Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Lead PoisoningFood Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.ChileBirds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)RestaurantsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Frozen FoodsConsumer Product SafetyNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Contamination, RadioactiveDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Menu PlanningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Pica; eating materials other than normal food. Polydipsia; excessive drinking. Savaging; overt aggression directed to newborn ... Speilman, B. "Pica in dogs". PetPlace.com. Retrieved April 6, 2013. Hamm, R.J.; Porter, J.H.; Kaempf, G.L. (1981). "Stimulus ... T-5-283 [1] "Pica behavior in horses". Retrieved April 5, 2013. Malamed, R.; Berger, J.; Bain, M. J.; Kass, P.; Spier, S.J. ( ... Forced moulting; commercial egg-laying hens losing their feathers due to the deliberate removal of food and water for several ...
Pica Press. ISBN 1873403984. Randler, C. (2006). Is tail wagging in white wagtails, Motacilla alba, an honest signal of ... vigilance? Animal Behaviour 71 (5): 1089-1093 Abstract Davies, N.B. (1976). "Food, Flocking and Territorial Behaviour of the ...
London: Pica Press. ISBN 1-873403-83-6. Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: ... Swifts and seabirds have generally secure nest sites, but their food sources are unreliable, whereas passerines are vulnerable ... Marcone, Massimo F (2005). "Characterization of the edible bird's nest the Caviar of the East". Food Research International. 38 ... in the nest but food is usually plentiful. All swifts eat insects, ranging from aerial spiders, dragonflies, flies, ants, to ...
This includes modern manufactured items such as shiny metal foil or plastic objects, as well as foods harmful to health. ... Pica (disorder). ...
"Development of object permanence in food-storing magpies (Pica pica)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 114 (2): 148-157. ... Dogs are able to reach a level of object permanence that allows them to find food after it has been hidden beneath one of two ... These include dogs, cats, and a few species of birds such as the carrion crow, Eurasian jays and food-storing magpies. ... Another study tested the comparison of how long it took food-storing magpies to develop the object permanence necessary for ...
Pica is an eating disorder characterized by the ingestion of non-food or non-nutritive substances. The DSM-5 criteria for Pica ... For pica to be considered, the eating of non-food items must be inappropriate to the child's developmental level, with a ... Pica typically presents in children, but the DSM-5 specifies that it can be diagnosed at any age. Pica is most often a co- ... Regurgitated food may be re-chewed, re-swallowed, or spit out. The repeated regurgitation is not attributable to an associated ...
... in humans would be considered a form of pica. Unlike calcium and phosphorus in most animals, pica is associated with ... Desert plants are a major food source for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), as they have a mainly herbivorous diet. In ... Geophagy, the eating of earthen materials like clay, can be another form of pica that is more commonly observed than osteophagy ... Furthermore, it is thought that these additional sources of food are sources of not only calcium, but also other nutrients ...
pica, unwashed food contamined with Toxocara eggs, undercooked livers of chicken Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella ... eating food contaminated with feces from an infected human or animal Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium spp. intestines stool ... ingesting water or food contaminated with feces Amoebiasis Entamoeba histolytica intestines (mainly colon, but can cause liver ... ingestion of oocyst thru contaminated food Dientamoebiasis Dientamoeba fragilis intestines stool up to 10% in industrialized ...
Kroger and Whole Foods Market to pledge to not sell AquAdvantage genetically engineered salmon, should it receive Food and Drug ... The president of the organization is noted environmental advocate Erich Pica. Friends of the Earth U.S.' stated mission is to " ... As bees pollinate one third of our food supply, Friends of the Earth and many others view their decrease in number as a serious ... "Food and Technology". Friends of the Earth. Retrieved March 11, 2015. "Synthetic biology". Friends of the Earth. Retrieved ...
Pica is a compulsive tendency to eat substances other than normal food. Some examples would be people eating paper, clay, ... Total food intake is markedly reduced. Due to the reduced size of the newly created stomach pouch, and reduced food intake, ... Total food intake and absorbance rate of food will rapidly decline after gastric bypass surgery, and the number of acid- ... Proteins are essential food substances, contained in foods such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, meat, fish, poultry, ...
PicaEdit. Pica is the ingestion of non-nutritive substances and has so far been poorly documented. In non-human animals in the ... Eating sugary foods causes the brain to release natural chemicals called opioids and dopamine in the limbic system. Tasty food ... Pica may be induced by these social stressors.[10] Other theories contemplated include pica as a redirection of prey-catching/ ... When given free access to food and an exercise wheel, rats normally develop a balanced routine between exercise and food intake ...
Pica is also observed predominately during 6-8 months of a cat's life when territorial and sexual behaviors emerge. Pica may be ... Eating sugary foods causes the brain to release natural chemicals called opioids and dopamine in the limbic system. Tasty food ... In this study, rats were taught to press a lever to receive food in an operant conditioning task. Once food was no longer ... When given free access to food and an exercise wheel, rats normally develop a balanced routine between exercise and food intake ...
There is also a decrease in the local food supply as a greater number of members results in competition for food. A large ... Ientile, Renzo (2014). "Year-round used large communal roosts of Black-billed Magpie Pica pica in an urban habitat". Avocetta. ... relatively equal amounts of food present in each These factors decrease relative food competition since control over a food ... Because food source knowledge is a factor of population, predation will weaken the ability to find food and spread knowledge. ...
Their food is insects and seeds. There is 1 Glacier species. Horned lark, Eremophila alpestris; • E, W, A, SP=r, S=r, F=r, W=r ... Pica hudsonia; • E, W, SP=u, S=u, F=u, W=u American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos; • E, W, SP=u, S=u, F=u, W=r Common raven, ... Many species are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans. There are 8 Glacier species. Gray partridge, ... without direct competition for food. There are 19 Glacier species. Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia; • E, W, A, SP=c, S=c, ...
... pica where people eat non-food items, rumination disorder where people regurgitate food, avoidant/restrictive food intake ... A person so afflicted may develop rigorous standards of food hygiene, such as not touching food with their hands. They may ... Drunkorexia, commonly characterized by purposely restricting food intake in order to reserve food calories for alcoholic ... food aversion and eating disorders because of concerns around cross contamination of their foods. Some authors suggest that ...
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to ... This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. Though cats usually ... Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which ... Liberg, O. (1982). "Food Habits and Prey Impact by Feral and House-based Domestic Cats in a Rural Area in Southern Sweden". ...
Dirt as Food Eating Dirt Diamond on Geophagy CDC on eating dirt Health A to Z - Pica. ... Food from clay, named "Ampo" This has become a traditional food that is trusted by the people in the island of Java, especially ... This habit of eating clay is also known as geophagy, human geophagy may be related to pica, a classified eating disorder in the ... ISBN 0-19-516204-8 Pica Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (in Indonesian) NEWS & FEATURES / HEALTH CONCERN - ARTIKEL - Kompas. ...
Soranus described three main stages of pregnancy: conception, which regarded keeping the male seed within the womb; pica, which ... occurred 40 days into pregnancy and included symptoms of nausea and cravings for extraordinary foods. During this phase women ...
This is especially difficult in children exhibiting pica and in areas with poor hygiene. Awareness campaigns on the risks of ... and especially the kitchen where it is at risk of getting into the food, would help curb the risk of becoming infected. Moore, ...
Food allergy[edit]. Main article: Allergies in cats. Food allergy is a non-seasonal disease with skin and/or gastrointestinal ... Pica is a condition in which animals chew or eat unusual things such as fabric, plastic or wool. In cats, this can be fatal or ... Food dangerous to cats[edit]. A number of common human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to cats, including chocolate ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has come out against vegetarian cat and dog food for ...
For some animals, wood is the normal primary food source; such animals are known as xylophagous. A related stereotypy in horses ... Lignophagia is a form of the pica disorder, in which normally non-nutritive substances are chewed or eaten. ... fences or boards as if they were food. This has been linked with dietary deficiencies, and often can be remedied with a ...
Flies that feed on feces can spread Toxocara eggs to surfaces or foods. Young children who put contaminated objects in their ... mouths or eat dirt (pica) are at risk of developing symptoms. Humans can also contaminate foods by not washing their hands ...
Pica-pau is a breadless variant in which a steak is cut into bite-sized pieces and covered with sauce. The name pica-pau ( ... Portugal portal Food portal Croque-monsieur Porto Portuguese cuisine List of sandwiches Dan Myers (27 February 2015). "12 Life- ...
Pica is an abnormal appetite for non-nutritive objects or for food items in a form not normally eaten, such as flour. ... An intermediate step is often involved, such as drinking water contaminated by faeces or food prepared by workers who fail to ...
The craving of non-food items as food is called pica. There is no single explanation for food cravings, and explanations range ... A food craving (also called selective hunger) is an intense desire to consume a specific food, and is different from normal ... Foods with high levels of sugar glucose, such as chocolate, are more frequently craved than foods with lower sugar glucose, ... In studies of food cravings, chocolate and chocolate confectioneries almost always top the list of foods people say they crave ...
NB - BirdLife International consider the North American black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia) as a subspecies of Pica pica. ... This is indicated by tool use, an ability to hide and store food across seasons, episodic memory, using their own experience to ... "Pica mauritanica (Maghreb Magpie)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2018-01-22.. *^ Madge, S. (2009). "Arabian Magpie (Pica ... BirdLife International (2017). "Pica pica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature ...
Key words: Food aversion, food craving, pica practicing and pregnant women. ... Since food aversions, cravings and pica practicing are closely linked to meal pattern of pregnant woman, understanding these ... Food aversion, craving and pica practicing should be investigated during antenatal follow-up, and advice should be offered. ... Although pica behavior is practiced globally, it is more prevalent within African countries. To know prevalence of these ...
Eating things that are not food - pica. eating; dirt; snail; paint; lead; pica; zinc; iron; soil; poison; autism; behaviour; ... Adults may have pica too. The strange cravings for things that are not food that some women get during pregnancy have been ... Children with pica may need extra foods which are high in iron, such as meat (especially red meat), liver, eggs, seafood, ... Causes of pica *Health problems from pica *Low iron levels *Low zinc levels *What parents can do *More information ...
Pica response.. To investigate whether EX4 microinjection into VTA or NAc induces malaise, the pica response was measured after ... The VTA is a direct site of action for EX4-driven food-motivated behavior and food intake. To test whether the VTA is a target ... EX4 decreases food-reward and food-motivated behavior. Rats responding for a sucrose reward (45 mg pellet) under a PR ... Food-motivated behavior, food intake, and spontaneous activity are altered by microinjection of EX4 into the NAc. To determine ...
Behaviors: Pica (eating non-foods), head banging etc.. Contact your childs doctor and/or case manager and request a behavioral ...
This condition is called pica (1, 2, 3, 4). Some other non-food items commonly consumed by people with pica include the ... Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research 11(1):29 ... Although there is still much to learn about pica, one conclusion seems unanimous: eating non-food items poses many potential ... A study conducted on pregnant women in Tanzania showed the majority of the women had food cravings, food aversions, and 64% had ...
... which will be used to keep horses away from deadly human and pet food. ... Assateague horses love a pic-a-nic basket. But save them from deadly human, pet food. Lucas Gonzalez, The Daily Times ... Assateague horses love a pic-a-nic basket. But save them from deadly human, pet food. Assateague Island Alliance received ... Assateague horses love a pic-a-nic basket. But save them from deadly human, pet food Assateague Island Alliance received ...
Pica is an eating disorder that is characterized by non-food cravings. ... The act or habit of eating things that are not food is called "pica" in medical and psychological textbooks. For children, who ... Pica Involves Eating Everything but Food: DSM-5, Causes, and Treatment. Updated on May 3, 2017 ... Note: Eating some non-food items, as is done in cases of pica, can result in bladder cancer. ...
Tainted food. Use caution when eating candies, spices, food additives, and other foods from abroad, especially if they appear ... Pica. Never eat or mouth clay, soil, pottery, or paint chips because they may be contaminated with lead. ... or store food. Avoid using leaded crystal to serve or store beverages. Do not use dishes that are chipped or cracked. ...
Foods, Diet, and Foraging. These are omnivorous birds and include many different foods in their diet, including insects, ... Scientific Name: Pica hudsonia. Scientific Family: Corvidae. Appearance and Identification. The black-billed magpie does have a ... While foraging, they have a strut-like walk with occasional hops on the ground, and they will hide food for future use. These ... In the proper range, black-billed magpies are also regularly found in suburban areas if food is available. ...
Food Refusal --. Conclusions --. Pica --. Discrimination training --. Noncontingent reinforcement --. Differential ... Food selectivity --. Rapid eating --. Adipsia --. Conclusions --. General Discussion --. References. 9. Sleep Problems --. ... Pica --. Disruptive behavior --. Stereotyped movement disorder --. Pediatric feeding problems --. Compliance --. Comment --. ...
Food-related problems in Klinefelter Syndrome? A probable case of Pica. Annapia Verri, Marina Maffoni, Federica Clerici, ... Food-related problems in Klinefelter Syndrome? A probable case of Pica. / Verri, Annapia; Maffoni, Marina; Clerici, Federica; ... title = "Food-related problems in Klinefelter Syndrome? A probable case of Pica", ... T1 - Food-related problems in Klinefelter Syndrome? A probable case of Pica ...
Food has all the essential nutrients that our body needs. Healthy eating is not about... ... Analysis Of Pica. 1550 Words , 7 Pages. *. Eating Healthy Food Essay. 1307 Words , 6 Pages ... Eating Healthy Food Essay. 1307 Words , 6 Pages. There is no aspect of your life that is not influenced by what types of foods ... Analysis Of Pica. 1550 Words , 7 Pages. and researchers did their study work on Pica to get the proper and adequate ...
Dip hot pot-cooked meats and veggies into a Caribbean-inspired Papaya Pica Sauce for a burst of flavor. Or serve over fish ... Place all ingredients in food processor. Process on high speed until smooth. ... Serve Papaya Pica Sauce with Caribbean Hot Pot Broth with Papaya Pica Sauce. Or, as a sauce for fish tacos and grilled fish, ... Dip hot pot-cooked meats and veggies into a Caribbean-inspired Papaya Pica Sauce for a burst of flavor. Or serve over fish ...
Foods such as popcorn have also been found helpful. These things can be placed in a "Pica Box" that should be easily accessible ... Pica can also be found in other animals and is commonly found in dogs. Pica is the consumption of substances with no ... In such instances, pica should not be noted as an additional diagnosis. Treatment for pica may vary by patient and suspected ... Treatment techniques include: Presentation of attention, food or toys, not contingent on pica being attempted Differential ...
Crave unusual foods (pica). *Eat less food. *Feel tired or weak all the time ... Toddlers who drink too much cows milk may also become anemic if they are not eating other healthy foods that have iron. ... Eating a variety of healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency. ... The body gets iron through certain foods. It also reuses iron from old red blood cells. ...
Pica non-food eating. Milk for toddlers. Top tips for fussy eaters. ...
PiCA auf der zweiten IFHN-2019 Konferenz in London. *. Cyclische Siliconverbindungen in kosmetischen Mitteln und Materialproben ... PiCA. Prüfinstitut Chemische Analytik GmbH. Rudower Chaussee 29. 12489 Berlin - Deutschland. Tel.: +49 30 255 66 00-0. Fax: +49 ... A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the target screening of different acrylate monomers in food ... Startseite , Aktuelles , Target screening of acrylates from UV-curing inks and coatings in food contact material ...
Pica - eating non-food substance.,br /, - abnormal craving for substance ,br /, - The most common is craving for ice cube,br ... Avoid foods high in carbohydrates, fried and greasy or strong odor.,br /,7/4/2010,br /,shenellD,br /, ... Flatulence,br /, Maintain daily bowel movement; avoid gas-forming foods,br /,Heartburn,br /, Avoid fatty, fried and highly ... Constipation ,br /,Drink sufficient fluids; Eat fruits and foods high in fiber and roughage; Exercise moderately; Avoid using ...
Crave unusual foods (called pica). *Eat less food. *Feel tired or weak all the time ... Children older than 12 months who drink too much cows milk may also have anemia if they do not eat enough other healthy foods ... Start solid foods with iron-fortified baby cereal mixed with breast milk or formula. ... Eating healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency. ...
Pica is an eating disorder that involves eating items that are not typically thought of as food and that do not contain ... WARNING SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF PICA. *The persistent eating, over a period of at least one month, of substances that are not food ... Pica can affect children, adolescents, and adults of any genders.. *Those who are pregnant and craving nonfood items should ... In these individuals, pica is a sign that the body is trying to correct a significant nutrient deficiency. Treating this ...
Anemia Prevention with Foods and Supplements. * Pica. * 6 Causes of Low Iron Anemia in Men. ...
Pica is the medical term for unusual cravings, particularly for substances that are considered indigestible (not food stuffs). ... Pica is a symptom associated with severe iron-deficiency anemia (low blood iron) and may also sometimes be present in pregnancy ... Children who eat sand and other unusual substances may not be doing so due to pica but rather this may be a way of exploring ... Pica is a symptom associated with nutritional deficiencies but may also be noticed in persons with mental disabilities ( ...
strange food cravings (known as pica).. Contact your doctor if you have any of these symptoms. They can diagnose the type and ... iron-fortified foods, such as breads and cereals (check the label).. Vitamin C can help your body absorb iron. Try eating foods ... introduce foods high in iron starting around 12 months of age.. Warning: Keep all products with iron stored out of reach of ... Some foods can make it harder for your body to absorb iron. These include coffee, tea, milk, egg whites, fiber, and soy protein ...
... and Food Selection - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123956569, 9780323145688 ... Picas and Aversions. V. Food Selection in Pregnancy. VI. Selection by Different Age Groups. VII. Geographical Differences in ... The final chapter explains the factors affecting food choice in humans and discusses as well the patterns of food use in many ... Vitamins, Nutrient, Requirements, and Food Selection. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
  • Several examples of pica include amylophagia (the consumption of starch), coprophagia (feces), geophagia (soil, clay, or chalk), hyalophagia (glass), pagophagia (pathological consumption of ice), trichophagia (hair or wool), urophagia (urine) and xylophagia (wood). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • From a meta-analysis, a strong positive association between pica (in the form of geophagy) and anemia was observed (3). (blogspot.com)
  • However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consuming non-food items leaves less opportunity to eat nutritious foods, which may lead to overall malnutrition. (kingcounty.gov)
  • Dogs more commonly suffer from pica than cats, but cats are still susceptible. (petplace.com)
  • Bulimia differs from anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging in that the patient is defined as a compulsive eater, often consuming large amounts of food secretly and then purging or using laxatives, etc., to rid themselves of the unwanted calories. (aapc.com)
  • Scholars and students in food studies will find Consuming the Inedible useful for its variety of approaches to 'unusual' eating practices, and several of the chapters should also find their way onto reading lists for courses in the anthropology of food. (berghahnbooks.com)
  • Ranging across diversity of disciplines Consuming the Inedible surveys scientific and local views about the consequences - biological, mineral, social or spiritual - of these food practices, and probes to what extent we can generalize about them. (berghahnbooks.com)
  • People with bulimia nervosa consume unusually large amounts of food and then vomit, exercise excessively, use laxatives or avoid eating for long periods of time. (drugrehab.com)
  • Individuals with the binge-eating and purging type may binge on large amounts of food or eat very little. (healthline.com)
  • While most people think of anorexia (starving oneself to be thin) and bulimia (eating large amounts of food and then purging) when they hear the term eating disorders, a much wider variety of eating problems exists, ranging from eating while asleep to eating glass, hair, and just about everything in between. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Bulimia nervosa is another well-known one, where the person eats unusually large amounts of food without much control, until they are painfully full, then they purge to compensate for calories consumed and to relieve stomach pain. (yahoo.com)
  • happens when people eat large amounts of food quickly. (mercy.com)
  • Scientists in the autism community have developed several different effective interventions, including redirecting the person's attention away from the desired object and rewarding them for discarding or setting down the non-food item. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Why do children with autism and other developmental disabilities have pica? (autismspeaks.org)
  • You can also reach the Autism Response Team by phone or email: 888-288-4762, en Espanol 888-772-7050, or [email protected] . (autismspeaks.org)
  • Pica also occurs among people with certain illnesses such as epilepsy, as well as in persons with mental retardation, autism, or mental illness. (kingcounty.gov)
  • The subject eats an unusually large amount of food at one time, even when not actually hungry," explains Dr. Edelson. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If you've noticed that your cat eats strange things, you may want to talk to your vet about feline pica and possible treatments. (thehonestkitchen.com)
  • Additionally, being a child or pregnant woman practicing pica was associated with higher chance of being anemic or having low hemoglobin relative to the general population. (wikipedia.org)