodilator measures to predict those outcomes. The predictive value of prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometries are relatively similar for respiratory exacerbations, change in FEV1 and dyspnoea from phase 1 to phase 2 visits. Both prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry are associated with mortality, but models that include postbronchodilator spirometric measures perform better than models with prebronchodilator spirometry. About ...
OBJECTIVE: the criteria for disease severity established by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease are based on forced expiratory volume in I second (FEV) expressed as a percentage of the predicted value after application of a bronchodilator. This study aims to determine postbronchodilator spirometry reference values.SUBJECTS and METHODS: A cluster sample of subjects aged 40 years or over was chosen to be representative of the metropolitan areas of 5 Latin American cities (São Paulo, Mexico City, Montevideo, Santiago, and Caracas). Spirometry was performed on 5183 subjects following the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society before and after inhalation of 200 mu g of salbutamol. Multiple linear regression equations were fitted for the postbronchodilator spirometric values-FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6), peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FEV6, FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity ...
In 415 nonsmoking asthmatic children who were seen consecutively, asthma symptoms were more severe if the mother was a smoker than if she was a nonsmoker. This applied to both sexes but was more marked in boys than in girls. There were also other indications that sons were the more severely affected: the forced expiratory volume at 1 second, the forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the forced vital capacity, and the provocation concentration of histamine needed to result in a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were significantly decreased only in the sons, and lung function test results were significantly less in sons than in daughters of mothers who smoked. When the 415 children were stratified according to age, lung function improved significantly with increasing age in the children of nonsmokers; in children of smokers, by contrast, symptoms and lung function test results became progressively worse. As well, there was a correlation between these ...
In 415 nonsmoking asthmatic children who were seen consecutively, asthma symptoms were more severe if the mother was a smoker than if she was a nonsmoker. This applied to both sexes but was more marked in boys than in girls. There were also other indications that sons were the more severely affected: the forced expiratory volume at 1 second, the forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the forced vital capacity, and the provocation concentration of histamine needed to result in a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were significantly decreased only in the sons, and lung function test results were significantly less in sons than in daughters of mothers who smoked. When the 415 children were stratified according to age, lung function improved significantly with increasing age in the children of nonsmokers; in children of smokers, by contrast, symptoms and lung function test results became progressively worse. As well, there was a correlation between these ...
The sensitivity and specificity of post-bronchodilator FEV1 increment at different cut-offs is shown in Table A3 in the appendix.. Discussion. This study showed that correlation between the sputum eosinophil level and bronchodilator reversibility was weak. Although COPD patients with VPBT (ΔFEV1>0.4L and >15%) had significantly higher levels of sputum eosinophils than those without, the ability of VPBT to predict sputum eosinophilia is modest (positive predictive value: 63.6%, overall accuracy: 70.1%). In contrast, levels of sputum eosinophils did not differ between groups when subjects were dichotomized according to the widely accepted criterion for PBT (ΔFEV1>0.2L and >12%),16 which was adopted in the GINA guidelines for asthma and the 2010 version of the GOLD guidelines for COPD.4,17. Current guidelines no longer consider the extent of bronchodilator reversibility to be beneficial in the diagnosis of COPD or the differential diagnosis with asthma, even though post-bronchodilator spirometry ...
1. The forced expiratory volume (FEV0·75) was measured at increasing mouth pressures in twenty-seven patients with obstructive airways disease. Attempts were made to divide the patients on clinical grounds into emphysematous, bronchitic or asthmatic categories; there was no evidence from the (FEV/mouth pressure) plots that their airways functioned differently during forced expiration.. 2. Static elastic recoil was measured in twelve patients. There was no evidence that this factor alone caused the loss of FEV in any patient.. 3. It is suggested that the use of the FEV as a test of respiratory function during the natural history of obstructive airways disease should be considered in three stages. There is an initial phase when peripheral airways disease develops with little or no alteration of the FEV. In the second phase the FEV decreases from normal values to below 1·0 litre, and at this stage is considered a sensitive indicator of peripheral airways resistance. In stage 3 the FEV is low and ...
Aims: To quantify and identify the pollen grains in the atmosphere of Delhi. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the National Centre of Respiratory Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute (VPCI), University of Delhi, Delhi, India. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted for 2 months at VPCI, University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi. Pollen grains were collected on a daily basis using 24-h Burkard (UK) volumetric air sampler. Trapped pollen film was stained with a fuchsin stain that is protected with a cover slip and examined under a light microscope. Identification was done with the help of manuals for pollen identification. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done by Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: In this study period (April and May 2017), a total of 10,858/m3 pollens were counted; of these, 7758/m3 pollens of 34 species of trees, weeds, and grasses were identified. Overall, Juniper sp. (1385/m3) pollen of tree was found to be the most ...
Little is known on the long-term validity of reference equations used in the calculation of FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC predicted values. This survey assessed the prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction in a population-based sample and how it is influenced by: (i) the definition of airflow obstruction; and (ii) equations used to calculate predicted values. Subjects aged 45 or more were recruited in health prevention centers, performed spirometry and fulfilled a standardized ECRHS-derived questionnaire. Previously diagnosed cases and risk factors were identified. Prevalence of airflow obstruction was calculated using: (i) ATS-GOLD definition (FEV(1)/FVC,0.70); and (ii) ERS definition (FEV(1)/FVC,lower limit of normal) with European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) reference equations and with predicted values derived from the presumably normal fraction of the studied population. A total of 5008 subjects (4764 adequate datasets) were studied. Prevalence of airflow obstruction was 8.71% with ...
Background. Few studies have examined the relationships between sputum inflammatory markers and subsequent annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (dFEV1). This study investigated whether indices of airway inflammation are predictors of dFEV1 in a general population-based sample.. Methods. The study, conducted from 2003 to 2005, included 120 healthy Norwegian subjects aged 40 to 70 years old. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administered respiratory questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination that included spirometry, venous blood sampling, and induced sputum examination. From 2015 to 2016, 62 (52%) participants agreed to a follow-up examination that did not include induced sputum examination. Those with a FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.70 underwent a bronchial reversibility test. The levels of cytokines, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotypes were measured in induced sputum using bead-based multiplex analysis. The associations between cytokine ...
This study has shown for the first time that patients with moderate to severe COPD who suffered frequent exacerbations (,2.92 per year) experienced a significantly greater decline in FEV1 of 40 ml/year and in PEF of 2.9 l/min/year than patients who had infrequent exacerbations (,2.92 per year) in whom FEV1 declined by only 32 ml/year and PEF by 0.7 l/min/year. Similar differences in the decline in FEV1 were found whether or not the patient visited a physician at exacerbation. Frequent exacerbations were also associated with a faster decline in FEV1 if allowance was made for smoking status, although there was only a relatively small effect of smoking, possibly because there was only one smoker in the infrequent exacerbator group. A faster decline in the group with frequent exacerbations could be explained by less treatment of their exacerbations, but during the study we found no change over time in the probability of treatment of exacerbations with antibiotics or oral steroids in the frequent and ...
High bronchodilator reversibility in adult asthma is associated with distinct clinical characteristics. In this study, we aim to make a comparison with T-helper 2 (Th2)-related biomarkers, lung function and asthma control between asthmatic patients with high airway reversibility (HR) and low airway reversibility (LR). Patients with asthma diagnosed by pulmonologist according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were recruited from the outpatient department of our hospital from August 2014 to July 2017. Patients were divided into HR and LR subgroups based on their response to bronchodilators of lung function (HR = Δforced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) postbronchodilator ≥ 20%). Blood eosinophil count and serum IgE level, which are biomarkers of T-helper (Th)-2 phenotypes, were detected for patients. Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control after the first-month initial treatment. A total of 265 patients with asthma were followed 1 month after initial treatment. HR
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term outcomes of individuals with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). METHODS: A population cohort of 6671 randomly selected adults without asthma was stratified into categories of modified GOLD-defined COPD (prebronchodilator spirometry). Further stratification was based on the presence or absence of respiratory symptoms. After 11 years, associations between baseline categories of COPD and decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), respiratory care utilisation and quality of life as measured by the SF-36 questionnaire were examined after controlling for age, sex, smoking and educational status. RESULTS: At baseline, modified GOLD criteria were met by 610 (9.1%) participants, 519 (85.1%) of whom had stage 1 COPD. At follow-up, individuals with symptomatic stage 1 COPD (n = 224) had a faster decline in FEV(1) (-9 ml/year (95% CI -13 to -5)), increased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exertional Desaturation as a Predictor of Rapid Lung Function Decline in COPD. AU - Kim, Changhwan. AU - Seo, Joon Beom. AU - Lee, Sang Min. AU - Lee, Jae Seung. AU - Huh, Jin Won. AU - Lee, Jin Hwa. AU - Ra, Seung Won. AU - Lee, Ji Hyun. AU - Kim, Eun Kyung. AU - Kim, Tae Hyung. AU - Kim, Woo Jin. AU - Lee, Sang Min. AU - Lee, Sang Yeub. AU - Lim, Seong Yong. AU - Shin, Tae Rim. AU - Yoon, Ho Il. AU - Sheen, Seung Soo. AU - Oh, Yeon Mok. AU - Park, Yong Bum. AU - Lee, Sang Do. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Background: To date, no clinical parameter has been associated with the decline in lung function other than emphysema severity in COPD. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to explore whether the rate of lung function decline differs between COPD patients with and without exertional desaturation. Methods: A total of 224 subjects were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Exertional desaturation was assessed using the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and ...
Morgan et al. (2013) concluded that cystic fibrosis (CF) in children and adolescents with a high baseline forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were less likely to have a therapeutic intervention or slower rate of FEV1 decline after a single acute decline in FEV1 of 10%. This conclusion is not well supported due to the arbitrary criteria used for defining a pulmonary exacerbation, as explained below. First, only a single low FEV1 value defined an exacerbation. However, FEV1 measurements are notoriously variable from test to test; Taylor-Robinson et al.(2012) showed that the baseline fluctuations have a wide range of about 60%. FEV1 tests are sensitive to time of day, health status, mood, tiredness, lack of sleep, medical instruction, nutritional status, acute comorbidities, and other factors CFF (2011). Given that a single FEV1 assessment was used, rather than the average of repeated measurements on different days, evidence that the assessment values were technically accurate. Second, an exacerbation was
In this analysis of a large, prospective, population based cohort, lung function impairment was associated with an increased risk of having or developing CVD in adults; the highest risks were observed among those with GOLD 2 (moderate) and GOLD 3 or 4 (severe/very severe) COPD. After adjusting for multiple covariates, including age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol levels and fibrinogen levels, the relation between lung function impairment and CVD was reduced, suggesting that some of this relation may be mediated through these other factors.. Previous research suggests that systemic inflammation present in COPD leads to the increased CVD risk, and that treatment aimed at decreasing inflammation in those with COPD may decrease the development of cardiovascular disease or reduce event recurrence. Vascular inflammation may also contribute to impaired airway vascular smooth muscle relaxation in COPD. Treatment with agents that affect systemic inflammation or vascular ...
The British Medical Journal has published study that assess the impact on smoking cessation of quoting estimated lung age following spirometry.
This device is used to measure Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1-second (FEV1) in both children and adults. PEF is the fastest speed air can be blown out of the lungs after inhalation. FEV1 measures the volume after exhaling in 1-second. Peak Flow (PEF) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1-second (FEV1) measurements can tell how well lungs are breathing by monitoring airflow. Doctors can have patients monitor changes in airflow and record the results. The automatic memory stores and provides easy access to the last 240 readings along with the time and date.. Enter your model numberto make sure this fits ...
This device is used to measure Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1-second (FEV1) in both children and adults. PEF is the fastest speed air can be blown out of the lungs after inhalation. FEV1 measures the volume after exhaling in 1-second. Peak Flow (PEF) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1-second (FEV1) measurements can tell how well lungs are breathing by monitoring airflow. Doctors can have patients monitor changes in airflow and record the results. The automatic memory stores and provides easy access to the last 240 readings along with the time and date.. ...
Definition of forced vital capacity in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is forced vital capacity? Meaning of forced vital capacity as a finance term. What does forced vital capacity mean in finance?
As soon as your lungs show a significant worsening in lung function, with a drop in forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) of 20% or more, the test is considered complete. You will be given an inhaled bronchodilator treatment (usually albuterol or levalbuterol) to help re-open your airways. You will then repeat the spirometry test to make sure your lungs have returned to normal. The concentration of the methacholine given at this point will be your test result. If you do not have a drop in function or symptoms, the last dose given is the result ...
Regressive models were used to search for possible major gene effects on pulmonary function in two groups of families: one ascertained through patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD defined as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) less than 70% forced vital capacity (FVC)] …
Abstract. Background: pulmonary function can change with age for normal individuals .Spirometric measurement for the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity and the ratio (FEV1/FVC) can reveal airway obstruction and the consequence change in pulmonary performance. These parameters can be different for different race /ethnic and gender.Methods: Pulmonary function test were carried out on 29normal male and 37 normal female the test parameters were FEV1 and FVC from which the ratio of FEV1/FVC %was calculated in relation to age. Iraqi average for FEV1 and FVC and FEV1/FVC % has also been obtainedResults: results of these tests reveled that the ratio of FEV1/FVC % is almost the same for individuals ages between 20-60 and a significant depression in the value of the ratio FEV1/FVC % for ages > 60 years.Conclusion: the effect may be linked with some changes in the airways in addition to the increased weakness in the muscles in the old age people. Keyword: ...
Methods. Participants (n = 1784) with complete postbronchodilator spirometry who did not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at time of enrollment in the COPDGene study were included in this study. Subjects were classified as RSP if they had forced expiratory volume in 1 s(FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio , 0.7 with an FVC , 80%. Computed tomography (CT) scans were scored for the presence of DISH in accordance with the Resnick criteria. Chest CT measures of interstitial and alveolar lung disease, clinical symptoms, health surveys, and 6-min walking distance were recorded. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to test the association of DISH with RSP. ...
For example, your FEV1 may be 80% of predicted based on your height, weight, and race. The volume of air that can be forced out in one second after taking a deep breath, an important measure of pulmonary function. FEV1: The maximum amount of air expired in one second. How is the FEV1 test performed? FEV1 is a marker for the degree of obstruction with your asthma:1? FEV1/ FVC. Looking for the definition of FEV1? Your FEV1 value is an important part of evaluating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and monitoring progression of the condition. For well over thirty years my lab has used an FEV1/FVC ratio of 95% of predicted as the cutoff for normalcy. FVC is the … Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the total amount of air exhaled during the FEV test. FEV1 and FVC are tests used in the diagnosis of various lung diseases. This means that over time, your COPD will typically worsen. This percentage can help stage COPD. To make the comparison between your FEV1 score and your predicted value, your ...
This four-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging Phase 2b trial enrolled a total of 416 patients with moderate-to-severe symptomatic COPD at 46 sites in the U.S. The trial is designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nebulized ensifentrine as an add-on to inhaled tiotropium, a long acting anti-muscarinic (LAMA) commonly used to treat patients with COPD.. Patients will receive nebulized ensifentrine at four dose levels: 0.375 mg, 0.75 mg, 1.5 mg and 3.0 mg or placebo twice daily for four weeks. The trials primary endpoint is improvement in lung function with ensifentrine after four weeks of treatment, as measured by peak forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), a standard measure of lung function. Key additional endpoints include other lung function measures, as well as measurements of symptoms associated with COPD and quality of life outcomes. For further information on this clinical trial, please visit ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03937479.. Verona Pharma is ...
In the past three decades, mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has risen dramatically, making COPD the fourth leading cause of death in 2000.1 Compared with people with normal lung function, subjects with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ,50% predicted) followed for 22 years as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) had a 2.7-fold increased risk of death (95% CI 2.1 to 3.5) in an adjusted analysis.2 This trend is apparent in men and women, more prominent in black Americans, and clearly related to cigarette smoking. For the first time, in 2000 more women than men died of COPD in the U.S.1 Admissions to ICUs for exacerbations of COPD account for a substantial portion of bed-days,3 since these patients often require prolonged ventilatory support. In surgical ICUs, COPD is an important problem as well, since it is one of the more common reasons for a prolonged postoperative recovery. An approach to this disease is an ...
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, are associated with significant long-term lung function loss, according to research published online, ahead of print in the American Thoracic Societys American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, are associated with significant long-term lung function loss, according to research published online, ahead of print in the American Thoracic Societys |em||a target=_blankhref=http://www.atsjournals.org/journal/ajrccm|American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine|/a||/em|.
Sir,I read with interest the article on hospital doctors assessment of baseline spirometry, by Stephenson and colleagues, in a recent issue of this journal.1 It is indeed a matter of great concern that only 12% of the respondents could accurately interpret all the five vitalographs given to them. What is still more disturbing is the fact that the correct interpretation for the third vitalograph was considered as combined defect. This vitalograph, in a 77-year-old man, shows a mild reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) (63% of predicted) and a severe reduction in both the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio (30% and 38%, respectively). The volume-time curve provided is also flattened, indicating diminished expiratory flow. All these features are consistent with a obstructive rather than a combined defect. As per standard guidelines on interpretation of spirometry,2 an obstructive defect should be diagnosed when the decrease in FEV1 is out of proportion ...
The objective of this study was to determine whether or not exposure to a low level of nitrogen dioxide could cause cardio-respiratory effects in health elderly people. Ten healthy subjects (67-85 years of age) were exposed to clean air and 300 ppb nitrogen dioxide for 30 minutes while at rest. Pulmonary function measurements assessed were forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 25-75 and peak flow (PEF). Cardiac function measurements assessed were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate variability (HRV). Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured as airway inflammation markers. Baseline measurements were conducted before exposure followed by two post exposures, 1hour after (PE1) and 18 hours after (PE2) exposure.. Paired t-tests were used to compare all the health measurements between air and NO2 exposure. Results of this study showed no ...
Aug 20, 2020 3.7 L p = 0.00 , mean forced expiratory volume in the first second FEV was The stone and marble industry is one of the most important and active am ...
This study included 23 patients with RP who underwent both CT and PFTs. In each patient, the mean lung density (MLD) was obtained by averaging CT attenuation of the lung parenchyma on both inspiratory and expiratory CT. The ratio of expiratory MLD to inspiratory MLD (E/I ratio) was also calculated. Correlations between those quantitative CT measurements and the results of PFTs were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Results: The expiratory MLD and E/I ratio were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) %predicted, ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC), and the mid expiratory phase of forc ...
Phase II trials for asthma treatment showed increased lung function for patients, showing increased forced expiratory volume. " ...
The volume exhaled in the first second is called the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). These flow rates can be ... Plethysmography measures lung volume by having the subject perform breathing tests inside of an air tight box. Flow rates can ...
A slightly reduced to normal forced vital capacity (FVC), and a reduced FEV1 to FVC ratio and forced expiratory volume (FEV) ... forced expiratory volume in 1 second) should be above 80% of predicted values to be considered normal. Obliterative ... Lung volume tests may show hyperinflation (excessive air in lungs caused by air trapping). Diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO ... Arakawa H, Webb WR (May 1998). "Air trapping on expiratory high-resolution CT scans in the absence of inspiratory scan ...
It is not unusual for DLCO to be reduced out of proportion to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Reduction in DLCO ... Preservation of lung volumes in the presence of increased interstitial markings is a radiographic hallmark of LAM that helps ... The average residual volume was 125% of predicted when measured by plethysmography, but was only 103% of predicted determined ... alveolar septal and interstitial expansion tend to increase the lung's elastic recoil properties and decreased lung volumes.[ ...
... demonstrated by reduction in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. This reduction in total lung volume sets ... Effect of Varying the Preparatory Diet Upon the Yield of Abnormal Young: Four Figures, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 35, ... As a result, the mediastinal and skeletal shift toward the volume loss side. Recent approach involves the implantation of ... as the mediastinal and skeletal shift towards the volume-loss side. If the defect is extensive but there is a chance for the ...
... is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory ... forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. Asthma may also be classified as atopic ( ... Testing peak expiratory flow is more variable than spirometry, however, and thus not recommended for routine diagnosis. It may ... In a mild exacerbation the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is ≥200 L/min, or ≥50% of the predicted best. Moderate is defined ...
It involves testing with methacholine, after which the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of the patient is measured. ... A spirometer is a device used to measure timed expired and inspired volumes, and can be used to help diagnose occupational ... In this case, the individual's peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is measured, showing how fast a person can exhale.[unreliable ...
An increase in FEV1 (or forced expiratory volume in the first second of a forced exhalation) of >200ml is considered a positive ... "Flow and volume responses after routine salbutamol reversibility testing in mild to very severe COPD - Respiratory Medicine". ...
Butxaduraren indikatzailea FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second) da. Honen arabera larritasunaren hiru maila daude: 1. ...
Caffeine improves airway function in asthma, increasing forced expiratory volume (FEV1) by 5% to 18%, with this effect lasting ...
... and forced expiratory volume (FEV). These values differ in men and women because men tend to be larger than women. TLC is the ... During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal ... RV is the amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation. The average RV in men is 1200 ml and women 1100 ml. VC is ... The internal surface of the lungs on average in a non-emphysemic person is normally 63m2 and can hold about 5lts of air volume ...
COPD is defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) that is less than 0.7. The ... In COPD, there is an increase in airway resistance, shown by a decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ... residual volume, the volume of air left in the lungs following full expiration, is often increased in COPD, as is the total ... Severe emphysema has been treated with lung volume reduction surgery, with some success in carefully chosen cases. Lung ...
FEV1: Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second edo Behartutako Arnasbeherako Bolumena Segundu 1ean. ... FEF %25-75 edo %25-50: Forced Expiratory Flow edo Behartutako Arnasbeherako Fluxua. ... FVC: Forced Vital Capacity edo Behartutako Bizi Edukiera.. Parametro hau jaitsita egon daiteke arnas gaixotasun murriztaileetan ...
... forced expiratory volume in 1 second). Additionally, specially developed image fusion methods overlaying functional EIT-data ... EIT lung imaging can resolve the changes in the regional distribution of lung volumes between e.g. dependent and non-dependent ... EIT determines relative impedance changes that may be caused by either ventilation or changes of end-expiratory lung volume. ... In addition to visual information (e.g. regional distribution of tidal volume), EIT measurements provide raw data sets that can ...
... leading to an elevated residual volume and a measurement of forced expiratory volume. Air trapping is often incidentally ... On expiratory films, retained hyperlucent gas will be visualised in cases of air trapping. Air trapping represents poorly ... On diving the lung volume collapses and pushes air into the poorly aerated regions. On arising from a deep depth, these air- ... U. Joseph Schoepf; "6.4.9.5 Expiratory Hyperinflation - Air Trapping", Multidetector-Row CT of the Thorax Birkhäuser, 2005, p. ...
... and elevated forced expiratory volume in FEV1/FVC.[citation needed] To date, no treatment has been proven to effectively ... As the disease progresses, pulmonary function tests reveal typical features of a restrictive defect with reduced forced vital ...
... and lowered forced expiratory volume. Emphysema has been associated with indium lung, but may not be part of the syndrome. Lung ...
... lower forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1) predicted, impaired walking capacity or increased number of exacerbations) as ...
... a British investment trust Forced expiratory volume Full electric vehicle Forschungsgesellschaft für Energietechnik und ...
It appears that caffeine in low doses improves airway function in people with asthma, increasing forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ... 2 Volume Set. Volume 1. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 557-558. ISBN 978-1-118-84547-9. Table 34-12... Caffeine Intoxication ... The extraction process is simple: CO 2 is forced through the green coffee beans at temperatures above 31.1 °C and pressures ... Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are consumed globally in high volumes. In 2020, almost 10 million ...
... "forced expiratory volume in one second" (the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of a breath), ...
In restrictive lung disease, both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are reduced, ... Pulmonary function test demonstrates a decrease in the forced vital capacity. Due to the chronic nature of this disease, the ... During inspiration, the lungs expand to allow airflow into the lungs and thereby increasing total volume. After inspiration ... Restrictive lung disease is characterized by reduced lung volumes, and therefore reduced lung compliance, either due to an ...
... researchers showed that the use of benzoctamine for sedation did not result in changes in forced expiratory volume in one ... The average time to achieve peak plasma concentrations is 1 hour and the volume of distribution for a 70 kg person is 1-2 l/kg ...
On spirometry, as a restrictive lung disease, both the FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and FVC (forced vital ... The values for residual volume and total lung capacity are generally decreased in restrictive lung disease. Pulmonary fibrosis ...
... the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 8.2% higher than under placebo in this group (measured from the respective ...
Comparison of Forced Expiratory Volumes Measured with Structured Light Plethysmography (SLP) and Spirometry Eugene Lau, Douglas ... For forced expiration the correlation was shown to be 0.98, n=70 mean correlation was 0.98 with an SD of 0.12. For forced ... The thoracic volume is calculated from the volume beneath the reconstructed virtual surface and can be plotted in real time. ... The technique used the distortion with movement of a structured pattern of light to calculate a volume or change in volume of a ...
Decreases in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1) after allergen challenge after 4 weeks of inhalation of pitrakinra supports ... In addition to improvements in the late asthmatic response, measurement of Fractional Expiratory Nitric Oxide (FENO) indicates ...
... peak expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.230 - forced expiratory volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.500 - maximal ... forced expiratory flow rates MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.500 - maximal expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.505 ... expiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.275.650 - residual volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900 - vital ... maximal expiratory flow-volume curves MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.510 - maximal midexpiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700. ...
Average values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( ... Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ... Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ... Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)[edit]. FEV1 is the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out in one second, ...
... the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first ... an improvement in forced expiratory volume (FEV1%), and potential improvements in quality of life when compared to treatment ... second of a breath, and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a ... For those with very severe disease, surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume-reduction ...
... with a tidal volume ranging from 1.2-1.5 L (0.26-0.33 imp gal; 0.32-0.40 US gal).[62][65] The tidal volume is seen to double ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs[62] and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. ... therefore forcing air and heat removal without the loss of metabolic salts.[82] Panting allows the common ostrich to have a ... The red blood cell count per unit volume in the ostrich is about 40% of that of a human; however, the red blood cells of the ...
Manual resuscitators have no built-in tidal volume control - the amount of air used to force-inflate the lungs during each ... Positive end-expiratory pressure[edit]. Some devices have PEEP valve connectors, for better positive airway pressure ... a b Dörges V, Sauer C, Ocker H, Wenzel V, Schmucker P. Smaller tidal volumes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison ... Influence of tidal volume on the distribution of gas between the lungs and the stomach in the nonintubated patient receiving ...
A target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) and a plateau pressure less than 30 cm H2O is recommended for ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.[40] ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ... Although dopamine is useful to increase the stroke volume of the heart, it causes more abnormal heart rhythms than ...
... and contributory factors probably include tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and respiratory rate. There is no ... shearing forces, particularly associated with rapid changes in gas velocity.. The resultant alveolar rupture can lead to ... Boyle's law describes the relationship between the volume of the gas space and the pressure in the gas.[1][21] ... "South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS) Journal Volume 30 No.4 December 2000. South Pacific Underwater Medicine ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure[edit]. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated people with ... respiratory failure not explained by heart failure or volume overload. *decreased PaO. 2/FiO. 2 ratio (a decreased PaO. 2/FiO. ... ARDS Definition Task Force". JAMA. 307 (23): 2526-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5669. PMC 3408735 . PMID 22797452.. ... Low tidal volumes (Vt) may cause a permitted rise in blood carbon dioxide levels and collapse of alveoli[10] because of their ...
... confirmed by a persistent drop-three or more weeks-in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) by at least 20%.[17] BOS is seen in over ...
Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999- ... Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flowrate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.[1] ... ERS Task Force on the Management of Work-related, Asthma (2012 Jun 1). "The management of work-related asthma guidelines: a ... Part II of the report from the Joint Task Force of European Respiratory Society (ERS) and European Academy of Allergy and ...
... forced expiratory volume in one second))和呼氣流量峰值來分類[11]。氣喘也可以分為特應性(英語:Atopy)(外來的)或非特應性(固有的)[12],此處特應性指的是向類別1型超敏性反應發展的傾向。[13]。 ... Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. Dermatology:2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. 2007. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. ... ERS Task Force on the Management of Work-related, Asthma. The management of work-related asthma guidelines: a broader ... Part II of
... associated with an increased incidence of Aspirin-induced asthma and a greater percentage fall in the forced expiratory volume ...
A target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) and a plateau pressure less than 30 cm H2O is recommended for ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.[35] ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ... Although dopamine is useful to increase the stroke volume of the heart, it causes more abnormal heart rhythms than ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) as a proportion of ... the inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume are the additional amounts a person is able to forcibly inhale and ... Not all air is expelled from the lungs even after a forced breath out; the remainder of the air is called the residual volume. ... The blood volume of the lungs, is about 450 millilitres on average, about 9% of the total blood volume of the entire ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which delivers air at a given pressure at the end of the expiratory cycle, can reduce ... A large amount of force is required to cause pulmonary contusion; a person injured with such force is likely to have other ... Cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped by the heart) may be reduced, and hypotension (low blood pressure) is frequently ... The pressure wave forces tissue out of the way, creating a temporary cavity; the tissue readily moves back into place, but it ...
1959-1961 Consultant, Scientific Advisory Board, U.S. Air Force. *1960-1962 Chairman, Committee on Man-in-Space, Space Science ... Johnson PC, Driscoll TB, Alexander WC, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Body fluid volume changes during a 14-day continuous ... "Breath-by-breath sampling of end-expiratory gas". J Appl Physiol. 14: 711-6. PMID 14413613. Retrieved 2008-06-13 ... 1948 General Jacob L. Devers, U.S.A. Commanding General, U.S. Army Ground Forces ...
Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ... Expiratory reserve volume: the maximal volume of air that can be exhaled from the end-expiratory position. ... The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume can be measured directly with a spirometer ... Forced vital capacity: the determination of the vital capacity from a maximally forced expiratory effort. ...
It involves measuring the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV-1) of the patient before and after exposure to methacholine ... Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a hand held device which measures how fast a person can exhale and is a reliable test for ... A spirometer is a device used to measure timed expired and inspired volumes, and can be used to help diagnose asthma. ... "Statement on self-monitoring of peak expiratory flows in the investigation of occupational asthma. Subcommittee on Occupational ...
Lung volumes Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE, Cortese DA (July 1975). "Influence of expiratory flow on closing capacity at low expiratory ... after forced expiration. This is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume. This means that ... The closing capacity is greater than the residual volume (RV), the amount of gas that normally remains in the lungs during ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the respiratory bronchioles, collapse. The ...
... and leads to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. This culminates in a 20% decrease in functional ... As measured by a force platform, parameters used to measure postural stability. Adapted from McCrory et al. 2010 ... During pregnancy the plasma volume increases by 40-50% and the red blood cell volume increases only by 20-30%.[15] These ... A pregnant woman may experience an increase in the size of the kidneys and ureter due to the increase blood volume and ...
... forced expiratory flow, and impaired lung function.[148] It is also thought that electronic cigarette use can expose ... Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2017: Volume I, Secondary school students (PDF) (Report). 1. ... Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 163 (8): 622-34. doi:10.7326/M15-2023. ... the United States Preventive Services Task Force advised only use of conventional NRT products in smoking cessation and found ...
On application of expiratory force, pressure rises inside the chest forcing blood out of the pulmonary circulation into the ... The output of the heart is reduced and stroke volume falls. This occurs from 5 to about 14 seconds in the illustration. The ... This will elicit the cardiovascular responses described below but will not force air into the Eustachian tubes.[citation needed ... The Valsalva maneuver is commonly believed to be the optimal breathing pattern for producing maximal force and is frequently ...
... the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first ... A peak expiratory flow (the maximum speed of expiration), commonly used in asthma, is not sufficient for the diagnosis of COPD ... second of a breath, and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a ... van Agteren, JE; Carson, KV; Tiong, LU; Smith, BJ (14 October 2016). "Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema". The ...
Kumar R, Birrer BV, Macey PM, Woo MA, Gupta RK, Yan-Go FL, Harper RM (June 2008). "Reduced mammillary body volume in patients ... AASM Task Force (1999). "Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Adults - Recommendations for Syndrome Definition and Measurement ... "Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Sleep Disorders ... Kumar R, Birrer BV, Macey PM, Woo MA, Gupta RK, Yan-Go FL, Harper RM (June 2008). "Reduced mammillary body volume in patients ...
As the force of dust passing over loosely held particles increases, particles of sand first start to vibrate, then to move ... A sandstorm can transport and carry large volumes of sand unexpectedly. Dust storms can carry large amounts of dust, with the ... "Effects of ambient particulate matter on peak expiratory flow rates and respiratory symptoms of asthmatics during Asian dust ... the intensity of Mars storms could never reach the kind of hurricane-force winds that are experienced on Earth. Martian dust ...
I want to know: 1. How is Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1) measured in case of asthma? 2. Is it necessary to boil the ... How to measure Forced Expiratory Volume?. Answered by: Dr Neeraj Jain , Senior Consultant and Head, Dept. of Respiratory ... I want to know: 1. How is Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1) measured in case of asthma? 2. Is it necessary to boil the ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » How to measure Forced Expiratory Volume? ...
Computed tomography derived vascular injury marker correlates with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) loss in World ... In future studies, we plan to analyze expiratory CT images and correlate with other markers of heart disease. Increased PA/A ...
Peripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume Ruth M. Cayton Ruth M. Cayton ... 1. The forced expiratory volume (FEV0·75) was measured at increasing mouth pressures in twenty-seven patients with obstructive ... Ruth M. Cayton, P. Howard; Peripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume. Clin Sci 1 April 1972 ... plots that their airways functioned differently during forced expiration. ...
Rapidly decreasing forced expiratory volume in one second or vital capacity and development of chronic airflow obstruction.. ... In a prospective study of 2,406 members of the Belgian Air Force, followed for 3 to 15 yr, 325 demonstrated a yearly decline in ...
New concepts for expressing forced expiratory volume in 1 s arising from survival analysis. M. R. Miller, O. F. Pedersen ... Plot showing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 11,979 patients expressed as: a) raw data; b) percentage predicted FEV1 ... Age, survival and forced expiratory volume in 1 s expressed as a standardised residual(FEV1SR) in each of the three components ... Since the PP method retains sex, age and Ht bias, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) standardised by powers of Ht and by a ...
... Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988 ... standardized respiratory illness and smoking questionnaire and provided forced expiratory volume-time curves from which forced ... and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were derived. A nonparametric curve smoothing method was used to provide an ... study have been used to investigate patterns of growth and decline of lung function derived from maximal forced expiratory ...
Forced Expiratory Volume and Forced Vital Capacity. Topic Overview. Forced expiratory volume (FEV) measures how much air a ... Forced expiratory volume and forcedvital capacityare lung function tests that are measured duringspirometry. Forced expiratory ... Home , Patients & Visitors , Health Library , Forced Expiratory Volume and Forced Vital Capacity ... Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the total amount of air exhaled during the FEV test. ...
The available data were forced vital capacity, FEV1, peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital ... Home telemonitoring (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in children with severe asthma does not reduce exacerbations. A. ... We stated that forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the gold standard for airway obstruction assessment, may be a better ... Home telemonitoring (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in children with severe asthma does not reduce exacerbations ...
Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s per forced vital capacity. Graphs show ... Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) per forced vital capacity in ... A lower level of forced expiratory volume in 1 second is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a Japanese ... Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s. The graphs show the ...
Volume 43, Issue 228 *Normal values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1-0), and peak flow rate (PFR ... Normal values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1-0), and peak flow rate (PFR) in children. ...
Low forced expiratory volume is associated with blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress in a community sample ... Low forced expiratory volume, expressed as a ratio to height squared was associated with blunted heart rate, but not blood ... Low forced expiratory volume is associated with blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress in a community sample ... Carroll D, Hunt K, Phillips A, Der G, Bibbey A, Benzeval M & Gintey A (2013) Low forced expiratory volume is associated with ...
Forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC(%), and total lung capacity (TLC) were ... Forced expiratory time was moderately useful for diagnosing obstructive airways disease. ACP J Club. 1994 Mar-April;120:43. doi ... Forced expiratory time was moderately useful in the diagnosis of obstructive airways disease. There was substantial agreement ... Positive likelihood ratios for forced expiratory time in diagnosing obstructive airways disease in patients ≥ 60 years of age ...
shorter, fixed time duration of the forced. expiratory manoeuvre, and evaluates the role of. the forced expiratory volume in ... Usefulness of the forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) as an alternative for the forced vital capacity (FVC) in ... Usefulness of the forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) as an alternative for the forced vital capacity (FVC) in ... diagnostic parameters are the forced vital. capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in. one second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ...
... N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 29;365(13):1184-92. doi: 10.1056/ ... is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and ...
Forced expiratory volume This measurement, known as FEV1, represents the amount of air that a person can force out of their ... Forced vital capacity. This measurement, written as FVC, refers to the amount of air that a person can expel from their lungs ... Lung volume reduction: This involves removing the least functional part of the lung to improve function in the remaining ... This involves using a device called a spirometer to measure the force with which the person can exhale. ...
... /forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (fev1/fev6) is a suboptimal surrogate for fev1/ ... forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the ratio of FEV1/FVC, and maximum expiratory flow at the point 25% of the flow-volume ... forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate and forced vital capacity were recorded at different times ... forced Expiratory volume in second. Symptoms are More important than your numbers category is FEV 1 indicates Expiratory... Et ...
... is to make a record on a spirometer of the forced expiratory vital ca ... Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume. Another exceedingly useful clinical pulmonary test, and one that ... Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume - , Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki ... Therefore, it is customary to compare the recorded forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1) with the normal. In ...
Forced expiratory volume (FEV1). A test used to diagnose or monitor lung disease, measuring how much air a person can force out ... Forced vital capacity (FVC). A test used to diagnose or monitor lung disease, measuring the maximum amount of air that can be ...
Forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1) Abstract. Background: To determine the relationship of Forced Expiratory Volume in ... Correlation Between FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second) and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure among Patients of Chronic ... All the patients were also subjected to spirometery for the measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second. Spearmans ... Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second) and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure among Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ...
FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second, HR peak peak heart rate, RER respiratory exchange ratio, VO 2peak peak oxygen ... We calculated percent-predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) using reference equations from Quanjer et al ... 1) without forced expiratory technique. The breathing maneuvers started with a slightly deep inspiration, a 2-3 s end- ... Higher volumes of Flutter® therapy (6 cycles à 15 breaths) combined with huffing and coughing (forced expiration technique, FET ...
The value of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in screening subjects with stable COPD for PaO2 , 7.3 kPa qualifying for long-term ... Lim, S., MacRae, K. D., Seed, W. A., & Roberts, C. M. (1998). The value of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in screening ... suggest differing values of forced expiratory volume in is (FEV1) below which arterial blood gas analysis should be performed ... Comparative measures were taken against other lung function tests of volume and diffusing capacity. A retrospective analysis of ...
Details are given of animal preparation, pulmonary function testing apparatus, comparative data of dynamic lung volumes and ... NIOSH-Author; Forced-vital-capacity; Forced-expiratory-volume; Experimental-models; Laboratory-animals; Respiratory-function- ... Details are given of animal preparation, pulmonary function testing apparatus, comparative data of dynamic lung volumes and ...
Average values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( ... Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ... Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ... Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)[edit]. FEV1 is the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out in one second, ...
Forced Expiratory Volume. In addition to lung capacity, smoking results in difficulty in exhaling the carbon dioxide that is ... of the benefits of quitting smoking that occurs after only 2 weeks is an increase in both lung capacity and expiratory volume. ...
Forced expiratory flows and volumes in infants: Normative data and lung growth. American journal of respiratory and critical ... N2 - Forced expiratory flows (FEF) can be measured in infants from lung volumes initiated near total lung capacity. In order to ... AB - Forced expiratory flows (FEF) can be measured in infants from lung volumes initiated near total lung capacity. In order to ... Forced expiratory flows (FEF) can be measured in infants from lung volumes initiated near total lung capacity. In order to ...
Forced Expiratory Volume (1 Second) and Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Friedman, Gary D. ...
Smoking explained the lower forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second of the fur garment workers. The ... maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; rhinitis; smoking.. ...
... one-second forced expiratory volume; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; siderosis; smoking; statistical aspects; vital ... A study of lung volume, ventilatory capacity and pulmonary mechanics in 14 persons with pure occupational pulmonary siderosis ... residual volume/total lung capacity = 29,2%; FEV% = 73,35%; maximum breathing capacity 93,6%; static lung compliance = 0.275L/ ...
Forced Expiratory Volume 1 = ¯ FEV1 , ¯ ¯ . Forced Expiratory Flow = ¯ FEF . ¯ ¯ Peak Expiratory Flow = PEF Maximum Mid- ...
Forced expiratory flow. FEV. Forced expiratory volume. FITC. Fluorescein isothiocyanate. GVL. Graft-versus-leukemia ...
  • The amount of air exhaled may be measured during the first (FEV1), second (FEV2), and/or third seconds (FEV3) of the forced breath. (northshore.org)
  • How is Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1) measured in case of asthma? (ndtv.com)
  • In a prospective study of 2,406 members of the Belgian Air Force, followed for 3 to 15 yr, 325 demonstrated a yearly decline in FEV1 and/or in vital capacity (VC) that was significantly faster than that expected in healthy nonsmokers. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increased abdominal muscle strength on forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). (nih.gov)
  • At each annual survey, subjects completed a standardized respiratory illness and smoking questionnaire and provided forced expiratory volume-time curves from which forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were derived. (nih.gov)
  • Those with a FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (uio.no)
  • A total of 1,129 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined to reveal the associations between the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and hemoglobin and iron parameters, including serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation, using Spearman correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. (koreamed.org)
  • For the interpretation of spirometry, the commonly used diagnostic parameters are the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio. (vub.be)
  • This measurement, known as FEV1, represents the amount of air that a person can force out of their lungs in 1 second. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The forced expiratory volume in one second is also referred to as FEV1. (medicineport.com)
  • forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (fev1/fev6) is a suboptimal surrogate for fev1/forced vital capacity (fev1/fvc) in the spirometric diagnosis of airflow obstruction in a diverse urban population. (healthcarelawfirm.com)
  • Background: To determine the relationship of Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1) with pulmonary arterial pressure among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. (journalrmc.com)
  • Guidelines on the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) issued by the European Respiratory Society (ERS), British Thoracic Society (BTS), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and Department of Health for England and Wales (DoH) suggest differing values of forced expiratory volume in is (FEV1) below which arterial blood gas analysis should be performed to determine the presence of severe hypoxaemia and possible long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) requirement. (mendeley.com)
  • The investigational drug in this trial consists of dry powder inhalation of a sugar-glass based solid dispersion containing cyclosporine A. The effectiveness is measured by comparing the Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) before and after the intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Study of Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) and Ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second and Forced Vital Capacity in Percentage (FEV1/FVC%) in Pregnant Women. (who.int)
  • Objectives: To observe the forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and ratio of forced expiratory volume in first second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) in different trimesters of normal pregnant women and to compare them with those of healthy non-pregnant women. (who.int)
  • Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), ratio of percentage of forced expiratory volume in first second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) were measured in pregnant and non-pregnant control women. (who.int)
  • 흡연에 대한 이전 연구를 살펴보면 대학생 흡연 및 비흡연 집단의 폐 기능 비교 결과 흡연 집단에서 노력성 폐활량(forced vital capacity, FVC), 1초간 최대 호기량(forced expiratory volume at one second, FEV1), 최대 수의 환기량(maximum voluntary ventilation, MVV)이 낮게 나타나 폐 기능이 낮은 것으로 보고되었으며, 9 20대 성인 남성의 장기적인 흡연 집단에서 낮은 유산소 운동능력을 보고하였다. (kptjournal.org)
  • 10 다른 연구에서는 30대 성인 남성의 연구에서도 흡연자가 비흡연자보다 FVC와 FEV1이 유의한 차이로 낮게 나타났으며, 11 15-18세부터의 연구에서 흡연 집단에서 FVC, 최대 날숨 유량(maximal expiratory pres- sure, MEP), 가슴 확장 용적(chest expansion)이 낮은 것으로 보고되었다. (kptjournal.org)
  • This single-center study prospectively assessed (i) the relationship between smoking exposure and the loss of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in determining lung cancer risk and (ii) the effect of lung cancer on systemic inflammation. (tobaccoinduceddiseases.org)
  • El Borg fue registrado en forma basal y con el máximo descenso del FEV1. (bvsalud.org)
  • To identify the changes in serial 2-hourly forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) measurements required to identify occupational asthma (OA) using the Oasys Area Between Curves (ABC) score. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • Unsupervised serial FEV1 measurements are more difficult to obtain reliably than measurements of peak expiratory flow, which are likely to remain the standard for general use. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • 0.056?L/hour provides a valid cut-off for those who wish to use FEV1 rather than peak expiratory flow. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • The percentage of the FVC forced out in the first second is called the FEV1 . (healthline.com)
  • The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) response to salbutamol administered by pressure-packed aerosol 200 microgram, and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), 5 and 10 mg, was determined in 60 patients with chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To assess the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and subsequent mortality. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 More recently evidence has suggested that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, 3 4 5 6 7 stroke, 8 9 and lung cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity are lung function tests that are measured during spirometry . (northshore.org)
  • We examined the association between cardiovascular reactions to a standard stress task, the paced auditory serial arithmetic rest, and forced expiratory volume in one second, an effort, hence motivation, dependent assessment of lung function measured by spirometry. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Spirometry, and in particular the forced expiratory manoeuvre, is the most widely used lung function test, and is an invaluable tool in assessing respiratory disease. (vub.be)
  • Spirometry is a method used for measure breath, which specifically means that the test is used for the measurement of amount of volume of flow that has been inhaled and exhaled. (medicineport.com)
  • Spirometry generates pneumotachographs, which are charts that plot the volume and flow of air coming in and out of the lungs from one inhalation and one exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of different ACT's such as the active cycle of breathing technique, high-frequency chest wall oscillations, positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and oscillatory PEP. (springer.com)
  • Is There an Optimal Level of Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) to Improve Walking Tolerance in Patients With Severe COPD? (archbronconeumol.org)
  • The measurements are recorded on pneumatographs that show various parameters like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity ratio, forced expiratory flow, forced inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow tidal volume, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, static lung compliance and various other parameters. (medicineport.com)
  • Forced inspiratory flow: (Specific measurement of the forced inspiratory curve is denoted by nomenclature analogous to that for the forced expiratory curve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peak inspiratory flow rate and inhaled volumes were explored in 96 cystic fibrosis patients aged 6 years and older. (rxlist.com)
  • 1 L were able to generate inspiratory flow rates and volumes required to receive their medication when following the instructions for use. (rxlist.com)
  • The maximum speed at which you empty your lungs is called the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) . (healthline.com)
  • Total lung capacity: the volume in the lungs at maximal inflation, the sum of VC and RV. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the total volume of the lungs when filled with as much air as possible. (rochester.edu)
  • This is the fastest rate that you can force air out of your lungs. (rochester.edu)
  • The total volume of air exhaled from your lungs is called the forced vital capacity (FVC). (healthline.com)
  • We stated that forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), the gold standard for airway obstruction assessment, may be a better measure than peak expiratory flow for early detection of loss of control and risk of exacerbation [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • 2. Kern DG, Patel SR. Auscultated forced expiratory time as a clinical and epidemiologic test of airway obstruction. (acpjc.org)
  • Actual volume of the lung including the volume of the conducting airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: The lowest peak expiratory flow (PEF) over a week, expressed as a percentage of the highest PEF (Min%Max PEF) has been reported to be the index that most closely correlates with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatics. (elsevier.com)
  • Lab research involves measuring structural function with serial CT imaging at similar lung volumes and expiratory CT scans to optimize evaluation of regional small airway disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Forced expiratory volume is the most important measurement of lung function. (northshore.org)
  • Unless otherwise specified, volume qualifiers indicate the volume inspired from RV at the point of measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • when tidal volume is precisely measured, as in gas exchange calculation, the symbol TV or V T is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tidal volume (VT). (rochester.edu)
  • Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the total amount of air exhaled during the FEV test. (northshore.org)
  • Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) per forced vital capacity in both men and women. (medsci.org)
  • Normal values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1-0), and peak flow rate (PFR) in children. (bmj.com)
  • Restrictive Lung Diseases, Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease Differences and Treatment, Getting a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) Test. (healthcarelawfirm.com)
  • Another exceedingly useful clinical pulmonary test, and one that is also simple, is to make a record on a spirometer of the forced expiratory vital capacity(FVC). (brainkart.com)
  • Vital capacity: the volume of air breathed out after the deepest inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We categorized 98 asthma patients according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, established their sensitization profile, and measured their forced expiratory volume in 1second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) indexes. (scielo.cl)
  • Lung function is significantly affected in cases of pulmonary agenesis, demonstrated by reduction in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary function data from subjects aged 5 yr and and older who participated in any or all of the first 10 annual surveys of the East Boston population-based study have been used to investigate patterns of growth and decline of lung function derived from maximal forced expiratory maneuvers. (nih.gov)
  • In candidates for lobectomy with lung cancer and moderate-to-severe COPD, resection of the most affected parenchyma may determine an actual improvement in the elastic recoil, a reduction of the airflow resistance, and an improvement in pulmonary mechanics and ventilation-perfusion matching, similar to what happens in typical candidates for lung volume reduction surgery with end-stage heterogeneous emphysema. (healthcarelawfirm.com)
  • Details are given of animal preparation, pulmonary function testing apparatus, comparative data of dynamic lung volumes and normal mean values for man and the animal species. (cdc.gov)
  • Other tests require forced inhalation or exhalation after a deep breath. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ratio of exhalation rate to total volume of air a subject can exhale. (wikibooks.org)
  • FVC is the volume of air exhaled by a forced maximal exhalation after a full inhalation. (vernier.com)
  • Forced expiratory maneuvers may aggravate some medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This involves using a device called a spirometer to measure the force with which the person can exhale. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • spirometer with maximum expiratory effort as rapidly and as completely as possible. (brainkart.com)
  • At the start of the test both flow and volume are equal to zero (representing the volume in the spirometer rather than the lung). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spirometer can be used to perform a variety of experiments related to air flow and lung volume. (vernier.com)
  • Few studies have examined the relationships between sputum inflammatory markers and subsequent annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (dFEV1). (uio.no)
  • PFT data at around 1 year after HSCT were available in 84 patients, and showed a significant time-dependent decline in percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s and other parameters. (springer.com)
  • 1. The forced expiratory volume (FEV 0·75 ) was measured at increasing mouth pressures in twenty-seven patients with obstructive airways disease. (portlandpress.com)
  • To evaluate the characteristics of the forced expiratory time (FET) in diagnosing obstructive airways disease (OAD). (acpjc.org)
  • Forced expiratory time was moderately useful in the diagnosis of obstructive airways disease. (acpjc.org)
  • FEV is reduced in patients with obstructive airways disease and diminished lung volume. (oup.com)
  • After the starting point the curve rapidly mounts to a peak (the peak expiratory flow). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, our findings indicate that lung volume increases most rapidly during the first year of life and that airways are large relative to lung volume very early in life. (elsevier.com)
  • there was no evidence from the (FEV/mouth pressure) plots that their airways functioned differently during forced expiration. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using voxel-based morphometry based on the high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MR images of GM volume, we investigated 25 stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers. (ajnr.org)
  • In COPD, in some of these regions, regional GM volume had positive correlations with arterial blood p o 2 , while in some regions, regional GM volume had negative correlations with disease duration. (ajnr.org)
  • Moreover, the GM volume in the inferior triangular frontal cortex in patients with COPD was significantly correlated with the Picture Memory score. (ajnr.org)
  • This prompted a study of CFRD to test the association between CFRD and cystic fibrosis morbidity in female subjects, using the validated measure of future mortality, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Forced expiratory volume (FEV) measures how much air a person can exhale during a forced breath. (northshore.org)
  • These algorithms could help clinicians, particularly in primary care, to decide whether lung volume measurements are necessary for the detection of a restrictive ventilatory defect. (vub.be)
  • Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. (tobaccoinduceddiseases.org)
  • Since the test involves some forced breathing and rapid breathing, you may have some temporary shortness of breath or lightheadedness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This reduction in total lung volume sets limits on patients' exercise tolerance, and contribute to shortness of breath after exercises. (wikipedia.org)
  • p=0.30), lung function (pre-β 2 -agonist forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) p=0.13), Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores (p=0.61) and median daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (p=0.86). (ersjournals.com)
  • Comparative measures were taken against other lung function tests of volume and diffusing capacity. (mendeley.com)
  • It measures lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examines the association between female subjects with CFRD and poor lung function relative to male subjects using the percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) as a surrogate measure of morbidity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phase II trials for asthma treatment showed increased lung function for patients, showing increased forced expiratory volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carroll D, Hunt K, Phillips A, Der G, Bibbey A, Benzeval M & Gintey A (2013) Low forced expiratory volume is associated with blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress in a community sample of middle-aged men and women. (stir.ac.uk)
  • TV is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled at rest. (vernier.com)
  • Forced expiratory flows (FEF) can be measured in infants from lung volumes initiated near total lung capacity. (elsevier.com)
  • How to measure Forced Expiratory Volume? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » How to measure Forced Expiratory Volume? (ndtv.com)
  • The total distance of the downslope of the lung volume record represents the FVC, as shown in the figure. (brainkart.com)
  • The addition of home peak expiratory flow monitoring to a symptom-based self-management plan does not improve asthma outcome [ 3 - 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sometimes, symptoms can occur throughout the day and during the night, forcing the person to wake up. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Changes in pressure inside the box help determine the lung volume. (medlineplus.gov)