Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.ParisMuscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.EuropeMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Coriolis Force: The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Northern IrelandGait: Manner or style of walking.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.GermanyMyosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)BelgiumMolecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectDisease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.ItalyHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.United StatesLifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Great BritainRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Andorra: A principality in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. Its capital is also called Andorra. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p50)Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)ArtVibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
  • Since then, the government has published several decrees to implement the main provisions of the law, including new rules on working time that came into force on 1 January 2017. (europa.eu)
  • The U.N. peacekeeping force in Mali will be the third largest, behind deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo and Darfur in Sudan, and cost up to $800 million annually, U.N. officials say. (france24.com)
  • UNITED NATIONS, Aug. 17 -- France on Thursday rebuffed pleas by U.N. officials to make a major contribution to a peacekeeping mission in southern Lebanon, setting back efforts to deploy an international military force to help police a cease-fire between Israel and Hezbollah, according to U.N. and French officials. (washingtonpost.com)
  • At least eight NATO allies have backed France over the naval standoff, according to French officials. (ap.org)
  • French officials say the coronavirus pandemic has further exposed the dangers of relying too much on competitors such as China for critical supplies and contributed to an increased wariness among EU nations such as the Netherlands and the Nordics that have long supported unrestricted free trade. (euractiv.com)
  • The French intelligence report also added that its findings matched the results of the samples obtained by their officials, including an unexploded grenade from an attack in Saraqib on April 29, 2013. (yahoo.com)
  • The strong explosion wounded two French guards and set off a fire at the embassy entrance that engulfed some of the offices inside, the officials said. (military.com)
  • Two attackers invaded a church Tuesday during morning Mass near the Normandy city of Rouen, killing an 84-year-old priest by slitting his throat and taking hostages before being shot and killed by police, French officials said. (cbsnews.com)
  • On January 16, leading French officials and members of the G5 Sahel (Mali, Niger, Chad, Mauritania, Burkina Faso) met in Pau, France to discuss the deteriorating security situation in West Africa. (thecipherbrief.com)
  • Ukrainian officials say the foreign ministers of Ukraine, Russia, Germany, and France plan to speak by telephone on January 9 as part of diplomatic efforts to end the conflict in eastern Ukraine. (rferl.org)
  • In fact, senior Pentagon officials said points of tension are likely to continue as China's military modernization allows Chinese forces, assets and platforms to extend further beyond their borders and therefore interact more frequently with other militaries. (military.com)
  • German commanders met with French officials on 18 June to negotiate an end to hostilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • France has ordered special forces to protect uranium sites run by state-owned Areva in Niger as the threat of attacks on its interests rises after its intervention against rebels in Mali, a military source said on Thursday, reports Reuters . (mediapart.fr)
  • France and the Netherlands have joined forces to urge the European Union to enforce environmental and labour standards more forcefully with countries the bloc signs trade deals with, according to a document seen by Reuters. (euractiv.com)
  • Countries for which this agenda was seen as very French a few months ago are now shifting," a French diplomatic source told Reuters. (euractiv.com)
  • We know, from a certain source, that the process of fabrication of the samples taken is typical of the method developed in Syrian laboratories," French Foreign Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault told reporters after presenting the findings to the cabinet, according to Reuters. (yahoo.com)
  • The French intelligence services consider that only Bashar al-Assad and some of his most influential entourage can give the order to use chemical weapons," Reuters quoted the report as saying. (yahoo.com)
  • Task Force commander Royal Navy Rear Admiral Andrew Burns said: "Exercise Griffin Strike has built on the successes of similar exercises since the Lancaster House Treaty and taken the CJEF capability to the next level. (naval-technology.com)
  • The Task Force on Perspectives in Environment and Health was established in order to prepare the initiative to be taken by the Member States of the WHO European Region and international organizations and institutions. (who.int)
  • The advice of the ministers participating in the Task Force is needed in order to reflect the opinion of those Member States, as well as to assist in formulating the long-term direction of action to be taken. (who.int)
  • TEHRAN - Iran and France agreed on Friday to form a joint consultancy task force on transportation to accelerate cooperation in this sector, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Task force of WikiProject Films. (wikipedia.org)
  • Task force of WikiProject Military history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Task force aims to develop, maintain, and improve articles relating to the capital. (wikipedia.org)
  • To set a strategy for getting finances to support Task Force activities. (eusem.org)
  • In February 2015 Francois Hollande called for other countries to follow the example of France by stopping the production of fissile materials and nuclear tests, which have been replaced by simulation tools. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The resolution contains a caveat that the creation of the peacekeeping force be subject to a review by the 15-member council of the security situation in Mali within 60 days of its adoption. (france24.com)
  • France launched air attacks on Islamist rebels in Mali to prevent their advance into the south of the country. (wsj.com)
  • Military sources say special forces to be sent to Niger uranium sites run by French state-owned company Areva as threat of attacks rise over Mali. (mediapart.fr)
  • French ground forces and military helicopters killed a jihadist commander linked with al-Qaida in Mali along with four others, the French military announced Friday. (wowktv.com)
  • Surveillance drones helped French forces in Mali identify Moussa's truck in the Menaka region of eastern Mali, which was then targeted by the helicopters and 15 French commandos sent to the scene, Barbry said. (wowktv.com)
  • It was the latest of multiple French actions in Mali recent weeks that killed suspected extremists. (wowktv.com)
  • Moussa was a Tuareg rebel fighter close to jihadi commander Iyad Ag Ghaly when extremists and rebel forces took control of northern Mali 2012. (wowktv.com)
  • That prompted a French-led military operation in 2013 keep Mali from falling apart. (wowktv.com)
  • After the Islamic extremist rebels were forced from power in northern Mali in 2013, they regrouped in the desert and now launch frequent attacks on the Malian army and its allies. (wowktv.com)
  • Last week, al-Qaida's North Africa branch, Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, or AQIM, threatened to seek revenge against all countries taking part in the French-led war in Mali, warning that no one who "participated in this ferocious attack" will be safe. (military.com)
  • However, French authorities and the restaurant industry are seeking to change perceptions. (france24.com)
  • The French authorities must immediately stop forced evictions affecting several thousand migrant Roma each year across the country, Amnesty International said in a report published today. (amnesty.org)
  • This means that the French authorities must immediately stop all evictions until all the international human rights safeguards can be guaranteed to all inhabitants of informal settlements," said John Dalhuisen. (amnesty.org)
  • The delicacy, long a feature on the menu of gourmet restaurants across the globe, is made by force-feeding geese to turn their livers to fat, a process long denounced as cruel by animal rights activists and increasingly viewed with unease by authorities in some western cities. (nationalpost.com)
  • NICE, France (AP) - France called up thousands of reserve security forces Friday as authorities tried to determine why a Tunisian deliveryman known only to be a petty criminal took the wheel of a 19-ton truck and plunged through a terrified seaside crowd on Bastille Day, leaving 84 people dead and more than 200 wounded. (abcactionnews.com)
  • France expects the Libyan authorities to shed the fullest light on this unacceptable act, so that the perpetrators are identified and brought to justice," Hollande added. (military.com)
  • Earlier, Fabius called the bombing an "abhorrent act," and said that the foreign ministry was "in liaison with the Libyan authorities" and that France will "do everything it can to shed light on the circumstances. (military.com)
  • NIAMEY, Niger (AP) - Unidentified gunmen killed six French aid workers and two Nigerien guides who were visiting a wildlife park east of Niger's capital early Sunday, authorities from both countries said. (ap.org)
  • He added that France was reinforcing security throughout the Mideast and the Sahel region of Africa. (military.com)
  • Germany, France and the U.K. vowed to maintain the Iran nuclear deal after America announced its intention to pull out Tuesday, but President Donald Trump 's plan to reimpose sanctions has already created economic uncertainty for European businesses operating there. (go.com)
  • The French government has warned citizens against traveling outside Niger's capital, Niamey, as militants linked to Boko Haram, Islamic State and al-Qaida carry out attacks across the vast West African nation. (wtop.com)
  • A Kazakh police officer blocks a street near the site of a firefight between Kazakh security forces and suspects linked to deadly attacks earlier this week on a National Guard base and several gun shops in Aqtobe. (rferl.org)
  • Kazakh security forces have killed five suspected militants in Aqtobe, the northwestern city near the Russian border where dozens of gunmen carried out deadly attacks on June 5. (rferl.org)
  • Security forces are continuing their search for other possible 'terrorists' suspected of involvement in the attacks, the National Security Committee said in its June 10 statement. (rferl.org)
  • Monday's assault came just days after France marked a year since the attacks that left 17 people dead, including four gunned down in a Jewish supermarket. (yahoo.com)
  • Israel has said its forces opened fire to protect the frontier from incursions and attacks by armed militants. (abc.net.au)
  • The Turkey-PKK conflict has killed an estimated 40,000 people since 1984 and the resumption of hostilities in July 2015 killed more than 3,300 people, including state security forces, militants and civilians. (nationalpost.com)
  • Srinagar, Sep 27 (PTI) An encounter broke out between security forces and militants in Pulwama district of Jammu and Kashmir on Sunday, police said. (yahoo.com)
  • Acting on specific information about the presence of militants in the Samboora area of Awantipora in the south Kashmir district, security forces launched a cordon and search operation there, a police official said. (yahoo.com)
  • He said as the forces were conducting the searches in the area, the militants fired upon them. (yahoo.com)
  • TEHRAN- A high-ranking French economic delegation, headed by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development Jean-Marc Ayrault is planned to attend Iran-France business forum at the place of Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture (ICCIMA) on Tuesday. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Presidents Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and then François Mitterrand unsuccessfully tried to revive the Third Force, the latter doing so in a sense by pursuing a policy of "ouverture" toward the UDF after the failure of the Socialists and their allies to gain an outright majority in the French legislative election, 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ministry official said France wants NATO allies to "solemnly reaffirm their attachment" to the arms embargo on Libya, which is being policed in part by a European Union naval operation. (ap.org)
  • There exists in the country a very strict separation between the responsibility for the manufacture of weapons, which is incumbent on a civilian body - the Commissariat for Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies - Directorate of Military Applications (CEA - DAM) under the authority from the Director of Military Applications - the DAM - and the Armed Forces, from the FOST - CFAS strategic ocean forces component. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Since the 1970s, French industry has permanently conducted at least one civilian or military launcher development, which has allowed the maintenance of a world-leading know-how. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The statement confirmed that France would send a company of 200 military engineers to Lebanon. (washingtonpost.com)
  • To some extent, American aid also prevented France from turning towards the military application of nuclear energy. (globalsecurity.org)
  • An ambulance sent by the French military stationed in Niger found the bodies later in the day in their burned-out vehicle in the giraffe reserve in Koure, the group said. (wtop.com)
  • Through the treaty, the two governments envisaged the creation of a deployable military force capable of supporting high-intensity combat operations. (naval-technology.com)
  • Hollande visited Niger and Ivory Coast earlier in the week, inspecting French military installations and meeting with fellow heads of state on security and development issues. (thenationonlineng.net)
  • In a surprise raid on the communist People's Republic of China (PRC), military forces of the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan invade the mainland and capture the town of Sungmen. (history.com)
  • Just eight months later, military forces from the PRC and the United States met on the battlefield in Korea. (history.com)
  • By 1918, he'd already won the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM), Military Medal and Bar, as well as French honours. (itv.com)
  • ATHENS, Greece (AP) - Greece's prime minister warmly thanked France Thursday for boosting its military presence in the eastern Mediterranean, where Greek and Turkish warships are closely shadowing each other over a Turkish energy exploration bid in waters Athens claims as its own. (ap.org)
  • In France, training takes place at DCI's International Centre for Military Diver Training (CIF-PM) near Toulon on the Mediterranean. (groupedci.com)
  • Democratic Force was a French centrist political party founded in 1995 by the merger between the centrist components of the Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française or UDF): the Christian-democratic Centre of Social Democrats and the Social Democratic Party. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compensate the residents for the nuclear weapons tests from 1995 to 1996, France offered a 10-year $194-million annual compensation package. (infoplease.com)
  • The Socialist Gaston Defferre and the Radical Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber advocated such an alliance in the 1960s, culminating in Defferre's disastrous candidacy in the French presidential election, 1969. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early returns are in on the first round of the French Presidential elections, and they're no surprise: the Socialist candidate, François Hollande, comes out in first place, with just under twenty-nine per cent of the vote, followed by the incumbent President, Nicolas Sarkozy, of the moderate-right Union for a Popular Movement, with about twenty-six per cent (these are the latest figures from Le Monde ). (newyorker.com)
  • After a 33-hour bombardment by Confederate cannons, Union forces surrender Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Harbor. (history.com)
  • When one tried to overpower him, he fought back - bayoneting five Germans and forcing the others to surrender. (itv.com)
  • There is a chronic shortage of adequate housing and emergency shelter for all who need it in France, but Roma, the victims of prejudice and discrimination in France - as much as elsewhere in Europe- are particularly vulnerable to violations of their internationally guaranteed right to adequate housing. (amnesty.org)
  • After examining the videos and images of victims published online, (French intelligence services) were able to conclude with a high degree of confidence that the vast majority are recent and not fabricated," the report said. (usatoday.com)
  • The victims were six French citizens and one Nigerien working for ACTED and Geneva-based IMPACT Initiatives. (wtop.com)
  • her goal is to interview 15 victims of forced marriage in each region. (healthcanal.com)
  • Earlier Wednesday, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan reaffirmed his country's support to the Tripoli-based administration in Libya and without naming France, criticized nations who have backed the rival administration led by Hifter. (ap.org)
  • In April 2011, faced with pending legislation from France meant to stabilize the country's political situation, a no-confidence vote was cast against the government of President Gaston Tong Sang. (infoplease.com)
  • The Russian Air Force has begun testing the medium-altitude long-range drone Orion Medium Altitude, Long Endurance (MALE) strike-reconnaissance drones. (defense-update.com)
  • NIAMEY, Niger (AP) - Armed forces from Niger and France have been deployed to pursue the gunmen who killed seven aid workers, mostly French citizens, and a leading guide in a Niger giraffe park considered one of the safer places in the vast West African country. (wtop.com)
  • One of the biggest French NGOs, ACTED has been present in Niger since 2010 and provides aid to displaced people and local populations who are particularly vulnerable due to conflicts in the region, lack of food and droughts. (wtop.com)
  • at the meeting of the Defence Council on 17th June 1958, he confirmed the date of the first French nuclear explosion and decided to accelerate the French nuclear program. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In May this year, French defence procurement agency DGA launched an additional series of tests to study the use of an unmanned combat air vehicle in a naval context. (airforce-technology.com)
  • The French ministry official described the decision to suspend participation in Sea Guardian as "a very clear political gesture" to highlight "ambiguities of an anti-trafficking operation in which there are traffickers involved. (ap.org)
  • DCI is the French Ministry of Armed forces operator for the transfer of the French armed forces know-how. (groupedci.com)
  • TEHRAN - The Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman said on Wednesday that his country will not tolerate any interference in its internal affairs, rejecting the French presidents' call for an immediate release of two detainees who are in Iran's custody for security reasons. (tehrantimes.com)
  • As of 2014, the Arms Control Associatio reported that France was estimated to have about 300 nuclear warheads, most of which are designed for delivery by submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM). (globalsecurity.org)
  • Hollande also unveiled the make-up of France s nuclear arsenal in a transparency drive by saying that the country had less than 300 nuclear warheads, three sets of 16 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and 54 medium-range air-to-surface missiles. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The current MSBS force is based on nuclear-powered submarines SNLE (Sous-marines Nucleaire Lanceur d'Engins balistique), each able to carry 16 missiles. (fas.org)
  • The analysis was released hours after U.S., France and Britain fired 105 missiles at three chemical weapons facilities in Syria - and about an hour before the convening of an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council called for by Russia, a Syrian ally that disputes chemical weapons were used. (usatoday.com)
  • TOULOUSE - In a barn in southwest France, farmer Valerie Fosserie squirts serum into a gosling's mouth as a prelude to what she says is production of the world's first ethically friendly foie gras. (nationalpost.com)
  • In response, French scientists at research company Aviwell near Toulouse have developed an alternative version of the delicacy that uses bacteria - ingested by the goose as a serum - to stimulate a natural, rather than forced, build-up of fat. (nationalpost.com)
  • The first A350-900 for Japan Airlines (JAL) has successfully completed its maiden flight in Toulouse, France. (airbus.com)
  • Thirty-five children, two journalists, and three paramedics were among those killed by Israeli forces. (abc.net.au)
  • United Nations investigators said on Thursday Israeli security forces may have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in killing 189 Palestinians and wounding more than 6,100 at weekly protests in Gaza last year. (abc.net.au)
  • The Israeli security forces killed and maimed Palestinian demonstrators who did not pose an imminent threat of death or serious injury to others when they were shot, nor were they directly participating in hostilities,' it said in its report. (abc.net.au)
  • Thirty-five children, two journalists and three 'clearly-marked' paramedics were among those killed by Israeli forces, in violation of international humanitarian law, it said. (abc.net.au)
  • France concludes the Assad regime was behind the April 7 chemical attack on civilians in the Douma suburb of Damascus, the first government confirmation. (usatoday.com)
  • French report lays out the evidence: Assad forces conducted chemical attack on civilians France concludes the Assad regime was behind the April 7 chemical attack on civilians in the Douma suburb of Damascus, the first government confirmation. (usatoday.com)
  • WASHINGTON - A report by France concludes the Assad regime was clearly behind the April 7 chemical attack on civilians in the Douma suburb of Damascus, the first detailed governmental assessment laying out the justification for the U.S.-led allied strikes on Syria. (usatoday.com)
  • Beyond possible doubt, a chemical attack was carried out against civilians at Douma (and) there is no plausible scenario other than that of an attack by Syrian armed forces as part of a wider offensive in the Eastern Ghouta enclave," according to the report issued Saturday by the French government. (usatoday.com)
  • The Third Force was also supported by the conservative National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP), which succeeded in having its most popular figure, Antoine Pinay, named Prime Minister in 1952, a year after the dissolving of the Third Force coalition. (wikipedia.org)
  • France has started withdrawing its 4,000-strong force and plans to have just 1,000 by the end of the year. (france24.com)
  • As far as the financial balance sheet is concerned, reducing the format of the air component would reduce the flow of appropriations needed to keep planes and weapons in operational condition, representing a gain of a few tens of millions of euros per year for a squadron, a hundred million if France removed the entire air component. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It forms part of an initiative launched by the French government in 2013, with the aim of reducing food wastage by 50 percent by the year 2025. (france24.com)
  • In France, the obstacle is mostly cultural," a government-commissioned report into food wastage released this year said. (france24.com)
  • A first five-year plan for the development of atomic energy prepared by Felix Gaillard, a member of the Pinay government (March 1952 to January 1953) was mainly intended to find a remedy for the French energy deficit. (globalsecurity.org)
  • On 8th April 1992, President Francois Mitterrand, through his Prime Minister, announced the suspension of French nuclear tests that year. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Oracle is a Leader in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Sales Force Automation-for the fourth consecutive year. (oracle.com)
  • In August this year, the current French government has issued a circular outlining best practice guidelines on steps to be taken prior to and during evictions. (amnesty.org)
  • Rival forces under the command of Khalifa Hifter, who launched an offensive on Tripoli last year, are supported by Russia, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates and other key Arab countries. (ap.org)
  • On March 18, 1962, France and the leaders of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) sign a peace agreement to end the seven-year Algerian War, signaling the end of 130 years of colonial French rule in Algeria. (history.com)
  • Anti-Semitic acts in France have soared in recent years, increasing by 84 percent in the period between January 2015 and May 2015 compared to a year earlier, according to official statistics. (yahoo.com)
  • As a result, emigration from France to Israel has spiked, with a record 7,900 people leaving last year. (yahoo.com)
  • Johannesburg -The 4-year-old toddler allegedly forced to smoke dagga by an older brother has been found, the Western Cape social development department said on Wednesday. (news24.com)
  • WikiLeaks has published yet another set of leaked internal documents from within the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) adding even more material to the mountain of evidence that we've been lied to about an alleged chemical weapons attack in Douma, Syria last year which resulted in airstrikes upon that nation from the US, UK and France. (whatreallyhappened.com)
  • Long seen as an affront to dining etiquette, doggy bags may finally become an established part of eating out in France with restaurants across the country now legally obliged to provide them. (france24.com)
  • As non-French EU citizens, they are prohibited by French law from staying in the country for more than three months unless they are employed or can demonstrate sufficient resources to support themselves. (amnesty.org)
  • Nationally, France is the country moving the most quickly and most impressively towards once again taking the bicycle seriously as a form of transportation. (momentummag.com)
  • La Rochelle remains my favorite city in France and is one of the reasons why the country has been ahead of the curve in transportation planning for quite some time. (momentummag.com)
  • France which already has 1,000 men in the country -- the largest single national unit -- has announced it is prepared to send another 500 men to increase the peace-keeping contingent. (britishpathe.com)
  • France is the G20 country which is closest to the goal of being quite prosperous on the one hand and keeping its per-capita carbon emissions relatively low on the other. (dbresearch.de)
  • Training takes place in France and/or the friendly country, depending on the available facilities. (groupedci.com)
  • In 2004, France changed its status from a French Overseas Territory to an Overseas Country, which gave French Polynesia more autonomy over local affairs. (infoplease.com)
  • France has known for years that it is a top Islamic State target, and France also is the biggest source for European recruits for IS, with more than 1,000 fighting in Syria or Iraq. (abcactionnews.com)
  • TEHRAN - Iran and France have called for devising a roadmap towards boosting medical and scientific cooperation, IRNA reported on Saturday. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- A French agricultural delegation will discuss agriculture, foodstuff, and poultry cooperation with Iranian entrepreneurs at the place of Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture (ICCIMA) today, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Banque de France to finance Iran-France projects: French fin. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN - Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (IRIR) and French National Railway Company SNCF signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on Sunday for enhancement of railway cooperation, IRIB reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • France is also calling for a crisis mechanism to prevent a repeat of the incident between Turkish warships and a French naval vessel in the Mediterranean. (ap.org)
  • However the practice of forced evictions has continued at the same alarming rate as before" said John Dalhuisen, Europe and Central Asia Programme Director at Amnesty International. (amnesty.org)
  • The practice of forced marriages is common in many countries, says Lamboley, including Bangladesh and India. (healthcanal.com)
  • The involvement of the traditionally strongly pro-free trade Dutch underscores a shift in European thinking on the need to protect domestic industry and jobs, a French diplomat said, as the coronavirus pandemic batters the global economy. (euractiv.com)
  • Prime minister Jüri Ratas (Center) thanked the outgoing Polish forces on his social media account, and welcomed the incoming French ones, who had to make use of European rail networks in bringing their equipment to Estonia amid the coronavirus pandemic and restrictions. (err.ee)
  • As longstanding strategic partners, France and India are working together closely on the international response to the Covid-19 pandemic as well as providing reciprocal assistance according to the needs of the two countries. (thedailyguardian.com)
  • An MEA source told The Daily Guardian, "France is an important strategic partner for India and in view of our very friendly relationship and close cooperation on various issues, India had provided at short notice, certain life-saving drugs to France in their time of need to help them deal with the pandemic. (thedailyguardian.com)
  • France has now provided medical equipment and expertise to India for our response to the Covid-19 pandemic and it is a happy coincidence that this equipment has arrived at the same time as the Rafale jets land. (thedailyguardian.com)
  • The India-France partnership will be even more crucial in the post-pandemic scenario including in the domain of humanitarian assistance. (thedailyguardian.com)
  • Addressing potential troop contributors, the U.N. deputy secretary general, Mark Malloch Brown, said no U.N. task in Lebanon was "more urgent, nor more fundamental to preserving peace" than sending a "strong, robust force" to help the Lebanese army assert its authority over south Lebanon for the first time in more than 25 years. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The first Soviet bomb exploded in 1949, that of the British in 1952, that of the French in 1960, and that of the Chinese in 1966. (globalsecurity.org)