The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.
A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.
'Shoes' are not a medical term, but an item of footwear designed to provide protection, support, and comfort to the feet during various activities, although ill-fitting or inappropriate shoes can contribute to various foot conditions such as blisters, corns, calluses, and orthopedic issues.
Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.
Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
A specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of foot disorders and injuries and anatomic defects of the foot.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.
The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Manner or style of walking.
A condition of the feet produced by prolonged exposure of the feet to water. Exposure for 48 hours or more to warm water causes tropical immersion foot or warm-water immersion foot common in Vietnam where troops were exposed to prolonged or repeated wading in paddy fields or streams. Trench foot results from prolonged exposure to cold, without actual freezing. It was common in trench warfare during World War I, when soldiers stood, sometimes for hours, in trenches with a few inches of cold water in them. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p27)
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The innermost digit of the foot in PRIMATES.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
A condition characterized by a series of interrelated digital symptoms and joint changes of the lesser digits and METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINTS of the FOOT. The syndrome can include some or all of the following conditions: hammer toe, claw toe, mallet toe, overlapping fifth toe, curly toe, EXOSTOSIS; HYPEROSTOSIS; interdigital heloma, or contracted toe.
Inflammation of the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot (plantar fascia) causing HEEL pain. The plantar fascia (also called plantar aponeurosis) are bands of fibrous tissue extending from the calcaneal tuberosity to the TOES. The etiology of plantar fasciitis remains controversial but is likely to involve a biomechanical imbalance. Though often presenting along with HEEL SPUR, they do not appear to be causally related.
Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
Plantar declination of the foot.
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The position or attitude of the body.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Pain in the region of the METATARSUS. It can include pain in the METATARSAL BONES; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and/or intermetatarsal joints (TARSAL JOINTS).
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents. (1/1643)

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions.  (+info)

Uninjured C-fiber nociceptors develop spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity following L6 spinal nerve ligation in monkey. (2/1643)

We investigated whether uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in primates develop abnormal responses after partial denervation of the skin. Partial denervation was induced by tightly ligating spinal nerve L6 that innervates the dorsum of the foot. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation, we recorded from uninjured single afferent nerve fibers in the superficial peroneal nerve. Recordings were made from 32 C-fiber nociceptors 2-3 wk after ligation and from 29 C-fiber nociceptors in control animals. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic agonist, and UK14304 (UK), a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, were applied to the receptive field for 5 min in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 100 microM. Nociceptors from in vitro control experiments were not significantly different from nociceptors recorded by us previously in in vivo experiments. In comparison to in vitro control animals, the afferents found in lesioned animals had 1) a significantly higher incidence of spontaneous activity, 2) a significantly higher incidence of response to phenylephrine, and 3) a higher incidence of response to UK. In lesioned animals, the peak response to phenylephrine was significantly greater than to UK, and the mechanical threshold of phenylephrine-sensitive afferents was significantly lower than for phenylephrine-insensitive afferents. Staining with protein gene product 9.5 revealed an approximately 55% reduction in the number of unmyelinated terminals in the epidermis of the lesioned limb compared with the contralateral limb. Thus uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors that innervate skin partially denervated by ligation of a spinal nerve acquire two abnormal properties: spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity. These abnormalities in nociceptor function may contribute to neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-4. (3/1643)

1. The effect of IL-4 on responses to intraplantar ( carrageenin, bradykinin, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Also, the cellular source of the IL-4 was investigated. 2. IL-4, 30 min before the stimulus, inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, and TNFalpha, but not responses to IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2. 3. IL-4, 2 h before the injection of IL-1beta, did not affect the response to IL-1beta, whereas IL-4, 12 or 12+2 h before the IL-1beta, inhibited the hyperalgesia (-30%, -74%, respectively). 4. In murine peritoneal macrophages, murine IL-4 for 2 h before stimulation with LPS, inhibited (-40%) the production of IL-1beta but not PGE2. Murine IL-4 (for 16 h before stimulation with LPS) inhibited LPS-stimulated PGE2 but not IL-1beta. 5. Anti-murine IL-4 antibodies potentiated responses to carrageenin, bradykinin and TNFalpha, but not IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as responses to bradykinin in athymic rats but not in rats depleted of mast cells with compound 40/80. 6. These data suggest that IL-4 released by mast cells limits inflammatory hyperalgesia. During the early phase of the inflammatory response the mode of action of the IL-4 appears to be inhibition of the production TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8. In the later phase of the response, in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 also may inhibit the release of PGs.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (4/1643)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. (5/1643)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb.  (+info)

Brain activation during maintenance of standing postures in humans. (6/1643)

The regulatory mechanism of bipedal standing in humans remains to be elucidated. We investigated neural substrates for maintaining standing postures in humans using PET with our mobile gantry PET system. Normal volunteers were instructed to adopt several postures: supine with eyes open toward a target; standing with feet together and eyes open or eyes closed; and standing on one foot or with two feet in a tandem relationship with eyes open toward the target. Compared with the supine posture, standing with feet together activated the cerebellar anterior lobe and the right visual cortex (Brodmann area 18/19), and standing on one foot increased cerebral blood flow in the cerebellar anterior vermis and the posterior lobe lateral cortex ipsilateral to the weight-bearing side. Standing in tandem was accompanied by activation within the visual association cortex, the anterior and posterior vermis as well as within the midbrain. Standing with eyes closed activated the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 8/9). Our findings confirmed that the cerebellar vermis efferent system plays an important role in maintenance of standing posture and suggested that the visual association cortex may subserve regulating postural equilibrium while standing.  (+info)

Role of Pitx1 upstream of Tbx4 in specification of hindlimb identity. (7/1643)

In spite of recent breakthroughs in understanding limb patterning, the genetic factors determining the differences between the forelimb and the hindlimb have not been understood. The genes Pitx1 and Tbx4 encode transcription factors that are expressed throughout the developing hindlimb but not forelimb buds. Misexpression of Pitx1 in the chick wing bud induced distal expression of Tbx4, as well as HoxC10 and HoxC11, which are normally restricted to hindlimb expression domains. Wing buds in which Pitx1 was misexpressed developed into limbs with some morphological characteristics of hindlimbs: the flexure was altered to that normally observed in legs, the digits were more toe-like in their relative size and shape, and the muscle pattern was transformed to that of a leg.  (+info)

Insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in feet with and without hallux valgus. (8/1643)

Textbooks of human anatomy present different opinions on the insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle which is concerned in etiology as well as in therapy of hallux valgus. In plastic and reconstructive surgery the muscle is taken as a graft for flap-surgery. In this study 109 feet (58 right, 51 left) were examined, 18 of these with clinical hallux valgus. The tendon of the muscle may attach to the tendon of the medial head of the short flexor hallucis muscle where a subtendineous bursa can be found. At the head of the first metatarsal bone the joint capsule is reinforced by fibres arising from the medial sesamoid bone which may be called "medial sesamoidal ligament." The tendon passes the first metatarsophalangeal joint plantarily to its transverse axis. Three types of insertion could be distinguished: type A, insertion at the proximal phalanx (N = 42); type B, insertion at the medial sesamoid ligament and at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 65); type C, insertion at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 2). In all types superficial fibres of the tendon extended to the medial and plantar sides of the base of the proximal phalanx, running in a plantar to dorsal direction. Statistical analysis exposed neither significant differences between both sides nor significant difference between normal feet and feet with hallux valgus. Therefore, a specific pattern of insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus cannot be stated.  (+info)

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Foot diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the foot, including its structures such as the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These conditions can cause symptoms like pain, swelling, numbness, difficulty walking, and skin changes. Examples of foot diseases include:

1. Plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes.
2. Bunions: a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe.
3. Hammertoe: a deformity in which the toe is bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
4. Diabetic foot: a group of conditions that can occur in people with diabetes, including nerve damage, poor circulation, and increased risk of infection.
5. Athlete's foot: a fungal infection that affects the skin between the toes and on the soles of the feet.
6. Ingrown toenails: a condition where the corner or side of a toenail grows into the flesh of the toe.
7. Gout: a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints, often starting with the big toe.
8. Foot ulcers: open sores or wounds that can occur on the feet, especially in people with diabetes or poor circulation.
9. Morton's neuroma: a thickening of the tissue around a nerve between the toes, causing pain and numbness.
10. Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Foot diseases can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and some may be prevented or managed with proper foot care, hygiene, and appropriate medical treatment.

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

Acquired foot deformities refer to structural abnormalities of the foot that develop after birth, as opposed to congenital foot deformities which are present at birth. These deformities can result from various factors such as trauma, injury, infection, neurological conditions, or complications from a medical condition like diabetes or arthritis.

Examples of acquired foot deformities include:

1. Hammertoe - A deformity where the toe bends downward at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
2. Claw toe - A more severe form of hammertoe where the toe also curls under, forming a claw-like shape.
3. Mallet toe - A condition where the end joint of a toe is bent downward, causing it to resemble a mallet.
4. Bunions - A bony bump that forms on the inside of the foot at the big toe joint, often causing pain and difficulty wearing shoes.
5. Tailor's bunion (bunionette) - A similar condition to a bunion, but it occurs on the outside of the foot near the little toe joint.
6. Charcot foot - A severe deformity that can occur in people with diabetes or other neurological conditions, characterized by the collapse and dislocation of joints in the foot.
7. Cavus foot - A condition where the arch of the foot is excessively high, causing instability and increasing the risk of ankle injuries.
8. Flatfoot (pes planus) - A deformity where the arch of the foot collapses, leading to pain and difficulty walking.
9. Pronation deformities - Abnormal rotation or tilting of the foot, often causing instability and increasing the risk of injury.

Treatment for acquired foot deformities varies depending on the severity and underlying cause but may include orthotics, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

A foot ulcer is a wound or sore on the foot that occurs most commonly in people with diabetes, but can also affect other individuals with poor circulation or nerve damage. These ulcers can be challenging to heal and are prone to infection, making it essential for individuals with foot ulcers to seek medical attention promptly.

Foot ulcers typically develop due to prolonged pressure on bony prominences of the foot, leading to breakdown of the skin and underlying tissues. The development of foot ulcers can be attributed to several factors, including:

1. Neuropathy (nerve damage): This condition causes a loss of sensation in the feet, making it difficult for individuals to feel pain or discomfort associated with pressure points, leading to the formation of ulcers.
2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Reduced blood flow to the lower extremities can impair wound healing and make the body more susceptible to infection.
3. Deformities: Structural foot abnormalities, such as bunions or hammertoes, can cause increased pressure on specific areas of the foot, increasing the risk of ulcer formation.
4. Poorly fitting shoes: Shoes that are too tight, narrow, or ill-fitting can create friction and pressure points, contributing to the development of foot ulcers.
5. Trauma: Injuries or trauma to the feet can lead to the formation of ulcers, particularly in individuals with neuropathy who may not feel the initial pain associated with the injury.
6. Foot care neglect: Failure to inspect and care for the feet regularly can result in undetected wounds or sores that progress into ulcers.

Foot ulcers are classified based on their depth, severity, and extent of tissue involvement. Proper assessment, treatment, and prevention strategies are crucial in managing foot ulcers and minimizing the risk of complications such as infection, gangrene, and amputation.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Foot deformities refer to abnormal changes in the structure and/or alignment of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, or tendons in the foot, leading to a deviation from the normal shape and function of the foot. These deformities can occur in various parts of the foot, such as the toes, arch, heel, or ankle, and can result in pain, difficulty walking, and reduced mobility. Some common examples of foot deformities include:

1. Hammertoes: A deformity where the toe bends downward at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
2. Mallet toes: A condition where the end joint of the toe is bent downward, creating a mallet-like shape.
3. Claw toes: A combination of both hammertoes and mallet toes, causing all three joints in the toe to bend abnormally.
4. Bunions: A bony bump that forms on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe, caused by the misalignment of the big toe joint.
5. Tailor's bunion (bunionette): A similar condition to a bunion but occurring on the outside of the foot, at the base of the little toe.
6. Flat feet (pes planus): A condition where the arch of the foot collapses, causing the entire sole of the foot to come into contact with the ground when standing or walking.
7. High arches (pes cavus): An excessively high arch that doesn't provide enough shock absorption and can lead to pain and instability.
8. Cavus foot: A condition characterized by a very high arch and tight heel cord, often leading to an imbalance in the foot structure and increased risk of ankle injuries.
9. Haglund's deformity: A bony enlargement on the back of the heel, which can cause pain and irritation when wearing shoes.
10. Charcot foot: A severe deformity that occurs due to nerve damage in the foot, leading to weakened bones, joint dislocations, and foot collapse.

Foot deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life) due to various factors such as injury, illness, poor footwear, or abnormal biomechanics. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and management are essential for maintaining foot health and preventing further complications.

'Foot bones,' also known as the tarsal and metatarsal bones, are the 26 bones that make up the foot in humans. The foot is divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.

The hindfoot contains two bones: the talus, which connects to the leg bone (tibia), and the calcaneus (heel bone). These bones form the ankle joint and heel.

The midfoot is made up of five irregularly shaped bones called the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones. These bones help form the arch of the foot and connect the hindfoot to the forefoot.

The forefoot contains the metatarsals (five long bones) and the phalanges (14 small bones). The metatarsals connect the midfoot to the toes, while the phalanges make up the toes themselves.

These bones work together to provide stability, support, and movement for the foot, allowing us to walk, run, and jump.

"Foot joints" is a general term that refers to the various articulations or connections between the bones in the foot. There are several joints in the foot, including:

1. The ankle joint (tibiotalar joint): This is the joint between the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg and the talus bone of the foot.
2. The subtalar joint (talocalcaneal joint): This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus (heel) bone.
3. The calcaneocuboid joint: This is the joint between the calcaneus bone and the cuboid bone, which is one of the bones in the midfoot.
4. The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfranc joint): These are the joints that connect the tarsal bones in the midfoot to the metatarsal bones in the forefoot.
5. The metatarsophalangeal joints: These are the joints between the metatarsal bones and the phalanges (toes) in the forefoot.
6. The interphalangeal joints: These are the joints between the phalanges within each toe.

Each of these foot joints plays a specific role in supporting the foot, absorbing shock, and allowing for movement and flexibility during walking and other activities.

Congenital foot deformities refer to abnormal structural changes in the foot that are present at birth. These deformities can vary from mild to severe and may affect the shape, position, or function of one or both feet. Common examples include clubfoot (talipes equinovarus), congenital vertical talus, and cavus foot. Congenital foot deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during fetal development, or a combination of both. Treatment options may include stretching, casting, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and type of the deformity.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild, contagious viral infection common in infants and children but can sometimes occur in adults. The disease is often caused by coxsackievirus A16 or enterovirus 71.

The name "hand, foot and mouth" comes from the fact that blister-like sores usually appear in the mouth (and occasionally on the buttocks and legs) along with a rash on the hands and feet. The disease is not related to foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which affects cattle, sheep, and swine.

HFMD is spread through close personal contact, such as hugging and kissing, or through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching objects and surfaces that have the virus on them and then touching the face. People with HFMD are most contagious during the first week of their illness but can still be contagious for weeks after symptoms go away.

There is no specific treatment for HFMD, and it usually resolves on its own within 7-10 days. However, over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers may help alleviate symptoms. It's important to encourage good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, to prevent the spread of HFMD.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Medical professionals define "flatfoot" or "pes planus" as a postural deformity in which the arch of the foot collapses, leading to the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. This condition can be classified as flexible (the arch reappears when the foot is not bearing weight) or rigid (the arch does not reappear). Flatfoot can result from various factors such as genetics, injury, aging, or certain medical conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral palsy. In some cases, flatfoot may not cause any symptoms or problems; however, in other instances, it can lead to pain, discomfort, or difficulty walking. Treatment options for flatfoot depend on the severity of the condition and associated symptoms and may include physical therapy, orthotics, bracing, or surgery.

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus, is a congenital foot deformity where the foot is twisted inward and downward. The affected foot appears to be turned inward and downward, resembling a club or a bowling pin. This condition usually affects one foot but can occur in both feet as well.

The cause of clubfoot is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Clubfoot is often diagnosed at birth or during routine prenatal ultrasound exams. Treatment for clubfoot typically involves nonsurgical methods such as stretching, casting, and bracing to gradually correct the position of the foot over time. In some cases, surgery may be required to release tight tendons and realign the bones in the foot and ankle.

If left untreated, clubfoot can lead to significant mobility issues and difficulty walking or participating in activities. However, with early intervention and consistent treatment, most children with clubfoot are able to lead active and normal lives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "shoes" are not a medical term. Shoes are items of footwear intended to protect and comfort the feet. They typically have a durable sole that provides protection from sharp objects, hot surfaces, and the effects of moisture. The upper part of a shoe can be made from various materials such as leather, plastic, or textiles, and is designed to provide coverage and support for the foot.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

Foot orthoses, also known as orthotic devices or simply orthotics, are custom-made or prefabricated shoe inserts that are designed to support, align, correct, or accommodate various foot and ankle deformities or biomechanical issues. They can be made of different materials such as plastic, rubber, leather, or foam and are inserted into the shoes to provide extra cushioning, arch support, or realignment of the foot structure.

Custom-made foot orthoses are created based on a mold or a digital scan of the individual's foot, taking into account their specific needs and medical condition. These devices are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals such as podiatrists, orthopedic surgeons, or physical therapists to treat various conditions such as plantar fasciitis, flat feet, high arches, bunions, diabetic foot ulcers, or arthritis.

Foot orthoses can help improve foot function, reduce pain and discomfort, prevent further deformities, and enhance overall mobility and quality of life.

The tarsal bones are a group of seven articulating bones in the foot that make up the posterior portion of the foot, located between the talus bone of the leg and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They play a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and facilitating movement.

There are three categories of tarsal bones:

1. Proximal row: This includes the talus, calcaneus (heel bone), and navicular bones. The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint, while the calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone and forms the heel. The navicular bone is located between the talus and the cuneiform bones.

2. Intermediate row: This includes the cuboid bone, which is located laterally (on the outside) to the navicular bone and articulates with the calcaneus, fourth and fifth metatarsals, and the cuneiform bones.

3. Distal row: This includes three cuneiform bones - the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms - which are located between the navicular bone proximally and the first, second, and third metatarsal bones distally. The medial cuneiform is the largest of the three and articulates with the navicular bone, first metatarsal, and the intermediate cuneiform. The intermediate cuneiform articulates with the medial and lateral cuneiforms and the second metatarsal. The lateral cuneiform articulates with the intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, and fourth metatarsal.

Together, these bones form a complex network of joints that allow for movement and stability in the foot. Injuries or disorders affecting the tarsal bones can result in pain, stiffness, and difficulty walking.

The forefoot is the front part of the human foot that contains the toes and the associated bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is made up of five long bones called metatarsals and fourteen phalanges, which are the bones in the toes. The forefoot plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, balance, and propulsion during walking and running. The joints in the forefoot allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction of the toes, enabling us to maintain our footing on various surfaces and adapt to different terrain.

Neurogenic arthropathy is a joint disease that occurs as a result of nerve damage or dysfunction. Also known as Charcot joint, this condition is characterized by joint destruction and deformity due to the loss of sensation and proprioception, which normally help protect the joint from excessive stress and injury.

Neurogenic arthropathy often affects people with diabetes, syphilis, leprosy, spinal cord injuries, or other conditions that damage nerves. The damage impairs the ability to feel pain, temperature, and position, making it difficult for individuals to notice or respond to joint injuries. Over time, this can lead to joint degeneration, fractures, dislocations, and severe deformities if left untreated.

Treatment typically involves managing the underlying nerve condition, immobilizing the affected joint with a brace or cast, and in some cases, surgical intervention to repair or replace damaged joints. Regular exercise, physical therapy, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also help manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Foot rot, also known as pododermatitis, is a common infectious disease in cloven-hoofed animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle. It's typically caused by a mixture of bacteria, usually Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella spp., that infect the soft tissues of the foot, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and often foul-smelling discharge.

The infection often begins between the claws or toes, where the skin is more susceptible to damage and moisture accumulation. The affected area may become painful, swollen, and sensitive to pressure, making it difficult for the animal to walk or stand. In severe cases, foot rot can lead to lameness, decreased feed intake, weight loss, and even death if left untreated.

Foot rot is highly contagious and can spread quickly among animals in close contact, such as those in confined spaces or sharing pastures. Prevention strategies include maintaining good sanitation and dry conditions, trimming hooves regularly to prevent overgrowth and reduce moisture accumulation, and vaccinating against the bacteria responsible for foot rot. Rapid detection and treatment of infected animals are crucial to controlling the spread of this disease in animal populations.

Orthotic devices are custom-made or prefabricated appliances designed to align, support, prevent deformity, or improve the function of movable body parts. They are frequently used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as foot and ankle conditions, knee problems, spinal alignment issues, and hand or wrist ailments. These devices can be adjustable or non-adjustable and are typically made from materials like plastic, metal, leather, or fabric. They work by redistributing forces across joints, correcting alignment, preventing unwanted movements, or accommodating existing deformities. Examples of orthotic devices include ankle-foot orthoses, knee braces, back braces, wrist splints, and custom-made foot insoles.

The tarsal joints are a series of articulations in the foot that involve the bones of the hindfoot and midfoot. There are three main tarsal joints:

1. Talocrural joint (also known as the ankle joint): This is the joint between the talus bone of the lower leg and the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg, as well as the calcaneus bone of the foot. It allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements of the foot.
2. Subtalar joint: This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus bone. It allows for inversion and eversion movements of the foot.
3. Tarsometatarsal joints (also known as the Lisfranc joint): These are the joints between the tarsal bones of the midfoot and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the foot.

These joints play an important role in the stability and mobility of the foot, allowing for various movements during activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Podiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and lower extremities. Podiatrists are healthcare professionals who specialize in this field, also known as doctors of podiatric medicine (DPM). They receive specialized medical education and training to provide comprehensive care for various conditions such as bunions, hammertoes, heel pain, nerve damage, diabetic foot problems, and sports injuries among others. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, orthotics, or surgery.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

Hallux Valgus is a medical condition that affects the foot, specifically the big toe joint. It is characterized by the deviation of the big toe (hallux) towards the second toe, resulting in a prominent bump on the inner side of the foot at the base of the big toe. This bump is actually the metatarsal head of the first bone in the foot that becomes exposed due to the angulation.

The deformity can lead to pain, stiffness, and difficulty wearing shoes. In severe cases, it can also cause secondary arthritis in the joint. Hallux Valgus is more common in women than men and can be caused by genetic factors, foot shape, or ill-fitting shoes that put pressure on the big toe joint.

The metatarsus is the region in the foot between the tarsal bones (which form the hindfoot and midfoot) and the phalanges (toes). It consists of five long bones called the metatarsals, which articulate with the tarsal bones proximally and the phalanges distally. The metatarsus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, support, and propulsion during walking and running. Any abnormalities or injuries to this region may result in various foot conditions, such as metatarsalgia, Morton's neuroma, or hammertoes.

The metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot that connect the tarsal bones in the hindfoot to the phalanges in the forefoot. They are located between the tarsal and phalangeal bones and are responsible for forming the arch of the foot and transmitting weight-bearing forces during walking and running. The metatarsal bones are numbered 1 to 5, with the first metatarsal being the shortest and thickest, and the fifth metatarsal being the longest and thinnest. Each metatarsal bone has a base, shaft, and head, and they articulate with each other and with the surrounding bones through joints. Any injury or disorder affecting the metatarsal bones can cause pain and difficulty in walking or standing.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Immersion foot, also known as trench foot, is a medical condition that occurs when the feet are exposed to cold and wet conditions for prolonged periods. It is not necessarily caused by immersion in water, but rather by the persistent dampness and chilling of the feet.

The symptoms can include numbness, pain, swelling, redness, and blistering. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue damage and even gangrene, which may require amputation. It's important to note that this condition can occur at temperatures above freezing, and it's often associated with poor hygiene and lack of proper foot care. Early treatment is crucial to prevent serious complications.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

Pronation is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of human biomechanics and orthopedics. It refers to the normal motion that occurs in the subtalar joint of the foot, which allows the foot to adapt to various surfaces and absorb shock during walking or running.

During pronation, the arch of the foot collapses, and the heel rolls inward, causing the forefoot to rotate outward. This motion helps distribute the forces of impact evenly across the foot and lower limb, reducing stress on individual structures and providing stability during weight-bearing activities.

However, excessive pronation can lead to biomechanical issues and increase the risk of injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, and knee pain. Proper assessment and management of foot mechanics, including orthotics or physical therapy interventions, may be necessary to address excessive pronation and related conditions.

The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the joint in the foot where the metatarsal bones of the foot (the long bones behind the toes) connect with the proximal phalanges of the toes. It's a synovial joint, which means it's surrounded by a capsule containing synovial fluid to allow for smooth movement. The MTP joint is responsible for allowing the flexion and extension movements of the toes, and is important for maintaining balance and pushing off during walking and running. Issues with the MTP joint can lead to conditions such as hallux valgus (bunions) or hammertoe.

The ankle, also known as the talocrural region, is the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements. The ankle is composed of three bones: the tibia and fibula of the lower leg, and the talus of the foot. The bottom portion of the tibia and fibula, called the malleoli, form a mortise that surrounds and articulates with the talus.

The ankle joint is strengthened by several ligaments, including the medial (deltoid) ligament and lateral ligament complex. The ankle also contains important nerves and blood vessels that provide sensation and circulation to the foot.

Damage to the ankle joint, such as sprains or fractures, can result in pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. Proper care and rehabilitation are essential for maintaining the health and function of the ankle joint.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone in the human foot, and it is commonly known as the heel bone. It articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly, the talus bone superiorly, and several tendons and ligaments that help to form the posterior portion of the foot's skeletal structure. The calcaneus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement, as it forms the lower part of the leg's ankle joint and helps to absorb shock during walking or running.

Congenital hand deformities refer to physical abnormalities or malformations of the hand, wrist, and/or digits (fingers) that are present at birth. These deformities can result from genetic factors, environmental influences during pregnancy, or a combination of both. They may affect the bones, muscles, tendons, joints, and other structures in the hand, leading to varying degrees of impairment in function and appearance.

There are numerous types of congenital hand deformities, some of which include:

1. Polydactyly: The presence of extra digits on the hand, which can be fully formed or rudimentary.
2. Syndactyly: Webbing or fusion of two or more fingers, which may involve soft tissue only or bone as well.
3. Clinodactyly: A curved finger due to a sideways deviation of the fingertip, often affecting the little finger.
4. Camptodactyly: Permanent flexion or bending of one or more fingers, typically involving the proximal interphalangeal joint.
5. Trigger Finger/Thumb: A condition where a finger or thumb becomes locked in a bent position due to thickening and narrowing of the tendon sheath.
6. Radial Club Hand (Radial Ray Deficiency): Underdevelopment or absence of the radius bone, resulting in a short, curved forearm and hand deformity.
7. Ulnar Club Hand (Ulnar Ray Deficiency): Underdevelopment or absence of the ulna bone, leading to a short, curved forearm and hand deformity.
8. Cleidocranial Dysplasia: A genetic disorder affecting bone growth, resulting in underdeveloped or absent collarbones, dental abnormalities, and occasionally hand deformities.
9. Apert Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the fusion of fingers and toes (syndactyly) and other skeletal abnormalities.
10. Holt-Oram Syndrome: A genetic disorder involving heart defects and upper limb deformities, such as radial ray deficiency or thumb anomalies.

Treatment for hand deformities varies depending on the specific condition and severity. Options may include physical therapy, bracing, splinting, medications, or surgical intervention.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

"Hallux" is a medical term that refers to the big toe or great toe, which is the first digit of the human foot. It is derived from Latin, where "hallus" means "big toe." In some contexts, specific pathologies or conditions related to the big toe may also be referred to as hallux issues, such as hallux valgus (a common foot deformity where the big toe drifts toward the second toe) or hallux rigidus (a form of degenerative arthritis that affects the big toe joint).

The talus is a bone in the foot that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint. It is unique because it doesn't have any muscle attachments and gets its blood supply from surrounding vessels. Its main function is to transfer weight and force during movement from the lower leg to the foot.

Hammertoe syndrome, also known as hammer toe, is a deformity of the second, third, or fourth smaller toes where they become permanently bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer. This condition can cause pain and difficulty walking, especially when wearing shoes that rub against the raised portion of the toe. Hammertoe syndrome can be caused by factors such as inherited foot type, arthritis, and muscle imbalance, and it can also result from wearing narrow or ill-fitting shoes for extended periods. Treatment options may include changes in footwear, orthotics, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.

Plantar fasciitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the plantar fascia, which is a thick band of tissue that runs along the bottom of your foot, connecting your heel bone to your toes. This tissue supports the arch of your foot and absorbs shock when you walk or run.

Plantar fasciitis is often caused by repetitive stress or overuse, leading to small tears and inflammation in the fascia. People who have high arches or flat feet, those who spend a lot of time on their feet, and athletes who engage in activities that put repeated stress on the heel and attached tissue, such as runners, are at a higher risk of developing plantar fasciitis.

Symptoms of plantar fasciitis include pain and stiffness in the heel or bottom of the foot, especially when taking the first few steps after getting out of bed or after prolonged periods of sitting or standing. The pain may worsen over time if left untreated, making it difficult to walk, climb stairs, or participate in physical activities.

Treatment for plantar fasciitis typically includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) therapy, as well as physical therapy exercises to stretch and strengthen the foot and lower leg muscles. In some cases, medication, orthotics, or even surgery may be necessary to alleviate severe pain and inflammation.

The subtalar joint is a joint in the foot that is located between the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones. It is called a "joint" because it allows for movement, specifically inversion and eversion, which are the movements that allow the foot to roll inward or outward. The subtalar joint plays an essential role in the biomechanics of the foot and ankle, helping to absorb shock during walking and running, and contributing to the stability of the foot during standing and walking. Issues with the subtalar joint can lead to various foot and ankle problems, such as flatfoot or chronic ankle instability.

In medical terms, "heel" generally refers to the posterior and largest part of the foot, specifically the calcaneus bone. The heel is the first part of the foot to make contact with the ground during walking or running, and it plays a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and absorbing shock during movement.

The term "heel" can also be used to describe a structure or device that is attached to the back of a shoe or boot to provide additional height, support, or protection to the wearer's heel. These types of heels are often worn for fashion purposes or to compensate for differences in leg length.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Enterovirus A, Human is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, and they are divided into several species, including Enterovirus A, B, C, D, and Rhinovirus.

Enterovirus A includes several important human pathogens, such as polioviruses (which have been largely eradicated thanks to vaccination efforts), coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

Poliovirus, which is the most well-known member of Enterovirus A, was responsible for causing poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease that can lead to irreversible paralysis. However, due to widespread vaccination programs, wild poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in many parts of the world, and only a few countries still report cases of polio caused by vaccine-derived viruses.

Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses can cause various symptoms, including fever, rash, mouth sores, muscle aches, and respiratory illnesses. In some cases, they can also lead to more severe diseases such as meningitis or myocarditis. Enterovirus 71 is a significant pathogen that can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is a common childhood illness characterized by fever, sore throat, and rash on the hands, feet, and mouth. In rare cases, enterovirus 71 can also lead to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and polio-like paralysis.

Prevention measures for enterovirus A infections include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing safe food handling. Vaccination is available for poliovirus and can help prevent the spread of vaccine-derived viruses. No vaccines are currently available for other enterovirus A infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

A gait disorder is a disturbance in the ability to walk that can't be attributed to physical disabilities such as weakness or paralysis. Neurologic gait disorders are those specifically caused by underlying neurological conditions. These disorders can result from damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves that disrupts communication between the muscles and the brain.

Neurologic gait disorders can present in various ways, including:

1. **Spastic Gait:** This is a stiff, foot-dragging walk caused by increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and stiffness (spasticity). It's often seen in conditions like cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis.

2. **Ataxic Gait:** This is a broad-based, unsteady, and irregular walk caused by damage to the cerebellum, which affects balance and coordination. Conditions such as cerebellar atrophy or stroke can cause this type of gait disorder.

3. **Parkinsonian Gait:** This is a shuffling walk with small steps, flexed knees, and difficulty turning. It's often seen in Parkinson's disease.

4. **Neuropathic Gait:** This is a high-stepping walk caused by foot drop (difficulty lifting the front part of the foot), which results from damage to the peripheral nerves. Conditions such as diabetic neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome can cause this type of gait disorder.

5. **Choreic Gait:** This is an irregular, dance-like walk caused by involuntary movements (chorea) seen in conditions like Huntington's disease.

6. **Mixed Gait:** Sometimes, a person may exhibit elements of more than one type of gait disorder.

The specific type of gait disorder can provide important clues about the underlying neurological condition and help guide diagnosis and treatment.

Callosities are areas of thickened and hardened skin that develop as a result of repeated friction, pressure, or irritation. They typically appear on the hands and feet, particularly on the palms and soles, and can vary in size and shape. Callosities are not harmful but can cause discomfort or pain if they become too thick or develop cracks or sores. They are often seen in people who have jobs or hobbies that involve manual labor or frequent use of their hands, such as musicians, athletes, and construction workers.

A toe joint, also known as a metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, is the articulation between the bones in the foot (metatarsals) and the bones in the toes (phalanges). There are five MTP joints in each foot, one for each toe except for the big toe, which has its own separate joint called the first metatarsophalangeal joint.

The MTP joints allow for movement and flexibility of the toes, enabling activities such as walking, running, and standing. Problems with these joints can lead to pain, stiffness, and difficulty moving, making it important to maintain their health and mobility through proper foot care and exercise.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Supination is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of anatomy and orthopedics. It refers to the external rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces forward or upward. This motion allows for the hand to be in a position to perform actions such as lifting, holding, or throwing objects. It's also used to describe the movement of the foot when it rolls outward, which is important for normal walking and running gait. Abnormal supination can lead to issues with mobility and pain in the affected limb.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

Arthrodesis is a surgical procedure to fuse together the bones of a joint, in order to restrict its movement and provide stability. This procedure is typically performed when a joint has been severely damaged by injury, arthritis, or other conditions, and non-surgical treatments have failed to relieve symptoms such as pain and instability.

During the surgery, the cartilage that normally cushions the ends of the bones is removed, and the bones are realigned and held in place with hardware such as plates, screws, or rods. Over time, the bones grow together, forming a solid fusion that restricts joint motion.

Arthrodesis can be performed on various joints throughout the body, including the spine, wrist, ankle, and knee. While this procedure can provide significant pain relief and improve function, it does limit the range of motion in the fused joint, which may impact mobility and daily activities. Therefore, arthrodesis is typically considered a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Ankle injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the ankle joint and its surrounding structures, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. The ankle joint is a complex structure composed of three bones: the tibia (shinbone), fibula (lower leg bone), and talus (a bone in the foot). These bones are held together by various strong ligaments that provide stability and enable proper movement.

There are several types of ankle injuries, with the most common being sprains, strains, and fractures:

1. Ankle Sprain: A sprain occurs when the ligaments surrounding the ankle joint get stretched or torn due to sudden twisting, rolling, or forced movements. The severity of a sprain can range from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 3), with partial or complete tearing of the ligament(s).
2. Ankle Strain: A strain is an injury to the muscles or tendons surrounding the ankle joint, often caused by overuse, excessive force, or awkward positioning. This results in pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the ankle.
3. Ankle Fracture: A fracture occurs when one or more bones in the ankle joint break due to high-impact trauma, such as a fall, sports injury, or vehicle accident. Fractures can vary in severity, from small cracks to complete breaks that may require surgery and immobilization for proper healing.

Symptoms of ankle injuries typically include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected ankle. Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, or significant ligament tears, to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE), immobilization with a brace or cast, physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the type and severity of the injury.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

Podocytes are specialized cells that make up the visceral epithelial layer of the glomerular basement membrane in the kidney. They have long, interdigitating foot processes that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus and play a crucial role in maintaining the filtration barrier of the kidney. The slit diaphragms between the foot processes allow for the passage of small molecules while retaining larger proteins in the bloodstream. Podocytes also contribute to the maintenance and regulation of the glomerular filtration rate, making them essential for normal renal function. Damage or loss of podocytes can lead to proteinuria and kidney disease.

Artificial limbs, also known as prosthetics, are artificial substitutes that replace a part or all of an absent extremity or limb. They are designed to restore the function, mobility, and appearance of the lost limb as much as possible. Artificial limbs can be made from various materials such as wood, plastic, metal, or carbon fiber, and they can be custom-made to fit the individual's specific needs and measurements.

Prosthetic limbs can be categorized into two main types: cosmetic and functional. Cosmetic prosthetics are designed to look like natural limbs and are primarily used to improve the appearance of the person. Functional prosthetics, on the other hand, are designed to help the individual perform specific tasks and activities. They may include features such as hooks, hands, or specialized feet that can be used for different purposes.

Advances in technology have led to the development of more sophisticated artificial limbs, including those that can be controlled by the user's nervous system, known as bionic prosthetics. These advanced prosthetic devices can provide a greater degree of mobility and control for the user, allowing them to perform complex movements and tasks with ease.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

The Peroneal nerve, also known as the common fibular nerve, is a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies the muscles of the lower leg and provides sensation to the skin on the outer part of the lower leg and the top of the foot. It winds around the neck of the fibula (calf bone) and can be vulnerable to injury in this area, leading to symptoms such as weakness or numbness in the foot and leg.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

Tinea Pedis, also known as athlete's foot, is a fungal infection that affects the skin on the feet, particularly between the toes. The causative agents are dermatophytes, which thrive in warm and damp environments. Common symptoms include itching, burning, cracked, blistered, or scaly skin, and sometimes painful peeling or cracking of the skin. It is contagious and can spread to other parts of the body or to other people through direct contact or via contaminated surfaces. Proper hygiene, keeping the feet dry, and using antifungal medications are common methods of preventing and treating this condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydra" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Hydra is a genus of small, simple aquatic animals, belonging to the class Hydrozoa in the phylum Cnidaria. They are named after the multi-headed creature from Greek mythology due to their ability to regenerate lost body parts.

If you're looking for a medical term related to hydra, one possibility could be "Hydralazine," which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing the muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to widen and the blood to flow more easily.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any other questions or need clarification on a different topic, please let me know.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Metatarsalgia is a general term used to describe pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot (the metatarsal region). This is often caused by excessive pressure or stress on the metatarsal heads, usually due to factors such as poor foot mechanics, high-impact activities, or ill-fitting shoes. The pain can range from mild discomfort to sharp, intense sensations, and may be accompanied by symptoms like tingling, numbness, or burning in the toes. It's important to note that metatarsalgia is not a specific diagnosis but rather a symptom of an underlying issue, which should be evaluated and treated by a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hoof and Claw" is not a medical term or condition. The term "hoof" refers to the hard covering on the toes of animals such as horses, cows, and other ungulates, while "claw" refers to the sharp nail-like structure found on the toes of animals such as cats, dogs, and birds.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

... foot) Barefoot Comparison of orthotics Flat feet Foot binding Foot fetishism Foot gymnastics Gait analysis Heel Pedobarography ... "foot"), from PIE root *ped- "foot". The plural form feet is an instance of i-mutation. The human foot is a strong and complex ... In this sense the plural is often foot. The current inch and foot are implied from measurements in 12c." The word "foot" also ... Look up foot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to foot. Foot at Curlie (Wikipedia ...
"ESPN Classic supports Golden Foot Awards". ESPN Soccernet. 26 May 2010. "Golden Foot - Winners". Retrieved 2020 ... a Monte Carlo i Fuoriclasse del Calcio Wikimedia Commons has media related to Golden Foot. The Golden Foot official site (CS1 ... The Golden Foot award is an international football award, given to players who stand out for their athletic achievements (both ... Since 2009, there has been a charity auction accompanying the Golden Foot event. The auction is held during the gala evening at ...
... is an industrial village in Cumbria, England, on the Leven estuary. It is located 1.7 miles (2.7 km) by road to the ... Canal Foot is used by anglers, as the water nearby contains a good amount of flounders and some sea bass. List of places in ... Canal Foot is best known for its massive GlaxoSmithKline Plant, located in the former North Lonsdale Ironworks which ceased ...
Feet altered by footbinding were known as lotus feet, and the shoes made for these feet were known as lotus shoes. In late ... Foot binding, Body modification, History of women in China, Controversies in China, Foot, Foot fetishism, Mutilation, Violence ... First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the ... The girl's broken feet required a great deal of care and attention, and they would be unbound regularly. Each time the feet ...
Caroline Joy Foot (born 14 March 1965) is an English former butterfly swimmer. Foot attended Millfield School. Foot represented ... "Caroline Foot". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. (Articles ...
... (Union Sportive de la Commune Urbaine d'Antananarivo) is a football club based in Antananarivo, Madagascar They won ...
A sewing machine might have a single walking foot with a second holding foot, or two walking feet which both feed with ... and so add-on walking foot attachments are available. A "plaid matcher" is similar to a walking foot, but unlike a walking foot ... The plaid matcher's downward pressure is more helpful than that of the presser foot because the plaid matcher's foot can slide ... A walking foot is usually combined with another feed mechanism, such as a drop feed or a needle feed. It is not a commonly used ...
A foot-lambert equals 1/π or 0.3183 candela per square foot, or 3.426 candela per square meter (the corresponding SI unit). The ... The luminance of a perfect Lambertian diffuse reflecting surface in foot-lamberts is equal to the incident illuminance in foot- ... in foot-lamberts, E v {\displaystyle E_{\mathrm {v} }} is the illuminance, in foot-candles, and R {\displaystyle R} is the ... also require luminance measurements in foot-lamberts. Luminance levels can vary from hundreds of foot-lamberts for sunlight ...
The net's dimensions vary but are generally 4 to 6 feet (1.8 m) wide and approximately 2 to 3 feet (0.91 m) high. The ... foot and a half, mounted combat, foot hockey, fly ball catching. Athletic events can also be conducted by following the group ... Foot hockey (also known as Hocker) is a sport related to hockey in which the only equipment is a ball, most commonly a tennis ... Foot hockey is sort of a combination of hockey, soccer and handball. Its end-to-end action just like in hockey. Harris: 2005, ...
... is a foot care, footwear, and whole body health company based in Roanoke, Virginia, and owned by Kent S. ... "Foot Levelers Blue Ridge Marathon". Delta Sky Magazine. October 2017. Dashiell, Joe. "Foot Levelers donates laptop computers to ... "About , About". Foot Levelers. Retrieved 2018-11-06. "Custom Orthotics , Products". Foot Levelers. Retrieved 2018-11-06. ... "Foot Scans Reveal A Lot: Modern Life Takes A Toll On Posture, With Ripple Effects". Retrieved 2018-11-06. "Put ...
... is an album by the Lebanese oud player and composer Rabih Abou-Khalil which was recorded in Germany in 2003 and ... If an artist came out with but one album as good as Morton's Foot , he/she would be assured a place in jazz history; but the ... The AllMusic review by Thom Jurek stated "The band on Morton's Foot is a truly international ensemble. ... Abou-Khalil's ... Rabih Abou-Khalil: Morton's Foot - Review at AllMusic. Retrieved June 20, 2018. Fordham, J. The Guardian Review accessed June 6 ...
Foot, 1897 Yolk-nucleus and Polar Rings J. Morphol. Foot, 1896 The Origin of the Cleavage Centrosomes J. Morphol. Foot, 1897 ... Ella Strobell began working as Foot's assistant in 1897. In 1899, Strobell's name began coauthoring papers with Foot. Foot and ... Foot, 1898 Further Notes on the Egg of Allolobophora foetida Foot and Strobell, 1898 A New Method Of Focusing In ... Foot, 1894 The Centrosomes of the Fertilization egg of Allolobophora Foetida. Wood's Holl Mar. Bio. Lab. Lect. Foot, 1896-1897 ...
To remedy this, there is a market for ball-of-foot or general foot cushions that are placed into shoes to relieve some of the ... The ball of the foot is the padded portion of the sole between the toes and the arch, underneath the heads of the metatarsal ... In comparative foot morphology, the ball is most analogous to the metacarpal (forepaw) or metatarsal (hindpaw) pad in many ... The ball of the foot is of utmost importance when playing sports. Many sports, such as tennis, requires the player to stand on ...
Look up crow's foot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Crow foot, crow's foot, crow's feet or crowfoot may refer to: Crowfoot ... crow's foot toothwort Eleusine indica, crow's foot grass Erodium spp. Crow's foot violet, two species of violets; See List of ... a Proto-Germanic rune Bird's Foot (disambiguation) Chicken foot (disambiguation) Chicken claw (disambiguation) This ... Alberta Crow's foot notation, a set of symbols used to show relationships in a relational database management system Crowfoot ...
... ing is mostly used in the advertisement of shoes, foot jewellery, socks, toenail polish, fungus treatments, foot ... A foot model is a person who models footwear, which can include accessories such as shoes, socks, jewellery and other related ... A foot model is a person who models footwear, which can include accessories such as shoes, socks, jewellery and other related ... Famous foot models include Zara Miller, Ashleigh Morris, Claire Kesby-Smith, Beverley Brown, Hannah Howells, Scott Adams, and ...
... can be prevented by keeping the feet clean, warm, and dry. Keeping the feet dry is the first line treatment. The ... The feet may become red or blue as a result of poor blood supply. Later, as the condition worsens feet can start to swell and ... The feet may become red or bluish in color. As the condition worsens the feet can start to swell and smell of decay. ... Trench foot, also known by other names, is a type of foot damage due to moisture. Initial symptoms often include tingling or ...
Look up foot voting or vote with one's feet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Foot voting is expressing one's preferences ... People who engage in foot voting are said to "vote with their feet". Legal scholar Ilya Somin has described foot voting as "a ... and that decentralized federalism promotes the welfare of citizens because it facilitates foot voting. Somin has also used foot ... Legal scholars Roderick M. Hills, Jr., and Shitong Qiao have used China as a case study to argue that foot voting is ...
Stomping at the Klub Foot series discography at Discogs "My first psychobilly gig at The Klub Foot". The Independent. 24 August ... The Klub Foot was held in the main ballroom on the first floor, which held around 900 people. As well as hosting concerts, the ... 51°29′31″N 0°13′30″W / 51.492°N 0.225°W / 51.492; -0.225 Klub Foot was a London nightclub in the psychobilly scene of the ... Since 1999, subsequent Klub Foot Reunion concerts at the Relentless Garage in Highbury have been more successful and it is now ...
Foot was the eldest son of Isaac Foot, who was a solicitor and founder of the Plymouth law firm, Foot and Bowden. Isaac Foot ... contributions in Parliament by Dingle Foot The Papers of Sir Dingle Foot held at Churchill Archives Centre (Wikipedia articles ... Foot was admitted to Gray's Inn on 19 November 1925 and called to the bar on 2 July 1930. He became a Master Bencher in 1952 ... Foot left the Liberals and joined the Labour Party in 1956. He was Labour MP for Ipswich from a 1957 by-election until 1970. ...
... hem foot button-attaching foot buttonhole foot darning foot fringe foot gathering foot invisible zipper foot narrow hem foot ... cording foot quarter-inch seam foot (6mm) quilting quarter-inch seam foot roller foot satin stitch or decorative stitch foot ... a high shank foot has a 1 inch (25 mm) distance; a slant shank foot is distinctly slanted. The kind of foot a given machine ... such a machine can accept no other kind of foot). The most commonly used presser feet are the all-purpose foot and the zipper ...
Look up bird's-foot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bird's foot may refer to: Bird feet and legs, part of the anatomy of ... bird's foot toothwort Eleusine indica, bird's foot grass Viola pedata, bird's foot violet Ranunculus pedatifidus, birdfoot ... Chicken foot (disambiguation) Crow foot (disambiguation) Eagle claw (disambiguation) Goose foot (disambiguation) This ... the arrangement of the digits of a bird's foot Plaquemines-Balize delta or Bird's Foot Delta, part of the Mississippi River ...
... is a monster truck currently owned by James Trantina of Triple B Motorsports. It was originally built by Jack Wilman ... In 2022, Paul would sell Bear Foot with the rest of his operation to James Trantina after not competing under its own team ... Bear Foot" on an episode of Knight Rider. Monster Truck List of Monster Trucks Bearfoot Monster Truck Links & Information ( ... Paul Shafer's operation including Bear Foot was sold to James Trantina of Triple B Motorsports. In 1985, the truck appeared in ...
... skeleton unveiled in South Africa Wits University OFFICIAL - Little Foot takes a bow Objects by Little Foot, at ... Due to the diminutive nature of the bones, they were dubbed "Little Foot". Clarke found further foot bones from the same ... The construction of the foot differs only slightly from a chimpanzee. Clarke saw foot bones discovered in 1998 which confirmed ... "Its foot has departed to only a small degree from that of the chimpanzee." Clarke und Tobias, in Science, Band 269, 1995, S. ...
A foot deformity is a disorder of the foot that can be congenital or acquired. Such deformities can include hammer toe, club ... foot, flat feet, pes cavus, etc. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Congenital ...
... is a part of the training regimen of organized military and paramilitary elements worldwide. "Foot drill" or "Drill ... Line infantry won or lost on the rigidity of their foot drill. In the later 17th century that drill evolved into a tool for the ... What would today be known strictly as foot drill emerged over the course of the 17th Century. This period is known as the Pike ... In a period when all war was foot drill, this could obviously prove an advantage. As an example, the British used an unorthodox ...
... (Scottish Gaelic: leth-chois, Scots: hauf-fit) was a kind of land tenure peculiar to northern and western Scotland. ...
... is a football club located in Périgueux, France. The team plays in the Départemental 2, the tenth tier of French ... In 1998, a merger with CO Périgueux-Ouest [fr] meant that the club now became Périgueux Foot. The club's best-ever performance ... "Périgueux Foot". Stat Football Club France (in French). Retrieved 8 June 2021. "Football - Périgueux". (in ... Périgueux Foot (RC Périgueux merged with CO Périgueux-Ouest [fr]) 1979: Georges Peyroche 1980-1981: Pierre Alonzo 1983-1988: ...
Foot qualified in 1902, and in 1903, with his friend Edgar Bowden, he set up the law firm Foot and Bowden, which as Foot-Anstey ... John Mackintosh Foot, Baron Foot (1909-1999), Liberal politician and life peer. Michael Mackintosh Foot (1913-2010), Labour ... Isaac Foot was born in Plymouth, the son of a carpenter and undertaker who was also named Isaac Foot, and educated at Plymouth ... Four of the Foots' sons followed their father into public life. Sir Dingle Mackintosh Foot (1905-1978), a Liberal, later Labour ...
Foot died in Washington, D.C., in 1866; he was buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Rutland. Foot was born on November 19, 1802, in ... Foot was married in 1839 to Emily Fay of Rutland. They had one daughter, Helen Eliza Foot (1840-1841). Emily died on May 2, ... Foot was also Chairman of the Senate committee responsible for the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in 1861. Foot served as the ... Foot attained admission to the bar in 1831, afterwards practicing in Rutland. Foot served in the Vermont House of ...
... "foot." It is different from the term footed drum. Although not commonly used today, the "foot drum" term is still used in areas ... A foot drum is any type of drum that is typically played by striking it with the bare foot or pedal and beater combination. The ... Although foot drums are a major component of typical drum kits in the 2010s, in the past, foot drums were often played with ... They range from complete foot pedal-played drum kits like the Farmer FootDrum, which enable a one man band, such as a singer- ...
Just as department stores were aiming to get back on their feet this holiday season, shoppers walked in the other direction. ... The bottom line: With price increases skewing year-over-year sales comparisons, foot traffic may become a better barometer for ... Why it matters: Investors are paying more attention to foot traffic, especially because a number of department stores are ... The holy grail in retail investing is the retailer with positive [foot] traffic, Ryan Cotton, Bain Capitals global head of ...
... foot) Barefoot Comparison of orthotics Flat feet Foot binding Foot fetishism Foot gymnastics Gait analysis Heel Pedobarography ... "foot"), from PIE root *ped- "foot". The plural form feet is an instance of i-mutation. The human foot is a strong and complex ... In this sense the plural is often foot. The current inch and foot are implied from measurements in 12c." The word "foot" also ... Look up foot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to foot. Foot at Curlie (Wikipedia ...
... which makes this clever foot-switch power strip particularly handy. ... Now when I get up from the computer, even if only for ten minutes, I can easily tap the foot pedal and kill the juice to all ... You would think a foot switch for a power strip wouldnt be hard to find but 99% of the ones you can find are light duty ... Power strips are often located under desks, or at minimum on the floor well out of reach, which makes this clever foot-switch ...
This medical case sheet is representative of many which record cases of trench foot, a result of remaining in water filled ... Feet were very swollen, and he lost sensation- skin unbroken. He also complained of chilliness-could not get warm even in ... Home , Education , Classroom resources , Medicine on the Western Front (part one) , Trench foot ... This medical case sheet is representative of many which record cases of trench foot, a result of remaining in water filled ...
"Deer Mice and White-footed Mice". 2010-06-03.. *^ a b Harris, Stephen E.; Xue, Alexander T.; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego; Boehm, ... The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is a rodent native to North America from Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, and the ... A captive white-footed mouse. She is at least 3 years and 8 months old.. General references[edit]. *. Anderson JF, Johnson RC, ... "WHITE-FOOTED AND DEER MICE". The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. Retrieved 9 June 2016.. ...
Software Engineer at Experian and MSci Computer Science graduate from the Uni of Nottingham, with expertise in C#, Java, C/ C++, Haskell and Python. 🏳️‍🌈 - jfoot
... women who are pregnant are more likely to be affected by certain foot conditions. ... Flat feet. The most common foot-related symptom reported during pregnancy is foot pain, which usually results from flattening ... Specifically, the arch of the foot can flatten out and the feet roll inwards when walking, which is a symptom known as over- ... Swelling of the feet, also known as edema, usually presents in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. This occurs as a ...
powder, foot, fungicide. Physical Description. tin (container material). Measurements. overall: 4 in x 1 3/4 in x 1 1/2 in; ... Beauty and Hygiene Products: Feet. Beauty and Health. National Museum of American History. Record ID. nmah_1377200. Metadata ... Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in the Medicine and Science Collections:Foot Care American History Museum ...
"Presser foot." Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, ... The meaning of PRESSER FOOT is foot. ... Post the Definition of presser foot to Facebook Facebook Share ...
Learn more about treatments and home remedies for athletes foot. ... Over-the-counter treatments for athletes foot and good hygiene ... Hygiene for Athletes Foot. In addition to treatment, good foot hygiene is important when you have athletes foot. Wash and dry ... Athletes Foot Natural Remedies. Many people have their own ways to deal with athletes foot at home. Theres not much ... Can I Prevent Athletes Foot?. Athletes foot is contagious. So dont go barefoot in public areas such as the pool or gym where ...
A major group of tapeworms, parasitic flatworms that can grow to more than 30 feet long in the digestive tracks of humans, fish ... an order now dubbed Rhinebothriidea and that includes worms that parasitize stingrays and grow up to a foot long, was ...
Paul Foot Paul Foot was a campaigning journalist for the Daily Mirror and Private Eye and a political agitator. He wrote sixty ... Foot will not have had to read far into the book to find my own encounter with Chenevix-Trenchs penchant. I seem to be one of ... Foot is right about his pervasive charm. But he was a sad case, not a bad one. Which brings me to a final point. However many ... Paul Foots admirable Diary has made me feel that there is still some hope for the country. When, in 1978, my book The English ...
Foot pain can have a profound impact on quality of life. Half of all adults say that foot pain has restricted their activities- ... "Its not surprising to see how many people are affected by foot pain, when survey results show that we view our feet as the ... Theyre ready and able to treat diseases, injuries, and deformities of the foot and ankle, as well as the foot problems ... "Foot pain is never normal, and its critical that anyone experiencing chronic pain seeks care from an expert," said Dr. Spinosa ...
... refer to a change in foot shape in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing. ... Flat feet (pes planus) refer to a change in foot shape in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing. ... Rarely, painful flat feet in children may be caused by a condition in which two or more of the bones in the foot grow or fuse ... Most flat feet do not cause pain or other problems.. Children dont often have foot pain, ankle pain, or lower leg pain. They ...
... by Hintmag Hes a man of mystery, but cobbler extraordinaire Pierre Hardy-créateur of his own line of lusty ...
The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336, VAT Registration Number GB 592 9507 00, and is acknowledged by the UK authorities as a "Recognised body" which has been granted degree awarding powers. ...
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  • The instep is the arched part of the top of the foot between the toes and the ankle. (
  • Wash and dry your feet (including between the toes) every morning and evening. (
  • For patients that have had flat foot for a long time, you may develop changes in the appearance and flexibility of your toes also. (
  • Pain, swelling of the foot and toes (dactylitis), and stiffness are common with PsA. (
  • When a girl was between the ages of three and eight years old, the four small toes on each foot were folded over and bound tightly with long bandages, which were re-wrapped every one or two days. (
  • It is said that he had a favorite concubine , "Precious Thing," who was a suburb dancer and entertained him by dancing on pointed toes inside a six-foot-high platform shaped like a lotus flower made of gold. (
  • When a young girl was between three and eight years old, her feet were wrapped tightly with long strips of cloth that pressed the four small toes down around and under the balls of her feet. (
  • This clip contains about 4-5 minutes of gimping and the rest foot massage on each other's pretty feet and shapely toes. (
  • We recommend purchasing this must see two set clip together as the girls have an animate conversation about guys, shoes, and the difficulty of living and walking with one foot blasting out of a half shoe, and their poor cold toes exposed. (
  • [6] Athlete's foot fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes. (
  • Athlete's foot occurs most often between the toes (interdigital), with the space between the fourth and fifth digits (the little toe and the fore toe) most commonly affected. (
  • The deep, penetrating ulcers and deep sinus tracts (which are diagnostic of chronic osteomyelitis) are usually located between the toes or on the plantar surface of the foot. (
  • Foot stress fractures can occur in any bone in the foot, but most often in the second and third metatarsal bones-the long bones that connect your toes to your ankle. (
  • athlete's foot - common in older teens, who can have dry, scaling skin on their feet that itches or burns, especially between their toes, athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is less common in younger children who are more likely to have JPD. (
  • Although tinea pedis can affect any part of the foot, the infection most often affects the space between the toes. (
  • Good hygiene practices, like keeping your feet and toes clean and dry and changing your shoes and socks regularly, help to prevent or control tinea pedis . (
  • Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians, most often involving the metatarsals and toes. (
  • Treatment of foot fractures depends on the bone fractured and the type of fracture, but it usually involves placing the foot and ankle in a splint (then sometimes a cast) or a specially designed shoe or boot with open toes, Velcro fasteners, and a rigid sole to protect the foot from further injury. (
  • All dislocations in the foot (with the exception of simple dislocations of the toes) are uncommon injuries. (
  • Can I Prevent Athlete's Foot? (
  • What Are the Treatments for Athlete's Foot? (
  • Most cases of athlete's foot can be cured with over-the-counter antifungal products and basic good hygiene. (
  • Athlete's foot is caused by a fungal infection, so the way to get rid of it is to stop the fungus from growing. (
  • If it's not treated properly and promptly, athlete's foot can be very stubborn. (
  • In addition to treatment, good foot hygiene is important when you have athlete's foot. (
  • Many people have their own ways to deal with athlete's foot at home. (
  • When rubbed into your skin twice a day, tea tree oil may be able to reduce the itching , scaling, swelling, and burning of athlete's foot. (
  • Besides athlete's foot, it may help to clear up ringworm and jock itch. (
  • Ajoene is a chemical found in garlic that may ease symptoms of athlete's foot. (
  • In one study, people who applied ajoene to their feet once a day saw their athlete's foot symptoms go away after a week. (
  • This method might also help keep athlete's foot from coming back. (
  • Although athlete's foot is not a germ, a brand called Oleozon, which contains ozone (another germ-killer), has been shown to get rid of athlete's foot when applied to the feet. (
  • For the athletic footwear company, see The Athlete's Foot . (
  • Athlete's foot , known medically as tinea pedis , is a common skin infection of the feet caused by a fungus . (
  • A severe case of athlete's foot. (
  • Athlete's foot is caused by a number of different funguses , [3] including species of Trichophyton , Epidermophyton , and Microsporum . (
  • Athlete's foot was first medically described in 1908. (
  • [9] Globally, athlete's foot affects about 15% of the population. (
  • An acute ulcerative variant of interdigital athlete's foot caused by T. mentagrophytes is characterized by pain, maceration of the skin, erosions and fissuring of the skin, crusting, and an odor due to secondary bacterial infection. (
  • Plantar athlete's foot (moccasin foot) is also caused by T. rubrum which typically causes asymptomatic, slightly erythematous plaques (areas of redness of the skin) to form on the plantar surface (sole) of the foot that are often covered by fine, powdery hyperkeratotic scales . (
  • The vesiculobullous type of athlete's foot is less common and is usually caused by T. mentagrophytes and is characterized by a sudden outbreak of itchy blisters and vesicles on an erythematous base, [7] usually appearing on the sole of the foot. (
  • From athlete's foot to toe walking, your pediatrician can help evaluate your child's foot problems. (
  • Athlete's foot can usually be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal medication. (
  • fungal nail infections - in addition to athlete's foot, kids can also get a fungal infection in their toe nails (onychomycosis). (
  • Athlete's foot , or tinea pedis , is an infection of the skin and feet that can be caused by a variety of fungi that thrive in warm, dark, and moist environments. (
  • Lipsky BA, Stoutenburgh U. Daptomycin for treating infected diabetic foot ulcers: evidence from a randomized, controlled trial comparing daptomycin with vancomycin or semi-synthetic penicillins for complicated skin and skin-structure infections. (
  • Can Zoo Poo Help Manage Diabetic Foot Ulcers? (
  • In a striking convergence of veterinary biology and medical science, researchers from the University of Sheffield have unveiled findings that could potentially advance the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, a condition affecting an estimated 18.6 million people worldwide. (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers are a significant challenge in healthcare, not only because of their prevalence but also because of the alarming rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (
  • What makes bacteriophages particularly interesting is their ability to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria - a feature making them prime candidates for treating otherwise unmanageable diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • Cite this: Can Zoo Poo Help Manage Diabetic Foot Ulcers? (
  • Damaged nerves or reduced blood flow to the feet can cause ulcers that may become infected, and in severe cases get partially or severely gangrened. (
  • Care for patients attending the diabetic foot clinics ranges from providing information on how to check for signs of foot ulcers, foot ulcer treatment, scheduling yearly screenings - or more regular checks depending on the risk category - and encouraging healthier lifestyles such as quitting smoking and cutting down on sugar, salt and fat. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Do You Know What to Watch for and How Best to Treat Diabetic Foot Ulcers? (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers occur as a result of various factors, such as mechanical changes in conformation of the bony architecture of the foot, peripheral neuropathy, and atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease, all of which occur with higher frequency and intensity in the diabetic population. (
  • A suspected case was defined as any student or staff member with mouth ulcers and papulovesicular or maculopapular rash on the palms, fingers, soles of the feet or buttocks occurring from 1 September to 5 October 2022. (
  • The joints of the foot are the ankle and subtalar joint and the interphalangeal joints of the foot. (
  • The foot can be subdivided into the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot: The hindfoot is composed of the talus (or ankle bone) and the calcaneus (or heel bone). (
  • They're ready and able to treat diseases, injuries, and deformities of the foot and ankle, as well as the foot problems Americans experience most often: heel pain, plantar fasciitis, nail fungus, and foot odor," said Dr. Spinosa. (
  • The good news: Among those who have visited a podiatrist, 88 percent said their podiatrist was able to quickly provide a clear diagnosis, and 76 percent said their podiatrist was able to prescribe an effective treatment regimen and/or medication that helped their foot- or ankle-related issues improve or go away. (
  • Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (DPMs) are qualified by their education, training, and experience to diagnose and treat conditions affecting the foot, ankle, and structures of the leg. (
  • Children don't often have foot pain, ankle pain, or lower leg pain. (
  • Founded in 1915, the Ohio Foot and Ankle Medical Association (OHFAMA) is dedicated to serving and protecting the foot health of Ohioans and advancing the professional practice of podiatric medicine and surgery in the state. (
  • The primary purpose of the Ohio Foot and Ankle Medical Association is to act as a single voice for podiatric physicians in Ohio to ensure the highest quality of medical and surgical foot and ankle care through advocacy, education and public awareness. (
  • The Ohio Foot and Ankle Medical Association is a professional organization of podiatric physicians recognized within then state as the preeminent providers of medical and surgical care of the foot and ankle. (
  • Visit the pages in this section to learn how OHFAMA and APMA are promoting foot and ankle medicine and surgery in Ohio and defending our profession against the ever-present forces challenge our scope of practice. (
  • The Ohio Foot and Ankle Medical Association is also affiliated with Sedgwick TPA, a Workers Compensation Group ratings program. (
  • Remember the RICE protocal (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) and an age appropriate dose of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, like ibuprofen or naproxen, if your child has a mild sprain, and see your pediatrician if your child sprains their ankle and has severe pain, can't bear weight on their foot, or isn't getting better. (
  • While it can be normal, if it is leading to foot, ankle, knee, or back pain, then your child likely needs arch supports for his shoes (pronation insoles) or custom made orthotics. (
  • Often, doctors encourage people to move the foot and ankle as soon as doing so is not too painful. (
  • All muscles originating on the lower leg except the popliteus muscle are attached to the bones of the foot. (
  • Approximately 10% of all fractures occur in the 26 bones of the foot. (
  • The images below depict the bones of the foot. (
  • Bones of the foot, dorsal and ventral views. (
  • Bones of the foot, medial and lateral views. (
  • The Soft Touch Foot Peel Mask heals cracked, dry skin to leave feet feeling smooth, soft and energized. (
  • The soles of the feet and the palms of the hands may have a rash that can look like flat red spots or red blisters. (
  • Detox food pads are a product that companies claim will draw out impurities and toxins through the soles of the feet. (
  • It is known to cause dermatological symptoms including acral erythema and dysesthesia of the palms and soles of the feet , swelling, pain , itching , and scaling. (
  • Even the fastest acting foot peels take at least a week to start working, and some of the very best take two weeks or more (and multiple applications). (
  • There are a number of treatment options that can help to reduce the symptoms associated with foot conditions in pregnancy. (
  • Symptoms in adults may include tired or achy feet after long periods of standing or playing sports. (
  • These symptoms may be worse first thing in the morning or if you have not moved your feet for a while, like in the morning when you first get up. (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease? (
  • Make an appointment to see a doctor if you have any of these symptoms, especially if it's difficult to walk on your foot. (
  • Other symptoms to look for include underdeveloped calf muscles in the affected leg and differences in the length of the feet (the affected foot will typically be shorter - as much as half an inch - than the other foot). (
  • What are the symptoms of a stress fracture on the foot? (
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFM) is a common viral infection that causes painful red blisters in the mouth and throat, and on the hands, feet, and diaper area. (
  • Can Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFM) Be Prevented? (
  • New research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa the virus responsible for foot and mouth disease (FMD) moves over relatively short distances and the African buffalo are important natural reservoirs for the infection. (
  • Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is devastating to livestock all over the world, but it's a particular problem in Africa, where wildlife that harbor the virus are thought to pass it on to their domesticated cousins. (
  • FMD strikes cloven-hoofed animals, presenting as a high fever, blistering in the mouth and feet, decline in milk production in females, and weight loss. (
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by nonpolio enteroviruses, a genus of the Picornaviridae family of nonenveloped RNA viruses (e.g., coxsackievirus A6, coxsackievirus A16, enterovirus A71). (
  • On 24 September 2022, the Regional Public Health Unit in Ilocos received a report of a cluster of suspected hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in one school in Balungao, Pangasinan Province, the Philippines. (
  • Retrieved on December 04, 2023 from (
  • Clubfoot is a common birth defect where a baby's foot is twisted out of shape. (
  • in-toeing - unless a baby's foot is rigid (a sign of club foot), in-toeing is usually normal and doesn't require treatment. (
  • In the non-weight-bearing leg, the tibialis anterior dorsiflexes the foot and lift its medial edge (supination). (
  • If the patient develops a degenerative rupture of the tibialis anterior, foot drop may be observed, but the cause may not be immediately apparent. (
  • A Prophage in Diabetic Foot Ulcer-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus Impairs Invasiveness by Limiting Intracellular Growth. (
  • Foot care clinics recorded around 25 000 visits for diabetic foot ulcer treatment. (
  • Our role is not only limited to wound dressing and treatment, but it has a more holistic approach to ensure that patients adhere to their often long and tedious foot ulcer management," says Dr Ozeer. (
  • Among patients with diabetes, 15% develop a foot ulcer, and 12%-24% of individuals with a foot ulcer require amputation. (
  • The foot also contains numerous accessory centers of ossification that are occasionally mistaken for avulsion injuries. (
  • In this case, the feces of endangered species could turn out to be a vital asset in battling antibiotic resistance, thus affecting diabetic foot care in ways we never imagined possible. (
  • The centre includes a diabetic foot care clinic. (
  • Over the last five years, a huge leap has been made in terms of structuring the diabetic foot care clinics across Mauritius and today patients with diabetes are benefiting from standard management," says Dr Yaasir Ozeer, the head of the Diabetic and Vascular Health Centre. (
  • More than 60 000 diabetes patients were seen in 2019 in the various diabetic foot care clinics and primary health facilities across the country. (
  • The 16th overall pick in the 2022 NBA draft has been nursing foot soreness over the last three days that forced the Hawks to hold him out of Saturday's Summer League debut (a 72-66 loss to Utah) as well as two practices. (
  • The five irregular bones of the midfoot, the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones, form the arches of the foot which serve as a shock absorber. (
  • The human foot has two longitudinal arches and a transverse arch maintained by the interlocking shapes of the foot bones, strong ligaments, and pulling muscles during activity. (
  • The slight mobility of these arches when weight is applied to and removed from the foot makes walking and running more economical in terms of energy. (
  • Excessive strain on the tendons and ligaments of the feet can result in fallen arches or flat feet. (
  • Aging, injuries, or illness may harm the tendons and cause flat feet to develop in a person who has already formed arches. (
  • The bandages, which were re-wrapped at one- or two-day intervals, compressed the feet from front to back so that they could not develop normally, gradually breaking the arches and forcing them upward, so that all the girl's weight was supported only by the back edges of her heels. (
  • Rigid or painful flat feet need to be checked by a provider. (
  • On the other hand, some rigid flat feet, which is more rare, and might require treatment. (
  • Not all stress fractures of the foot require a cast , but some do. (
  • Stress fractures of the foot are literally caused by stress to the bones in the feet. (
  • Although you have five metatarsal bones, these two bear the most stress when you push off your foot when taking a step or when you jump. (
  • Metatarsal Fractures Fractures may occur in the long bones in the middle of the foot (metatarsal bones). (
  • Fractures of the Heel Bone Fractures occur in the heel bone (calcaneus), located at the back of the foot. (
  • Diminished sensation over the sole of the foot, especially on the medial side, is noted, resulting from posterior tibial nerve compression. (
  • The human foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments. (
  • Flat feet occur because the tissues holding the joints in the foot together (called tendons) are loose. (
  • The tendons connecting the muscles to the bone are shorter than in a normally formed foot, which causes the twisting shape in the foot. (
  • An orthopedic surgeon will lengthen the tendons of the foot in order to position the foot correctly. (
  • Many changes occur to the body throughout pregnancy and, as a result, women who are pregnant are more likely to be affected by certain foot conditions. (
  • This type of flat foot may occur only on one side. (
  • They most often occur in weight-bearing bones, frequently affecting people who participate in repetitive activities that put a lot of stress on their feet, such as running and jumping. (
  • The foot is a complex structure, and injuries often occur in patients who sustain multiple trauma. (
  • Dislocations of the foot are uncommon but potentially incapacitating injuries. (
  • Dislocations of the foot are commonly associated with other significant injuries sustained during falls or MVCs. (
  • To learn more about the diagnosis of club foot during pregnancy at The Fetal Center, click here » . (
  • Malabu UH, Al-Rubeaan KA, Al-Derewish M. Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: usefulness of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in its diagnosis. (
  • Diagnosis of foot fractures usually requires x-rays, except for certain toe fractures. (
  • Your child's feet will grow and develop the same, whether special shoes, shoe inserts, heel cups, or wedges are used. (
  • While people of any gender can use foot peels, they're usually listed the same way as shoe sizes with men's and women's options. (
  • So, if you usually wear a size 10 men's shoe, look for a foot peel that fits up to a women's size 12. (
  • A shoe for bound feet. (
  • Since they both haven't bought normal shoes in some time because each wears only one she suggests that they visit a store not far away that she knows and purchase one pair with a single shoe each can wear on their good foot. (
  • Treatment depends on the bone fractured and the type of fracture but usually involves a splint or a shoe or boot specially designed to protect the foot. (
  • The most common foot-related symptom reported during pregnancy is foot pain, which usually results from flattening of the feet. (
  • To reduce over-protonation and the resulting pain, it is important for pregnant women to wear appropriate footwear that supports the arch of the foot. (
  • The study, which surveyed 1,000 US adults ages 18 and older, found the majority of Americans say they have experienced foot pain (77 percent), but only a third of those would seek expert care by a podiatrist. (
  • Foot pain can have a profound impact on quality of life. (
  • Half of all adults say that foot pain has restricted their activities-like walking, exercising, working, or playing with grandchildren-in some way. (
  • For those with chronic foot pain, that number jumps to 83 percent. (
  • People say they would exercise more (39 percent) and participate in more activities (41 percent) if it weren't for their foot pain. (
  • It's not surprising to see how many people are affected by foot pain, when survey results show that we view our feet as the least important body part in terms of our overall health and wellbeing," said APMA President Frank Spinosa , DPM. (
  • Foot pain is never normal, and it's critical that anyone experiencing chronic pain seeks care from an expert," said Dr. Spinosa. (
  • We hope these findings encourage Americans to fight foot pain with the help of today's podiatrist. (
  • Most flat feet do not cause pain or other problems. (
  • Flat feet in a child do not need treatment if they are not causing pain or walking problems. (
  • In older children and adults, flexible flat feet that do not cause pain or walking problems do not need further treatment. (
  • Flat feet in older adults can be treated with pain relievers, orthotics, and sometimes surgery. (
  • Surgery often improves pain and foot function for people who need it. (
  • Contact your provider if you experience persistent pain in your feet or your child complains of foot pain or lower leg pain. (
  • In particular, PsA tends to cause pain at the back of the heel ( Achilles tendinitis ) or the sole of the foot ( plantar fasciitis ). (
  • Foot pain and swelling appear during active disease periods called flares and subside during remissions. (
  • Managing your PsA with medications can help reduce foot pain and swelling. (
  • If you take all of your doses on schedule, these drugs should help manage the joint damage that causes foot pain. (
  • Soaking your feet in warm water with some Epsom salts helps relieve swelling and pain. (
  • These pain relievers bring down swelling and can help ease pain in your feet and other sore spots. (
  • When I started tapping on my job, my foot pain went away. (
  • I had not focused on the foot pain, figuring it was just part of the aging process. (
  • It might take several days before you feel pain in your foot. (
  • Ice can help reduce swelling in your foot and relieve pain. (
  • People who experience some benefits when using detox foot pads may find that these ingredients help them sleep and possibly reduce inflammatory conditions or pain. (
  • Chronic compartment syndrome occurs in athletes in their third or fourth decade who have exercise-induced pain in the lower leg or foot within 20-30 minutes after beginning to exercise. (
  • Most people with a foot stress fracture complain of pain, usually in a specific spot in the foot, and the pain intensifies when walking or bearing weight. (
  • Persistent foot pain in children should raise the physician's concern for potentially important fractures, even in the absence of plain radiographic signs. (
  • Foot fractures cause considerable pain, which is usually made worse by putting weight on the foot. (
  • Foot fractures cause considerable pain, which is almost always made worse by attempting to walk or put weight on the foot. (
  • Additionally, residual pain and loss of function is a common consequence of the complex biomechanics of the foot. (
  • Connected to the talus at the subtalar joint, the calcaneus, the largest bone of the foot, is cushioned underneath by a layer of fat. (
  • The calcaneus is the largest of the tarsal bones located in the heel of the foot and bears the weight of the body as the heel hits the ground. (
  • Elevating your foot at night and while sitting may minimize swelling and help drain excess fluid. (
  • Soak your feet in lukewarm green tea and you may notice less peeling and redness. (
  • You may have to soak your feet every day for 3 months. (
  • Basically, what you do is soak your feet and then slip on the booties for an hour. (
  • Generally, you apply them every day after you wash and dry your feet. (
  • Wash your feet every day and dry them completely. (
  • The treatment depends on the cause of the flat feet. (
  • This simple home treatment reduces irritated skin and leaves your feet feeling soft and supple. (
  • [4] Keeping infected feet dry and wearing sandals also assists with treatment. (
  • flat feet - while parents often complain that their kids have flat feet, most have flexible flat feet and don't need treatment. (
  • During a fish pedicure, also known as a fish spa treatment, customers place their feet in a tub of water filled with small fish called Garra rufa [PDF - 12 pages] . (
  • The white-footed mouse is one of the most common mouse species used as laboratory mice after the house mouse , and their domesticated version is called Peromyscus leucopus linville . (
  • Ingrown toenails are more common in pregnant women due to the changes in the size, shape, and positioning of the foot. (
  • Flat feet are a common condition. (
  • The feet are one of the most common parts of the body affected by psoriatic arthritis (PsA). (
  • They're more common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower legs and feet. (
  • Initially, foot binding was common only in the wealthiest parts of China, particularly in northern China. (
  • [3] The next most common area is the bottom of the foot. (
  • These infections are particularly common in the thigh area, but they may be seen anywhere on the leg or foot. (
  • You might joke around that your baby has stinky feet, but it isn't funny when your teen takes off their shoes and everyone leaves the room… Learn what's causing it and about other common foot problems.problems? (
  • Toe fractures in children represent the most common foot fractures in the pediatric age group, accounting for as many as 18% of foot fractures. (
  • Foot fractures are common. (
  • The clinician must understand common patterns of injury and maintain a high index of suspicion in examining the appropriate radiographs to avoid missing foot dislocations. (
  • Abstract Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common adverse effect of anticancer therapy . (
  • Shoes should be comfortable with extra support and shock absorption, and orthotics can give additional support to the arch and heel of the foot to correct the positioning. (
  • Specifically, the arch of the foot can flatten out and the feet roll inwards when walking, which is a symptom known as over-pronation. (
  • Flat feet (pes planus) refer to a change in foot shape in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing. (
  • If an arch forms, the flat foot is called flexible. (
  • The pressure of the bandages caused the bones to break and force the arch upward into a form referred to as "lotus foot. (
  • The arch of the affected foot increases while the heel turns inward. (
  • Also include stretches as part of your routine several times a week, especially for sore areas like your Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia on the bottom of your foot. (
  • When your feet are sore, hold an ice pack to them for 10 minutes at a time, several times a day. (
  • Whether you've been running around after your kids, are just trudging back home after a long hike or have been on your feet all day at your job, there's nothing that makes a tired body feel even more exhausted than aching, sore feet. (
  • The muscles acting on the foot can be classified into extrinsic muscles, those originating on the anterior or posterior aspect of the lower leg, and intrinsic muscles, originating on the dorsal (top) or plantar (base) aspects of the foot. (
  • Most adults would speak with their primary care physician (60 percent) or do a Web search (48 percent) to answer questions about foot health before considering a visit to a podiatrist. (
  • in fact, more are satisfied than those who sought out a primary care physician for foot care. (
  • But in their condition they both need to rest their aching feet and they soon find another bench to continue their animate conversation about their mutual foot issues, and the pro's and cons of using a crutch-cane while massaging each other's bad foot, taking extra care with each cute exposed toe. (
  • Never has a foot care product taken me on such an emotional journey. (
  • Many diseases and foot problems can be prevented through healthy personal hygiene and taking care of your feet. (
  • When visiting a salon for foot care, choose a salon that is clean and licensed by your state's cosmetology board. (
  • Good foot care and regular foot checks are an important part of your health care. (
  • To promote foot care and prevent amputations, the government in 2010 opened a Diabetes and Vascular Health Centre at a main hospital in the south of the Indian Ocean island. (
  • Improved foot care services as well as health worker training are reducing the number of amputations per year. (
  • We are lucky to have free, specialized foot care services in Mauritius. (
  • PsA can inflame any of the 28 bones and 30 joints in each foot, as well as the ankles. (
  • Your doctor can give you an injection in each of the affected joints in your feet during flares. (
  • One trick if you have plantar fasciitis is to roll the bottom of your foot across a chilled or frozen water bottle. (
  • They can also catch signs of diabetes, arthritis, and nerve and circulatory disorders, all of which can be detected in the feet. (
  • Diabetes can damage the nerves and affect blood flow in feet and legs. (
  • Diabetic foot lesions are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. (
  • Healthy foot hygiene practices include not only washing your feet but also clipping your toenails and wearing well-fitting, protective footwear. (
  • Despite all challenges we face, we keep on smiling to help patients keep their feet [healthy]. (
  • [8] The white-footed mouse is the favored host for the parasitic botfly Cuterebra fontinella . (
  • A major group of tapeworms, parasitic flatworms that can grow to more than 30 feet long in the digestive tracks of humans, fish and other animals while absorbing their nutrients, has been discovered by Canadian researchers. (
  • Title : Foot osteoarthritis frequency and associated factors in a community-based cross-sectional study of White and African American adults Personal Author(s) : Flowers, Portia;Nelson, Amanda E.;Hannan, Marian T.;Hillstrom, Howard J.;Renner, Jordan B.;Jordan, Joanne M.;Golightly, Yvonne M. (
  • Instead, wear shoes with an open toe or wide toe box to give your feet room to swell. (
  • English) The action continues as Amirah and Suzy have a chance encounter and finding out they both suffer from the same condition that require they wear half shoes with half a foot exposed. (
  • That's right, this kit includes two pairs, so you can shed that layer and then do it again when those baby-soft feet toughen up from all the wear and tear you put them through. (
  • Linezolid tissue penetration and serum activity against strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility in diabetic patients with foot infections. (
  • Lipsky BA, Giordano P, Choudhri S, Song J. Treating diabetic foot infections with sequential intravenous to oral moxifloxacin compared with piperacillin-tazobactam/amoxicillin-clavulanate. (
  • Wang S, Cunha BA, Hamid NS, Amato BM, Feuerman M, Malone B. Metronidazole single versus multiple daily dosing in serious intraabdominal/pelvic and diabetic foot infections. (
  • A podiatrist can help in the process to examine the foot positioning and make recommendations as to the most appropriate orthotic for the situation. (
  • They'll also examine your foot for bruising, swelling, and tenderness. (
  • Psoriatic arthritis on the feet can also cause changes to the toenails. (
  • When you're ready for a spa day that focuses on the feet, you'll need the best foot peel to soften and soothe them. (
  • Your child may walk barefoot, run or jump, or do any other activity without making the flat feet worse. (
  • A doctor will typically advise you to avoid putting weight on your foot for 6 to 8 weeks while your stress fracture heals. (
  • Casting can help keep your foot stable while the bone heals. (
  • In pediatric patients, foot tractures account for approximately 5-13% of all fractures. (
  • [16] Furthermore, the morphology of urban white-footed mice may be changing to adapt to alternative food sources. (
  • Each type of foot peel improves the condition of your feet, but there are specific conditions you can address as well. (