Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Galanthus: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Canavalia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Artocarpus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.PolysaccharidesRicinus: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.FucoseInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Mistletoe: Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Galectin 1: A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Sambucus: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Galectin 4: A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Aralia: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Bauhinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.RestaurantsReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. March 20, 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015. Pollack, Andrew (7 Nov 2014). "U.S.D.A. Approves ... Murdock, L. L.; Shade, R. E. (2002). "Lectins and Protease Inhibitors as Plant Defenses against Insects". Journal of ... The Food and Water Watch has petitioned the company to reject the newly marketed Innate potatoes. McDonald's has announced that ... Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, so reduced levels of it in fried potato foods is desirable. The 'Innate' name comes ...
... allowing the GNA lectin protein to be synthesised. This lectin is toxic to some insects. Rats were fed raw and cooked ... The GM food debate, National Museum of Science and Industry, ISBN 978-1-900747-43-1 Top researchers back suspended lab ... This lectin has been shown to be toxic to some insects. Twenty-eight studies were proposed, of which eight were selected for ... Arpad Pusztai GM Food Safety: Scientific and Institutional Issues Science as Culture, Volume 11 Number 1 March 2002 Professor J ...
Food Chemistry. 113 (1): 351-55. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.075. Zheng S, Li C, Ng TB, Wang HX (2007). "A lectin with ... The lectin is mitogenic-that is, it can stimulate cells to begin the process of cell division, resulting in mitosis. Further, ... The mushroom is also used as a food source by several species of mushroom flies, as well as other insects and their larvae. An ... Prized as an ingredient in various foods, B. edulis is an edible mushroom held in high regard in many cuisines, and is commonly ...
The seeds and pods are used as famine foods in coastal India. It is considered to be an underutilized wild plant with the ... Antinutrients in the species include phenols, tannins, and lectins such as phytohaemagglutinin. Pressure cooking can reduce ... Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19(4), 284-93. Purseglove, J.W.; 1974; Tropical Crops : Dicotyledons (3rd ed.), pp.242 ... cathartica contains antinutrients and requires some processing or preparation before it can be used for food. ...
Industrial use of the fungus is in the production of enzymes and the manufacture of certain dairy foods. The dimorphic form of ... Amano, K; Katayama, H; Saito, A; Ando, A; Nagata, Y (2012). "Aleuria aurantia lectin exhibits antifungal activity against Mucor ... Laboratory of Food and Industrial Microbiology Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Oran, Algeria: IDOSI ... In addition to commonly used antifungal agents, biological compounds like Lovastatin, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and ...
"Antifungal and antibacterial activities of lectin from the seeds of Archidendron jiringa Nielsen." Food chemistry 126.3 (2011 ... "Nutritional and antinutritional composition of Kancolla seeds: an interesting and underexploited andine food plant." Food ... The seeds of djenkol are mainly used to add flavour to food, although the crushed seeds give off a mild sulfurous odor which is ... "Pithecellobium jiringa legume flour for potential food applications: Studies on their physico-chemical and functional ...
... an antiribosomal lectin present in elderberry bark". Food Research International. 44 (9): 2798-2805. doi:10.1016/j.foodres. ...
"Purification and acute toxicity of a lectin extracted from tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)". Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (1): 21 ... The tepary bean was a major food staple of natives in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. In addition to being ... Research in the United States and Mexico suggest that lectin toxins and other compounds from tepary beans may be useful in ... Valadez Vega MD, Alvarez M, Dubón G, García CA, Abdullaev F (July 12-16, 2004). "Cytotoxicity of tepary bean lectins (Phaseolus ...
... or used directly as a food ingredient. The germ is retained as an integral part of whole-grain foods. Non-whole grain methods ... Wheat germ is also useful in biochemistry since it contains lectins that bind strongly to certain glycoproteins; therefore, it ... The texture of wheat germ can add a great crunchiness and taste to these foods in a very convenient way. Brody, Jane (1 January ... Endosperm Health food Wheat germ oil Samanu Black, Michael J.; Shishir; Peter Hunter (2006). The Encyclopedia of Seeds - ...
Dietary Reference Intake "Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, raw". ndb.nal.usda. ... Raw lentils, for example, contain lectins, anti-nutritional proteins which can be reduced by sprouting or cooking. Sprouting is ... "Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Beans, kidney, mature seeds, sprouted, raw". ndb.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-07. ... "Gamma-aminobutyric acid as a bioactive compound in foods: a review". Journal of Functional Foods. 10: 407-420. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Journal of Food Quality 35:152-158. Lin, J., Zhou, X., Wang, J., Jiang, P., Tang, K. 2010. Purification and characterization of ... J. curcas also contains compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, phytate, saponins and a type of lectin known as curcin. The seeds ... This small tree is very resistant to aridity so it can be planted in hot and dry land in soil unsuitable for food production. ... Journal of Food Quality 35:152-158. Valdes-Rodríguez, O.A., Sánchez-Sánchez, O., Pérez-Vazquez, A., Caplan, J. 2013. The ...
All species produce in all parts toxic lectins, with the exception of the flowers. The flowers are used as tea, and in pancakes ... Some species of Robinia are used as food by larvae of Lepidoptera, including such moths as the brown-tail (Euproctis ...
Food portal Health food List of breads Malt Malt loaf Multigrain bread Wheatberry, a whole-wheat kernel before sprouting " ... Sprouting also breaks down the lectins and other substances that some individuals may be sensitive or allergic to. Essene bread ... It is often eaten uncooked, or slightly heated, by proponents of raw foods. The Essenes, a Jewish religious group that ... "Nutritive Value of Foods, Home and Garden Bulletin No. 72 (HG-72)". United States Department of Agriculture. 2002. Retrieved ...
He is a world expert on plant lectins, authoring 270 papers and three books on the subject. In 1998, Árpád Pusztai publicly ... ISBN 978-3-8305-1262-2. Rowell, Andrew (2003). Don't worry, it's safe to eat: the true story of GM food, BSE, & Foot and Mouth ... In 1995 Árpád Pusztai began research on genetically modified potatoes containing the GNA lectin gene from the snowdrop plant. ... Pusztai worked at the Rowett Institute for the next 36 years, predominately studying plant lectins. During that time he ...
Food allergies to oats can accompany atopy dermatitis. Oat avenins share similarities with γ and ω-gliadins of wheat - based on ... there was evident non-specific binding to this region and thus it may also represent lectin-like binding. IgA and IgG responses ... Sensitivity to oat foods can also result from their frequent contamination by wheat, barley, or rye particles. Studies on ... Codreanu F, Morisset M, Cordebar V, Kanny G, Moneret-Vautrin DA (April 2006). "Risk of allergy to food proteins in topical ...
A lectin from V. graminea is used to test for the medically significant N blood group. The vetches grown as forage are ... Vicia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some butterflies and moths, such as: Coleophora cracella - only ... At least broad beans also contain the lectin phytohemagglutinin and are somewhat poisonous if eaten raw. Split common vetch ... Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat & Anthea Bell (2008). The History of Food (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4051-8119-8 ...
They usually give a seedling a faster start than a sporeling from a spore, because of the larger food reserves in the seed and ... The seeds of many legumes, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), contain proteins called lectins which can cause ... In angiosperms, the stored food begins as a tissue called the endosperm, which is derived from the mother plant and the pollen ... The scutellum is pressed closely against the endosperm from which it absorbs food, and passes it to the growing parts. Embryo ...
The flowers are green to white, followed by purple to almost black berries which are a food source for songbirds such as gray ... Proteins of interest include various lectins, protein PAP-R, and pokeweed mitogen (PWM),[citation needed] as well as a toxic ... Seed are also found in commercial seed (e.g., vegetable seed packets). The berries are reported to be a good food source for ... Poke is a traditional southern Appalachian food. The leaves and stems can both be eaten, but must be cooked, usually boiled ...
Lectin is one of the top 10 causes of food poisoning and can lead to nausea, diarrhea and vomiting when eaten in abundance. "亚庇 ... Food and Lavatory Hygiene Conditions Throughout 2013 and 2017, multiple complaints from students and parents about the state ... Kitchen cleanlines and hygiene have also been a main problem for both of two canteens where food is served within the school ... Raw rice has reportedly been repeatedly served by one of the canteens, which contains lectin, a protein that serves as a ...
... in 2002 to focus on food-based health interventions, recommending a plant-based diet and avoiding lectins. He also sells ... Gundry, Steven (2017). The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in "Healthy" Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain (1st ed.). ... Lectin "[email protected]: Digital Archive of Research, Scholarship & Creative Works Update". Loma Linda University. ... Hamblin, James (24 April 2017). "The Next Gluten-Level Obsession Could Be Lectins". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 May 2017. Gundry ...
Food Chem. 35 (6): 974. doi:10.1021/jf00078a028. Heck, AM; Amy M. Heck; Jack A. Yanovski; Karim Anton Calis (Mar 2000). " ... Some proteins can also be antinutrients, such as the trypsin inhibitors and lectins found in legumes. These enzyme inhibitors ... Antinutrients are found at some level in almost all foods for a variety of reasons. However, their levels are reduced in modern ... Welch RM, Graham RD (February 2004). "Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective". J. ...
The hosts are believed to consume the bacteria as a food source, based on evidence from their stable carbon isotope ratios. The ... specificity of the bacterial symbionts to their respective host species is controlled by a lectin called Mermaid that is ...
"Raw Kidney Beans". Home Food Preservation (Penn State Extension). "Kidney Beans". The world's healthiest foods. Retrieved 2007- ... Plant lectins. USAID fact sheet with nutritional information on black beans. "US Department of Agriculture Commodity Fact Sheet ... "Query page". UN Food & Agriculture Organisation Szyndler, M.W.; Haynes, K.F.; Potter, M.F.; Corn, R.M.; Loudon, C. (2013). " ... Food portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal Also known as the field bean, flageolet bean, French bean, garden bean, green bean ...
Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods ... Soybean agglutinin, a lectin. ReferencesEdit. *^ "Glycine max". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved February 16, 2012.. .mw-parser- ... "Food Labeling: Health Claims; Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease; Docket No. 98P-0683" (PDF). Washington, DC: US Food and ... Bethesda, MD: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Food and Nutrition Paper No. 51). 1989. ISBN 978-92-5- ...
Food: The seeds are eaten dried, boiled, roasted or raw. Sometimes the seeds of C. edulis is the only available food for Somali ... Phytohaemagglutinin, a toxic lectin often present in leguminous, is absent in Yeheb seeds; this is an additional nutritional ... Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 157-160. ISBN 92-5-101354-3. Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G ... Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9251027455. Bosch, C.H.; Borus D.J.; Brink M. (2007). " ...
"How Many Food Guide Servings of Meat and Alternatives Do I Need? - Canada.ca". Hc-sc.gc.ca. Retrieved 18 November 2017. Harold ... lectin phytohaemagglutinin, that must be removed by cooking. Red and kidney beans are particularly toxic, but other types also ... A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food. The ... Food portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal Baked beans Fassoulada List of edible seeds List of legume dishes Merriam-Webster, ...
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 41 (9): 1432-1438. doi:10.1021/jf00033a015.. [dead link] ... "Km+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus inegrifolia: amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate ...
"The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was successfully achieved in all the ... Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods or bioengineered foods, are foods produced ... Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes ... Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods." Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began ...
Like red kidney beans, castor beans contain high concentrations of a particularly harmful lectin. The lectin in castor beans is ...
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004;55(6):479-483. *Blasco E, Ngoc LD, Aucouturier P, et al. Mitogenic activity of new lectins from seeds ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, ... Jackfruit lectin: properties of mitogenicity and the inhibition of herpesvirus infection. Jpn.J Infect.Dis 2000;53(4):156-161. ... Jackfruit was reportedly cultivated for food as early as the 6th Century BC in India. At approximately 25 centimeters in ...
Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2001;56(2):117-126. *Graham, H. D. and Negron de Bravo, E. Composition of the breadfruit. Journal of Food ... chitin-binding lectin), frutalin (alpha-D-galactose-binding lectin), frutapan (Caribbean), Gal beta1, GalNAc, geranyl chalcone ... Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2000;55(4):357-368. *Giami, S. Y., Adindu, M. N., Hart, A. D., and Denenu, E. O. Effect of heat processing ... Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1999;54(3):207-216. *Badifu, G. I. and Akubor, P. I. Influence of pH and sodium chloride on selected ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, ... Immunologic effects of mistletoe lectins: a placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects. J Soc Integr Oncol 2006 Winter;4(1):3 ... Statements about products and health conditions have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Products and ... In vitro immunoreactivity towards lectin-rich or viscotoxin-rich mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador applied to ...
... lectins are being wrongly vilified with a glut of questionable health claims, says Anthony Warner ... Lectin-free is the new food fad that deserves to be skewered. With echoes of the gluten-free craze, lectins are being wrongly ... Lectins, a family of proteins found in many foods, have been described as "the new gluten", and if that refers to them being ... Just in case there was not enough fear and misinformation about food, the latest restrictive fad sent to cure us of all ills is ...
Should you be afraid to eat lectins?. You will hear many health bloggers advocating for an anti-lectin or lectin free diet with ... What are lectins and where can I find them?. Plant lectins represent a very diverse collection of proteins. They are found in ... Lectins are a class of proteins with one particular feature: they can recognize and bind specific carbohydrate structures. This ... We purify and characterize lectins from different plants and crops aiming to define which ones may be harmless, and which not. ...
What are they and are these foods blocking nutrients? ... Lectins are known as antinutrients, as they may reduce the ... Nutrition The 14 Foods High in Lectins The 14 Foods High in Lectins. Lectins are often referred to as antinutrients, a less ... Are Lectins In or Out? To truly gauge whether or not lectin-supplying foods are blocking nutrients is difficult, as researchers ... Foods High in Lectins. As mentioned, lectins are primarily found in plants and mostly in grains, nightshade vegetables, and ...
Lectin from wheat or other foods may enter the bloodstream from the intestine and bind to the connective tissues, making them ... One cause of stiff areas is food intolerance, possibly intolerance of lectins. Lectins are natural plant toxins, the main ... LECTINS: Their Damaging Role in Intestinal Health, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Weight Loss. Sources:. "Rheumatic Patches", ... However, some patients have specific food allergies.. • Magnesium deficiency is another possible cause, as is essential fatty ...
Risks of Restricting Lectins. • Trying to avoid high-lectin foods will deprive you of many foods with proven health benefits. ... What are Lectins?. Lectins are a type of protein found in all forms of life, both animals and plants, including most foods. ... The latest fad diet tells you to try to avoid lectin-rich foods and to buy their products that are supposed to block lectins in ... See my report on Anti-inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Foods.. • The most popular low-lectin diet recommends eating foods made ...
I would suggest that the reader do some Internet searches for things like "lectins, viruses", "lectins, disease", "lectins, GMO ... the most pertinent of which are those derived from foods. And which foods do you think provide the most damaging "lectins"? Yep ... The Simple Truth about Dog Food and Heart Disease The Epilepsy Diet Made Simple The Origin of Disease Lectins - The Missing ... The Truth About Pet Food. Dogs and cats are carnivores yet most pet foods are grain-based. Knowing how to read a label is also ...
Bacteria produce lectins that enable them to adhere to tissue. Finally, certain foods contain lectins that can do serious harm ... The Truth About Pet Food. Dogs and cats are carnivores yet most pet foods are grain-based. Knowing how to read a label is also ... Our body produces lectins that are involved in immune responses (e.g. mannose-binding lectin), the adhesion of cells, and the ... articles on pet food, the truth about GMO foods and more. I will do my best to balance the bad with the good, but try to ...
Phenolics - Food 30 (PHF) Quick View translation missing: en.products.notify_form.description:. Notify me when this product is ... Food - Spices & Seasonings (SPI) Quick View translation missing: en.products.notify_form.description:. Notify me when this ...
... gluten containing foods, Irritable bowel syndrome: bloating, lectins in foods, mental and behavioural conditions, Modern wheat ... Why are lectins so bad?. It is this WGA (lectins) which can also directly damage tissues of the human body wherever N-acetyl ... What are Lectins?. Monday, May 15th, 2017 What are Lectins?. Do you suffer from symptoms after eating? Such as digestive ... How can lectin intake be reduced in diet?. As it is impossible to maintain a healthy diet and avoid lectins if you are ...
Its All About the Food: Where the American Diet Went Wrong, Why That Matters to You, and What You Can Do About It by Pat Smith ... AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, Diet and weight, Digestion, GENES, gluten, Inflammation, Keto, lectins, Mediterranean, Paleo, SAD, Vegan, ... arthritis, Autoimmune - What is it?, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, gluten, gut bacteria, IBS, IMMUNE SYSTEM, Inflammation, lectins, ... AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, Carbohydrates, Digestion, GENES, gluten, Inflammation, Keto, lectins, NUTRITION, Paleo, SAD, sugar ...
This perspective may come as a great surprise to the health food industry whose particular love affair for whole wheat products ... The word lectin comes from the same etymological root as the word select, and literally means "to choose." Lectins are designed ... There are a number of interesting similarities between WGA lectin and viruses. Both viral particles and WGA lectin are several ... Elevated levels of serum antibodies to the lectin wheat germ agglutinin in celiac children lend support to the gluten-lectin ...
Many food allergies are actually immune system reactions to lectins.. Some lectins dont do a lot of harm, but many are quite ... Vary your diet - Even very nutritious foods shouldnt be eaten every day. It turns out, your body needs the lectins found in ... When the intestines are damaged, lectins, and the foods that they bind to, can pass through the intestinal wall and into the ... Lectins may also be responsible for food reactions that are not true allergies. ...
... is there enough lectin in green beans to hurt us bad? no. only a small number of people experience gi distress or damage when ... foods with lectins list. December 5, 2017. admin Lectin free food list - is there enough lectin in green beans to hurt us bad? ... Lectin and food intolerance thank you to all who sent in questions about lectin. this be on the list of toxic foods in terms of ... Lectins are found in all foods and the same food may contain varying amounts of lectins depending on processing, where the ...
a review article published in critical reviews in food science and nutrition in 2005 noted that lectins may have some anti- ... List of foods that contain lectin jessica bruso large bowl of kidney beans. ... most lectins, in plant… Lectins in food this is an even though allergy is not associated with lectin specificity, lectins in ... food without lectin. Jan6. List of foods that contain lectin jessica bruso large bowl of kidney beans. a review article ...
Steven Gundry explains what lectins are and how they can be harmful to your health. ... lectins could be to blame. In his new book, The Plant Paradox, Dr. ... So, where are these lectins lurking? Believe it or not, they are in many healthy foods, of all places! Whole wheat flour, ... In the book, I go into great detail about which foods are lectins bombs and other pressing questions that include: If weve ...
... and peppers are harmful to our health because they contain lectins? ... Special cases of sensitivity to certain lectins. Some food allergies are allergies to a lectin specific to that food. Also, ... But this does not mean that lectins are harmful for the general population. In fact, foods having more lectins are longevity ... Potential benefits of plant food lectins. Plant lectins bind carbohydrates during digestion, slowing or preventing their ...
Of the food lectins, grain/cereal lectins; dairy lectins; and legume lectins (especially peanut lectin and soybean lectin) are ... though the field of lectinology and lectins role in disease is more accepted internationally. Avoidance of certain food lectins ... Food Lectins in Health and Disease: An Introduction. In recent years it appears there is a rising epidemic of people suffering ... Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to ...
Of the food lectins, grain / cereal lectins; dairy lectins; and legume lectins (especially peanut lectin and soybean lectin) ... Food service. Innovative Food. Behavioral Nutrition. Physical Activity. Food Sciences. Sport Nutrition. Italian Food. Food ... Food Lectins in Health and Disease: An Introduction. In recent years it appears there is a rising epidemic of people suffering ... Avoidance of certain food lectins may be helpful in achieving health and healing of chronic gut injury. Healing of a leaky gut ...
Of the food lectins, grain/cereal lectins; dairy lectins; and legume lectins (especially peanut lectin and soybean lectin) are ... Food Lectins in Health and Disease: An Introduction. By adamsPosted on June 30, 2017. May 25, 2017. In recent years it appears ... though the field of lectinology and lectins role in disease is more accepted internationally. Avoidance of certain food lectins ... Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to ...
... what can a very low level of mannose-binding lectin mean and how can it be treated? a rare. deficiency to affect someone ... Foods lowest in lectins list,foods lowest in lectins list.pdf document,pdf search for foods lowest in lectins list. answers ... Www.healthoracle.org 1 lectins in food this is an alphabetical list of foods containing lectins, from edible plant and animal ... These 50 foods are high in lectins: they are a low level toxin. the purpose of lectins is to discourage other eliminate foods ...
If you often eat a lot of lectin-containing food and youre lacking in the enzymes to digest lectins, these proteins may enter ... Although proper preparation methods can reduce or eliminate lectins in certain foods, if you dont know how the food was cooked ... Although boiling under significant heat can reduce lectins in food, you can reduce the lectin activity without heat treatment. ... Dietary Lectins: What Are They and Should You Be Concerned?. Even foods that are good for your health may have some properties ...
  • Our body produces lectins that are involved in immune responses (e.g. mannose-binding lectin), the adhesion of cells, and the removal of pathogens through binding to carbohydrates on their surfaces. (dogtorj.com)
  • All these problems have a common cause: lectins - proteins that specifically attach themselves to carbohydrates and are at the root of most food allergies. (supersmart.com)
  • Lectins can occur in very common foods in the diet, and the majority are specific for the carbohydrates of the ABO blood typing system. (dadamo.com)
  • A panel of 15 peroxidase labeled lectins, supplemented with haematoxylin-eosin staining and PAS-reaction, were used to study modifications of carbohydrates in rat testis during postnatal morphogenesis , including prenatal day 20th, postnatal days 1st, 20th, 40th, in comparison to the adult rat testis. (omicsonline.org)
  • However in the available literature we found no data concerning the investigation of rat testis carbohydrates remodelling in postnatal morphogenesis by means of lectin-peroxidase technique. (omicsonline.org)
  • Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins, proteins characterized by their ability to interact with carbohydrates, can be divided into different groups according to their sugar binding specificity [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For much more detail, see Dr. Freed's patient handout on "Rheumatic Patches" and how intolerance of dietary lectins may drive their development. (prohealth.com)
  • A lectin-avoiding diet will greatly reduce your intake of soluble fiber , an important dietary component for preventing and treating diabetes and heart attacks. (drmirkin.com)
  • For the purposes of this discussion, the focus will be on those dietary lectins that have been directly linked to illness in animals and man. (dogtorj.com)
  • Dietary Lectins: What Are They and Should You Be Concerned? (authoritydiet.com)
  • So how dangerous are dietary lectins? (authoritydiet.com)
  • Not only is lecithin found in many common foods, but it's also available as a dietary supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • In the past years, food and dietary components have become an important source of natural bioactive compounds with newly identified modulatory effects on angiogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Some researchers believe that dietary lectins can raise the risk of autoimmune disease. (healthline.com)
  • These ABO specific formulas block the effects of dietary lectins before they cause problems , by providing a source of free blocking carbohydrate. (dadamo.com)
  • Boyd was also the first researcher to identify the blood type specificity of many common dietary lectins. (dadamo.com)
  • DEFLECT is a natural product composed of 'blocking sugars' designed to interfere with the adherence of troublesome dietary lectins. (dadamo.com)
  • Almost everyone has antibodies to some dietary lectins in their body. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • Much more than just another dietary fad, Dr. Gundry's scientifically proven approach to restoring a healthy microbiome will reorient your approach to food. (indiebound.org)
  • The sprouts of grains such as wheat, maize, and rye are increasingly being consumed as health foods, and are also used for the production of dietary supplements. (mercola.com)
  • A lectin designated as Hericium erinaceum agglutinin (HEA) was isolated from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum with a chromatographic procedure which entailed DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC Superdex 75. (hindawi.com)
  • MALDI TOF analysis of Phaseolus acutifolius agglutinin (PAA) showed that this lectin is composed of monomers with molecular weights ranging between 28 and 31 kDa. (mdpi.com)
  • You will hear many health bloggers advocating for an anti-lectin or lectin free diet with the suggestion that lectins are causing weight gain, inflammation, leaky gut, and even major diseases. (ugent.be)
  • A constant onslaught with these will bring on food reactions, nutrient deficiencies, and leaky gut syndrome. (bartonpublishing.com)
  • Some believe that lectins are partially responsible for creating a "leaky gut" that leads to autoimmune disease. (authoritydiet.com)
  • Lectins have been blamed for causing a host of health issues, particularly leaky gut and autoimmune disease. (greensmoothiegirl.com)
  • They were discovered over 100 years ago and cause leaky gut and gastrointestinal dysbiosis yet the push for a plant-based diet focusing on legumes as meat alternatives has overlooked the damage lectins cause to the gut. (celiac.com)
  • Lectins can cause all sorts of problems, as they can cause damage to the intestinal lining, thus affecting the absorption of vitamins and minerals, and potentially resulting in a condition such as leaky gut. (naturalendocrinesolutions.com)
  • While some lectins may be beneficial, they can prevent the replication of intestinal cells and destroy intestinal flora . (bartonpublishing.com)
  • Also, bacterial infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colon cancer, or autoimmune illnesses may alter intestinal cells in a way that makes usually harmless food lectins problematic. (drfuhrman.com)
  • The lectins on the surface of E. coli cells select and stick to certain cells of the intestinal tract. (authoritydiet.com)
  • Other lectins upset the balance of intestinal flora while those in potatoes and tomatoes may lead to arthritic pain. (supersmart.com)
  • The 'stickiness' of lectins makes them prone to attaching to the intestinal wall. (healthline.com)
  • These can include intestinal dysbiosis, bowel hyperpermiability, immune dysfunction, food sensitivities and systemic inflammation. (dadamo.com)
  • This GI distress happens because lectins can damage the intestinal lining. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • A low-lectin breakfast can be a Swiss chard omelet served with fresh fruits or scrambled eggs cooked with spinach, onions and mushrooms served with bacon or sausages. (livestrong.com)
  • In one study, the edible parts of 29 of 88 foods tested, including common salad ingredients, fresh fruits, roasted nuts, and processed cereals were found to possess significant lectin-like activity as assessed by hemagglutination and bacterial agglutination assays. (dadamo.com)
  • As a matter of fact, it really is extremely essential to consume fresh fruits along with veggies including avocados, as they are an excellent source of antioxidants as Anti-aging Foods. (fitnesstipsforlife.com)
  • When fruits are ripe and in season, they contain less lectins. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • But most importantly, I'll show you beyond a shadow of a doubt why legumes are inferior foods that should not be part of any contemporary Paleo Diet. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • To paleo supporters, grains are the original fast food--cheap, easy to obtain, overly processed, and utterly bad for you. (amazonaws.com)
  • The foods in a Paleo diets are just too low on the glycemic index to replace glycogen mid- and postrun as quickly as most athletes would like. (amazonaws.com)
  • most lectins, in plant… Lectins in food this is an even though allergy is not associated with lectin specificity, lectins in common foods and their blood type specificity. (diabetesadviceguide.com)
  • Glycoconjugation of ConA and WGA with the target sugars glucose and N -acetylglucosamine, respectively, was used as a method for evaluation of the specificity of the lectins towards Sphingomonas biofilms and Sphingomonas polysaccharides. (asm.org)
  • Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
  • See my report on Anti-inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Foods . (drmirkin.com)
  • food intolerances and inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, according to carolyn pierini, a nutritional consultant and clinical laboratory scientist specializing in medical microbiology. (diabetesadviceguide.com)
  • Some common lectins, such as gliadin, present in wheat gluten (and also in other cereals), act to trigger the inflammatory cascade. (supersmart.com)
  • The work of some researchers indicates that lectins could contribute to gastrointestinal problems, food intolerances and inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, according to Carolyn Pierini, a nutritional consultant and clinical laboratory scientist specializing in medical microbiology. (livestrong.com)
  • Other lectins within the immune system are thought to play a role in self-nonself discrimination and they likely modulate inflammatory and autoreactive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the body uses lectins to achieve many basic functions, including cell to cell adherence, inflammatory modulation and programmed cell death. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • I have found that medical research greatly supports this connection, but more importantly, I have found that patients get better after eliminating inflammatory foods from their diets. (glutenfreesociety.org)
  • Fast-forward five years, several hundred medical journal articles, conferences, seminars, and a personal health revolution later, and I am now convinced of the imperative for all people to eliminate this inflammatory food from their lives. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • However, the presence of lectins can and do exacerbate inflammation for auto-immune conditions such as Coeliac's Disease, making symptoms worse. (nlnt.com.au)
  • But it only makes sense that if drugs can target inflammation as a treatment, why can't food. (glutenfreesociety.org)
  • Research from Spain's Hospital University of Bellvitge found that low levels of mannose-binding lectins in the blood are associated with greater inflammation levels in kidney patients. (realnatural.org)
  • How can we get inflammation from foods? (foodintol.com)
  • But a simple switch in foods means the cause of the inflammation is removed - and the body begins healing naturally . (foodintol.com)
  • Cooking, sprouting, fermentation and digestion are the traditional ways in which man, for instance, deals with the various anti-nutrients found within this family of plants, but lectins are, by design, particularly resistant to degradation through a wide range of pH and temperatures. (celiac.com)
  • 5 You may hear a claim that lectins "disrupt digestion," but this is misleading. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Grain lectins, for example, are quite resistant to human digestion but well suited for ruminants like cattle who have multi-chambered stomachs. (lift06.org)
  • Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to have significant GI toxicity in humans. (lift06.org)
  • Lectins are resistant to human digestion and they enter the blood unchanged. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • The common factor between these foods seems to be the opiate-like substances produced when the proteins from these foods are broken down during digestion. (healthy-eating-politics.com)
  • However, scientific studies show that eating the common foods with high-lectin content is associated with living a long life and avoiding diseases such as heart attacks, certain cancers, and diabetes ( JAMA Intern Med , 2013;173(13):1230-1238). (drmirkin.com)
  • A large intake of lectins may cause gastrointestinal distress, particularly if they are consumed in their raw form, with side effects of gas, bloating, and diarrhea. (bistromd.com)
  • For our purposes today, I'd like to give you a few helpful tips in reducing your lectin intake (even if you are eating gluten-free-yes, gluten is a type of lectin! (mindbodygreen.com)
  • But if you're trying to increase your intake of the nonessential fat without the use of supplements, you may be searching for foods with lecithin. (livestrong.com)
  • A 2013 review published in Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism cites several animal studies that report a link between regular intake of nonnutritive sweeteners and increased food intake. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You will also see how our own body produces lectins to control cell function. (dogtorj.com)
  • 13-15 Even if food manufacturers made it a priority to cook soybeans just right, some protease inhibitors would be undercooked and others overcooked. (westonaprice.org)
  • If you're still presenting symptoms after trying many other diets and plans, lectins could be to blame. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • These are symptoms of lectin toxicity ( 11 ). (authoritydiet.com)
  • May reduce lectin induced symptoms such as fatigue after a meal, indigestion, gas, bloating, or unexplained weight gain. (supersmart.com)
  • Given the very large number of factors that can cause symptoms resembling food allergy symptoms, it can be difficult to recognize this kind of pattern and link it up with food allergy on your own. (whfoods.com)
  • If your symptoms return once you reintroduce lectin-rich foods, then lectin is likely the issue. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • There are, however, a lot of clues in the medical literature and the lay public's experience about how foods are causing and/or contributing to the current epidemic of chronic illness and autoimmune disease. (lift06.org)
  • It was actually this experience that prompted me to dig deeper into the connection between autoimmune disease and food. (glutenfreesociety.org)
  • In general, the greater the sprouting duration, the lesser concentration of lectins. (bistromd.com)
  • With a full list of lectin-containing foods and simple substitutes for each, a step-by-step detox and eating plan, and delicious lectin-free recipes, The Plant Paradox illuminates the hidden dangers lurking in your salad bowl-and shows you how to eat whole foods in a whole new way. (indiebound.org)
  • The Plant Paradox offers a true paradigm shift in the way we think about food. (indiebound.org)
  • In the book, The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers In 'Healthy Foods' That Cause Disease And Weight Gai n , Dr. Steven Gundry sets out to demystify long-held myths about plant-based foods. (audible.com)
  • According to cardiologist and heart surgeon Steven R. Gundry, MD, author of The Plant Paradox , eating foods that contain lectins may be behind unexplained weight gain and various illnesses. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • The mechanisms mentioned above with regard to mannose-binding lectins are not anecdotal. (realnatural.org)
  • Akinetes bound to three mannose-binding lectins (LCA, PSA, and ConA), and one of the galactose-binding lectins (GSL-I). Heterocyst also bound to ConA. (springer.com)
  • Viruses and Lectins- The Missing Links - (Link only)This paper is the manuscript for my upcoming lecture at a major veterinary conference. (dogtorj.com)
  • The role of viruses and lectins in the development of disease has been one of the most amazing topics that I have researched over the past seven years. (dogtorj.com)
  • I wholeheartedly disagree with that premise and a better understanding of viruses and lectins supports my dissent. (dogtorj.com)