The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.
A group of disorders resulting from the abnormal proliferation of and tissue infiltration by LANGERHANS CELLS which can be detected by their characteristic Birbeck granules (X bodies), or by monoclonal antibody staining for their surface CD1 ANTIGENS. Langerhans-cell granulomatosis can involve a single organ, or can be a systemic disorder.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
The field of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of people in submarines or sealabs.

Effect of breathing circuit resistance on the measurement of ventilatory function. (1/254)

BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) has set the acceptable resistance for spirometers at less than 1.5 cm H2O/l/s over the flow range 0-14 l/s and for monitoring devices at less than 2.5 cm H2O/l/s (0-14 l/s). The aims of this study were to determine the resistance characteristics of commonly used spirometers and monitoring devices and the effect of resistance on ventilatory function. METHODS: The resistance of five spirometers (Vitalograph wedge bellows, Morgan rolling seal, Stead Wells water sealed, Fleisch pneumotachograph, Lilly pneumotachograph) and three monitoring devices (Spiro 1, Ferraris, mini-Wright) was measured from the back pressure developed over a range of known flows (1.6-13.1 l/s). Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and mid forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) were measured on six subjects with normal lung function and 13 subjects with respiratory disorders using a pneumotachograph. Ventilatory function was then repeated with four different sized resistors (approximately 1-11 cmH2O/l/s) inserted between the mouthpiece and pneumotachograph. RESULTS: All five diagnostic spirometers and two of the three monitoring devices passed the ATS upper limit for resistance. PEF, FEV1 and FVC showed significant (p < 0.05) inverse correlations with added resistance with no significant difference between the normal and patient groups. At a resistance of 1.5 cm H2O/l/s the mean percentage falls (95% confidence interval) were: PEF 6.9% (5.4 to 8.3); FEV1 1.9% (1.0 to 2.8), and FVC 1.5% (0.8 to 2.3). CONCLUSIONS: The ATS resistance specification for diagnostic spirometers appears to be appropriate. However, the specification for monitoring devices may be too conservative. PEF was found to be the most sensitive index to added resistance.  (+info)

Role of expiratory flow limitation in determining lung volumes and ventilation during exercise. (2/254)

We determined the role of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) on the ventilatory response to heavy exercise in six trained male cyclists [maximal O2 uptake = 65 +/- 8 (range 55-74) ml. kg-1. min-1] with normal lung function. Each subject completed four progressive cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion in random order: two trials while breathing N2O2 (26% O2-balance N2), one with and one without added dead space, and two trials while breathing HeO2 (26% O2-balance He), one with and one without added dead space. EFL was defined by the proximity of the tidal to the maximal flow-volume loop. With N2O2 during heavy and maximal exercise, 1) EFL was present in all six subjects during heavy [19 +/- 2% of tidal volume (VT) intersected the maximal flow-volume loop] and maximal exercise (43 +/- 8% of VT), 2) the slopes of the ventilation (DeltaVE) and peak esophageal pressure responses to added dead space (e.g., DeltaVE/DeltaPETCO2, where PETCO2 is end-tidal PCO2) were reduced relative to submaximal exercise, 3) end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) increased and end-inspiratory lung volume reached a plateau at 88-91% of total lung capacity, and 4) VT reached a plateau and then fell as work rate increased. With HeO2 (compared with N2O2) breathing during heavy and maximal exercise, 1) HeO2 increased maximal flow rates (from 20 to 38%) throughout the range of vital capacity, which reduced EFL in all subjects during tidal breathing, 2) the gains of the ventilatory and inspiratory esophageal pressure responses to added dead space increased over those during room air breathing and were similar at all exercise intensities, 3) EELV was lower and end-inspiratory lung volume remained near 90% of total lung capacity, and 4) VT was increased relative to room air breathing. We conclude that EFL or even impending EFL during heavy and maximal exercise and with added dead space in fit subjects causes EELV to increase, reduces the VT, and constrains the increase in respiratory motor output and ventilation.  (+info)

Oxidative stress during acute respiratory exacerbations in cystic fibrosis. (3/254)

BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis experience chronic systemic oxidative stress. This is coupled with chronic inflammation of the lung involving bronchial polymorphonuclear neutrophil accumulation and activation. We hypothesised that, during periods of acute respiratory exacerbation, free radical activity and consequent damage would be most marked and that intensive treatment of the infection would result in improvement towards values found during stable periods. METHODS: Plasma and red blood cells were collected from 12 healthy normal volunteers and from 12 patients with cystic fibrosis with an acute respiratory exacerbation (increased respiratory symptoms, reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of more than 10%, and a decision to treat with intravenous antibiotics). Further samples were collected from patients following two weeks of treatment. Samples were analysed for inflammatory markers, markers of free radical damage, and aqueous and lipid phase scavengers. RESULTS: During respiratory exacerbations FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were lower than in controls (mean differences -2.82 (95% CI -2.12 to -3.52) and -3. 79 (-3.03 to -4.55) l, respectively) but improved following treatment (mean change 0.29 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.40) and 0.33 (0.23 to 0.43) l, respectively). Inflammatory markers during exacerbations were significantly higher in patients than in controls with the following mean (95% CI) differences: C reactive protein (CRP), 46 (17 to 75) g/l; neutrophil elastase alpha1-antiprotease complexes (NEAPC), 4.4 (1.77 to 7.07) mg/l; white cell count (WCC), 5.3 (4.7 to 5.9) x 10(9)/l. These markers decreased significantly following treatment with the following mean (95% CI) changes: CRP -26 (-10 to -42) g/l; NEAPC -3.1 (-1.3 to -4.9) mg/l; WCC -1.5 (-1.3 to -1.7) x 10(9)/l. Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of free radical activity was significantly higher in patients during exacerbations than in controls with a mean (95% CI) difference of 193 (107 to 279) which improved with treatment (mean change -56 (95% CI -28 to -84) nmol/mmol cholesterol). Red blood cell polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly lower in patients than in controls with a mean difference of -4.4(95% CI -2.6 to -6.2) moles percent, but did not improve significantly after treatment. Protein carbonyls during exacerbations were not different from controls but did increase with treatment compared with levels during the exacerbation (mean change 0.39 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.67) micromol/g protein). Aqueous and lipid phase scavengers in patients during exacerbations were significantly lower than in controls with the following mean (95% CI) differences: ascorbate, -19.0 (-2.7 to -35.3) micromol/l; sulphydryls, -122 (-77 to -167) micromol/l; retinol, -237 (-47 to -427) nmol/mmol cholesterol; beta-carotene, -52.8 (-11.8 to -93.8) nmol/mmol cholesterol; luteine, -50.4 (-10.4 to -90.4) nmol/mmol cholesterol; lycopene, -90.1 (-30.1 to -150.1) nmol/mmol cholesterol. Treatment resulted in improvement with the following mean (95% CI) changes: sulphydryls, 50 (32 to 68) micromol/l; retinol, 152 (47 to 257) nmol/mmol cholesterol; alpha- and beta-carotene, 0.6 (0.0 to 1.2) and 7.6 (0.0 to 15.2) nmol/mmol cholesterol, respectively; alpha-tocopherol, 839 (283 to 1405) nmol/mmol cholesterol; and lycopene, 8.2 (0.0 to 16.2) nmol/mmol cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of markers of inflammation, free radical activity, and radical scavengers were significantly more extreme during acute respiratory exacerbations and showed improvement with treatment. The need to provide protection from inflammation and free radical damage should therefore be dynamic and related to the inflammatory and oxidative processes.  (+info)

The effect of gestational parity on FEV1 in a group of healthy volunteer women. (4/254)

In the past, studies utilizing within-subject comparisons of small groups of pregnant women showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) remained essentially unchanged during pregnancy. However, one of the findings from an epidemiological study was that women with greater number of children experienced a faster decline of FEV1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of parity on FEV1 in a group of healthy volunteer women. To this end, cross-sectional multiple regression analyses of data from 397 healthy women participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) with a mean (range) age of 47.7 (18-92) years were performed. Similar analyses were done using the younger (50 years or less) and the older (> 50 years) subgroups. After controlling for age, height, weight, and smoking, parity as a dichotomous variable was associated with a higher FEV1 in women of child-bearing age (0.139 1; P = 0.02) but not in the older women. There was a modest link with the number of children (P = 0.05), with the first child possibly having the greatest effect on FEV1. We could not account for the effect of parity on FEV1 by the educational level, occupation, health status of the women, or by the presence of a cohort effect. Thus the nulliparous state is associated with lower FEV1 in this group of healthy adult women of child-bearing age.  (+info)

Effect of negative expiratory pressure on respiratory system flow resistance in awake snorers and nonsnorers. (5/254)

In spontaneously breathing subjects, intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation can be detected by applying a negative expiratory pressure (NEP) at the mouth during tidal expiration. To assess whether NEP might increase upper airway resistance per se, the interrupter resistance of the respiratory system (Rint,rs) was computed with and without NEP by using the flow interruption technique in 12 awake healthy subjects, 6 nonsnorers (NS), and 6 nonapneic snorers (S). Expiratory flow (V) and Rint,rs were measured under control conditions with V increased voluntarily and during random application of brief (0.2-s) NEP pulses from -1 to -7 cmH(2)O, in both the seated and supine position. In NS, Rint,rs with spontaneous increase in V and with NEP was similar [3.10 +/- 0.19 and 3.30 +/- 0.18 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 1.0 +/- 0.01 l/s and at V of 1.1 +/- 0.07 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively]. In S, a marked increase in Rint,rs was found at all levels of NEP (P < 0.05). Rint,rs was 3.50 +/- 0.44 and 8.97 +/- 3.16 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 0.81 +/- 0.02 l/s and at V of 0.80 +/- 0.17 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively (P < 0.05). With NEP, Rint,rs was markedly higher in S than in NS both seated (F = 8.77; P < 0.01) and supine (F = 9.43; P < 0.01). In S, V increased much less with NEP than in NS and was sometimes lower than without NEP, especially in the supine position. This study indicates that during wakefulness nonapneic S have more collapsible upper airways than do NS, as reflected by the marked increase in Rint,rs with NEP. The latter leads occasionally to an actual decrease in V such as to invalidate the NEP method for detection of intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation.  (+info)

Forced oscillation total respiratory resistance and spontaneous breathing lung resistance in COPD patients. (6/254)

Forced-oscillation total respiratory resistance (Rrs) has been shown to underestimate spontaneous breathing lung resistance (RL,sb) in patients with airway obstruction, probably owing to upper airway shunting. The present study reinvestigates that relationship in seven severely obstructed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients using a technique that minimizes that artefact. Rrs at 8 and 16 Hz was computed for each successive forced oscillation cycle. Inspiratory and expiratory RL,sb were obtained by analysing transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) with a four-coefficient model, and compared to Rrs over the same periods. "Instantaneous" values of RL,sb were also obtained by computing the dynamic component of Ptp, and compared to simultaneous values of Rrs. In both respiratory phases, good agreement between Rrs and RL,sb was observed up to RL,sb values of approximately 15 hPa x s(-1) x L(-1) at 8 Hz and 10 hPa x s(-1) x L(-1) at 16 Hz. Instantaneous Rrs and RL,sb varied systematically during the respiratory cycle, exhibiting various amounts of flow- or volume-dependence in the seven patients; the amplitudes of their variations were significantly correlated, but Rrs was much more flow-dependent than RL,sb in three patients. Also, Rrs exceeded RL,sb at end-expiration in three instances, which could be related to expiratory flow limitation. In conclusion, total respiratory resistance is reliable up to much higher levels of airway obstruction than previously thought, provided upper airway shunting is avoided.  (+info)

Expiratory flow limitation in awake sleep-disordered breathing subjects. (7/254)

Increased upper airways (UA) collapsibility has been implicated in the pathogeny of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). An increased UA instability during expiration has recently been shown in healthy subjects. The present study assessed UA collapsibility in SDB patients by applying negative pressure during expiration. Full-night polysomnography was performed in 16 subjects (all snorers) with a wide range of SDB, and in six healthy control subjects. Physical examination, spirometry, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were within normal limits for all 22 subjects. Negative expiratory pressure (NEP) (-5 cmH2O) was applied during quiet breathing in seated and supine position. Flow limitation (FL) during NEP was expressed as the percentage of tidal volume during which expiratory flow was less than or equal to the flow recorded during quiet breathing (%FL). The mean desaturation index (DI) of the 16 subjects was 27.3+/-26.4 (+/-sD) and the average FL in supine position was 38.4+/-37.9%. A close correlation between %FL supine during wakefulness and DI during sleep (r=0.84, p<0.001) was found. All obstructive sleep apnoea subjects had >30%FL supine. There was no FL in the six control subjects. In conclusion, negative expiratory pressure application during expiration appears to be a useful, noninvasive method for the evaluation of subjects with sleep-disordered breathing. Present results suggest that upper airway collapsibility can be detected in these subjects during wakefulness.  (+info)

Cut-off points defining normal and asthmatic bronchial reactivity to exercise and inhalation challenges in children and young adults. (8/254)

An analysis was undertaken to determine the optimal cut-off separating an asthmatic from a normal response to a bronchial provocation challenge by exercise and the inhalation of methacholine or histamine in children and young adults. Data were extracted, after appropriate correction, from published studies available in Medline of large random populations that complied with preset criteria of suitability for analysis, and the distribution of bronchial reactivity in the healthy population for exercise and inhalation challenges were derived. Studies on the response to exercise and methacholine inhalation in 232 young asthmatics of varying severity were carried out by the authors and the distribution of bronchial reactivity of a young asthmatic population obtained. Comparisons of the sensitivity and specificity of the challenges were aided by the construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal cut-off point of the fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after exercise was 13%, with a sensitivity (power) of 63% and specificity of 94%. For inhalation challenges, the optimal cut-off point for the dose of methacholine or histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 was 6.6 micromol, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%. The cut-off values were not materially affected by the severity of the asthma and provide objective data with which to evaluate the results of bronchial provocation challenges in children and young adults.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Ratio between forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FVC is a determinant of airway reactivity and sensitivity to methacholine. AU - Parker, Annie Lin. AU - Abu-Hijleh, Muhanned. AU - McCool, F. Dennis. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - Study objective: The ratio between forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) and FVC is thought to reflect dysanapsis between airway size and lung size. A low FEF25-75/FVC ratio is associated with airway responsiveness to methacholine in middle-aged and older men. The current study was designed to assess this relationship in both male and female subjects over a broader range of ages. Study design: Data analysis of consecutive subjects who had a ≥ 20% reduction in FEV1 after ≤ 189 cumulative units of methacholine over a 7-year period. Setting: Pulmonary function laboratory in a university-affiliated hospital. Patients: A total of 764 consecutive subjects aged 4 to 91 years (mean ± SD ...
In 415 nonsmoking asthmatic children who were seen consecutively, asthma symptoms were more severe if the mother was a smoker than if she was a nonsmoker. This applied to both sexes but was more marked in boys than in girls. There were also other indications that sons were the more severely affected: the forced expiratory volume at 1 second, the forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the forced vital capacity, and the provocation concentration of histamine needed to result in a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were significantly decreased only in the sons, and lung function test results were significantly less in sons than in daughters of mothers who smoked. When the 415 children were stratified according to age, lung function improved significantly with increasing age in the children of nonsmokers; in children of smokers, by contrast, symptoms and lung function test results became progressively worse. As well, there was a correlation between these ...
In 415 nonsmoking asthmatic children who were seen consecutively, asthma symptoms were more severe if the mother was a smoker than if she was a nonsmoker. This applied to both sexes but was more marked in boys than in girls. There were also other indications that sons were the more severely affected: the forced expiratory volume at 1 second, the forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the forced vital capacity, and the provocation concentration of histamine needed to result in a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were significantly decreased only in the sons, and lung function test results were significantly less in sons than in daughters of mothers who smoked. When the 415 children were stratified according to age, lung function improved significantly with increasing age in the children of nonsmokers; in children of smokers, by contrast, symptoms and lung function test results became progressively worse. As well, there was a correlation between these ...
Background: Ex-preterm infants have more airway symptoms in childhood, and forced expiratory flows have been shown to remain low or even diminishing during the first two years after birth in moderately preterm compared to term infants. Questions:Is airway function impaired both in very and moderately ex-preterm babies? Do viral infections affect preterms more severely during the first year?. Methods: 110 term and 150 preterms, born at 27+0 - 33+6 weeks gestation, were examined with infant spirometry during tidal breathing at term and with raised volume forced expiration in Jaegher Baby box at three months after birth. Nasopharyngeal viral swabs were taken during all URI and LRI during the first year. New spirometry will be performed at 18 months after birth, corrected for prematurity.. Results: Babies born at 27-31 weeks gestation had lower FVC, FEV 0,4 and FEV 0,5 compared to term infants of the same gender (p,0,02 for boys, 0,01 for girls). Vmax FRC was also lower than in term babies of same ...
While evaluating patient specifically assess resolution of signs and symptoms of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and may also be present in tissues far from the tv or newspaper just for special situations a. Meconium aspiration syndrome unresolved issues. Complaints o weakness last hours to resolution after start of a single application eradicates of scabies. Clinical considerations hold enteral feeds are not readily known, testing should be obtained from a single depressive episode, antidepressants must be determined by icu sta using the ranson criteria, glasgow severity scoring completed by the american college of chest physicians evidence based guidelines for selection of a secondary treatment option for the role of diuretics as initial therapy and refer to the monitoring parameters to assess effectiveness and safety side effect to constrict the afferent nociceptive fibers can be reliably measured using kurtzke expanded disability status scale forced expiratory flow rate pvr urinalysis prostate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of expiratory flow on closing capacity at low expiratory flow rates. AU - Rodarte, J. R.. AU - Hyatt, R. E.. AU - Cortese, D. A.. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. N2 - Single breath oxygen (SBO2) tests at expiratory flow rates of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.01/s were performed by 10 normal subjects in a body plethysmograph. Closing capacity (CC) the absolute lung volume at which phase IV began increased significantly with increases in flow. Five subjects were restudied with a 200 ml bolus of 100% N2 inspired from residual volume after N2 washout by breathing 100% O2 and similar results were obtained. An additional five subjects performed SBO2 tests in the standing, supine and prone positions; closing volume (CV), the lung volume above residual volume at which phase IV began, also increased with increases of expiratory flow. The observed increase in CG with increasing flow did not appear to result from dependent lung regions reaching some critical closing volume at a higher overall ...
Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, heart failure and myocardial ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, pneumonia, or psychogenic disorders. The etiology of dyspnea is multifactorial in about one-third of patients. The clinical presentation alone is adequate to make a diagnosis in 66 percent of patients with dyspnea. Patients descriptions of the sensation of dyspnea may be helpful, but associated symptoms and risk factors, such as smoking, chemical exposures, and medication use, should also be considered. Examination findings (e.g., jugular venous distention, decreased breath sounds or wheezing, pleural rub, clubbing) may be helpful in making the diagnosis. Initial testing in patients with chronic dyspnea includes chest
Study on peak expiratory flow rate and its influencing factors in healthy school children in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India
Study on peak expiratory flow rate and its influencing factors in healthy school children in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India
Inadequate Peak Expiratory Flow Meter Characteristics Detected By Predicted Average Chart Predicted Average Peak Expiratory Flow Chart Flowcharts predicted average peak expiratory flow chart Start event symbol signals the first step of a process. Process is a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end. Decision is the action or process of deciding something or of resolving a question. End event symbol stands for the result of a process. Find Your Next Flowcharts
Forced expiratory flow (FEF) is the flow (or speed) of air coming out of the lung during the middle portion of a forced expiration. It can be given at discrete times, generally defined by what fraction of the forced vital capacity (FVC) has been exhaled. The usual discrete intervals are 25%, 50% and 75% (FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75), or 25% and 50% of FVC that has been exhaled. It can also be given as a mean of the flow during an interval, also generally delimited by when specific fractions remain of FVC, usually 25-75% (FEF25-75%). Average ranges in the healthy population depend mainly on sex and age, with FEF25-75% shown in diagram at left. Values ranging from 50-60% and up to 130% of the average are considered normal.[12] Predicted normal values for FEF can be calculated and depend on age, sex, height, mass and ethnicity as well as the research study that they are based on. MMEF or MEF stands for maximal (mid-)expiratory flow and is the peak of expiratory flow as taken from the flow-volume curve ...
Flow-Volume Loop (FVL) becomes the standardized test procedure to obtain FEV1 and FVC. Upon completing forced expiration, the patient should rapidly inspire to full inflation. As opposed to FVC, measurements of forced inspiration VC (FIVC) provide extra information on maneuver quality. ndd products already support this test procedure.. Minimum of 6s expiration no longer required. Meeting the plateau criterion alone is now sufficient to obtain a satisfactory end of forced expiration (EOFE). Besides the plateau criterion, the new standard also specifies two additional independent indicators for an acceptable EOFE: a forced expiratory time (FET) of 15s, or repeatedly achieving the same FVC within the repeatability tolerance.. EasyOne Connect (v3.05.01.07 or higher) already allows not enforcing the minimum 6s expiration criterion. ...
In a modified case-control study of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), airways obstruction has been found to be associated with age, sex, protease inhibitor type, socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking. In this paper patterns of forced expiratory flows are examined in persons demonstrating various risk factors. Two broad patterns of flow limitation emerge. The first pattern, characterized by lower flows at high lung volumes, is found in first-degree relatives of patients with COPD and subjects with a low SES. This pattern, consistent dysfunction of large airways, may reflect reversible decreases of airway caliber. The second pattern, characterized by lower flows at low lung volumes, is found in older subjects. This pattern, consistent with nonhomogeneously emptying lungs or dysfunction of small airways, may reflect more chronic irreversible changes. Smokers and male subjects exhibit both patterns of flow limitation when compared with subjects who had never smoked and female subjects. It is possible
Forced expiratory manoeuvres are extensively recorded using flow meters coupled to pressure transducers, which usually behave like second-order filters. To assess what should be the dynamic characteristics of such equipment for accurate determination of common forced expiration indices, 125 curves were obtained from 25 healthy subjects in the best technical conditions. The flow-time curves were then submitted to various degrees of second-order filtering, and the indices derived from filtered and unfiltered curves were compared. Considering that experimental error is acceptable if it does not exceed 20% of the normal interindividual variability for 95% of the curves, the following conclusion was drawn; with an optimal damping ratio (r) of 0.7, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximum midexpiratory flow rate and maximal expiratory flow at 25% of the forced vital capacity (MEF25) are still correctly measured when the resonant frequency (fn) is as low as 3 Hz. The corresponding figures are 5 Hz for
How to Use a Peak Flow Meter Peak flow meters measure how fast you can blow air from your lungs. Peak flow meters give you a reading or score (peak expiratory flow rate, also called PEFR or PEF). Your peak flow scores can help you and your doctor see if your asthma symptoms are getting better or worse.
A peak flow meter is described with a body having a sample channel and at least one bypass channel. One of at least two flow range scales may be selected using a flow range selector to adjust the sensitivity of the peak flow meter. A flow range selection indicator provides visual reference as to which flow range scale has been selected. A peak flow calculator used in cooperation with zone indicators on the peak flow meter permits a user to customize the peak flow meter for that users predicted personal best exhalation range.
Pocket Peak Peak Flow Meter The Pocket Peak peak flow meter is a simple, portable, convenient device that measures air flow or, peak expiratory flow rate (
Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often exhale along the same flow-volume curve during quiet breathing as during a forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as indicating flow limitation at rest. To obtain such curves, a body plethysmograph and the patients co-operation are required. We propose a simple technique which does not entail these requirements. It consists in applying negative pressure at the mouth during a tidal expiration (NEP). Patients in whom NEP elicits an increase in flow throughout the expiration are not flow-limited. In contrast, patients in whom application of NEP does not elicit an increase in flow during most or part of the tidal expiration are considered as flow-limited. Using this technique, 26 stable COPD patients were studied sitting and supine. Eleven patients were flow-limited both seated and supine, eight were flow-limited only when supine, and seven were not flow-limited either seated or supine. Only 5 of 19 ...
In the evaluation and management of bronchial asthma, simple instruments for measurements of the peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate are needed. The aim of this study was to determine normal PEF values of Turkish children living in Istanbul. This is the largest study conducted in Turkey. In a cross-sectional study, we measured PEF in 2791 healthy schoolchildren (1468 boys and 1323 girls) aged 7-14 years, with a Mini Wright peak flow meter. We entered height, age, and sex into the regression equation. The equation for prediction of PEF in boys was calculated as (3.5 × height [cm]) + (9.2 × age [years]) - 256.5, (p < 0.0001; r = 0.83) and for girls as (3.3 × height [cm]) + (10.2 × age [years]) - 263.7 (p < 0.0001; r = 0.81). We found that PEF values of Turkish children were similar to British and Danish children, but significant differences were noted with Greek, Irish, Mexican American, African-American, and white American children. Our results were significantly lower compared with another study ...
Product Request - Assess Peak Flow Meter Measure airway obstruction easily, accurately, and cost-effectively. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) provides an
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To quantify the degree of association, if any, between lung size and airway size in humans, the ratio of a measurement known to be sensitive to airway size (maximal expiratory flow divided by static recoil pressure at 50% of vital capacity) to one sensitive to lung size (vital capacity) was examined …
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Follow these steps to use your peak flow meter:Set the pointer on the gauge of the peak flow meter to 0 (zero).Attach the mouthpiece to the peak flow meter.Stand up to allow yourself to take a deep breath. … Take a deep breath in. … Breathe out as hard and as fast as you can using a huff. … Note the value on the gauge.More items… ...
폐기능 검사는 주관적인 호흡기 증상이 있는 경우 이를 객관화할 수 있으며, 호흡기 질환의 심한 정도를 평가하고 치료에 대한 반응과 병의 진형 상태를 감시할 수 있다. 그러나 표준적인 폐기능 검사는 환자의 협조를 필요로 하기 때문에 대상 연령이 제한적이고 검사자의 인내와 기술을 요하며, 많은 시간을 소비하는데 따른 소아과 의사의 소극적인 태도로 소아, 특히 신생아에서는 일반적으로 거의 이용되지 않고 있다. 최근에는 신생아 집중 치료의 발달로 여러가지 폐질환을 갖는 신생아의 생존율이 증가함에 따라 폐기능 검사를 통한 폐기능의 질적, 양적 평가로 폐질한의 진단및 치료에 만전을 기할 수 있다. 이에 저자는 비교적 간단하며 비침습적이어서 신생아에서도 시행할 수 있는 호흡속도묘사기(pneumotachography)와 수동 호기 유량-기량곡선(passive ...
Patients with respiratory lтrtab may be taught how to mea- sure their peak flow rate (reflects maximal expiratory flow) at home using a spirometer. Kloc, et al.
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The original authors main conclusions are taken from Abstract, Results and Discussion. They are decided upon by the authors of the BOHRF occupational asthma guidelines and form part of the guidelines.. Objective criteria for interpretation of peak expiratory flow rate readings were assessed in 50 patients evaluated for suspected occupational asthma who had at least two weeks of PEFR readings and an objective diagnosis based on other investigations. The prevalence of occupational asthma was 36 percent. Peak flows were interpreted by two observers blinded to other results. Criteria for a PEFR interpretation of occupational asthma were as follow: diurnal variation greater than or equal to 20 percent relatively more frequently or with greater variation on working days than days off work. With the objective diagnoses as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the PEFR interpretations was 72 percent for OA; specificity for no asthma was 53 percent. Excluding those with greater than or equal to 20 ...
Pulmonary function measurements are important when studying respiratory disease models. Both resistance and compliance have been used to assess lung function in mice. Yet, it is not always clear how these parameters relate to forced expiration (FE)-related parameters, most commonly used in humans. We aimed to characterize FE measurements in four well-established mouse models of lung diseases. Detailed respiratory mechanics and FE measurements were assessed concurrently in Balb/c mice, using the forced oscillation and negative pressure-driven forced expiration techniques, respectively. Measurements were performed at baseline and following increasing methacholine challenges in control Balb/c mice as well as in four disease models: bleomycin-induced fibrosis, elastase-induced emphysema, LPS-induced acute lung injury and house dust mite-induced asthma. Respiratory mechanics parameters (airway resistance, tissue damping and tissue elastance) confirmed disease-specific phenotypes either at baseline or
TY - JOUR. T1 - Forced expiration and HeO2 response in canine peripheral airway obstruction. AU - Jadue, C.. AU - Greville, H.. AU - Coalson, J. J.. AU - Mink, S. N.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - We examined the effect of peripheral airway obstruction on parameters of maximum expiratory flow (Vmax) in a canine model of bronchiolitis obliterans (B). B was produced by the repeated intrabronchial instillations of a 1% nitric acid solution in seven dogs (group B). In seven control dogs (group C), a normal saline solution was used. During forced vital capacity deflation, Vmax on air, the relative increase in Vmax on 80% He-20% O2 (ΔVmax), and airway sites of flow limitation choke points (CP) were determined at multiple lung volumes (VL). The findings were interpreted in terms of the wave-speed theory of flow limitation. Wave-speed parameters were identified with a pressure-measuring device positioned in the airway. Compared with the findings for group C, Vmax decreased substantially at the lower VL ...
My Peak Flow tracks and charts readings from peak flow meters and asthma symptoms. Print a comprehensive report for your doctor. Providing your doctor with more information can result in better asthma management. Designed to be used by people with asthma, or carers of one or more children who suffer from asthma. ...
A peak flow meter for asthma is a handheld meter that measures how well air flows out of the lungs. Measuring your peak flow using this device is an important part of managing your asthma symptoms and preventing an asthma attack. That is because sometimes you may feel your breathing is fine, but when you measure it with a peak flow meter, you find your lung function is slightly decreased. A PFM can be used to:. • Determine the severity of your asthma. • Check your response to treatment during an acute asthma episode. • Monitor progress in treatment of chronic asthma and provide information for any changes in your therapy. • Detect worsening lung function and avoid a possible serious asthma flare-up. A peak flow meter can help you and your allergist evaluate how severe your asthma is at any point in time. With a peak flow meter, you can often see a drop in your readings even before your symptoms (like coughing or wheezing) get worse. Decreases in peak flow may show that you need to ...
The most accurate test is a spirometry (hand-held electronic device measuring lung function) performed before and after the specific exercise the subject is doing. Since many doctors do not have spirometers in their office, this is not a common test. However, most allergists do have these machines. The test is commonly used by U.S. Olympic Committee sports physiologists to screen athletes for EIB.. Another test that can be done is a peak flow rate, which can be done with an inexpensive hand-held device, to measure the peak expiratory flow rate of the lungs before and after exercise. However, this is not as accurate as a spirometer. In case there is no spirometer or peak flow meter available, the physician may prescribe a treatment (inhaler) for EIB. If that treatment is effective, it usually confirms the diagnosis.. What are the treatments for EIB ...
A peak flow meter could actually save your life and ward off an asthma attack by allowing you to respond quickly to asthma flare-ups such as coughing, wheezing, and mucus production. These devices were created to help you manage your asthma, especially during physical activity. Peak flow meters measure daily variations in your breathing letting you know that your body has reached its limit by the number indicated on the meter. If the number is lower than your optimal amount, you should stop and rest, and/or take medication, depending on your doctors orders. Your doctor will also be able to tell whether your asthma medication is working based on the readings of the meter. Many people take daily asthma medication along with using their peak flow meter on a daily basis. Peak flow meters are hand-held and portable, and give you the confidence of being able to monitor your asthma symptoms before they start. The higher the number, the healthier you are, so you know that your asthma management plan is ...
A peak flow meter for asthma is like a thermometer for a fever - it helps you monitor whats going on inside your lungs by measuring airflow out of the lungs.
A peak flow meter for asthma is like a thermometer for a fever - it helps you monitor whats going on inside your lungs by measuring airflow out of the lungs.
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The flow-volume (FV) loop was introduced by Hyatt and associates in 1958. Its potential as a means of assessing lung function has been discussed. There are, however, few reports of its use in clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to add to the data on normal subjects and to quantify the differences between normal subjects and patients with selected types of lung disease. The FV curve was
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Finally, one should not forget about pulmonary embolism (PE). This can also result in worsening heart failure and acute, sub-acute or chronic dyspnea. ECG changes can occur although they are usually right sided in origin on the ECG e.g. Tall R wave in V1 (,7mm), biphasic T waves / ST depression in V1-V3. However, a normal ECG is common and the classic S1Q3T3 is very unusual to see yet it seems that this is the only ECG change that students and residents seem to remember. However, BNP and TnI can both be elevated in PE, and when elevated together, they are associated with a worse prognosis ...
Finally, one should not forget about pulmonary embolism (PE). This can also result in worsening heart failure and acute, sub-acute or chronic dyspnea. ECG changes can occur although they are usually right sided in origin on the ECG e.g. Tall R wave in V1 (,7mm), biphasic T waves / ST depression in V1-V3. However, a normal ECG is common and the classic S1Q3T3 is very unusual to see yet it seems that this is the only ECG change that students and residents seem to remember. However, BNP and TnI can both be elevated in PE, and when elevated together, they are associated with a worse prognosis ...
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An optimal interaction between the Ventricular Assist Device and assisted heart will depend on precise timing of maximal flow generated by the device in relation to the ejection phase of the assisted heart. Such precise timing can be derived from the pressure-volume plane. The logic holds that a heart treated with a pump should be analyzed as a pump. ...
With Baby Driver now out on Blu-ray, we listened to both commentary tracks and assembled a list of some notable trivia revealed by director Edgar Wright.
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In this case, the individual's peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is measured, showing how fast a person can exhale.[unreliable ... It involves testing with methacholine, after which the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of the patient is measured. ...
... forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic ... forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. Asthma may also be classified as atopic ( ... In a mild exacerbation the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is ≥200 L/min, or ≥50% of the predicted best. Moderate is defined ... Other supportive evidence includes: a ≥20% difference in peak expiratory flow rate on at least three days in a week for at ...
Maximal expiratory flow, synonymous with forced expiratory flow, in spirometry Medial eye fields Metro Ethernet Forum ... Modernized e-File (MeF), an electronic system for filing U.S. income taxes Modified Energy Factor (Energy Star Rating Value, US ... 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force Mediterranean Expeditionary Force Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force during the First World War ... see 1st Marine Expeditionary Force, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Force, ...
... forced expiratory flow rates MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.500 --- maximal expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.505 ... peak expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.230 --- forced expiratory volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.500 --- maximal ... maximal expiratory flow-volume curves MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.510 --- maximal midexpiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700 ... expiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.275.650 --- residual volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900 --- vital ...
"Influence of expiratory flow on closing capacity at low expiratory flow rates". J Appl Physiol. 39 (1): 60-5. PMID 1150593. ... after forced expiration. This is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume. This means that ...
"How can I determine a normal peak flow rate for me?". WRIGHT BM, McKERROW CB (November 1959). "Maximum forced expiratory flow ... The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person's maximum speed of expiration, as ... The highest of three readings is used as the recorded value of the Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. It may be plotted out on graph ... It is important to use the same peak flow meter every time. To interpret the significance of peak expiratory flow measurements ...
Forced expiratory flow (FEF)[edit]. Forced expiratory flow (FEF) is the flow (or speed) of air coming out of the lung during ... a flow-volume loop, which graphically depicts the rate of airflow on the Y-axis and the total volume inspired or expired on the ... Average values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( ... Peak expiratory flow: The highest forced expiratory flow measured with a peak flow meter. ...
Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ... along the X-axis a flow-volume loop, which graphically depicts the rate of airflow on the Y-axis and the total volume inspired ... "Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and ... Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio (1 February 2011). "Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity may be a ...
The introduction of the non-return valve and high maximum gas supply flow rates have all but eliminated both these risks. In ... positive end-expiratory pressure and respiratory rate. There is no protocol guaranteed to avoid all risk in all applications.[ ... shearing forces, particularly associated with rapid changes in gas velocity.. The resultant alveolar rupture can lead to ... High-flow oxygen up to 100% is considered appropriate for diving accidents. Large-bore venous access with isotonic fluid ...
Spirometry includes tests of pulmonary mechanics - measurements of FVC, FEV1, FEF values, forced inspiratory flow rates (FIFs ... Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) is the maximal pressure measured during forced expiration (with cheeks bulging) through a ... The lung volumes are tidal volume (VT), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and residual volume ... Measurement of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures is indicated whenever there is an unexplained decrease in vital ...
Initial pressure rise On application of expiratory force, pressure rises inside the chest forcing blood out of the pulmonary ... but the cardiac output and blood flow to the body remains low. During this time the pulse rate increases (compensatory ... Stroke volume and blood pressure falls, while the heart rate increases. The Valsalva maneuver is used to aid in the clinical ... Akkawi NM, Agosti C, Rozzini L, Anzola GP, Padovani A (2001). "Transient global amnesia and venous flow patterns" (PDF). The ...
The bias flow controls and indicates the rate of continuous flow of humidified blended gas through the patient circuit. The ... Active exhalation means a negative pressure is applied to force volume out of the lungs. The CareFusion 3100A and 3100B are ... which in effect is the same as positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Thus gas is pushed into the lung during inspiration, ... As the bar or ball rotates and the opening lines-up with the gas flow, a small, brief pulse of gas is allowed to enter the ...
On application of expiratory force, pressure rises inside the chest forcing blood out of the pulmonary circulation into the ... but the cardiac output and blood flow to the body remains low. During this time the pulse rate increases (compensatory ... This will elicit the cardiovascular responses described below but will not force air into the Eustachian tubes.[citation needed ... Akkawi NM, Agosti C, Rozzini L, Anzola GP, Padovani A (2001). "Transient global amnesia and venous flow patterns". The Lancet. ...
... forced expiratory flow rates MeSH G09.772.765.650.300.590 --- maximal expiratory flow rate MeSH G09.772.765.650.300.630 --- ... maximal midexpiratory flow rate MeSH G09.772.765.650.300.790 --- peak expiratory flow rate MeSH G09.772.765.650.430 --- forced ... heart rate MeSH G09.330.553.400.509.430 --- heart rate, fetal MeSH G09.330.553.400.515 --- heart sounds MeSH G09.330.553.400. ... maximal expiratory flow-volume curves MeSH G09.772.765.650.300.670 --- ...
Expiratory time is defined as the period from the start of expiratory flow to the start of inspiratory flow. The flow-time ... Flow cycling is a form of patient cycling because the rate of flow decay to the cycle threshold is determined by patient ... The term passive refers to the ventilator's non-forced expiratory system. In a HFV-P scenario, the ventilator uses pressure to ... The term active refers to the ventilator's forced expiratory system. In a HFV-A scenario, the ventilator uses pressure to apply ...
The level of pressure relief is varied based on the patient's expiratory flow, making breathing out against the pressure less ... or that resistance to exhalation generates pressure that forces the upper airway to open wider. Flow generator (PAP machine) ... CPAP compliance rate showed no difference between the split-night and the two-night protocols. In the United States, PAP ... When the machine is turned on, but prior to the mask being placed on the head, a flow of air comes through the mask. After the ...
... in blood flow were observed that were transient at low ventilation rates but sustained when both tidal volumes and rates were ... Positive end-expiratory pressure[edit]. Some devices have PEEP valve connectors, for better positive airway pressure ... Manual resuscitator cause the gas inside the inflatable bag portion to be force-fed to the patient via a one-way valve when ... Consistent with previous studies where both excessive rate and volumes were found to produce side effects of blood flow ...
Peak/mean inspiratory and expiratory flow measures the presence of upper airway flow limitations during inspiration and ... Respiratory rate is the number of breaths per minute. A non-specific measure of respiratory disorder. Tidal volume (Vt) is the ... In the case of a total obstruction, the strong chest muscles force the thorax to expand, pulling the diaphragm upward in what ... qDEEL quantitative difference of end expiratory lung volume is a change in the level of end expiratory lung volume and may be ...
A peak expiratory flow (the maximum speed of expiration), commonly used in asthma, is not sufficient for the diagnosis of COPD ... Two main components are measured to make the diagnosis, the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), which is the ... If pulmonary rehabilitation improves mortality rates or hospital readmission rates is unclear. Pulmonary rehabilitation has ... The rate at which COPD worsens varies with the presence of factors that predict a poor outcome, including severe airflow ...
Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a hand held device which measures how fast a person can exhale and is a reliable test for ... It involves measuring the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV-1) of the patient before and after exposure to methacholine ... "Statement on self-monitoring of peak expiratory flows in the investigation of occupational asthma. Subcommittee on Occupational ...
... and expiratory flow is allowed until the baseline pressure (PEEP) is reached. Expiratory flow is determined by patient factors ... Positive pressure through manual supply of 50% oxygen through a tracheostomy tube led to a reduced mortality rate among ... forcing exhalation, sometimes termed exsufflation. The first such apparatus was the Bragg-Paul Pulsator. The name of one such ... or when a preset flow or percentage of the maximum flow delivered during a breath is reached depending on the breath type and ...
... forced expiratory volume in 1 second).[41] Additionally, specially developed image fusion methods overlaying functional EIT- ... The high frame rate of the v5r (over 650 frames per second) means that it can be used to monitor rapidly evolving processes or ... The data it provides can be used to determine the flow profile of complex multiphase processes; allowing engineers to ... The low specificity of mammography [46] and of MRI [47] result in a relatively high rate of false positive screenings, with ...
... the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first ... A peak expiratory flow (the maximum speed of expiration), commonly used in asthma, is not sufficient for the diagnosis of COPD. ... If pulmonary rehabilitation improves mortality rates or hospital readmission rates is unclear.[109] Pulmonary rehabilitation ... an improvement in forced expiratory volume (FEV1%), and potential improvements in quality of life when compared to treatment ...
2000 Indirect Assessment of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Indian Children. S. S. Verma, Y. K. Sharma, S. Arora, P. ... This work has been applauded not only by Armed forces but also by other paramilitary and police forces of the country. A new ... 1998 1999 Prediction of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy Indian boys and girls 8-13 years of age S. S. Verma, Y. K. Sharma ... Recommendations are being implemented by the Armed forces. Police and other paramilitary forces. The R&D contributions ...
Children and adults have been found to have similar rates of complication with pneumonia and ARDS. A large amount of force is ... Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which delivers air at a given pressure at the end of the expiratory cycle, can reduce ... Although reducing blood flow to the unventilated alveoli is a way to compensate for the fact that blood passing unventilated ... The pressure wave forces tissue out of the way, creating a temporary cavity; the tissue readily moves back into place, but it ...
Peak expiratory flow: The highest forced expiratory flow measured with a peak flow meter. ... volumes are essentially normal but flow rates are impeded. often low (Asthma can reduce the ratio to 0.6, Emphysema can reduce ... Forced expiratory flow related to some portion of the FVC curve; modifiers refer to amount of FVC already exhaled. ... Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ...
"Effects of ambient particulate matter on peak expiratory flow rates and respiratory symptoms of asthmatics during Asian dust ... As the force of wind passing over loosely held particles increases, particles of sand first start to vibrate, then to saltate ... storms could never reach the kind of hurricane-force winds experienced on Earth. Martian dust storms are formed when solar ...
... forced expiratory flow, and impaired lung function.[148] It is also thought that electronic cigarette use can expose ... As the usage of e-cigarettes increased between 2012 and 2015, the accidental nicotine exposure rate increased by 1398.2% in the ... Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 163 (8): 622-34. doi:10.7326/M15-2023. ... Growth rates in the US and UK slowed in 2015, although use is still increasing.[48][49] ...
US Preventive Services Task Force (2017). "Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults US Preventive Services Task Force ... Poor growth occurs for two reasons: the work of breathing is intense enough that calories are burned at high rates even at rest ... Once the high end-expiratory pressures are relieved, the cardiovascular complications reverse themselves. The postoperative ... to impede the flow of air to a degree ranging from light snoring to complete collapse. In the cases where airflow is reduced to ...
In mammals and common ostriches, the increase of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine flow rate (UFR) is due to a ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs[62] and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. ... therefore forcing air and heat removal without the loss of metabolic salts.[82] Panting allows the common ostrich to have a ... displaystyle \mathrm {Metabolic\ Rate} =70M^{0.75}}. where M. {\displaystyle M}. is body mass, and metabolic rate is measured ...
SIRS is the presence of two or more of the following: abnormal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, or blood gas, ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.[40] ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ... However, vasopressin reduces blood flow to the heart, finger/toes, and abdominal organs, resulting in a lack of oxygen supply ...
Measurement of airflow, such as peak expiratory flow rates, which can be done inexpensively on the track or sideline, may prove ... Part I of the report from the Joint Task Force of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Academy of Allergy ... It might be expected that people with E.I.B. would present with shortness of breath, and/or an elevated respiratory rate and ... compared to a national asthma rate of eight to ten percent,[21] whilst a study by the United States Olympic Committee in 2000 ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure[edit]. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated people with ... The death rate varies from 25-40% in centers using up-to-date ventilatory strategies and up to 58% in all centers.[33][34][35][ ... ARDS Definition Task Force". JAMA. 307 (23): 2526-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5669. PMC 3408735 . PMID 22797452.. ... Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) selectively widens the lung's arteries which allows for more blood flow to open alveoli for gas ...
Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flowrate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.[1] ... ERS Task Force on the Management of Work-related, Asthma (2012 Jun 1). "The management of work-related asthma guidelines: a ... Respiratory rate ≥ 25 breaths per minute Heart rate ≥ 110 beats per minute ... Part II of the report from the Joint Task Force of European Respiratory Society (ERS) and European Academy of Allergy and ...
... gene is associated with an increased incidence of Aspirin-induced asthma and a greater percentage fall in the forced expiratory ... It increases the blood flow through, for example, the pulmonary, coronary, retinal and choroid circulation. Inhaled PGI2 causes ... mosue model to cause an accelerated rate of developing atherosclerosis.[7][10] ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) as a proportion of ... Parabronchi in which the air flow is unidirectional are called paleopulmonic parabronchi and are found in all birds. Some birds ... "U.S. Preventative Services Task Force. 2013.. *^ Cadichon, Sandra B. (2007), "Chapter 22: Pulmonary hypoplasia", in Kumar, ... Not all air is expelled from the lungs even after a forced breath out; the remainder of the air is called the residual volume. ...
SIRS is the presence of two or more of the following: abnormal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, or blood gas, ... Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor organ function or insufficient blood flow.[8] Insufficient blood flow may be evident by ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.[36] ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ...
... constant-rate sampling modification of nitrous oxide method for cerebral blood flow in man". Methods Med Res. 8: 262-9. PMID ... 1959-1961 Consultant, Scientific Advisory Board, U.S. Air Force. *1960-1962 Chairman, Committee on Man-in-Space, Space Science ... "Breath-by-breath sampling of end-expiratory gas". J Appl Physiol. 14: 711-6. PMID 14413613. Retrieved 2008-06-13 ... "Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in men at rest". J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) as a proportion of ... Parabronchi in which the air flow is unidirectional are called paleopulmonic parabronchi and are found in all birds. Some birds ... The walls of the alveoli are extremely thin allowing a fast rate of diffusion. The connective tissue of the lungs is made up of ... "U.S. Preventative Services Task Force. 2013.. *^ Cadichon, Sandra B. (2007), "Chapter 22: Pulmonary hypoplasia", in Kumar, ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) as a proportion of ... Parabronchi in which the air flow is unidirectional are called paleopulmonic parabronchi and are found in all birds. Some birds ... The walls of the alveoli are extremely thin allowing a fast rate of diffusion. The alveoli have interconnecting small air ... Not all air is expelled from the lungs even after a forced breath out; the remainder of the air is called the residual volume. ...
Progesterone causes vasodilatation and increased blood flow to the kidneys, and as a result glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ... This causes less space to be available for lung expansion in the chest cavity, and leads to a decrease in expiratory reserve ... As measured by a force platform, parameters used to measure postural stability. Adapted from McCrory et al. 2010 ... Pregnant women fall at a similar rate (27%) to women over age of 70 years (28%). Most of the falls (64%) occur during the ...
Manual abdominal compression is another technique used to increase expiratory flow which later improves coughing. Other ... SCI is present in about 2% of all cases of blunt force trauma. Anyone who has undergone force sufficient to cause a thoracic ... While SCI rates are highest among people age 15-20, fewer than 3% of SCIs occur in people under 15. Neonatal SCI occurs in one ... The difference in rates between the sexes diminishes in injuries at age 3 and younger; the same number of girls are injured as ...
... the forced expiratory volume at 1 second, the forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the forced vital capacity, ... and the provocation concentration of histamine needed to result in a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second ...
... forced expiratory flow rates in English->Armenian dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 ... Results for: forced expiratory flow rates. English. Armenian. forced expiratory flow rates. արտաշնչում ուժեղացրած, օդի հոսքի ... forced expiratory volume. արտաշնչում ուժեղացրած, օդի հոսքի ծավալը. maximal expiratory flow rate. օդի առավելագույն հոսքի ... maximal midexpiratory flow rate. արտաշնչման մեջտեղում օդի հոսքի առավելագույն արագություն. peak expiratory flow rate. արտաշնչում ...
Normal values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1-0), and peak flow rate (PFR) in children. ... Normal values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1-0), and peak flow rate (PFR) in children. ...
For forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the single best value for each subject was ... Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves* * Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate * Middle Aged * Prospective Studies ... Changes in the normal maximal expiratory flow-volume curve with growth and aging Am Rev Respir Dis. 1983 Jun;127(6):725-34. doi ... Other flow-volume measurements were derived from the single test with the best sum FEV, plus FVC. These data were used to ...
... curvilinearity in the expiratory flow-volume curve is used to support the quantitative assessment of obstruction via FEV(1). ... Though forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) is the primary indicator of airway obstruction, ... flow rate, V = volume, and b(0), b(1), and b(2) are estimated from the patients flow-volume data) is fit to a fixed segment of ... flow-volume curve; forced expiratory volume; curvature index ... BACKGROUND: Though forced expiratory volume in the first second ...
Forced Expiratory Flow Rate. Code of Federal Regulations. 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. Subpart Z. Air Contaminants. US Government ... Forced Vital Capacity. *Forced Expiratory Volume (1 sec). *Forced Expiratory Flow Rate ...
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR ... "Peak Expiratory Flow Rate" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Peak Expiratory Flow Rate" was a major ... "Peak Expiratory Flow Rate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Peak Expiratory Flow Rate" by people in Profiles. ...
After I basically forced him to tell me, he said, ... PEFR: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. This is the maximum flow that ... can be generated with a forced exhalation. This is simlar to what is obtained when you blow into your peak flow meter, but more ... There are a lot of tests you do, yet the most important in diagnosisng asthma is performing a forced vital capacity (FVC). In ... The one created as you do your FVC is called a flow volume loop. If you have airflow obstruction and reversibility, the loops ...
Forced Vital Capacity. *Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. *(and 11 more...). 120. All. 45 Years to 85 Years (Adult, Senior). ... Endurance time during constant work rate cycle ergometry. *Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during constant work rate cycle ...
... forced vital capacity; PEF = forced expiratory flow; MMEF = maximum mid expiratory flow rate; and FRC = functional residual ... and forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV0.1/FVC%); maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF); and peak expiratory flow (PEF). ... CS = cigarette smoking; SB = Scutellaria baicalensis; BUD = Budesonide; FEV0.1 = forced expiratory volume in the first 0.1 ... including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first 0.1 seconds (FEV0.1) ...
Forced Expiratory Flow Rates Citation: Shahid Nisar ,Romana Horoon , Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and forced ... Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in 1st second in male smokers and non-smokers Nisar Shahid ... Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in 1st second in male smokers and non-smokers ... Pulmonary function tests i. e. , peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR] and forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1] were ...
Mean forced vital capacity was 18 per cent larger in nonsmoking white males than in nonsmoking black males, and 11 per cent ... Forced Expiratory Flow Rates* * Forced Expiratory Volume* * Humans * Lung / physiology * Male * Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate* ... 1-sec forced expiratory volume and maximal expiratory flow at 50 per cent of the forced vital capacity were larger in the black ... Similar differences were observed for the 1-sec forced expiratory volume and for the maximal expiratory flow at 50 per cent of ...
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), Percent predicted FEV1, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory flow rate ... Changes in the domiciliary morning Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) following oral telithromycin treatment ... had a normal menstrual flow within 1 month before study entry and ... Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). *Forced Expiratory Flow Rate ( ...
... which included forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), were ... overall response rate; OS, overall survival; PEF, peak expiratory flow; PFS, progression-free survival; PS, performance status ... forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; HR, hazard ratio; LCSS, Lung Cancer Symptom Scale; NSCLC, non- ... The 6-month PFS rate was 33% (95% CI, 16-51%), and the 6-month OS rate was 57% (95% CI, 40-71%). The ORR was 30.0% (95% CI, ...
Forced expiratory flow (FEF). This is the average rate of flow during the middle half of the FVC test. ... Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). This is the fastest rate that you can force air out of your lungs. ... Forced expiratory volume (FEV). This is the amount of air breathed out during the first, second, and third seconds of the FVC ... The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. This information can help your healthcare provider ...
... general aviation pilots with an average forced midexpiratory flow (FEF25--75%) value of 65.1% was compared to that of 10 ... Forced Expiratory Flow Rates. Hemodynamics. Humans. Lung Diseases, Obstructive / physiopathology*. Male. Smoking / ... The altitude tolerance of 10 spirometrically impaired (SI) general aviation pilots with an average forced midexpiratory flow ( ... temporal artery flow velocity, heart rate, and single-lead electrocardiogram. Although altitude exposure quantitatively ...
... peak expiratory flow rate. It is well known that PEFR measured using a mini-Wright meter is less precise than timed forced ... Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured once daily in school term time using standard range mini-Wright peak flow meters ... Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and presence or absence of upper respiratory infections were recorded on 63 school days from 1 ... Association between PM10 and decrements in peak expiratory flow rates in children: reanalysis of data from five panel studies. ...
Maximum forced expiratory flow rate as a measure of ventilatory capacity. Br Med J. 1959;2(5159):1041-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Relationship between maximum expiratory flow and degree of lung inflation. J Appl Physiol. 1958;13(3):331-6.CrossRefGoogle ... Macklem PT, Mead J. Factors determining maximum expiratory flow in dogs. J Appl Physiol. 1968;25(2):159-69.CrossRefGoogle ... Mead J, Turner J, Macklem P, Little J. Significance of the relationship between lung recoil and maximum expiratory flow. J Appl ...
... heart rate; HRV: heart rate variability; IBI: interbeat interval; PCC: posterior cingulate cortex; PEF: peak expiratory flow; ... forced expiration volume; FM: foot massage; fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging; FVC: forced vital capacity; HR: ... heart rate, foetal heart rate, fetal heart rate and endorphin". Hand searches of relevant journals and reference lists along ... BP, HR, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, FVC, FEV, vital capacity, peak flow. None reported. Significant pre-postdecrease ...
FEV stands for forced expiratory volume. The maximum speed at which you empty your lungs is called the peak expiratory flow ... rate (PEFR).. Spirometry results help determine which type of lung disease you have and its severity. The results can be ... The total volume of air exhaled from your lungs is called the forced vital capacity (FVC). ... The percentage of the FVC forced out in the first second is called the FEV1. ...
"How can I determine a normal peak flow rate for me?". WRIGHT BM, McKERROW CB (November 1959). "Maximum forced expiratory flow ... The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a persons maximum speed of expiration, as ... The highest of three readings is used as the recorded value of the Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. It may be plotted out on graph ... It is important to use the same peak flow meter every time. To interpret the significance of peak expiratory flow measurements ...
FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in one second; MV V = maximum voluntary ventilation; PEF = peak expiratory flow rate; Pco2 = ... FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in one second; MV V = maximum voluntary ventilation; PEF = peak expiratory flow rate; Pco2 = ... patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of less than 2 L require preoperative ventilation/perfusion ... Low complication rate of corticosteroid-treated asthmatics undergoing surgical procedures. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1379-84. ...
Forced expiratory volume in one second; [FEF.sub.25%-75%] = forced mid-expiratory flow rate ... The rate of cancer detection is similar to that of screening a high-risk population (1% to 2%).(5) In young patients with ... Even in experienced transplant programs, operative mortality rates may be as high as 8% and 3-month survival is approximately ... Chief among possible clues was the presence of air trapping on expiratory CT; various strategies have been developed to ...
... forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEVi) = 2.64--109%; FEV/FVC = 78%; peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) = 1036 l/s--147%, total ... He had normal vital signs (1arterial blood pressure: 135/85 mm Hg, heart rate: 80 beats per minute) but pulse oximetry was ... percentage rate of total variation across studies that is due to heterogeneity rather than coincidence / procent calkowitej ... with a Proportional Mortality Rate (PMR) of 4.5 (95% CI: 1.2-11.6) for workers employed in "wood buildings and mobile homes" [ ...
DEF rate explanation free. What is DEF rate? Meaning of DEF rate medical term. What does DEF rate mean? ... Looking for online definition of DEF rate in the Medical Dictionary? ... forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.. general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the ... maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.. maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow ...
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). the maximum flow rate generated during a forced expiration, measured in liters per minute. ... A/B rated. a system that compares the equivalency of one drug to that of another, especially brand to generic. absence seizure ... the rate at which a drug is eliminated from a specific volume of blood per unit of time. climacteric. the syndrome of endocrine ... peak flow meter. a device used to measure the PEFR as an indication of respiratory status; usually used twice a day by asthma ...
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.. general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the ... maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.. maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.. fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of ... puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.. pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery ...
... normal pulse rate; normal chest X ray; Improved PaO2; Increased forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. ... ACB; FKA forced expiratory technique; Phases: breathing control, thoracic expansion and forced expiratory technique. ... Forced expiratory volume 1/forced vital capacity; volum eof air forcefully exhaled in 1 sec/volume of air that can be maximally ... Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV). Max volume of air exhaled in a specific time, usually 1-3 sec. ...
  • A person with Normal Spirometry will have lung volumes and flow rates within the normal range for people their age, sex and height. (priory.com)
  • Q. What's the difference between spirometry measurement and peak flow reading? (priory.com)
  • Spirometry is the assessment of the functioning of the lungs by measuring the flow rate and volume of air that is expelled after a deep inspiration. (personneltoday.com)
  • It is measured in Litres per minute with a peak flow meter. (priory.com)
  • This is the fastest rate that you can force air out of your lungs. (rochester.edu)
  • The total volume of air exhaled from your lungs is called the forced vital capacity (FVC). (healthline.com)
  • a) Expiratory Vital Capacity (EVC): The maximum volume of gas which can be expired from the lungs during a relaxed expiration from a position of full inspiration. (priory.com)
  • The expiratory phase is the one more commonly used to measure obstruction and restriction within the lungs. (priory.com)
  • Is the greatest flow that can be sustained for 10 milliseconds on forced expiration starting from full inflation of the lungs. (priory.com)
  • An obstructive condition occurs when air has difficulty flowing out of the lungs due to resistance, causing a decreased flow of air. (nyhq.org)
  • the volume of gas that is inhaled into the lungs during a maximal forced inspiration starting at the end of a normal tidal inspiration. (brainscape.com)
  • ERV is the volume of gas that is expelled from the lungs during a maximal forced expiration that starts at the end of a normal tidal expiration. (brainscape.com)
  • Measures the force of air coming from the lungs with a device in the mouth. (conemaugh.org)
  • volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of an ordinary expiration, i.e. at the resting level or end-expiratory level. (scireproject.com)
  • It represents the rate of air movement out of the lungs. (epnet.com)
  • Studies have indicated that low-birth-weight infants are more common in women with daily symptoms or low expiratory flow than in women without asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Blinded examiners recorded respiratory excursion, peak expiratory flow rates, and subjective measures of asthma symptoms. (jaoa.org)
  • Changes in peak expiratory flow rates and asthma symptoms were not statistically significant. (jaoa.org)
  • It may be plotted out on graph paper charts together with a record of symptoms or using peak flow charting software. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our climbers prefer to acclimatize at a rate which avoids symptoms without the use of pharmaceutical agents. (pbs.org)
  • Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes. (nih.gov)
  • Assessment of efficacy was made with recording of morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates (PEF), respiratory symptoms, and use of rescue salbutamol. (bmj.com)
  • Lung function parameters, symptoms, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), and exacerbation and admission rates, were measured at baseline and every 16 weeks for 1 year. (usingenglish.com)
  • The severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms (Lake Louise AMS guidelines) and pulmonary function parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow) as well as resting heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation measurements were taken during the climb. (bioone.org)
  • This is the maximum flow that can be generated with a forced exhalation. (healthcentral.com)
  • Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) - the volume of air exhaled in a forced exhalation. (personneltoday.com)
  • FVC is the volume of air exhaled by a forced maximal exhalation after a full inhalation. (vernier.com)
  • The ratio of exhalation rate to total volume of air a subject can exhale. (wikibooks.org)
  • Slow flow techniques consist of compressing the rib cage and the abdominal cavity gradually and gently from the mid-expiratory phase up to the end of exhalation. (cochrane.org)
  • Peak expiratory flow (PEF) -Maximum speed of exhalation after after maximal inhalation. (epnet.com)
  • Cardiorespiratory parameters assessed at ground level (GL) and at 8,000- and 12,500-ft altitudes were blood pressure, pulmonary ventilation, oxyhemoglobin saturation, temporal artery flow velocity, heart rate, and single-lead electrocardiogram. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While the respiratory rate and vital capacity does not change in pregnancy, tidal volume, minute ventilation (40%), and minute oxygen uptake (20%) increase, with a resultant decrease in functional residual capacity and residual volume of air as a consequence of the elevated diaphragm. (medscape.com)
  • What is the alveolar ventilation rate? (brainscape.com)
  • The alveolar ventilation rate has to match what? (brainscape.com)
  • Randomized controlled trial comparing low inspiratory and expiratory flow during variable volume ventilation with a constant volume decelerating flow (pressure controlled volume guarantee). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Positive end-expiratory pressure is usually considered protective against ventilation-induced lung injury by reducing atelectrauma and improving lu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The expiratory muscles actively contract in healthy people whereas partial or fully denervated expiratory muscles in those with SCI will diminish exercise ventilation and ventilatory reserve. (scireproject.com)
  • Peak inspiratory flow rate and inhaled volumes were explored in 96 cystic fibrosis patients aged 6 years and older. (rxlist.com)
  • AirDuo Digihaler includes a QR code (on the top of the inhaler), and contains a built-in electronic module which automatically detects, records and stores data on inhaler events, including peak inspiratory flow rate (L/min). (rxlist.com)
  • Clark and Siebens also reported normal aging to include decreases in short-term memory, a loss of speed and of motor activities, and a slowing in the rate of central information processing. (medscape.com)
  • maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curves showed decreases of flow rates on the effort-independent portion of these curves. (annals.org)
  • A portable instrument that detects minute decreases in air flow, used by people with asthma to monitor small changes in breathing capacity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of traumatic spinal cord injury on spinal cord blood flow in humans is unknown. (bioportfolio.com)
  • METHODS: The hyperbolic function b(0)Q + b(1)Q V + b(2)V = 1 (in which Q = flow rate, V = volume, and b(0), b(1), and b(2) are estimated from the patient's flow-volume data) is fit to a fixed segment of the descending phase of the expiratory flow-volume curve. (cdc.gov)
  • This index uses data from a major segment of the flow-volume curve, and our preliminary data indicate an exponential relationship with FEV(1). (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to the upslope and downslope of the flow-volume curve in obstructive diseases? (brainscape.com)
  • What happens to the flow-volume curve in a restrictive lung disease? (brainscape.com)
  • the link between flow rates to lung volume produces a typical Flow-volume curve. (conemaugh.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We defined a curvature index to quantify the curvilinearity phenomenon observed in the expiratory limb of flow-volume loops from patients with obstructive lung disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Marques M, Genta PR, Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, White DP, Wellman A. Palatal prolapse as a signature of expiratory flow limitation and inspiratory palatal collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. (harvard.edu)
  • In general terms the obstructive pattern presents itself as reduced flow rates and normal lung volumes (but with a reduced FEV 1 ) on the FVC manoeuvre. (priory.com)
  • The cost-effectiveness of mini peak expiratory flow as a screening test for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among the Bangkok elderly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infant PF was assessed by partial expiratory flow-volume curves and helium-dilution measurement of FRC. (nih.gov)
  • The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is measured by the patient giving a short sharp blow into a peak flow meter, which then measures how much air (litres per minute)is being blown out. (everything2.com)
  • This is the average forced expiratory flow rate at the middle part of the FVC manoeuvre. (priory.com)
  • The restrictive pattern usually presents itself as reduced volumes and normal flow rates on the FVC manoeuvre. (priory.com)
  • 1989. New regression equations for predicting peak expiratory flow in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement of peak expiratory flow was pioneered by Martin Wright, who produced the first meter specifically designed to measure this index of lung function. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are international standards for peak expiratory flow meters [20] there are none for peak inspiratory flow measurement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the maximum volume during forced expiration. (nyhq.org)
  • Lung volumes reflect these diminished capacities for full inspiration and forced expiration in people with SCI. (scireproject.com)
  • This is simlar to what is obtained when you blow into your peak flow meter, but more accurate and reliable. (healthcentral.com)
  • It is important to use the same peak flow meter every time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the original design of instrument was introduced in the late 1950s, and the subsequent development of a more portable, lower cost version (the "Mini-Wright" peak flow meter), other designs and copies have become available across the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peak expiratory flow meter scale changes: implications for patients and health professionals" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar machine called a peak flow meter may be used to measure PERF. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Reference values for peak expiratory flow in Indian adult population using a European union scale peak flow meter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The diagnostic is accomplished using five simple questions and a peak expiratory flow meter (PEF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Forced expiratory flow rates were significantly lower in infants born to smoking mothers, both when unadjusted and after controlling for infant size, age, sex, and passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) between birth and the time of PF testing. (nih.gov)
  • attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In many asthmatic and some non-asthmatic children, strenuous exercise is followed by acute narrowing of the airways and consequent reduction in expiratory flow rates. (bmj.com)
  • Spinal cord blood flow in patients with acute spinal cord injuries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The altitude tolerance of 10 spirometrically impaired (SI) general aviation pilots with an average forced midexpiratory flow (FEF25--75%) value of 65.1% was compared to that of 10 spirometrically normal (SN) pilots. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FEF25-75 - forced mid-expiratory flow is an indicator of small airways obstruction. (personneltoday.com)
  • Due to the wide range of 'normal' values and the high degree of variability, peak flow is not the recommended test to identify asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM 2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Muscle strength declines 20-30% after age 60, and maximum power output (the work rate) declines 45% after the fifth decade. (medscape.com)
  • Training sessions were conducted in a non-chlorinated pool and the work rate was set at 65% of maximum heart rate. (wikibooks.org)
  • maximum volume of air that can be exhaled from the end-expiratory level or from functional residual capacity (FRC) to residual volume. (scireproject.com)
  • Statistical differences in continuous abstinence rate (CAR) between the two groups were analyzed using chi-square tests. (dovepress.com)
  • In addition to measuring the amount and rate of air inhaled and exhaled, these tests can also indicate how well oxygen and carbon dioxide are being exchanged in the alveoli. (nyhq.org)
  • Measurements of both upper thoracic and lower thoracic forced respiratory excursion statistically increased after osteopathic manipulative procedures compared with sham procedures. (jaoa.org)
  • The peak flow rate in normal adults will vary depending on age and height (Barnes, 2001). (everything2.com)
  • Predicted peak expiratory flow in normal adults using Wright-scale Godfrey S, Kamburoff PL, Naim JL (1970). (wikipedia.org)
  • We conclude that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with significant reductions in forced expiratory flow rates in young infants. (nih.gov)
  • We speculate that these effects of maternal prenatal smoking on early levels of forced expiratory flow may be an important factor predisposing infants to the occurrence of wheezing illness later in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Cordain, L., Hickey, M. , Kim K. Malaria and rickets represent selective forces for the convergent evolution of adult lactase persistence. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • In adult subjects (N=50, aged 18 to 45 years) with asthma, mean peak inspiratory flow (PIF) through the MDPI was 108.28 L/min (range: 70.37 to 129.24 L/min). (rxlist.com)
  • 3) The presence of mycetomas, while not an absolute contraindication, has been associated with a much higher mortality rate. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Called also mortality rate . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mortality rate from asthma in the United States is 2.1 persons per 100,000. (medscape.com)
  • Peak Expiratory Flow Rate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The irradiation treatment of the smooth muscle tissue causes a reduction in the amount of smooth muscle tissue over time which increases the inner diameter of the body conduit for improved fluid flow and prevents smooth muscle spasms. (google.com)
  • These diseases are typically characterized by a reduction in expiratory air flow rates. (cdc.gov)
  • P = .037) and forced oscillation technique (FOT), a significant reduction in exacerbation frequency (0.96 vs 1.71 times/year, P = .019) and a tendency towards reduction in admission rate (0.5 vs 0.8 times/year, P = .196) with NAC versus placebo. (usingenglish.com)
  • By assessing lung volumes, capacities, rates of flow, and gas exchange, PFTs provide information that, when evaluated by your doctor, can help diagnosis certain lung disorders. (nyhq.org)
  • This creates problems with air flow, mostly because you have less lung volume. (rochester.edu)
  • The Spirometer can be used to perform a variety of experiments related to air flow and lung volume. (vernier.com)
  • This allows estimates for lung volume and air flow rates to be made. (cdc.gov)
  • A restrictive condition occurs when the chest muscles are unable to expand adequately, creating a disruption in air flow. (nyhq.org)
  • The higher level lesions result in denervation of progressively more of the expiratory and inspiratory muscles as illustrated in Figure 1 . (scireproject.com)
  • The Flow-volume loop is helpful in evaluating patients with cough and shortness of breath. (conemaugh.org)
  • Under standardized in vitro test conditions, the AirDuo Digihaler inhaler delivers 49 mcg, 100 mcg, or 202 mcg of fluticasone propionate and 12.75 mcg of salmeterol base (equivalent to 18.5 mcg of salmeterol xinafoate), with lactose from the mouthpiece when tested at a flow rate of 85 L/min for 1.4 seconds. (rxlist.com)