Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
The selection of one food over another.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consumption of edible substances.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
*My apologies, but "Restaurants" are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition.*
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
'Frozen foods' in a medical context typically refers to prepared or raw food items that have been rapidly cooled then stored at freezing temperatures, typically below -18 degrees Celsius, to minimize microbial growth and enzymatic reactions, thereby extending their shelf life.
Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures and regulations implemented to ensure household items, toys, and other consumer products are designed, manufactured, and distributed in a manner that minimizes risks of harm, injury, or death to consumers during normal use or foreseeable misuse.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or water supplies, often resulting from nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons testing, or improper disposal of radioactive waste, leading to potential health risks including radiation sickness and cancer upon consumption.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.
'Menu planning' in a medical context refers to the process of designing and selecting meals that meet specific dietary needs and restrictions of patients in healthcare facilities, taking into account nutritional requirements, allergies, cultural preferences, and therapeutic goals.
The consumption of liquids.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Size and composition of the family.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.
Food products manufactured from poultry.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Abstaining from all food.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The meal taken at midday.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Educational institutions.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Glucose in blood.
Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
'Cooking and eating utensils' are tools or instruments made of various materials, such as metals, ceramics, glass, or silicone, that are specifically designed and used for preparing, serving, and consuming food during meal preparations and dining occasions.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Organic: What's in a name? (1/262)

The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year.  (+info)

Health claims and observational human data: relation between dietary fat and cancer. (2/262)

The US Food and Drug Administration review that provided the basis for authorizing a food-label health claim linking the risk of cancer to dietary fat intake illustrated several considerations in the use of epidemiologic data, and observational data in particular, to support dietary recommendations. The review suggested the need for clear and established criteria for judging the quality of observational human data as well as the importance of making the evaluation process for individual studies transparent and organized. The review, which provided for a claim in the absence of controlled human studies, also suggested that observational data may play a greater role when the nature of the relation to be described by a health-claim statement is broad and general rather than targeted and specific. Of particular importance was the relevance of available data to the questions inherent in showing a diet-disease relation, the need to consider the totality of the evidence, and the key role that existing authoritative reports must play in establishing the basis for relation.  (+info)

Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status. (3/262)

Inulin and oligofructose are a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world's population. Daily intakes for the U.S. and Europe have been estimated at up to 10 g, specifically 1-4 g for the 97th percentile in the U.S. Because both inulin and oligofructose are macroingredients, it is difficult to apply classical toxicology tests. Although some high dose animal tests have been performed, none have revealed any toxic effects. The safety of inulin and oligofructose for use in foods was evaluated by many legal authorities worldwide. As a result, both inulin and oligofructose are accepted in most countries as food ingredients that can be used without restrictions in food formulations. In the U.S., a panel of experts performed a generally accepted as safe (GRAS) Self-Affirmation Evaluation in 1992 and concluded similarly. At high doses, increased flatulence and osmotic pressure can cause intestinal discomfort. These doses vary widely from person to person and also depend on the type of food in which inulin or oligofructose is incorporated. With regard to labeling, both inulin and oligofructose are gradually being accepted as "dietary fibers" in most countries around the world. The mention of their "bifidogenic effect" on food labels has also been legally accepted in several countries.  (+info)

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home. (4/262)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.  (+info)

The dietary guideline for sodium: should we shake it up? No. (5/262)

The current US dietary guideline for sodium is a limit of 2.4 g/d or 6 g NaCl/d. This amount of sodium is far in excess of any physiologic need and is likely an essential though not by itself sufficient primary cause of hypertension as well as a contributor to many other cardiovascular and renal abnormalities. The evidence incriminating the current excessive consumption of sodium derives from epidemiologic, experimental, and interventional data, most of which support a threshold of approximately 100 mmol/d for the harmful effects of sodium to be expressed. Although the current recommendation may not be low enough to go below that threshold, it is an appropriate and attainable goal for now.  (+info)

Functional foods: the Food and Drug Administration perspective. (6/262)

Because the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) does not provide a statutory definition of functional foods, the Food and Drug Administration has no authority to establish a formal regulatory category for such foods. The primary determinant of the regulatory status of a food is its intended use, which is determined largely by the label and labeling information accompanying the product. This information includes nutrient information, nutrient content claims, and various types of health claims. In marketing these foods, manufacturers may come under one of several existing regulatory options. The first decision manufacturers will make that will help determine their product's regulatory status is whether the product is a food or a drug. Thus, manufacturers and retailers have a range of legal and regulatory categories in which their products may be classified. This article describes the definitions provided in the FFDCA for a drug and a food, the safety and labeling requirements of various food categories, and types of possible claims for dietary supplements.  (+info)

Consideration of possible legislation within existing regulatory frameworks. (7/262)

Legislation on a particular food or on a particular claim to be used in connection with a food require a definition of the food and unequivocal requirements for the use of the claim. The definitions of prebiotics and probiotics presently place these terms between the categories for conventional foods and foods for special dietary uses. Because probiotics and prebiotics, as a group, do not fulfill the criteria for special dietary uses, they have to comply with the rules and laws for conventional foods even if the requirements for the use of the terms prebiotic and probiotic include effects on body functions. These effects on the health and wellness of the consumer and to stimulatory activity, eg, body defense mechanisms, can be used in claims that should underline the importance of the total dietary pattern. It is suggested that setting up rules for the use of the terms prebiotic and probiotic is preferable to creating new food standards.  (+info)

Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains: a challenge for consumers. (8/262)

The 2000 edition of Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the first to include a specific guideline for grain foods, separate from fruits and vegetables, and recognize the unique health benefits of whole grains. This paper describes and evaluates major tools for assessing intakes of total grains and whole grains, reviews current data on who consumes grain foods and where, and describes individual- and market-level factors that may influence grain consumption. Aggregate food supply data show that U.S. consumers have increased their intake of grain foods from record low levels in the 1970s, but consumption of whole-grain foods remains low. Data on individual intakes show that consumption of total grains was above the recommended 6 serving minimum in 1994-1996, but consumption of whole grains was only one third of the 3 daily servings many nutritionists recommend. Increased intake of whole-grain foods may be limited by a lack of consumer awareness of the health benefits of whole grains, difficulty in identifying whole-grain foods in the marketplace, higher prices for some whole-grain foods, consumer perceptions of inferior taste and palatability, and lack of familiarity with preparation methods. In July 1999, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized a health claim that should both make it easier for consumers to identify and select whole-grain foods and have a positive effect on the availability of these foods in the marketplace.  (+info)

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Supply" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term related to the availability and distribution of food. However, in a broader public health context, "food supply" can refer to the overall system and infrastructure that provides food to a population, including agricultural practices, food processing, distribution, and accessibility. Ensuring a safe and adequate food supply is an important aspect of public health and preventive medicine.

Food labeling is the practice of providing written information about the characteristics and contents of food products, typically on the packaging or container in which they are sold. In a medical context, accurate and clear food labeling is essential for individuals with dietary restrictions due to medical conditions such as food allergies, intolerances, or chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes).

Standardized food labeling guidelines help consumers make informed decisions about the foods they consume, allowing them to avoid potential health risks and maintain a balanced diet. Components of food labels often include:

1. Product identity: The name of the food product and its intended use.
2. Net quantity declaration: The amount of the food product contained in the package, expressed in both metric and customary units (e.g., grams or ounces).
3. Ingredient list: A comprehensive list of all ingredients included in the food product, arranged in descending order by weight. This is particularly important for individuals with food allergies or intolerances, as it allows them to identify and avoid specific allergens (e.g., milk, eggs, peanuts).
4. Nutrition facts panel: A standardized format presenting the nutritional content of the food product per serving, including information on calories, total fat, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, and various vitamins and minerals.
5. Nutrient content claims: Voluntary statements made by manufacturers regarding the level of a nutrient in a food product (e.g., "low fat," "high fiber"). These claims must adhere to strict guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure accuracy and consistency.
6. Health claims: Statements linking a specific food or food component to a reduced risk of a particular disease or health-related condition (e.g., "a diet rich in whole grains may reduce the risk of heart disease"). Like nutrient content claims, health claims are subject to strict regulatory oversight.
7. Special dietary statements: Labeling statements indicating that a food product is suitable for specific dietary uses or restrictions (e.g., "gluten-free," "kosher," "vegan"). These statements help consumers with special dietary needs quickly identify appropriate food options.
8. Allergen labeling: Mandatory identification of the presence of any of the eight major food allergens (milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans) in a food product. This information must be clearly displayed in the ingredient list or as a separate "contains" statement.
9. Warning statements: Required labeling of specific health risks associated with the consumption of certain food products (e.g., "consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness").
10. Country of origin labeling: Identification of the country where a food product was produced, grown, or packaged. This information helps consumers make informed decisions about their food purchases based on factors such as quality, safety, and environmental concerns.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

"Food analysis" is not a medical term per se, but it falls under the broader field of food science and nutrition. Food analysis refers to the laboratory methods and techniques used to determine the composition and quality of food products. This can include testing for nutrients (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), contaminants (like heavy metals, pesticides, or allergens), and other components that may affect the safety, quality, or authenticity of food.

The results of food analysis can be used to ensure compliance with regulatory standards, develop new food products, assess the nutritional value of diets, investigate food-borne illnesses, and monitor trends in food consumption. While not a medical definition, food analysis is an important tool for promoting public health and preventing diet-related diseases.

"Food habits" refer to the established patterns or behaviors that individuals develop in relation to their food choices and eating behaviors. These habits can include preferences for certain types of foods, meal timing, portion sizes, and dining experiences. Food habits are influenced by a variety of factors including cultural background, personal beliefs, taste preferences, social norms, and economic resources. They can have significant impacts on an individual's nutritional status, overall health, and quality of life.

It is important to note that while "food habits" may not be a formal medical term, it is often used in the context of nutrition and public health research and interventions to describe the behaviors related to food choices and eating patterns.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

Food hypersensitivity is an umbrella term that encompasses both immunologic and non-immunologic adverse reactions to food. It is also known as "food allergy" or "food intolerance." Food hypersensitivity occurs when the body's immune system or digestive system reacts negatively to a particular food or food component.

Immunologic food hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as a food allergy, involves an immune response mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Upon ingestion of the offending food, IgE antibodies bind to the food antigens and trigger the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to symptoms such as hives, swelling, itching, difficulty breathing, or anaphylaxis.

Non-immunologic food hypersensitivity, on the other hand, does not involve the immune system. Instead, it is caused by various mechanisms, including enzyme deficiencies, pharmacological reactions, and metabolic disorders. Examples of non-immunologic food hypersensitivities include lactose intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and histamine intolerance.

It's important to note that the term "food hypersensitivity" is often used interchangeably with "food allergy," but it has a broader definition that includes both immunologic and non-immunologic reactions.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Food safety is the scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food safety often involves keeping food at low temperatures to prevent bacterial growth and toxin production. It can also include practices such as washing hands and surfaces well and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. Additionally, proper cooking and pasteurization can kill bacteria that may be present in food.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines food safety as "the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared or eaten according to its intended use." Food safety is important for everyone, but particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

In summary, food safety refers to the proper handling, preparation, and storage of food in order to prevent foodborne illness and ensure that it is safe for consumption.

Fast food is a type of food that is prepared and served quickly, often at a restaurant or food stand. Fast food dishes are typically simple, consisting of pre-cooked ingredients that are assembled and heated quickly, allowing for a short service time. Common examples of fast food include hamburgers, hot dogs, sandwiches, fried chicken, fries, and pizza.

Fast food has become popular due to its convenience, affordability, and widespread availability. However, it is often high in calories, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar, making it a contributor to obesity and other health problems when consumed regularly. Public health organizations recommend limiting the consumption of fast food and opting for healthier options whenever possible.

Food deprivation is not a medical term per se, but it is used in the field of nutrition and psychology. It generally refers to the deliberate withholding of food for a prolonged period, leading to a state of undernutrition or malnutrition. This can occur due to various reasons such as famine, starvation, anorexia nervosa, or as a result of certain medical treatments or conditions. Prolonged food deprivation can have serious consequences on physical health, including weight loss, muscle wasting, organ damage, and decreased immune function, as well as psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

Genetically modified (GM) food is defined as a type of food that has been produced using genetic engineering techniques to modify its genetic makeup. This process involves the insertion or deletion of specific genes into the DNA of the organism to achieve desired traits, such as improved nutritional content, resistance to pests or diseases, or increased yield.

Examples of GM foods include crops such as corn, soybeans, canola, and cotton that have been modified to express genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, which confer resistance to certain herbicides or pesticides. Other examples include fruits and vegetables that have been engineered to produce longer shelf life, enhanced flavor, or improved nutritional content.

It is important to note that the safety and regulation of GM foods are subjects of ongoing debate and research. Some argue that GM foods offer significant benefits in terms of increased food production, reduced pesticide use, and improved nutrition, while others raise concerns about potential health risks, environmental impacts, and ethical considerations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "food chain" is not typically used in a medical context. It is a concept from ecology that describes the sequence of organisms through which food and energy pass as one organism eats another.

However, if you're referring to "food web" or "dietary intake," these terms might be more applicable in a medical context. For instance, dietary intake refers to what and how much a person consumes, which can have significant implications for their health. A food web, on the other hand, is a more complex network of relationships between different species that consume and are consumed by others, which can help researchers understand the impacts of changes in one species' population or behavior on others within an ecosystem.

If you meant to ask about something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide a helpful answer!

"Food Services" in a medical context typically refers to the provision and delivery of food and nutrition services to patients in hospitals, clinics, or other healthcare facilities. This can include:

1. Nutrition assessment and care planning by registered dietitians.
2. Food preparation and meal service that meet the dietary needs and restrictions of patients.
3. Special diets for patients with specific medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, food allergies).
4. Enteral and parenteral nutrition support for patients who cannot eat or digest food normally.
5. Education for patients and their families about diet and nutrition.
6. Implementation of food safety and sanitation practices to prevent infection and ensure the quality of food.

The goal of food services in healthcare facilities is to promote optimal nutritional status, support recovery, and enhance patient satisfaction and well-being.

"Food Legislation" refers to laws, regulations, and policies related to food production, distribution, labeling, safety, and marketing. These rules are designed to protect consumers from fraudulent or unsafe food practices, promote fair trade in the food industry, and ensure that food is produced and distributed in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Food legislation can cover a wide range of issues, including foodborne illness outbreaks, pesticide residues, organic farming, genetically modified foods, and nutrition labeling. Compliance with food legislation is typically enforced by government agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States.

Preserved food, in a medical context, refers to food that has been treated or processed in order to inhibit spoilage and prolong its shelf life. This is typically achieved through methods such as canning, pickling, smoking, drying, or freezing. These processes work by reducing the moisture content, increasing acidity, or introducing chemicals that prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.

While preserved foods can be a valuable source of nutrition, especially in situations where fresh food is not available, it's important to note that some preservation methods can also introduce harmful substances, such as sodium nitrite in cured meats or acrylamide in fried or baked starchy foods. Therefore, preserved foods should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Food additives are substances that are added to food or drink during manufacturing or processing to perform various functions such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, enhancing taste and texture, and increasing nutritional value. These additives can be natural or synthetic and must be approved by regulatory authorities before they can be used in food products. Examples of food additives include salt, sugar, vinegar, spices, artificial flavors, preservatives, emulsifiers, and food dyes. It is important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain food additives, and excessive consumption of some additives may have negative health effects.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

'Infant food' is not a term with a single, universally accepted medical definition. However, in general, it refers to food products that are specifically designed and marketed for feeding infants, typically during the first year of life. These foods are often formulated to meet the unique nutritional needs of infants, who have smaller stomachs, higher metabolic rates, and different dietary requirements compared to older children and adults.

Infant food can include a variety of products such as:

1. Infant formula: A breast milk substitute that is designed to provide all the nutrients an infant needs for growth and development during the first six months of life. It is typically made from cow's milk, soy, or other protein sources and is fortified with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
2. Baby cereal: A single-grain cereal that is often one of the first solid foods introduced to infants around 4-6 months of age. It is usually made from rice, oats, or barley and can be mixed with breast milk, formula, or water to create a thin porridge.
3. Pureed fruits and vegetables: Soft, cooked, and pureed fruits and vegetables are often introduced to infants around 6-8 months of age as they begin to develop their chewing skills. These foods provide important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
4. Meats, poultry, and fish: Soft, cooked, and finely chopped or pureed meats, poultry, and fish can be introduced to infants around 8-10 months of age. These foods provide essential protein, iron, and other nutrients.
5. Dairy products: Infant food may also include dairy products such as yogurt and cheese, which can be introduced to infants around 9-12 months of age. These foods provide calcium, protein, and other nutrients.

It is important to note that the introduction and composition of infant food may vary depending on cultural practices, individual dietary needs, and medical recommendations. Parents should consult their healthcare provider for guidance on introducing solid foods to their infants and selecting appropriate infant food products.

Functional food is a term used to describe food that has a potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition. These foods contain bioactive components, such as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, peptides, fatty acids, or various types of carbohydrates, that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and promote optimal health. Examples include fortified cereals, omega-3 enriched eggs, probiotic yogurts, and antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables. It's important to note that functional foods should not replace a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle but can be a part of it.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Soy foods are food products made from soybeans, which are a rich source of plant-based protein, fiber, and various beneficial compounds like isoflavones. Examples of soy foods include tofu, tempeh, soymilk, edamame (immature soybeans), soy flour, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). Soy products can be used as alternatives to animal-based proteins and can be incorporated into a variety of dishes, such as stir-fries, soups, smoothies, and baked goods. It's important to note that some people may have allergies to soy or sensitivities to its phytoestrogens, which can affect hormone balance in the body.

"Formulated food" is a term used in the field of clinical nutrition to refer to foods that are specially manufactured and designed to meet the nutritional needs of specific patient populations. These foods often come in the form of shakes, bars, or pouches and are intended to be used as a sole source or supplementary source of nutrition for individuals who have difficulty meeting their nutritional needs through traditional food sources alone.

Formulated foods may be indicated for patients who have medical conditions that affect their ability to eat or digest regular food, such as dysphagia (swallowing difficulties), malabsorption syndromes, or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. They may also be used in patients who require additional nutritional support during times of illness, injury, or recovery from surgery.

Formulated foods are typically designed to provide a balance of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) that meet the recommended dietary intakes for specific patient populations. They may also contain additional ingredients such as fiber, probiotics, or other nutraceuticals to provide additional health benefits.

It is important to note that formulated foods should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or physician, to ensure that they are appropriate for an individual's specific medical and nutritional needs.

Food coloring agents, also known as food dyes, are substances that are added to foods and beverages to improve or modify their color. They are typically made from synthetic chemicals, although some are derived from natural sources. Food coloring agents are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory bodies to ensure their safety.

Food coloring agents are used for a variety of reasons, including:

* Making foods look more appealing or attractive
* Restoring the natural color of foods that has been lost during processing
* Helping consumers identify products, such as flavors or varieties of candy
* Ensuring consistency in the color of a product from batch to batch

Some common food coloring agents include:

* Blue 1 (Brilliant Blue)
* Blue 2 (Indigo Carmine)
* Green 3 (Fast Green FCF)
* Red 3 (Erythrosine)
* Red 40 (Allura Red)
* Yellow 5 (Tartrazine)
* Yellow 6 (Sunset Yellow)

It is important to note that some people may be sensitive or allergic to certain food coloring agents and may experience adverse reactions after consuming them. Additionally, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of artificial food dyes, although current research does not support a strong link between their consumption and negative health outcomes in the general population.

A "Food Inspection" is not a medical term per se, but rather it falls under the purview of public health and food safety. It refers to the process of examining, testing, and evaluating food products, production processes, and establishments to ensure they comply with regulatory standards, guidelines, and laws established to protect consumers from foodborne illnesses, allergens, chemical contaminants, and other potential hazards.

The inspection can be carried out by governmental agencies, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), or local health departments, at various stages of food production, processing, distribution, and retail sale. The primary goal is to minimize the risk of contamination, ensure proper labeling, and maintain the overall safety and integrity of the food supply chain.

While not a medical definition, it's important to note that food inspections play a crucial role in preventing foodborne illnesses, which can lead to significant health complications for vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Technology" is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. It is a multidisciplinary field involving aspects of food science, chemical engineering, and nutrition, among others, which deals with the production, preservation, and packaging of food products to make them safe, nutritious, and appealing.

However, if you're asking about how certain food technologies or food components might have medical implications, I could provide some information on that front. For example, there are various food technologies used in the processing and preparation of foods that can affect their nutritional content, safety, and potential health benefits or risks. Some examples include:

* Fortification: adding essential nutrients to foods to prevent deficiencies (e.g., adding folic acid to bread and cereals)
* Pasteurization: heating food to kill harmful bacteria and extend shelf life (e.g., milk, juice, and some prepared foods)
* Irradiation: exposing food to low levels of radiation to reduce or eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life (e.g., spices, herbs, and some fruits and vegetables)
* Food additives: substances added to food for various purposes, such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, or texturizing (e.g., artificial sweeteners, food dyes, and emulsifiers)

Each of these technologies and components can have potential medical implications, both positive and negative, depending on the specific application and individual factors. For example, fortification can help prevent nutrient deficiencies and improve public health, while certain food additives or processing methods may be associated with adverse health effects in some people.

If you have a more specific question about how a particular food technology or component might relate to medical issues, I'd be happy to try to provide more information based on the available evidence!

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

A specialized food, in a medical context, refers to a type of diet or individual food items that are specially formulated, processed, or selected to meet the unique nutritional needs of specific populations or individuals with certain medical conditions. These foods are designed to provide optimal nutrition while managing or preventing disease-related complications, supporting growth and development, or addressing dietary restrictions and intolerances.

Examples of specialized foods include:

1. Enteral formulas: Nutritionally complete liquid diets used for patients who cannot consume or digest regular food, often due to conditions such as dysphagia, malabsorption, or gastrointestinal disorders. These formulas can be tailored to meet specific nutritional requirements, including different calorie densities, protein content, and fiber levels.
2. Elemental diets: Specialized enteral formulas that contain predigested proteins (amino acids), simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides), and medium-chain triglycerides as the primary sources of nutrition. These diets are designed to be easily absorbed and minimize gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, or food intolerances.
3. Hypoallergenic formulas: Specialized infant formulas that contain extensively hydrolyzed proteins or amino acids as the protein source. These formulas are designed for infants with cow's milk protein allergy or other protein-related disorders, as they reduce the risk of allergic reactions and gastrointestinal symptoms.
4. Fortified foods: Regular food items that have been enriched with additional nutrients to address specific dietary needs or deficiencies. Examples include calcium-fortified orange juice for individuals at risk of osteoporosis, or iron-fortified cereals for those with anemia.
5. Dietary supplements: Products that contain one or more dietary ingredients (such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, or other botanicals) intended to supplement the diet and provide additional nutritional value. These products can be in various forms, including tablets, capsules, powders, energy bars, or liquids.
6. Medical foods: Specially formulated and processed products designed for patients with specific medical conditions that require unique nutritional requirements. Examples include enteral tube feeding formulas for individuals who cannot consume regular food due to dysphagia, malabsorption, or other gastrointestinal disorders.
7. Functional foods: Food items that provide additional health benefits beyond basic nutrition, such as reducing the risk of chronic diseases or improving overall health and well-being. Examples include probiotic-rich yogurts, omega-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, or antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.

In summary, there are various types of specialized food products designed to meet specific dietary needs, medical conditions, or health goals. These include hypoallergenic formulas, fortified foods, dietary supplements, medical foods, and functional foods. Understanding the differences between these categories can help consumers make informed decisions about their nutritional choices.

"Food assistance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to various programs and initiatives designed to help individuals and families access and afford nutritious food. These programs may be run by government agencies, non-profit organizations, or community groups and can include things like:

* Food banks and pantries, which provide free or low-cost groceries to those in need
* Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps), which provides financial assistance to eligible low-income individuals and families to purchase food
* Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, which provides nutrition education, healthy food, and breastfeeding support to low-income pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to age five
* School meal programs, which provide free or reduced-price meals to eligible school-aged children
* Senior nutrition programs, which provide meals and nutrition assistance to older adults.

Medical professionals may refer patients to food assistance resources as part of a comprehensive approach to addressing social determinants of health, such as food insecurity, which can have significant impacts on physical and mental health outcomes.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

Staphylococcal food poisoning is a type of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of foods contaminated with enterotoxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The ingestion of these toxins can lead to rapid onset of symptoms, typically within 1-6 hours after eating the contaminated food.

The most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. These symptoms usually last for around 24-48 hours but can sometimes persist for a few days. It is important to note that staphylococcal food poisoning does not typically cause fever or bloody stools.

The bacteria that cause this type of food poisoning are often found on the skin and noses of healthy people, as well as in foods such as meats, dairy products, and eggs. Improper handling, storage, or preparation of these foods can lead to contamination with S. aureus, allowing the bacteria to multiply and produce harmful enterotoxins.

To prevent staphylococcal food poisoning, it is essential to maintain good hygiene practices when handling food, keep food at safe temperatures during storage and preparation, and avoid cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

In medical terms, "hunger" is not specifically defined as a clinical condition. However, it generally refers to the physiological need or desire for food and calories, driven by mechanisms in the brain and body that regulate energy balance. This sensation often arises when the body's energy stores are depleted, or when there has been a prolonged period without food intake.

Hunger is primarily mediated by hormones such as ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and leptin, which signals satiety. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a crucial role in integrating these hormonal signals to regulate hunger and energy balance. Additionally, other factors like sleep deprivation, stress, and certain medical conditions can also influence feelings of hunger.

Organic food is defined by the USDA as food that is produced using cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that support the cycling of on-farm resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering are not allowed. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. Organic foods are produced and processed without artificial ingredients, preservatives, or irradiation.

It's important to note that the term "organic" is regulated and must meet specific standards in order to be labeled as such. These standards vary by country, so it's important to look for certifications that are recognized in your country when purchasing organic food.

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

Automatic food dispensers are medical devices that automatically deliver specific amounts of food or nutritional supplements to patients, particularly those who have difficulty feeding themselves due to physical impairments or disorders. These devices can be programmed to dispense measured portions at scheduled times, ensuring that patients receive adequate nutrition and hydration. They can help reduce the risk of malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia in vulnerable populations, such as those with dysphagia, neurological disorders, or advanced age. Automatic food dispensers may also be used in clinical research settings to standardize and control the delivery of precise nutritional interventions.

Salmonella food poisoning, also known as salmonellosis, is an infection caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. It's typically contracted through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or by coming into contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can cause gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, within 12 to 72 hours after exposure. Symptoms usually last for four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration caused by excessive diarrhea. In rare instances, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Nutrition policy refers to a set of guidelines, regulations, or laws established by governmental or organizational bodies to promote healthy eating habits and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. These policies aim to create an environment that supports and encourages individuals to make healthier food choices. Nutrition policies can cover various aspects such as food labeling, nutrition education, food safety, agricultural practices, and access to affordable and nutritious foods. They may also address issues related to marketing and advertising of unhealthy food products, particularly to children. The ultimate goal of nutrition policy is to improve public health by creating a food environment that supports optimal nutrition and well-being.

A diet survey is a questionnaire or interview designed to gather information about an individual's eating habits and patterns. It typically includes questions about the types and quantities of foods and beverages consumed, meal frequency and timing, and any dietary restrictions or preferences. The purpose of a diet survey is to assess an individual's nutritional intake and identify areas for improvement or intervention in order to promote health and prevent or manage chronic diseases. Diet surveys may also be used in research settings to gather data on the eating habits of larger populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

'Food Service, Hospital' is a healthcare service provided in hospitals that involves the preparation, delivery, and storage of food for patients, hospital staff, and visitors. The main goal of hospital food service is to provide nutritious and balanced meals that meet the dietary needs and restrictions of patients while ensuring food safety and sanitation standards.

Hospital food services may include:

1. Clinical Nutrition: Dietitians assess patients' nutritional needs, develop individualized meal plans, and monitor their progress. They also provide nutrition education to patients and hospital staff.
2. Food Production: Commercial-grade kitchens prepare meals for patients, staff, and visitors. Meals may be cooked from scratch or prepared using pre-made components.
3. Food Delivery: Meals are delivered to patient rooms, hospital units, or cafeterias by food service workers. Special considerations may be made for patients with dietary restrictions or those who require assistance with eating.
4. Food Storage and Safety: Proper storage and handling of food is essential to prevent foodborne illnesses. Hospital food services follow strict guidelines for receiving, storing, preparing, and serving food.
5. Customer Service: Hospital food service staff provide excellent customer service by addressing patients' concerns, answering questions about menu items, and accommodating special requests.

Overall, hospital food services play a critical role in supporting patient health and recovery, as well as promoting the overall well-being of hospital staff and visitors.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "food quality" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term more commonly used in the context of food science and agriculture to describe the overall standard of food based on factors such as its nutritional value, freshness, safety, taste, and appearance.

However, from a public health or nutrition perspective, "food quality" could refer to the degree to which food is able to provide the necessary nutrients for good health while minimizing exposure to harmful contaminants or excessive calories. This can include factors such as:

* The nutritional content of the food (e.g., amount of protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals)
* The absence of harmful substances (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, bacteria, or other contaminants)
* The freshness and safety of the food (e.g., proper handling, storage, and preparation to minimize spoilage or foodborne illness)
* The sensory qualities of the food (e.g., taste, texture, and appearance)

It's important to note that "food quality" can be subjective and may vary depending on cultural preferences, individual dietary needs, and personal tastes.

Diet records are documents used to track and record an individual's food and beverage intake over a specific period. These records may include details such as the type and quantity of food consumed, time of consumption, and any related observations or notes. Diet records can be used for various purposes, including assessing dietary habits and patterns, identifying potential nutritional deficiencies or excesses, and developing personalized nutrition plans. They are often used in research, clinical settings, and weight management programs.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Appetite is the desire to eat or drink something, which is often driven by feelings of hunger or thirst. It is a complex process that involves both physiological and psychological factors. Physiologically, appetite is influenced by the body's need for energy and nutrients, as well as various hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate hunger and satiety signals in the brain. Psychologically, appetite can be affected by emotions, mood, stress levels, and social factors such as the sight or smell of food.

In medical terms, a loss of appetite is often referred to as anorexia, which can be caused by various factors such as illness, medication, infection, or psychological conditions like depression. On the other hand, an excessive or abnormal appetite is known as polyphagia and can be a symptom of certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

It's important to note that while "anorexia" is a medical term used to describe loss of appetite, it should not be confused with the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, which is a serious mental health condition characterized by restrictive eating, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Restaurants" are establishments where food and drinks are prepared and served to customers for a profit. They are part of the hospitality industry, not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Appetite regulation refers to the physiological and psychological processes that control and influence the desire to eat food. This complex system involves a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways that work together to help maintain energy balance and regulate body weight. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a key role in appetite regulation by integrating signals from the digestive system, fat cells, and other organs to adjust feelings of hunger and fullness.

The hormones leptin and ghrelin are also important regulators of appetite. Leptin is released from fat cells and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss, while ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and promotes weight gain. Other factors that can influence appetite regulation include stress, emotions, sleep patterns, and cultural influences.

Abnormalities in appetite regulation can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, as well as obesity and other health problems. Understanding the mechanisms of appetite regulation is an important area of research for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Satiation is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology, which refers to the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that one experiences after eating food. It is the point at which further consumption of food no longer adds to the sensation of hunger or the desire to eat. This response is influenced by various factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, nutrient composition, energy density, individual appetite regulatory hormones, and gastric distension.

Satiation plays a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining energy balance. Understanding the mechanisms underlying satiation can help individuals make healthier food choices and prevent overeating, thereby reducing the risk of obesity and other related health issues.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Satiety response is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology to describe the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that follows food consumption. It is a complex process regulated by several factors, including the mechanical and chemical signals generated during digestion, hormonal responses, and psychological factors. The satiety response helps control food intake and energy balance by inhibiting further eating until the body has had enough time to metabolize and absorb the nutrients from the meal.

The satiety response can be influenced by various factors such as the type, volume, and texture of food consumed, as well as individual differences in appetite regulation and metabolism. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the satiety response is important for developing strategies to promote healthy eating behaviors and prevent overeating, which can contribute to obesity and other health problems.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

"Cooking" is not a medical term, but it generally refers to the process of preparing and cooking food. In a medical or nutritional context, "cooking" may refer to the application of heat to food in order to make it safe and more palatable to eat, as well as to improve its nutritional value and digestibility.

Cooking can also have an impact on the nutrient content of food. For example, cooking certain vegetables can increase their bioavailability, or the amount of a nutrient that is available for absorption by the body. On the other hand, cooking some foods at high temperatures or for long periods of time can lead to the loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and B.

It's important to note that the way food is cooked can also affect its safety. For example, undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood can harbor harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can cause foodborne illness. It's essential to cook these foods thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.

In summary, while "cooking" is not a medical term, it has important implications for food safety, nutrition, and digestion.

Dairy products are foods produced from the milk of animals, primarily cows but also goats, sheep, and buffalo. The term "dairy" refers to the place or process where these products are made. According to the medical definition, dairy products include a variety of foods such as:

1. Milk - This is the liquid produced by mammals to feed their young. It's rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
2. Cheese - Made from milk, it can vary greatly in texture, taste, and nutritional content depending on the type. Cheese is a good source of protein and calcium.
3. Yogurt - This is formed by bacterial fermentation of milk. It contains probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain gut health.
4. Butter - Made from cream or churned milk, butter is high in fat and calories but also provides some essential nutrients like vitamin A.
5. Ice Cream - A frozen dessert made from cream, milk, sugar, and often egg yolks. While it can be a source of calcium and protein, it's also high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
6. Casein and Whey Proteins - These are proteins derived from milk that are often used as dietary supplements for muscle building and recovery after exercise.

Individuals who are lactose intolerant may have difficulty digesting dairy products due to the sugar lactose found in them. For such individuals, there are lactose-free versions of these products available or they can opt for plant-based alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, etc.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "frozen foods" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to food that has been frozen and preserved at low temperatures. While there may be some medical concerns related to the consumption of certain types of frozen foods (such as those high in sodium or fat), it's not a term that would be used within a medical context. If you have any questions about the safety or nutritional content of specific frozen foods, I'd recommend consulting with a healthcare provider or a nutritionist.

Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures taken to ensure that products intended for consumer use are free from unreasonable risks of injury or illness. This is typically overseen by regulatory bodies, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in the United States, which establishes safety standards, tests products, and recalls dangerous ones.

The definition of 'Consumer Product' can vary but generally refers to any article, or component part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (iii) for sensory evaluation and direct physical contact by a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise.

The safety measures can include various aspects such as design, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of the product to ensure that it is safe for its intended use. This includes ensuring that the product does not contain any harmful substances, that it functions as intended, and that it comes with clear instructions for use and any necessary warnings.

It's important to note that even with these safety measures in place, it is still possible for products to cause injury or illness if they are used improperly or if they malfunction. Therefore, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the risks associated with the products they use and to take appropriate precautions.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

In the medical context, the term "eggs" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, if you are referring to reproductive biology, an egg or ovum is a female reproductive cell (gamete) that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual.

In humans, eggs are produced in the ovaries and are released during ovulation, usually once per month. They are much larger than sperm and contain all the genetic information necessary to create a human being, along with nutrients that help support the early stages of embryonic development.

It's worth noting that the term "eggs" is also commonly used in everyday language to refer to chicken eggs or eggs from other birds, which are not relevant to medical definitions.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

A Nutrition Assessment is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of an individual's nutritional status, which is carried out by healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists. The assessment typically involves collecting and analyzing data related to various factors that influence nutritional health, including:

1. Anthropometric measurements: These include height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and other physical measures that can provide insights into an individual's overall health status and risk of chronic diseases.
2. Dietary intake assessment: This involves evaluating an individual's dietary patterns, food preferences, and eating habits to determine whether they are meeting their nutritional needs through their diet.
3. Biochemical assessments: These include blood tests and other laboratory measures that can provide information about an individual's nutrient status, such as serum levels of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
4. Clinical assessment: This involves reviewing an individual's medical history, current medications, and any symptoms or health conditions that may be impacting their nutritional health.
5. Social and economic assessment: This includes evaluating an individual's access to food, income, education level, and other social determinants of health that can affect their ability to obtain and consume a healthy diet.

The goal of a Nutrition Assessment is to identify any nutritional risks or deficiencies and develop a personalized nutrition plan to address them. This may involve making dietary recommendations, providing education and counseling, or referring the individual to other healthcare professionals for further evaluation and treatment.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Medical definitions typically do not include terms like "meat products" as they are too broad and not specific to medical conditions or treatments. However, in a general food science or nutrition context, "meat products" could be defined as:

Processed or unprocessed foods that contain meat or meat derivatives as the primary ingredient. This can include various types of muscle tissue from mammals, birds, fish, and other animals, along with any accompanying fat, skin, blood vessels, and other tissues. Meat products may be fresh, cured, smoked, or cooked, and they may also contain additional ingredients like salt, sugar, preservatives, and flavorings. Examples of meat products include beef jerky, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and canned meats.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. The "food processing industry" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the branch of manufacturing that involves transforming raw agricultural ingredients into food products for commercial sale.

The food-processing industry includes activities such as:

1. Cleaning and grading raw food materials
2. Preservation through canning, freezing, refrigeration, or dehydration
3. Preparation of food by chopping, cooking, baking, or mixing
4. Packaging and labeling of the final food product

While not a medical term, it is still relevant to the medical field as processed foods can impact human health, both positively and negatively. For example, processing can help preserve nutrients, increase food safety, and make certain foods more accessible and convenient. However, overly processed foods often contain high levels of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to various health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Food irradiation is a process that uses ionizing radiation to kill bacteria, parasites, and insects in food. It also slows down the ripening and sprouting of foods and eliminates or reduces the need for chemical fumigants and preservatives. The food does not become radioactive as a result of irradiation.

The three types of radiation sources used for food irradiation are gamma rays, electron beams, and X-rays. Gamma rays are produced naturally by the decay of radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or cesium-137. Electron beams and X-rays are produced artificially.

Food irradiation is regulated in many countries, including the United States, where it is approved for use on a variety of foods, including spices, herbs, seasonings, fruits, vegetables, grains, poultry, red meats, and eggs. The process is considered safe for human consumption and has been endorsed by numerous scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A nutrition survey is not a medical term per se, but it is a research method used in the field of nutrition and public health. Here's a definition:

A nutrition survey is a study design that systematically collects and analyzes data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and related factors from a defined population or sample. It aims to describe the nutritional situation, identify nutritional problems, and monitor trends in a population over time. Nutrition surveys can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or community-based and may involve various data collection methods such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, physical measurements, and biological samples. The results of nutrition surveys are used to inform nutrition policies, programs, and interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and health outcomes of populations.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Hyperphagia is a medical term that describes excessive eating or increased appetite, often to the point of compulsive overeating. It's more than just a simple increase in hunger or appetite; it's characterized by consuming large amounts of food beyond what is needed for normal growth and health.

This condition can be associated with several medical conditions. For instance, it's a common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects appetite, growth, and cognitive development. It can also occur in certain types of brain injuries or disorders affecting the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates hunger and fullness signals.

However, it's important to note that hyperphagia should not be confused with binge eating disorder, another eating disorder characterized by consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, but without the feeling of loss of control that is typical of binge eating.

As always, if you or someone else is experiencing symptoms of hyperphagia, it's important to seek medical advice to identify and treat any underlying conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

A food-drug interaction is a reaction that occurs when the pharmacological effects of a drug are altered by concurrently consuming a certain food or beverage. This interaction can result in an enhanced or reduced drug effect, and it may change the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the drug.

Some food-drug interactions can lead to increased side effects, decreased effectiveness of the medication, or even toxicity. For example, consuming grapefruit juice with certain medications such as statins, calcium channel blockers, and benzodiazepines can increase their blood levels and result in adverse reactions.

It is essential to be aware of potential food-drug interactions and follow the recommended guidelines for medication use, including any specific dietary restrictions or recommendations provided by healthcare professionals.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or agricultural products. This can occur through various means such as nuclear accidents, improper disposal of radioactive waste, or use of phosphate fertilizers that contain low levels of radioactivity. The consumption of radioactively contaminated food can lead to internal exposure to radiation, which may pose risks to human health, including increased risk of cancer and other diseases. It's important to note that regulatory bodies set limits on the acceptable levels of radioactivity in food to minimize these risks.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Dietary sucrose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the human diet. It is a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, but it is also added to a wide variety of processed foods and beverages as a sweetener.

In the body, sucrose is broken down into its component monosaccharides during digestion, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy. While small amounts of sucrose can be part of a healthy diet, consuming large amounts of added sugars, including sucrose, has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, it is recommended that people limit their intake of added sugars and focus on getting their sugars from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snacks" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Generally, snacks refer to small portions of food consumed between meals. However, in a medical context, the term might be used more specifically to describe certain types of dietary supplements or functional foods, which are designed to provide specific nutrients or health benefits. But in general, it's not a medical term.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "menu planning" is not a medical term per se. However, it is a common term used in nutrition and dietetics, which can be a part of medical nutritional therapy. Here's a definition related to that field:

Menu planning in the context of nutrition and dietetics refers to the process of creating well-balanced and appropriate meals for individuals or groups, taking into account their specific dietary needs, restrictions, and preferences. This can be done on a short-term or long-term basis, and may involve determining portion sizes, food combinations, and meal timing to optimize nutrient intake, support health goals, and manage chronic conditions. Menu planning is often carried out by registered dietitians or nutritionists in various settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, schools, and wellness programs.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or definition of "candy," which is not a term typically used in the medical field. However, I can provide some context regarding how it may be discussed in a medical setting.

Candy, also known as sweets or confectionery, generally refers to sugary snacks and treats. In a medical context, excessive consumption of candy can contribute to dental caries (cavities), obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other health issues related to poor nutrition and high sugar intake.

Healthcare professionals may advise patients, particularly children, to limit their candy consumption due to these potential health risks. Additionally, candies that contain ingredients like nuts or allergens can pose a risk for individuals with specific food allergies.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Nutritional Sciences is a field of study that deals with the scientific examination and understanding of nutrients in food, how the body uses them, and the relationship between diet, health, and disease. It encompasses various disciplines including biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, epidemiology, and clinical nutrition.

The field covers several key areas such as:

1. Nutrient metabolism: This involves studying how nutrients are digested, absorbed, transported, stored, and utilized in the body for energy production, growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
2. Diet and disease prevention: Nutritional sciences investigate the role of diet in preventing or managing various health conditions like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.
3. Functional foods and nutraceuticals: This area focuses on studying the potential health benefits of specific foods or food components beyond their basic nutritional value, including functional foods (foods that have demonstrated health benefits) and nutraceuticals (nutrient-rich supplements derived from food sources).
4. Public health nutrition: Nutritional sciences also address population-wide nutrition issues, such as malnutrition, food insecurity, and the development of public policies related to food and health.
5. Clinical nutrition: This subfield applies nutritional principles and research findings to patient care, focusing on developing individualized dietary plans for patients with various medical conditions.

Overall, Nutritional Sciences aims to provide a solid scientific foundation for making informed dietary choices and promoting optimal health outcomes across populations and individuals.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Child Nutrition Sciences is a field of study focused on the nutritional needs and dietary habits of children from infancy through adolescence. This interdisciplinary field incorporates aspects of nutrition, pediatrics, psychology, sociology, and public health to promote optimal growth, development, and overall health in children.

The scope of Child Nutrition Sciences includes:

1. Understanding the unique nutritional requirements during various stages of childhood, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, early childhood, school-age, and adolescence.
2. Examining how cultural, socioeconomic, and environmental factors influence children's dietary patterns and food choices.
3. Investigating the role of nutrition in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which often originate in childhood.
4. Developing and implementing evidence-based interventions to improve children's diets, promote healthy eating behaviors, and reduce health disparities.
5. Assessing the effectiveness of nutrition education programs for children, families, and communities.
6. Collaborating with policymakers, educators, healthcare providers, and community organizations to create supportive environments that encourage healthy eating and physical activity.
7. Conducting research on the safety, efficacy, and quality of food products, supplements, and fortified foods marketed for children.
8. Advocating for policies and regulations that protect children from marketing tactics that promote unhealthy food choices and contribute to poor diet-related health outcomes.

Overall, Child Nutrition Sciences aims to improve the nutritional status of children, enhance their overall well-being, and reduce the burden of diet-related diseases throughout the lifespan.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Anorexia is a medical condition defined as a loss of appetite or aversion to food, leading to significant weight loss. It can be a symptom of various underlying causes, such as mental health disorders (most commonly an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal issues, cancer, infections, or side effects of medication. In this definition, we are primarily referring to anorexia as a symptom rather than the specific eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by:

1. Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (in context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain
3. Disturbed body image, such as overvaluation of self-worth regarding shape or weight, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Anorexia nervosa has two subtypes: restricting type and binge eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). In contrast, the binge eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

It is essential to differentiate between anorexia as a symptom and anorexia nervosa as a distinct psychological disorder when discussing medical definitions.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Appetite depressants are medications or substances that reduce or suppress feelings of hunger and appetite. They can be prescribed to treat various medical conditions, such as obesity or binge eating disorder, where weight loss is a recommended treatment goal. Some common appetite depressants include:

1. Phentermine: This medication works by stimulating the release of certain neurotransmitters in the brain that help suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is often prescribed for short-term use (up to 12 weeks) as part of a comprehensive weight loss plan.

2. Diethylpropion: Similar to phentermine, diethylpropion stimulates the release of neurotransmitters that suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is also prescribed for short-term use in treating obesity.

3. Naltrexone-bupropion (Contrave): This combination medication helps manage weight by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that blocks the rewarding effects of food, while bupropion is an antidepressant that can help reduce cravings for high-calorie foods.

4. Lorcaserin (Belviq): This medication works by selectively activating serotonin receptors in the brain, which helps promote satiety and reduce appetite. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2020 due to concerns about its potential link to an increased risk of cancer.

5. Topiramate (Topamax): Although primarily used as an anticonvulsant, topiramate has also been found to have appetite-suppressing effects. It is often combined with phentermine in a single formulation (Qsymia) for the treatment of obesity.

6. Cannabis: Some studies suggest that cannabinoids, the active compounds in marijuana, may help reduce hunger and promote weight loss by interacting with the endocannabinoid system in the body. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential as an appetite depressant.

It's important to note that appetite suppressants should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and as part of a comprehensive weight management plan. These medications can have side effects and potential risks, so it's crucial to discuss their use with your doctor before starting any new treatment regimen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

Micronutrients are essential nutrients that our body requires in small quantities to support various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and overall health. They include vitamins and minerals, which are vital for the production of hormones, enzymes, and other substances necessary for optimal health.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients do not provide energy or calories but play a crucial role in maintaining the balance and functioning of our body systems. They support immune function, bone health, wound healing, eyesight, skin health, and reproductive processes, among other functions.

Examples of micronutrients include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, as well as minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and iodine. While our bodies need only small amounts of these nutrients, deficiencies in any of them can lead to serious health problems over time. Therefore, it's essential to consume a balanced and varied diet that includes adequate amounts of micronutrients to support overall health and well-being.

Egg hypersensitivity, also known as egg allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in eggs. This reaction can occur when someone with a heightened sensitivity to these proteins comes into contact with them, either by ingesting eggs or being exposed to them through inhalation or skin contact.

The symptoms of egg hypersensitivity can vary widely, ranging from mild reactions such as hives, itching, and stomach discomfort to more severe reactions like anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening. Anaphylaxis is a sudden and severe allergic reaction that can cause difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have an egg allergy, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. This may include avoiding eggs altogether, carrying an epinephrine auto-injector in case of a severe reaction, and wearing a medical alert bracelet to notify others of the allergy in case of an emergency.

Medical definitions of terms often come from authoritative sources such as those produced by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), or the World Health Organization (WHO). However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition for 'poultry products' in these resources. Instead, poultry products are commonly defined by food safety authorities such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

According to the USDA, "Poultry products" are items that are derived from the whole carcasses, parts, or portions of poultry carcasses, such as chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea fowl, and ratites (emus and ostriches). These products include, but are not limited to, meat, skin, fat, bones, organs, eggs, and egg products.

It's important to note that poultry products can be a source of various bacteria, parasites, and viruses, including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and avian influenza viruses. Proper handling, cooking, and storage are crucial steps in preventing foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of poultry products.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

"Drug approval" is the process by which a regulatory agency, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), grants formal authorization for a pharmaceutical company to market and sell a drug for a specific medical condition. The approval process is based on rigorous evaluation of clinical trial data to ensure that the drug is safe and effective for its intended use.

The FDA's approval process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the lab and animal studies, followed by three phases of clinical trials in human subjects. The first phase tests the safety of the drug in a small group of healthy volunteers, while the second and third phases test the drug's efficacy and side effects in larger groups of patients with the medical condition for which the drug is intended.

If the results of these studies demonstrate that the drug is safe and effective, the pharmaceutical company can submit a New Drug Application (NDA) or Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for review. The application includes data from the clinical trials, as well as information about the manufacturing process, labeling, and proposed use of the drug.

The FDA reviews the application and may seek input from independent experts before making a decision on whether to approve the drug. If approved, the drug can be marketed and sold to patients with the medical condition for which it was approved. The FDA continues to monitor the safety and efficacy of approved drugs after they reach the market to ensure that they remain safe and effective for their intended use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "meals" is a term that refers to food or drink consumed at regular intervals as part of a person's daily diet, rather than a medical term. It is not typically defined in a medical context. However, in a nutritional or healthcare setting, meals are often discussed in terms of their timing, composition, and impact on factors such as medication administration, blood sugar control, and overall health.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the body's function is not maintained. It can also refer to a deficiency or excess of vitamins, minerals, protein, energy, and/or water. This condition can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Malnutrition includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), overnutrition (overweight, obesity) and micronutrient deficiencies or excesses.

It's important to note that malnutrition is different from malabsorption, which is the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Malabsorption can also lead to malnutrition if it results in a lack of necessary nutrients for the body's function.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spices" is not a term that has a medical definition. Spices are typically defined in the context of food and cooking as dried parts of plants (such as seeds, bark, or roots) used to add flavor or aroma to dishes. If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their potential impact on health, I would be happy to try to help with those!

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "marketing." In general, marketing refers to the activities involved in promoting, selling, and distributing a product or service. This can include market research, product development, advertising, public relations, sales, and customer service. Marketing is used in many industries, including healthcare, to connect with and engage customers, build brand awareness, and increase sales.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Medical definitions of "fish products" generally refer to any food or supplement that is derived from fish or aquatic animals. This can include:

1. Fresh, frozen, or canned fish such as salmon, tuna, cod, and sardines.
2. Fish oils, which are often used as dietary supplements for their omega-3 fatty acid content.
3. Processed fish products like surimi (imitation crab meat), fish sticks, and fish sauce.

It's important to note that the nutritional content and potential health benefits or risks of fish products can vary widely depending on the specific type of fish, how it was caught or farmed, and how it was processed and prepared.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

In a medical context, "nuts" are typically referred to as a type of food that comes from dry fruits with one seed in them. They are often high in healthy fats, fiber, protein, and various essential nutrients. Examples include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, and pecans. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies to certain types of nuts, which can cause serious health problems.

Medical definitions for "milk hypersensitivity" include:

1. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines milk hypersensitivity as an abnormal immune response to one or more proteins found in cow's milk. This reaction can be either an immediate immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or a non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI).
2. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), milk hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction to milk proteins, which can be either an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or a non-IgE-mediated immune response, causing gastrointestinal symptoms.
3. The Merck Manual defines milk hypersensitivity as an abnormal reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk, which can manifest as immediate IgE-mediated allergic reactions or delayed non-IgE-mediated reactions, causing various gastrointestinal and skin symptoms.

In summary, milk hypersensitivity is a broad term that encompasses both immune-mediated allergic reactions (IgE and non-IgE) to cow's milk proteins, leading to various clinical manifestations affecting the gastrointestinal system, skin, or respiratory tract.

Columbidae is the family that includes all pigeons and doves. According to the medical literature, there are no specific medical definitions associated with Columbidae. However, it's worth noting that some species of pigeons and doves are commonly kept as pets or used in research, and may be mentioned in medical contexts related to avian medicine, zoonoses (diseases transmissible from animals to humans), or public health concerns such as bird-related allergies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lunch" is not a medical term. It refers to a meal typically eaten in the middle of the day. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

"Device approval" is a term used to describe the process by which a medical device is determined to be safe and effective for use in patients by regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The approval process typically involves a rigorous evaluation of the device's design, performance, and safety data, as well as a review of the manufacturer's quality systems and labeling.

The FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is responsible for regulating medical devices in the United States. The CDRH uses a risk-based classification system to determine the level of regulatory control needed for each device. Class I devices are considered low risk, Class II devices are moderate risk, and Class III devices are high risk.

For Class III devices, which include life-sustaining or life-supporting devices, as well as those that present a potential unreasonable risk of illness or injury, the approval process typically involves a premarket approval (PMA) application. This requires the submission of comprehensive scientific evidence to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device.

For Class II devices, which include moderate-risk devices such as infusion pumps and powered wheelchairs, the approval process may involve a premarket notification (510(k)) submission. This requires the manufacturer to demonstrate that their device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device that is already legally marketed in the United States.

Once a medical device has been approved for marketing, the FDA continues to monitor its safety and effectiveness through post-market surveillance programs. Manufacturers are required to report any adverse events or product problems to the FDA, and the agency may take regulatory action if necessary to protect public health.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Medical definitions typically do not include general food items like seafood. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Seafood is a category of food that comes from aquatic animals (both saltwater and freshwater) including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and echinoderms. It is an essential source of protein, vitamins, and minerals in many diets around the world. Some common examples of seafood are salmon, shrimp, lobster, clams, oysters, and squid.

If you're looking for a medical aspect related to seafood, it is worth noting that some people may have allergies to certain types of seafood, which can cause mild to severe reactions. In such cases, avoiding the specific allergen is crucial to prevent adverse health effects.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood" is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders. This category includes several specific feeding and eating disorders that typically first occur during childhood or infancy. They are:

1. Pica: The persistent eating of non-nutritive, non-food substances for a period of at least one month.
2. Rumination Disorder: The repeated regurgitation of food for a period of at least one month.
3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): The avoidance or restriction of food intake that leads to significant nutritional deficiency or failure to gain weight, but it's not due to lack of available food or a cultural practice.
4. Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This includes disorders that don't meet the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder, such as a child who eats only a very limited range of foods and has significant distress about it.
5. Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This is used when the clinician chooses not to specify the reason for not meeting the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder.

These disorders can lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. It's important to note that children with these disorders should receive comprehensive evaluation and treatment from a mental health professional who specializes in eating disorders.

Flavoring agents are substances added to foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and sometimes even medical devices to enhance or modify their taste and aroma. They can be natural, derived from plants or animals, or synthetic, created in a laboratory. Flavoring agents do not necessarily provide any nutritional value and are typically used in small quantities.

In a medical context, flavoring agents may be added to medications to improve patient compliance, especially for children or individuals who have difficulty swallowing pills. These agents can help mask the unpleasant taste of certain medicines, making them more palatable and easier to consume. However, it is essential to ensure that the use of flavoring agents does not interfere with the medication's effectiveness or safety.

The Arctic region is not a medical term per se, but it is a geographical and environmental term that can have health-related implications. The Arctic is defined as the region surrounding the North Pole, encompassing the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Greenland (Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. It is characterized by its cold climate, permafrost, and unique ecosystems.

Exposure to the harsh Arctic environment can pose significant health risks, such as hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries. Additionally, the Arctic region has been impacted by climate change, leading to changes in the distribution of wildlife, which can have implications for food security and infectious disease transmission.

Therefore, while not a medical term itself, understanding the Arctic regions and their unique environmental and health challenges is important in fields such as wilderness medicine, environmental health, and public health.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

"Public assistance" is a term used in the field of social welfare and public health to refer to government programs that provide financial aid, food, housing, or other necessary resources to individuals and families who are experiencing economic hardship or have limited means to meet their basic needs. These programs are funded by taxpayers' dollars and are administered at the federal, state, or local level. Examples of public assistance programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Medicaid, and Section 8 housing vouchers. The goal of public assistance is to help individuals and families achieve self-sufficiency and improve their overall well-being.

Intraventricular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The cerebral ventricles are fluid-filled spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This procedure is typically used to deliver drugs that target conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as infections or tumors.

Intraventricular injections are usually performed using a thin, hollow needle that is inserted through a small hole drilled into the skull. The medication is then injected directly into the ventricles, allowing it to circulate throughout the CSF and reach the brain tissue more efficiently than other routes of administration.

This type of injection is typically reserved for situations where other methods of drug delivery are not effective or feasible. It carries a higher risk of complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues, compared to other routes of administration. Therefore, it is usually performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Carbonated beverages, also known as fizzy drinks or soft drinks, are drinks that contain carbon dioxide gas which is dissolved under pressure to give them their effervescent quality. The process of carbonation involves infusing carbon dioxide into the drink, usually by passing it through a solution of sugar and water, resulting in a bubbly and slightly acidic beverage.

Carbonated beverages can be categorized into various types based on their ingredients and flavorings. Some common examples include:

1. Soda or soft drinks: These are non-alcoholic carbonated beverages that typically contain carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup or sugar, artificial flavors, and colorings. Examples include Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Sprite, and 7 Up.
2. Sparkling water: This is carbonated water without any added flavorings or sweeteners. It can be plain or infused with natural fruit flavors.
3. Seltzer water: Similar to sparkling water, seltzer water is artificially carbonated and may contain mineral salts for taste.
4. Tonic water: This is a carbonated beverage that contains quinine, sugar, and sometimes added flavorings. It is often used as a mixer in cocktails.
5. Beer and cider: These are alcoholic beverages that undergo fermentation and carbonation processes to produce their fizzy quality.

Carbonated beverages can have negative health effects when consumed excessively, including tooth decay, obesity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is recommended to consume them in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, which includes peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. NPY plays important roles in various physiological functions such as energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, anxiety, memory, and cardiovascular regulation. It is involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and neural development. NPY is synthesized from a larger precursor protein called prepro-NPY, which is post-translationally processed to generate the mature NPY peptide. The NPY system has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as obesity, depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension, and drug addiction.

Peanut hypersensitivity, also known as peanut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in peanuts. It is a type of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder. The body's immune system recognizes the peanut proteins as harmful and produces antibodies (IgE) against them. When the person comes into contact with peanuts again, these antibodies trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals, leading to a range of symptoms that can be mild or severe, including skin reactions, digestive problems, respiratory difficulties, and in some cases, anaphylaxis, which is a life-threatening emergency. It's important to note that peanut hypersensitivity should be diagnosed and managed by a medical professional.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of how quickly a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose levels, compared to a reference food (usually pure glucose). It is expressed as a percentage on a scale from 0 to 100. A food with a high GI raises blood glucose levels more rapidly and higher than a food with a low GI.

Foods are ranked based on the speed at which they cause an increase in blood sugar levels, with high GI foods causing a rapid spike and low GI foods causing a slower, more gradual rise. This can be useful for people managing diabetes or other conditions where maintaining stable blood glucose levels is important.

It's worth noting that the glycemic index of a food can vary depending on factors such as ripeness, cooking method, and the presence of fiber or fat in the meal. Therefore, it's best to consider GI values as a general guide rather than an absolute rule.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Dietetics is the branch of knowledge concerned with the diet and its effects on health, especially in the prevention and treatment of disease. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, dietetics is defined as "the integration and application of principles derived from nutrition science, biochemistry, food management, and behavioral and social sciences to achieve and maintain people's health."

Dietitians are healthcare professionals who evaluate individual nutritional needs and develop personalized eating plans to promote health and manage medical conditions. They may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, private practice, community health programs, and food service management. Dietitians often collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, to provide comprehensive care for patients.

The goals of dietetics include promoting optimal nutrition, preventing chronic diseases, managing medical conditions, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Dietitians may provide education and counseling on topics such as healthy eating habits, meal planning, weight management, food safety, and supplement use. They may also conduct research, develop nutrition policies and programs, and advocate for improved food and nutrition policies and practices.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The term "cacao" refers to the plant Theobroma cacao, which is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It is a small evergreen tree that produces large, football-shaped fruits called pods. Each pod contains 20-60 seeds, also known as beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Cacao beans contain several bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, theobromine, and caffeine, that have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, it is important to note that these benefits are typically associated with moderate consumption of cocoa products, rather than large amounts of chocolate or cacao beans themselves.

In summary, while "cacao" may be used interchangeably with "cocoa" in some contexts, the term technically refers to the plant and its seeds, rather than the processed powder or chocolate that is derived from them.

Waste products, in the context of physiology and medicine, refer to substances that are produced as a result of various metabolic processes within the body's cells but have no further use for the body's normal functioning. These waste materials must be eliminated from the body to maintain homeostasis and prevent toxic accumulation.

Common examples of waste products include:

1. Carbon dioxide (CO2): A byproduct of cellular respiration, which is exhaled through the lungs.
2. Urea: formed in the liver from the breakdown of excess amino acids and proteins, then excreted by the kidneys in urine.
3. Creatinine: a waste product generated from muscle metabolism, eliminated through the kidneys in urine.
4. Water (H2O): A byproduct of various metabolic reactions, excreted as urine or sweat, and lost through respiration and evaporation.
5. Bilirubin: a waste product formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells, eliminated through the bile and feces.
6. Lactic acid: produced during anaerobic metabolism, especially with intense exercise or hypoxia; it can be converted back to pyruvate for energy production or removed by the liver and excreted in urine.
7. Hippuric acid: formed from the conjugation of glycine and benzoic acid, primarily eliminated through urine.
8. Indican: a waste product resulting from the metabolism of tryptophan, excreted in urine after being converted to indigo by intestinal bacteria.
9. Estrogens and androgens: hormonal waste products produced by the gonads and adrenal glands, metabolized and eliminated through urine and feces.

Maintaining the efficient elimination of these waste products is essential for overall health and well-being. Failure to do so can result in various medical conditions, such as kidney or liver failure, that can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Advertising is a form of communication used to promote or sell products, services, or ideas. In the medical field, advertising is often used by healthcare providers, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies to reach potential patients or customers. Advertisements may appear in various media formats, such as television, radio, print, online platforms, and outdoor displays.

In the context of medical advertising, it is essential to ensure that all information presented is accurate, balanced, and not misleading. The advertising of prescription medications directly to consumers is regulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, to ensure that the benefits and risks of the medication are clearly communicated.

Healthcare providers may also engage in advertising to promote their services or expertise. This can include listing their qualifications, areas of specialization, and patient testimonials. However, healthcare providers must adhere to ethical guidelines and avoid making exaggerated claims about their abilities or the outcomes that patients can expect.

Overall, medical advertising plays an essential role in informing the public about available healthcare options and promoting healthy behaviors. Still, it is crucial to ensure that all advertisements are truthful, transparent, and adhere to ethical standards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nunavut" is not a medical term. It is a territory located in northern Canada, making up a significant portion of the country's land area. The Inuit people, who have inhabited the region for thousands of years, have a strong cultural presence there. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

"Mental recall," also known as "memory recall," refers to the ability to retrieve or bring information from your memory storage into your conscious mind, so you can think about, use, or apply it. This process involves accessing and retrieving stored memories in response to certain cues or prompts. It is a fundamental cognitive function that allows individuals to remember and recognize people, places, events, facts, and experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, mental recall may be used to assess an individual's cognitive abilities, particularly in relation to memory function. Impairments in memory recall can be indicative of various neurological or psychological conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or amnesia.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Breastfeeding is the process of providing nutrition to an infant or young child by feeding them breast milk directly from the mother's breast. It is also known as nursing. Breast milk is the natural food for newborns and infants, and it provides all the nutrients they need to grow and develop during the first six months of life.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for both the mother and the baby. For the baby, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect against infections and diseases, and it can also reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), allergies, and obesity. For the mother, breastfeeding can help her lose weight after pregnancy, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, and promote bonding with her baby.

Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first six months of an infant's life, and then continued along with appropriate complementary foods until the child is at least two years old or beyond. However, it is important to note that every mother and baby pair is unique, and what works best for one may not work as well for another. It is recommended that mothers consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best feeding plan for themselves and their baby.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a neuropeptide that functions as an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors, specifically MC3R and MC4R. It is expressed in the hypothalamus and plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. AGRP increases food intake and decreases energy expenditure by inhibiting melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus. Dysregulation of AGRP has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Nut hypersensitivity, also known as nut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in certain nuts (such as peanuts, tree nuts like walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, etc.). This reaction can range from mild symptoms (like itching of the mouth or skin) to severe and potentially life-threatening reactions (known as anaphylaxis), which may include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a sudden drop in blood pressure. It's important to note that nut hypersensitivity is not typically outgrown and requires strict avoidance of the offending nuts and often carries the risk of cross-reactivity with other related nuts.

The arcuate nucleus is a part of the hypothalamus in the brain. It is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including appetite, satiety, and reproductive hormones. The arcuate nucleus contains two main types of neurons: those that produce neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein, which stimulate feeding and reduce energy expenditure; and those that produce pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript, which suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. These neurons communicate with other parts of the brain to help maintain energy balance and reproductive function.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen that involves reducing the total calorie intake while still maintaining adequate nutrition and micronutrient intake. This is often achieved by limiting the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and increasing the intake of nutrient-dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.

Caloric restriction has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including increased lifespan, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is important to note that caloric restriction should not be confused with starvation or malnutrition, which can have negative effects on health. Instead, it involves a careful balance of reducing calorie intake while still ensuring adequate nutrition and energy needs are met.

It is recommended that individuals who are considering caloric restriction consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that they are following a safe and effective plan that meets their individual nutritional needs.

Cooking and eating utensils are devices or tools used in the preparation, cooking, and serving of food. Here is a brief medical definition for some common types:

1. Cooking utensils: These include various tools and equipment used to prepare and cook food, such as knives, cutting boards, pots, pans, whisks, spatulas, colanders, and measuring cups/spoons. They help to chop, dice, mix, blend, stir, sauté, boil, fry, bake, or grill ingredients.
2. Eating utensils: These are devices used to consume food and include items like forks, spoons, knives, chopsticks, and straws. They aid in bringing food from the plate or bowl to the mouth and cutting or separating food into manageable pieces.

Proper cleaning and maintenance of cooking and eating utensils are essential to prevent cross-contamination of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illnesses. Using clean utensils and following safe food handling practices can help minimize the risk of infection and promote overall health.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Pesticide residues refer to the remaining pesticide chemicals, including their metabolites and degradation products, that are present in or on food commodities or environmental samples after a pesticide application has ended. These residues can result from agricultural use, such as spraying crops to control pests, or from non-agricultural uses, like treating buildings for termite control.

Regulatory agencies establish maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food and feed are below those that may pose a risk to human health. Monitoring programs are in place to check compliance with these MRLs, and enforcement actions can be taken if violations occur.

It's important to note that not all pesticide residues are harmful, as some pesticides degrade into harmless compounds over time or leave behind residues below levels of concern for human health. However, long-term exposure to even low levels of certain pesticide residues may still pose a risk and should be avoided when possible.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poverty Areas" is not a standard medical term or classification. However, in a broader social determinants of health context, poverty is recognized as a significant factor that can impact an individual's health outcomes and access to healthcare.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines poverty as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," which includes but is not limited to lack of income and economic opportunities. The WHO also acknowledges that poverty is a major cause of ill-health and premature death around the world.

If you are referring to a specific term or concept that goes by a different name, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, but may also be used as a supplementary feedings for older children. It is usually derived from cow's milk, but can also be made from soy or other proteins. Infant formulas are designed to provide a well-balanced diet with appropriate amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals to support growth and development in infants who are not breastfed. They come in various forms such as powder, concentrate, or ready-to-feed liquid and must meet strict nutritional and safety standards set by regulatory agencies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission (EC).

Appetite stimulants are medications or substances that increase the desire to eat or improve appetite. They work by affecting brain chemicals, hormones, or other systems involved in regulating hunger and fullness. Some commonly used appetite stimulants include:

1. Megestrol acetate: a synthetic progestin hormone that is often prescribed for cancer-related weight loss and anorexia. It works by stimulating appetite and promoting weight gain.
2. Dronabinol: a synthetic form of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. It is approved for treating AIDS-related anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Dronabinol can increase appetite and promote weight gain.
3. Corticosteroids: medications that mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. They can help improve appetite, but their long-term use is associated with significant side effects.
4. Cyproheptadine: an antihistamine medication that can also stimulate appetite. It is sometimes used off-label to treat appetite loss in various conditions, such as cancer or HIV/AIDS.
5. Ghrelin agonists: these are medications that mimic the effects of ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach that increases hunger and appetite. Currently, there are no FDA-approved ghrelin agonists for appetite stimulation, but research is ongoing.

It's important to note that while appetite stimulants can help improve food intake in some individuals, they may not be effective for everyone, and their use should be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or supplement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flour" is not a medical term. It is a powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. The most common type is wheat flour, which is made from grinding wheat grains. Flour is a primary ingredient in many foods such as bread, pasta, and baked goods. I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several biologically active peptides in the body. These peptides include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-lipotropin, and multiple opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin.

ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, while beta-lipotropin has various metabolic functions. The opioid peptides derived from POMC have pain-relieving (analgesic) and rewarding effects in the brain. Dysregulation of the POMC system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including obesity, addiction, and certain types of hormone deficiencies.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Medical definitions typically focus on the potential risks or reactions related to a substance, rather than providing a general definition. In the context of medicine, shellfish are often defined by the allergens they contain, rather than as a culinary category.

According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI), shellfish are divided into two categories: crustaceans and mollusks. Crustaceans include shrimp, crab, lobster, and crayfish. Mollusks include clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, octopus, and squid.

Shellfish allergies are one of the most common food allergies, and they can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. Therefore, in a medical context, it's essential to be specific about which types of shellfish may pose a risk to an individual.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that occurs suddenly after exposure to an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction) to which the person has previously been sensitized. The symptoms of anaphylaxis include rapid onset of symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling of the throat and tongue, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, chest tightness, rapid heartbeat, hypotension (low blood pressure), shock, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness and death. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline) and other supportive measures to stabilize the patient's condition.

The postprandial period is the time frame following a meal, during which the body is engaged in the process of digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients. In a medical context, this term generally refers to the few hours after eating when the body is responding to the ingested food, particularly in terms of changes in metabolism and insulin levels.

The postprandial period can be of specific interest in the study and management of conditions such as diabetes, where understanding how the body handles glucose during this time can inform treatment decisions and strategies for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

"Listeria monocytogenes" is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of foodborne illness. It is widely distributed in the environment and can be found in water, soil, vegetation, and various animal species. This pathogen is particularly notable for its ability to grow at low temperatures, allowing it to survive and multiply in refrigerated foods.

In humans, Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection known as listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The bacterium can cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream, and spread to the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis. Pregnant women infected with Listeria monocytogenes may experience mild flu-like symptoms but are at risk of transmitting the infection to their unborn children, which can result in stillbirth, premature delivery, or severe illness in newborns.

Common sources of Listeria monocytogenes include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood; unpasteurized dairy products; and ready-to-eat foods like deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. Proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent listeriosis.

Gastric emptying is the process by which the stomach empties its contents into the small intestine. In medical terms, it refers to the rate and amount of food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This process is regulated by several factors, including the volume and composition of the meal, hormonal signals, and neural mechanisms. Abnormalities in gastric emptying can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, such as gastroparesis, where the stomach's ability to empty food is delayed.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often have a fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image, which can lead to a cycle of binge eating and purging that can be difficult to break. The disorder can have serious medical consequences, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and damage to the digestive system.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. If left untreated, bulimia nervosa can lead to serious health complications and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the average daily levels of nutrients that are sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a specific life stage and gender group. They are considered as the gold standard for establishing nutrient intake recommendations and are used as a benchmark for planning and assessing the nutrient intakes of individuals and populations. The RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in the United States. They represent the minimum daily amounts of various nutrients that are necessary to prevent deficiencies and maintain good health.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

A vegetarian diet is a type of eating pattern that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, and sometimes other animal products like eggs, dairy, or honey, depending on the individual's specific dietary choices. There are several types of vegetarian diets, including:

1. Ovo-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
2. Lacto-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, fish, and sometimes eggs.
3. Ovo-lacto vegetarian: This is the most common type of vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Vegan: This diet excludes all animal products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and sometimes honey or other bee products.
5. Fruitarian: This is a more restrictive form of veganism that includes only fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant.
6. Raw vegan: This diet includes only raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that have not been cooked or processed above 115°F (46°C).

Vegetarian diets can provide a range of health benefits, including lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. However, it is important to ensure that vegetarian diets are well-planned and nutritionally adequate to meet individual nutrient needs, particularly for nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

Condiments are typically tangy or flavorful substances that are used to add taste and flavor to food. They can be in the form of sauces, pastes, spreads, or powders. Examples include ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, soy sauce, vinegar, hot sauce, salt, pepper, and herbs & spices. Some condiments can also provide additional benefits such as added nutrients or potential health properties. However, it's important to note that some condiments can also be high in sugar, sodium, or unhealthy fats, so they should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Drug labeling refers to the information that is provided on the packaging or container of a medication, as well as any accompanying promotional materials. This information is intended to provide healthcare professionals and patients with accurate and up-to-date data about the drug's composition, intended use, dosage, side effects, contraindications, and other important details that are necessary for safe and effective use.

The labeling of prescription drugs in the United States is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which requires manufacturers to submit proposed labeling as part of their new drug application. The FDA reviews the labeling to ensure that it is truthful, balanced, and not misleading, and provides accurate information about the drug's risks and benefits.

The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is also regulated by the FDA, but in this case, the agency has established a set of monographs that specify the conditions under which certain active ingredients can be used and the labeling requirements for each ingredient. Manufacturers of OTC drugs must ensure that their labeling complies with these monographs.

In addition to the information required by regulatory agencies, drug labeling may also include additional information provided by the manufacturer, such as detailed instructions for use, storage requirements, and any warnings or precautions that are necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication. It is important for healthcare professionals and patients to carefully review and understand all of the information provided on a drug's labeling before using the medication.

A melanocortin receptor (MCR) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides. The melanocortin system plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as pigmentation, energy homeostasis, sexual function, and inflammation.

The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is one of the five subtypes of MCRs, which is widely expressed in the central nervous system, including the hypothalamus, and some peripheral tissues. MC4R is a key component in the regulation of energy balance, appetite, and body weight. Activation of MC4R by melanocortin peptides, such as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), leads to decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, while antagonism or deficiency of MC4R results in obesity.

In summary, the medical definition of 'Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4' is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides and plays a critical role in regulating energy balance, appetite, and body weight.

Starvation is a severe form of malnutrition, characterized by insufficient intake of calories and nutrients to meet the body's energy requirements. This leads to a catabolic state where the body begins to break down its own tissues for energy, resulting in significant weight loss, muscle wasting, and weakness. Prolonged starvation can also lead to serious medical complications such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. It is typically caused by a lack of access to food due to poverty, famine, or other social or economic factors, but can also be a result of severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

"Phodopus" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic genus that includes several species of small rodents commonly known as hamsters. The most common species within this genus are the Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian or Russian winter white hamster (Phodopus sungorus). These hamsters are often kept as pets and may be involved in biomedical research. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or treatments.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

"Thinness" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to having a lower than average body weight or low body mass index (BMI) for a person's height. In medical terms, being significantly underweight might be defined as having a BMI of less than 18.5. It's important to note that while low body weight can be a sign of health issues like malnutrition or eating disorders, being thin does not necessarily equate to being healthy. A person's overall health is determined by a variety of factors, including diet, exercise, genetics, and the presence or absence of chronic diseases.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Feeding methods refer to the various ways that infants and young children receive nutrition. The most common feeding methods are breastfeeding and bottle-feeding, although some infants may require more specialized feeding methods due to medical conditions or developmental delays.

Breastfeeding is the act of providing human milk to an infant directly from the breast. It is the natural and normal way for infants to receive nutrition and has numerous benefits for both the mother and the baby, including improved immunity, reduced risk of infections, and enhanced bonding between parent and child.

Bottle-feeding involves providing an infant with expressed human milk or formula in a bottle with a rubber nipple. This method can be useful for mothers who are unable to breastfeed due to medical reasons, work commitments, or personal preference. However, it is important to ensure that the bottle and nipple are properly sterilized and that the infant is held in an upright position during feeding to reduce the risk of ear infections and other complications.

For infants who have difficulty breastfeeding or bottle-feeding due to medical conditions such as cleft lip or palate, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or neurological impairments, specialized feeding methods may be necessary. These may include the use of specially designed bottles, nipples, or feeding tubes that deliver nutrition directly to the stomach or small intestine.

In all cases, it is important to ensure that infants and young children receive adequate nutrition for healthy growth and development. Parents should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate feeding method for their child based on their individual needs and circumstances.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

"Plant preparations" is not a term with a specific medical definition in the field of medicine or pharmacology. However, it is commonly used to refer to various forms of plant material that have been prepared for medicinal use. This can include dried and powdered plant parts, such as leaves, roots, or flowers, as well as extracts or concentrates made from plants. These preparations may be used in traditional medicine or as the basis for modern pharmaceuticals. It is important to note that the safety, effectiveness, and quality of plant preparations can vary widely, and they should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.

Peptide YY (PYY) is a small peptide hormone consisting of 36 amino acids, that is released by the L cells in the intestinal epithelium in response to feeding. It is a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family and plays a crucial role in regulating appetite and energy balance.

After eating, PYY is released into the circulation and acts on specific receptors in the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake. This anorexigenic effect of PYY is mediated by its ability to decrease gastric emptying, reduce intestinal motility, and increase satiety.

PYY has also been shown to have effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and inflammation, making it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders.

Zooplankton are not a medical term, but they are an important concept in biology and ecology. Zooplankton refer to small, drifting or floating animals that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, and freshwater bodies. They include various organisms like tiny crustaceans (such as copepods and krill), jellyfish, arrow worms, and larvae of larger aquatic animals. Zooplankton play a crucial role in food chains and nutrient cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yogurt is defined as a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used must belong to the species Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Other bacteria may be added for flavor or other purposes, but these two are essential for the product to be called yogurt. Additionally, yogurt must contain a certain amount of live and active cultures at the time of manufacture, and it must not contain more than specific amounts of whey, non-milk fat, and stabilizers.

It's important to note that this definition is specific to the United States and may vary in other countries.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a type of B vitamin (B9). It is widely used in dietary supplements and fortified foods because it is more stable and has a longer shelf life than folate. Folate is essential for normal cell growth and metabolism, and it plays a critical role in the formation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Folic acid is also crucial during early pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.

Medical Definition: "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate (vitamin B9), a water-soluble vitamin involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is used in dietary supplementation and food fortification due to its stability and longer shelf life compared to folate. Folic acid is critical for normal cell growth, development, and red blood cell production."

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Inuit" is not a medical term, but rather a cultural and ethnic term referring to a group of people primarily living in the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. The Inuit people have their own languages, customs, and traditions, and are known for their ability to adapt to and thrive in one of the world's harshest environments.

If you're looking for a medical term related to the Inuit population, I would need more context to provide an accurate definition.

Dietary iron is a vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. It is also essential for various other bodily functions, including energy production and immune function.

There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish, while non-heme iron is found in plant-based foods such as beans, lentils, tofu, spinach, and fortified cereals.

The recommended daily intake of dietary iron varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, adult men typically require 8 milligrams (mg) per day, while adult women need 18 mg per day. Pregnant women may require up to 27 mg per day, while breastfeeding women need around 9-10 mg per day.

It is important to note that the absorption of non-heme iron from plant-based foods can be enhanced by consuming them with vitamin C-rich foods or drinks, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and bell peppers. On the other hand, certain substances such as tannins (found in tea and coffee) and phytates (found in whole grains and legumes) can inhibit the absorption of non-heme iron.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Melanocortins are a group of peptides that are derived from the post-translational processing of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. This gene is expressed in various tissues, including the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and skin. The POMC precursor protein is cleaved into several active peptides, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), γ-MSH, and α-MSH. These melanocortins exert their effects through binding to melanocortin receptors (MCRs), which are G protein-coupled receptors.

The different melanocortins have distinct physiological roles, but they all share some common functions, such as modulating pigmentation, energy homeostasis, and immune responses. For instance, α-MSH and β-MSH bind to MCRs in the skin and increase melanin production, leading to skin tanning. Additionally, α-MSH can act on MCRs in the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and energy expenditure. ACTH, on the other hand, primarily stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, but it can also bind to MCRs and influence pigmentation and sexual behavior.

Overall, melanocortins are crucial signaling molecules that play a significant role in various physiological processes, and dysregulation of melanocortin signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, depression, and skin disorders.

'Clostridium perfringens' is a type of Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including in soil, decaying vegetation, and the intestines of humans and animals. It is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, producing several toxins that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

The bacterium can contaminate food during preparation or storage, particularly meat and poultry products. When ingested, the spores of C. perfringens can germinate and produce large numbers of toxin-producing cells in the intestines, leading to food poisoning. The most common form of C. perfringens food poisoning is characterized by symptoms that appear within 6 to 24 hours after ingestion and last for less than 24 hours.

In addition to foodborne illness, C. perfringens can also cause other types of infections, such as gas gangrene, a serious condition that can occur when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxins that damage surrounding tissues. Gas gangrene is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement or amputation of affected tissue.

Prevention measures for C. perfringens food poisoning include proper cooking, handling, and storage of food, as well as rapid cooling of cooked foods to prevent the growth of the bacterium.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I believe you may have accidentally omitted the word "in" from your search. Based on that, I'm assuming you are looking for a medical definition related to the term "ants." However, ants are not typically associated with medical terminology. If you meant to ask about a specific condition or concept, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

If you are indeed asking about ants in the insect sense, they belong to the family Formicidae and order Hymenoptera. Some species of ants may pose public health concerns due to their ability to contaminate food sources or cause structural damage. However, ants do not have a direct medical definition associated with human health.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Texas." It is primarily used as the name of a state in the United States, located in the southern region. If you're referring to a specific medical term or concept that I might not be aware of, please provide more context or clarify your question.

If you meant to ask for an explanation of a medical condition named 'Texas', it is likely a typo or a misunderstanding, as there is no widely recognized medical condition associated with the name 'Texas'.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Drug residues refer to the remaining amount of a medication or drug that remains in an animal or its products after the treatment period has ended. This can occur when drugs are not properly metabolized and eliminated by the animal's body, or when withdrawal times (the recommended length of time to wait before consuming or selling the animal or its products) are not followed.

Drug residues in animals can pose a risk to human health if consumed through the consumption of animal products such as meat, milk, or eggs. For this reason, regulatory bodies set maximum residue limits (MRLs) for drug residues in animal products to ensure that they do not exceed safe levels for human consumption.

It is important for farmers and veterinarians to follow label instructions and recommended withdrawal times to prevent the accumulation of drug residues in animals and their products, and to protect public health.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

Devazepide is not a medical term, but it is a pharmaceutical compound. It is a selective and competitive antagonist of the benzodiazepine site on GABA(A) receptors. This means that devazepide blocks the effects of benzodiazepines by binding to the same site on the GABA(A) receptor without activating it.

Devazepide has been studied in research settings as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorder and anxiety disorders, but it is not currently approved for medical use in any country.

Therefore, there is no official medical definition for 'Devazepide'.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Competitive behavior, in a medical or psychological context, refers to the actions, attitudes, and strategies that individuals employ in order to achieve their goals while contending with others who have similar objectives. This concept is often studied within the framework of social psychology and personality psychology.

Competitive behavior can manifest in various domains, including sports, academics, professional settings, and social relationships. It may involve direct competition, where individuals or groups engage in head-to-head contests to determine a winner, or indirect competition, where individuals strive for limited resources or recognition without necessarily interacting with one another.

In some cases, competitive behavior can be adaptive and contribute to personal growth, skill development, and motivation. However, excessive competitiveness may also lead to negative outcomes such as stress, anxiety, reduced cooperation, and strained relationships. Factors that influence the expression of competitive behavior include genetic predispositions, environmental influences, cultural norms, and individual personality traits.

In a medical setting, healthcare providers may encounter competitive behavior among patients vying for attention or resources, between colleagues striving for professional advancement, or in the context of patient-provider relationships where power dynamics can influence decision-making processes. Understanding the nuances of competitive behavior is essential for fostering positive interactions and promoting collaboration in various domains.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population growth" is actually a demographic term rather than a medical one. It refers to the increase in the size of a population over time, typically due to births and immigrants exceeding deaths and emigrants. It is commonly used in discussions of societal development, resource management, and environmental impact, among other fields.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those as well!

Obsessive Hoarding, also known as Hoarding Disorder, is defined in the medical field as a persistent difficulty in discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value. This results in an accumulation of items that fill up and clutter living areas to the point where they become difficult to use. The hoarding behavior causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. It is also often associated with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to and are activated by the neuropeptide Y neurotransmitter. NPY is a 36-amino acid peptide that plays important roles in various physiological functions, including appetite regulation, energy homeostasis, anxiety, depression, memory, and cardiovascular function.

There are five different subtypes of NPY receptors, namely Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and Y6 (also known as Y6-like). These receptors have distinct tissue distributions and signaling properties. The Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, while the Y6 receptor is primarily found in the brainstem.

The activation of NPY receptors leads to a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and modulation of ion channel activity. Dysregulation of NPY receptor function has been implicated in several diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, anxiety disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, NPY receptors are considered promising targets for the development of therapeutic agents for these conditions.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Soybean proteins are the proteins derived from soybeans, a legume native to East Asia. Soybeans contain approximately 40% protein by weight, making them a significant source of plant-based protein. The two major types of soy protein are:

1. Soy protein isolate (SPI): This is a highly refined protein that contains at least 90% protein by weight. It is made by removing carbohydrates and fiber from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a protein-rich powder. SPI is often used as an ingredient in various food products, including meat alternatives, energy bars, and beverages.
2. Soy protein concentrate (SPC): This type of soy protein contains approximately 70% protein by weight. It is made by removing some of the carbohydrates from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a higher concentration of proteins. SPC has applications in food and industrial uses, such as in textured vegetable protein (TVP) for meat alternatives, baked goods, and functional foods.

Soy proteins are considered high-quality proteins due to their complete amino acid profile, containing all nine essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. They also have various health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels, improving bone health, and promoting muscle growth and maintenance. However, it is important to note that soy protein consumption should be balanced with other protein sources to ensure a diverse intake of nutrients.

... refers to the official norm that mainly consists of placing labels on processed food sold in the ... Food and drink in Mexico, Food labelling, Food law, Law of Mexico). ... Food portal Mexico portal List of food labeling regulations Original text: "Los niveles actuales de sobrepeso y obesidad en la ... Qué cambia con el nuevo etiquetado de alimentos en México, inspirado en Chile?" [What changes with the new food labeling in ...
... food safety) Five-second rule Food allergy Food intolerance Food safety Food sampling Food spoilage International Food Safety ... Food Standards Australia New Zealand Food Act 1981 Food Labelling and Advertising Law Food and drink prohibitions Food safety ... Warning label Food Allergen Declaration FALCPA FAO GM Foods Platform Food Administration Food Safety and Standards Authority of ... regulating GMO food labeling Pure Food and Drug Act Standards of identity for food Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations ...
The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) is a United States law that requires all food labels in the ... Manufacturers are given two ways in which to label food allergens. They may either state the food source name of a major food ... "Food Labels Identify Allergens More Clearly". FDA Consumer. 40.2 (37-8). "FAQ About the Food Labeling Consumer Protection Act ( ... www.fda.gov/food/food-allergensgluten-free-guidance-documents-regulatory-information/food-allergen-labeling-and-consumer- ...
Food additives Food labeling regulations Nutrition facts label United Kingdom food labelling regulations Government of Canada ( ... "Purpose of Food Labelling". Retrieved 14 November 2013. "Canadian Food Inspection Agency website: Food Labelling for Industry ... Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). All labelling information that is provided on food labels or in ... "Food Allergen Labelling". Retrieved 14 November 2013. Health Canada (18 July 2008). "Food Allergen Labelling". Retrieved 14 ...
... a Right to Know What's in My Food'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-11-20. "H.R. 1599 (114th): Safe and Accurate Food Labeling ... Food law, Food and Drug Administration, Food safety in the United States, 2016 in American law, All stub articles, United ... Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act of 2015 at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts ... The Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act (SAFL Act) was an American bill that died in 2016 but not before it influenced Public ...
"Changes in food purchases after the Chilean policies on food labelling, marketing, and sales in schools: a before-and-after ... "food labelling law"), ley del Súper Ocho ("Super Eight law"), or simply ley de alimentos ("food law") - specifically regulates ... to follow food health regulations in which the characteristics and content of said food will determine the labelling, and ... food for weight control regimens; dietary supplements and certain foods for athletes; and table-top sugar substitutes. Labels ...
"Menu labeling delayed a year". Supermarket News. Retrieved 10 May 2017. "Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu ... "Food Labeling: Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments Notice of ... under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA). Section 4205 mandates labeling nutrition information for foods ... per serving/food item, for self-service items and food on display, on a sign adjacent to each food item. Chain vending machine ...
Japan announced a carbon footprint labelling scheme in 2008. The labels appeared on dozens of items including food and drink ... among many things proposing a green labelling scheme for food products. The CarbonCounted label started in January 2007. It ... which have all used the label. One of the biggest supporters of carbon labelling was Tesco, who began labelling a range of ... In contrast to the label of Carbon Trust, this label does not indicate the carbon footprint of a specific product, it labels ...
... it may be in the form of an intrinsic or extrinsic label. An intrinsic label is isotope that has been introduced into the food ... naturally labeled carbon) or by the specifically labeled carbon positions on the compound (i.e. 1-13C glucose which is labeled ... An isotopic label is fed to the cell, then the cell is allowed to grow utilizing the labeled feed. For stationary metabolic ... Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable ...
... a food label must endure until the food has been used. Removable product labels need to bond until they are removed. For ... "UK Food Labelling & Packaging". Retrieved 5 Mar 2014. "FDA Food Label Requirements in a Nutshell". Retrieved 12 June 2015. " ... Labels of sustainability standards and certification such as organic food and energy efficiency class labels are often intended ... "Food Standards Agency - Clear food labelling - Guidance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 14 ...
Food labeling and nutrition Health Canada: Nutrition labeling U.K. Food Standards Agency: UK nutrition labelling EU website on ... Foods labeled before that day could use the old label. This appeared on all products in 1995. The old label was titled " ... The law required food companies to begin using the new food label on packaged foods beginning May 8, 1994. (Meat and poultry ... Diet (nutrition) Food energy List of food labeling regulations Table of food nutrients Nutrition scale Serving size Atwater ...
CRS Document 97-508 - April 26, 2007 "Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling" by Remy ... Food labeling regulations Track and trace Packaging and labeling Made in USA "Associated Press". CNN News. Retrieved September ... Food law, Food and Drug Administration, Food safety in the United States, 2002 in American law, 2015 in American law). ... "Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods" by Geoffrey S. Becker, Specialist in Agricultural Policy Resources, Science, and Industry ...
... which Canada won in 2011 Ecolabel Label List of food labeling regulations Packaging and labeling Hakim, Mariana Piton; Zanetta ... especially for food products, e.g. "Grade A" meats. With regard to food and drugs, mandatory labelling has been a major ... food labels require regulatory approval before use. An interesting halfway is those labels that are considered mandatory by one ... countries like the United States and Canada require most processed foods to have a nutrition facts label on the label, and the ...
2006-11 (5 January 2006). Products eligible for the Label Rouge are food items, and non-food and unprocessed agricultural ... Label Rouge on the French Ministry of Agriculture and Food website (in English) (Articles with short description, Short ... Label Rouge (Red Label) is a sign of quality assurance in France as defined by Law No. ... JORF, 2006-01-06, p. 1-40 "Définition Label rouge". Definitions Marketing. Retrieved 25 January 2016. "Le Label rouge". ...
A clean label is a label on a food, not listing ingredients that may be perceived by consumers as undesirable. Substances ... The pursued use of clean labels is called clean labelling. The purpose is to give food products a natural, healthy appearance ... Nutrition facts label Packaging and labeling Clean Labels. Lebensmittelverband (Archived July 2019)(in German) How the EU has ... Consumers may be misled by a clean label if the food contains substances that are in fact the same as official additives like E ...
"Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Proposed Rule" (PDF). Health Canada. "Plant ... A serving of [name of the food] supplies ___grams of vegetable oil sterol esters. For plant stanol esters: (i) Foods containing ... Jesch ED, Carr TP (2017). "Food Ingredients That Inhibit Cholesterol Absorption". Prev Nutr Food Sci. 22 (2): 67-80. doi: ... The European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that blood cholesterol can be reduced on average by 7 to 10.5% if a person ...
Food and Drug Administration (January 2007). "Food Labeling ; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods" (PDF). Food and Drug ... People with NCGS should carefully read ingredient labels on food and be aware of potential cross contamination as a source of ... In various countries, regulations and labelling requirements for gluten-free food products have been implemented. For Europe, ... The background is that, in line with the Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 on food for specific groups, gluten-free foods shall, in ...
In the United States warning labels were instituted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Cigarettes were not ... A warning label is a label attached to a product, or contained in a product's instruction manual, warning the user about risks ... Warning labels have been produced for different items. In some cases, rumors have developed of labels warning against some very ... by US Food and Drug Administration Tobacco packaging warning messages Warning Labels for Soft Drinks History of warning labels ...
Smith that labeling requirements in California would cause food companies to source only non-GMO foods to avoid having labels ... Higher Food Costs, No on 37 website, accessed November 17, 2012. The Genetically Engineered Foods Mandatory Labeling Initiative ... Labeling : Initiative Statute" (PDF). Vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-25. "Prop. 37: Requires labeling of food products ... It simply requires labeling of food produced using genetic engineering, so we can choose whether to buy those products or not. ...
"Food Labeling". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. "New York State Restaurant ... "Menu items Restaurant chains must now list the calorie content of the food they sell". The Economist. August 28, 2008. 21 U.S.C ... The NYSRA also argued that the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990 and FDA regulations preempted New York's ... Food law, City of New York litigation, All stub articles, United States case law stubs). ...
"Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01- ... on labels. It is not allowed to label food as "gluten-free" when all similar food is naturally gluten-free, such as in the case ... Food Standards Agency. March 2016. "Questions and Answers: Gluten-Free Food Labeling Final Rule". US Food and Drug ... all food products must display labels clearly indicating whether or not they contain gluten. Labels for all food products sold ...
Create sustainable food labeling. Reduce food waste by 50% by 2030. Dedicate to R&I related to the issue €10 billion. Policies ... "Starting a Food Garden: How Growing Your Own Vegetables Can Ease Food Supply Anxiety & Support Health". Food Revolution Network ... It may therefore decrease global food security unless action is taken to 'decouple' fossil fuel energy from food production, ... Shaffer, Timothy J. (2017-08-17), "Thinking beyond food and fiber", The Intersection of Food and Public Health, New York: ...
1169/2011 on food-labeling lists 14 allergens, including soy, in packaged food must be clearly indicated on the label as part ... "Food Labeling: Health Claims; Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease; Docket No. 98P-0683" (PDF). Washington, DC: US Food and ... Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods ... Food portal Alternative fodders Cash crop List of soy-based foods Organic infant formula Soy molasses Soybean in Paraguay ...
"Food Labeling: Health Claims; Soluble Dietary Fiber From Certain Foods and Coronary Heart Disease". Federal Register. Retrieved ... "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (11. Appendix C: Health Claims)". Bethesda, MD: Food and Drug Administration, US ... In addition, some food manufacturers make foods with wholegrain ingredients, but, because wholegrain ingredients are not the ... "Health Claim Notification for Whole Grain Foods". Bethesda, MD: Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human ...
Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis U.S. Food and Drug ... 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. FR page 33982" (PDF). "Daily Value Reference of the ... For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). ... "Food Composition Databases Show Nutrients List". USDA Food Composition Databases. United States Department of Agriculture: ...
Create sustainable food labeling. Reduce food waste by 50% by 2030. Dedicate to R&I related to the issue €10 billion. In 2022 ... At the heart of the Green Deal the Biodiversity and Farm to Fork strategies point to a new and better balance of nature, food ... Food insecurity Turkey's top climate change risk'". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2021-05-15. "Climate". climatechangeinturkey.com. ... The Review points to the potential impacts of climate change on water resources, food production, health, and the environment. ...
95P-0197; RIN 0910-AA19; Food Labeling: Health Claims; Oats and Coronary Heart Disease" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration ... The Food Journal. London: J.M. Johnson & Sons. 1874. Retrieved Feb 14, 2010. The grain of oats, intended for human food, is ... Oats may also be added to foods as an accent, as in the topping on many oat bran breads and as the coating on Caboc cheese. ... Food preparations using oatmeal Quaker-brand single-serving flavoured "instant" oatmeal packet to make a quick oat porridge ...
"More data on sulfites needed to "fully confirm" safety". European Food Safety Authority. April 14, 2016. "Food Labeling - ... food-info.net. Dean D. Metcalfe, Ronald A. Simon, Food allergy: adverse reactions to food and food additives, Wiley-Blackwell ... many companies voluntarily label sulfite-containing foods. Sulfites used in food processing (but not as a preservative) are ... Generally, U.S. labeling regulations do not require products to indicate the presence of sulfites in foods unless it is added ...
... many companies voluntarily label sulfite-containing foods. Sulfites used in food processing (but not as a preservative) are ... In the European Union, "EU law requires food labels to indicate "contains sulfites" (when exceeding 10 milligrams per kilogram ... "Food Labeling - Community Legislation". European Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-10. "Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No ... In 1986, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned the use of sulfites as preservatives on foods intended to be eaten fresh ...
Create sustainable food labeling. Reduce food waste by 50% by 2030. Dedicate to R&I related to the issue €10 billion. The 'Zero ... Spencer, Natasha (17 March 2020). "EU's 'farm to form' strategy aims to feed sustainable food system". Food Navigator. ... At the heart of the Green Deal the Biodiversity and Farm to Fork strategies point to a new and better balance of nature, food ... The 'From Farm to Fork' strategy pursues the issue of food sustainability as well as the support allocated to the producers, i. ...
... have food labels. The label can help you eat a healthy, balanced, diet. Learn more. ... Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods (Food and Drug Administration) * Have Food Allergies? Read the Label (Food and Drug ... All packaged foods and beverages in the U.S. have food labels. These "Nutrition Facts" labels can help you make smarter food ... How to Read Food and Beverage Labels (National Institute on Aging) * Using the Nutrition Facts Label: For Older Adults (Food ...
Food labeling in Mexico refers to the official norm that mainly consists of placing labels on processed food sold in the ... Food and drink in Mexico, Food labelling, Food law, Law of Mexico). ... Food portal Mexico portal List of food labeling regulations Original text: "Los niveles actuales de sobrepeso y obesidad en la ... Qué cambia con el nuevo etiquetado de alimentos en México, inspirado en Chile?" [What changes with the new food labeling in ...
Tips for making healthy food choices using the Nutrition Facts label. ... Understanding the Nutrition Facts label on food items can help you make healthier choices. The label breaks down the amount of ... Choose foods with more fiber, vitamins, and minerals.. *Choose foods with lower calories, saturated fat, sodium, and added ... In general, eat more foods that are higher in vitamins, minerals (such as calcium and iron), and fiber. Eat fewer foods that ...
This nutrition facts label gives the lowdown on everything from calories to cholesterol. Read more about food labels. ... Look at any packaged food and youll see the food label. ... Making Food Labels Work for You. The first step in making food ... Some food labels also state which country the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. ... Food labels provide more than just nutrition facts. They also tell you whats in a packaged food (i.e., the ingredients). ...
Its critical for leaders to create authentic labels and provide a transparent experience for their consumers. ... Use label "real estate" to market the facts, and make sure to include certifiers on your labels to back up your claims. If your ... of respondents have full trust in organic food labels, with 57% having only partial trust. Other studies reported by the Pew ... its challenging to understand the differences in these labels. I believe the current food market creates an environment that ...
With final rules on the Nutrition Facts label published, consumers soon will see an updated label on food packages that makes ... FDA allows more time for comments on healthy food labels. By Coral Beach on January 6, 2017. ... Making sure healthy means what it says on food packages. By U.S. Food and Drug Administration on September 28, 2016. ... Continue Reading FDA allows more time for comments on healthy food labels ...
"This cooperative labeling and certification program is clearly a far better approach than mandating country-of-origin labels on ... Food Safety training, resources and guidance that help you create a company food safety culture. ... The proposed label would read as follows:. Beef: Made in the USA. This beef is processed from cattle raised and. fed for at ... beef labeling program, according to congressional testimony presented today by Food Marketing Institute (FMI) President and CEO ...
... some experts said that increased awareness and labeling of ultra-processed foods is a good thing. Others wondered if the ... current labeling system is too confusing for consumers. ... Is a Label for Ultra-processed Foods Useful?. Thomas R. Collins ... and dietitians classified 120 foods. Only three marketed foods and one generic food were classified the same by all the ... Cite this: Is a Label for Ultra-processed Foods Useful? - Medscape - Jun 17, 2022. ...
... high school students Brenda Tan and Matt Cost identified food frauds and unusual animal species in the city. The research will ... The Trinity School seniors discovered 95 different species of animal and 11 cases of fraudulent food labeling. Their findings ... NYC High Schoolers Find Fake Food Labeling with DNA. * December 30, 2009 ... Working with professional gene sequencers, high school students Brenda Tan and Matt Cost identified food frauds and unusual ...
Understanding how to read these labels is a key factor in making ... Food Labels Food labels provide information about the ... Organic Foods. In Canada, any food that is labelled as organic is regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Foods that ... Food Labels. Food labels provide information about the nutritional content in packaged food. Understanding how to read these ... Understanding Labels. Most packaged foods come with food labels. Labels include the nutrition facts table and ingredient list. ...
... blogs and videos covering the Bar Codes/Labeling market. ... Food Processing Industry EventsFood Processing WebinarsCase ... Baked GoodsPet FoodSnack FoodsBeverage ProductsCandy & ConfectionaryFrozen FoodsBreakfast FoodsCannabisPlant ProteinBases, ... A federal court has ruled that putting a QR code on a label is not an adequate means to inform consumers that the food has been ... In a turnaround, Campbell Soup said it supports enacting federal legislation to create a mandatory labeling standard for foods ...
... it tells you exactly what the food contains. Read our article for kids for more about food labels. ... The food label on a food package is a lot like the table of contents in a book - ... Comparing Labels. Food labels arent ideal for kids because theyre based on what adults need to eat. But you can still get ... The Nutrition Facts label gives you information about which nutrients (say: NEW-tree-ents) are in the food. Food contains fat, ...
While many consumers today are showing more interest on where their food comes from there are some marketing efforts being made ... Theyre going to get that from a mix of good foods that are already in the grocery store and a lot of times the cheaper food is ... "So when you look at a label its really important to understand first of all its put there in an order as to weight. So within ... points out that many food substitutes are not nutritionally equivalent and its important to read past the headlines on labels. ...
... and product development and compliant labeling company that combines the... ... PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- Trustwell, a pioneering food safety, supply chain management, ... Specright and Trustwell Announce Joint Partnership Enabling End-to-End Digitization for Food Nutritional Labeling ... From food and supplement manufacturers to retail grocers and restaurant chains, food companies around the world use Trustwell ...
The inability of generic companies to revise labeling poses a safety problem because safety issues often arise years after the ... View Public Citizens comments on the FDAs proposed rule to allow generic drug manufacturers to update product labeling with ... In August 2011, Public Citizen petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to revise its regulations to allow generic ... View Public Citizens additional comments on the FDAs proposed generic drug labeling rule and an industry alternative, April ...
Label Submission and Approval System (LSAS) * Integration of Paper Label Applications into the Label Submission and Approval ... What are the labeling requirements for frozen, raw poultry?. Raw poultry held at a temperature of 0 °F or below must be labeled ... Leftovers and Food Safety Handle leftovers with care: make sure the food is cooked to a safe temperature and refrigerate any ... Food Safety * Recalls & Public Health Alerts * Report a Problem with Food * Additional Recalls ...
Nutrition labels can be confusing and misleading. This article sets the record straight about how to avoid falling into some of ... Still, processed foods that are labeled low-carb are usually still processed junk foods, similar to processed low-fat foods. ... The best way to avoid being misled by product labels is to avoid processed foods altogether. After all, whole food doesnt need ... This article explains how to read food labels so that you can differentiate between mislabeled junk and truly healthy foods. ...
... beverage labeling regulations including EU & FDA nutrition labeling, allergen labeling, CFIA, PTI label creation, & FSMA ... Food and beverage labeling applications. Easily create and print barcode labels that are compliant with food and beverage ... FOOD & BEVERAGE. Focus on customer satisfaction with TEKLYNX food & beverage labeling software We understand the unique ... Whether you have a simple or complex labeling process, you can meet virtually any food & beverage compliance labeling ...
The AAAAI offers articles written and reviewed by experts reading food labels for allergens. ... Here are a few tips and things to keep in mind when reading a food label for food allergy:. Read the label every time. No ... conventional foods, vitamins and dietary supplements, infant formula and foods, medical foods, and all retail and food-service ... What about international food labels, or when I travel? Food products made in other countries still have to comply with FALCPA ...
... or warped labels and ensure label quality standards are met using a Machine Vision system. ... Food and beverage product labels contain product-specific data such as origin, date, expiry, amount, or class. In many ... Label quality inspection. Detect label defects or errors and meet quality standards. Related Products. ... During the label application process, many defects are hard to detect due to the orientation on the belt and the curved ...
Policies for labelling genetically modified products would be drawn up within three months, announced Thai Public Health ... Food and Drug staff had been asked to work with the Agriculture and Co-operatives Ministry in gathering details on food ... Current Food Supply Chain Threats to Brand Reputation FoodChain ID , Download Technical / White Paper ... Policies for labelling genetically modified products would be drawn up within three months, announced Thai Public Health ...
Tag Archives: Food Labeling. * 9 out of 10 Sports Supplements Fail to Accurately List Ingredients on the Label: Study. July 25 ... The USDA has called for unified "used by" dates on food labels to prevent food waste, and calls on consumers to use their own ... FDA Issues New Guidance on How Allergens Should Be Included on Food Labels. December 05, 2022 By: Martha Garcia ... The FDA has issued new guidance documents clarifying the use of food allergy warning labels, and adding sesame to the list of ...
Tilbage til siden : Presserum Presserum Aktuel side: Organic food: new rules for EU label agreed ... EP Research: Organic food - Helping EU consumers make an informed choice (May 2015) ... Mixed farms: farms producing both conventional and organic food would be allowed on condition that the two farming activities ... Member states currently applying thresholds for non-authorised substances in organic food, such as pesticides, could continue ...
Country Of Origin Labeling (COOL) of food products. A nationwide poll sponsored by the National Farmers Union in 2004 showed ... Without labeling that identifies where food has been produced, consumers are unable to make those choices in an informed manner ... Country of origin labeling can provide consumers with additional information to make informed choices about the food they wish ... Also in 2007, a Consumers Union poll found that 92% of respondents believed that imported foods should be labeled with their ...
... giving consumers more information about the nutritional aspects of packaged food pro ... All 27 EU member states will have to adhere to new rules on food labelling, ... The new EU food labelling laws were given the last nod by the European Parliament last week and are expected to enter into ... All 27 EU member states will have to adhere to new rules on food labelling, giving consumers more information about the ...
US consumers are to be given fuller information about the content of the food they eat. ... ... An EC food labelling directive coming into force in October 1993 requires only the most basic nutritional information to be ... UPDATES:US TO ADOPT NEW FOOD LABELS. What Doctors Dont Tell You1 min read ... to their product labels.. Detailed nutrition content will be compulsory on most packaged foods, including items like mayonnaise ...
New law introduced to extend labelling requirements for people with food allergies and intolerances ... Food allergen labelling changes become law New law introduced to extend labelling requirements for people with food allergies ... Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Food Minister Zac Goldsmith said:. "This is a significant moment for the ... today extending labelling requirements which will allow people with food allergies and intolerances to make safe food choices. ...
Im looking to work with someone who already has already developed a food delivery/collection app like uber eats Deliveroo etc ... Food Delivery Collection App - White Label Food Delivery Collection App - White Label Closed Posted 4 months ago Paid on ... Hi There! You need a Food Delivery Collection App - White Label, I have done a similar project in my previous so I am expert in ... WE HAVE READY MADE SOLUTION FOR FOOD DELIVERY APP Hello there Hope you are doing well as you are looking for a Build a Food ...
The heart-rending story of Christina Desforges was a grim reminder of both the rationale behind the Food Allergen Labeling and ... The heart-rending story of Christina Desforges was a grim reminder of both the rationale behind the Food Allergen Labeling and ... FALCPA deals with package labels only. Two weeks before the law went into effect, the Food and Drug Administration tried to ... Frustrated by hard-to-decipher food labels of the past and fearful of feeding the wrong product to their children, some ...
Grocery wholesalers are boosting margins and market share with private-label brands. ... With food being such a low-margin business, wholesalers can only expect to make money from their own proprietary private-label ... Now many of the stores they supply are launching their own private-label brands. Whole Foods Markets, Austin, TX, and Wild Oats ... But perhaps no market segment has been more ready for private-label growth than the organic/natural foods segment. Because this ...
  • For people with food allergies , food allergen avoidance is a critical part of preventing allergic reactions. (aaaai.org)
  • This section is recommended with specific guidance by the Food Allergen Labeling Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) of 2004, to identify in plain language the most common foods to which Americans are allergic. (aaaai.org)
  • The FASTER Act of 2021 (Food Allergy Safety, Treatment, Education, and Research) expands upon FALCPA to include sesame as a common food allergen. (aaaai.org)
  • Millions of allergy sufferers across the country will be protected by a new law laid in Parliament today which will require more foods to be labelled with allergen information. (food.gov.uk)
  • The law, which comes into effect from October 2021, will require businesses to provide full ingredient and allergen labelling on foods which are pre-packed for direct sale. (food.gov.uk)
  • The heart-rending story of Christina Desforges was a grim reminder of both the rationale behind the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) and the challenges faced by processors in helping safeguard consumers with compromised immune systems. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • General Mills draws praise from grassroots groups for the corporation's allergen labeling practices. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • If a product is derived from or contains an ingredient with protein from any of eight major allergen categories, the label must disclose it in plain English. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Allergen awareness in the food industry has been building for a decade, and major processors had their label declarations and manufacturing strategies in place well before the January 1 deadline. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • The Food Standard Agency's MenuCal tool can help businesses comply with legal requirements to calculate the calories in food and drink on the menu as well as to manage and record allergen information. (brent.gov.uk)
  • ModifyHealth in the Food as Medicine Industry + How MenuTrinfo Certifies Products as Allergen-Free - Xtalks Food Podcast Ep. (xtalks.com)
  • FDA Lists Sesame as a Major Allergen + House Crickets Approved in EU Food Products - Xtalks Life Food Podcast Ep. (xtalks.com)
  • The new US rules do not go as far as the European food allergen legislation that enters into force in November this year and for which food manufacturers will have to list 12 potentially allergic ingredients. (dairyreporter.com)
  • Food labels will have to indicate the presence of major food allergens used in spices, flavourings, additives, and colourings, which had previously been exempt from allergen labelling. (dairyreporter.com)
  • They also tell you what's in a packaged food (i.e., the ingredients). (kidshealth.org)
  • Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" have at least 95% organic ingredients with no synthetic growth hormones, antibiotics, pesticides, biotechnology, synthetic ingredients or irradiation. (kidshealth.org)
  • Whether its a recovery drink jacked up with protein or frozen pizza with less sodium, today's masking and modulation ingredients can help 'improved' foods taste super. (foodprocessing.com)
  • Ingredients are listed in order so you get an idea of how much of each ingredient is in the food. (kidshealth.org)
  • The food will contain smaller amounts of the ingredients mentioned at the end of the list. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, packaged and processed foods often contain many ingredients and sometimes they are not labelled in a straightforward way. (aaaai.org)
  • For various reasons, food manufacturers often change the ingredients of their products without modifying their packaging. (aaaai.org)
  • To someone with food allergies, reading an ingredient list can be like looking for a needle in a haystack, many listed ingredients are there for reasons irrelevant to you. (aaaai.org)
  • Ingredients of these most common nine allergens must be labeled with clearly recognized English names of the food source as listed above. (aaaai.org)
  • One-touch integration makes it seamless for food companies to manage ingredients, streamline formulations, and generate nutritional labels, increasing label accuracy and regulatory compliance. (prweb.com)
  • Instead, try choosing items that have whole foods listed as the first three ingredients. (healthline.com)
  • Try looking for products that list whole foods as the first three ingredients and be skeptical of foods with long lists of ingredients. (healthline.com)
  • A new study finds many sports dietary supplements inaccurately list their ingredients on the label, often containing substances banned by the FDA due to their potential health risks. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Labels alerting customers that products contain ingredients from genetically engineered plants may reduce sales, at least in the short term, according to a new study from a research team including an agricultural economist in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences. (worldhealth.net)
  • Data included the sales records of canned soups that were labeled as containing GE ingredients as required under the new law. (worldhealth.net)
  • While 'clean label' was first mooted to describe simple, understandable ingredients, today it's a broad concept that means different things to different consumers, influenced by a range of external factors, not all of which are conclusion or straightforward. (confectionerynews.com)
  • Ingå Group was created by Swedish investment firm Novax and currently comprises clean label ingredients specialist Ulrick & Short and recently-acquired French counterpart Louis François. (confectionerynews.com)
  • Consumers - especially the younger set - are seeking out healthier food options that contain fewer ingredients and less involved processing, but still deliver on taste and texture. (confectionerynews.com)
  • Lizi Rickett, regional sales manager, UK & Ireland, Chaucer Foods, looks at how freeze-dried ingredients can help bakery and snack producers capitalise on the key trends shaping clean label innovation today. (confectionerynews.com)
  • It's easy to overlook the ingredients of pre-packed foods, but staying on top of everything that goes into your body will help you get into peak condition and avoid illness. (royalnavy.mod.uk)
  • Under the USDA's National Organic Program, products labeled "Made with Organic Ingredients" must be 70 percent organic, compared to the 50 percent minimum proposed last March. (mediamonitors.net)
  • USDA is not in the business of choosing sides, of stating preferences for one kind of food, one set of ingredients or one means of production over any other," Glickman said. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Trading Standards ensure that food produced and sold in Flintshire is compliant with compositional standards, making sure that food is correctly labelled, that the ingredients accurately represent the description and also that the ingredients are legal. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • Now many food companies are seeking certification for products that don't have any genetically modified ingredients, and not just the brands popular in the health food aisle. (wypr.org)
  • To receive the label , a product has to be certified as containing ingredients with less than 1 percent genetic modification. (wypr.org)
  • It may take hundreds of dollars for some products to get a non-GMO label, depending on how many ingredients are already verified as being GMO-free and how many are not. (wypr.org)
  • Unlike Roberts's original bill, he and Stabenow's version would mandate the labeling of food with genetically engineered ingredients (i.e., ingredients that have been altered such that they could not be reproduced through conventional breeding). (mintz.com)
  • Labels will also need to give clear information about ingredients made from these foods, for example a glaze made from egg. (dairyreporter.com)
  • 8 assumption that consumers infer the `naturalness' of a food product by its ingredients. (lu.se)
  • 10 information about the naturalness of ingredients in food products. (lu.se)
  • 1997]. Canned, packaged, and bottled food and beverages now have labels revealing ingredients and nutritional content. (cdc.gov)
  • Reading a food label for allergens is different from what you might be used to. (aaaai.org)
  • Some common food allergens are listed using technical names instead of their everyday ones. (aaaai.org)
  • The new rules also state that information on allergens must be given for non-packaged foods, for example on food sold in restaurants or canteens. (timesofmalta.com)
  • The FDA has issued new guidance documents clarifying the use of food allergy warning labels, and adding sesame to the list of major food allergens. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Allergens & Labeling: Got it Under Control? (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Although FALCPA raises the liability of food manufacturers who fail to identify any allergens in their products, the humanitarian and pragmatic aspects of the law carried the day. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • The requirements "do not apply to major food allergens that are unintentionally added to a food as the result of cross-contact," FDA advised. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • All non-prepacked food must display information about allergens. (fsai.ie)
  • There are 14 listed allergens that must be declared if used as an ingredient in the food. (fsai.ie)
  • Food makers operating in Europe shortly face new labelling rules for food allergens on food labels, and as the US cleared its own new rules yesterday, manufacturers present in the US market will see parallel changes. (dairyreporter.com)
  • On Jan. 1, 2022, the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard went into effect in the U.S. The law requires manufacturers to label GE foods, which the law defines as those "that contain detectable genetic material that has been modified through certain lab techniques and cannot be created through conventional breeding or found in nature. (worldhealth.net)
  • There was a 16% fall in new product launches among retailers and brands last year as retailers showed a strong Q4 2022 market performance despite raising the prices of private labels higher than national brands. (beveragedaily.com)
  • From 6 April 2022 The Calorie Labelling (Out of Home Sector) (England) Regulation 2021 requires large food businesses of more than 250 employees, known as "Qualifying Businesses" to display calorie labelling in the out of home sector. (brent.gov.uk)
  • Policies for labelling genetically modified products would be drawn up within three months, announced Thai Public Health Minister Sudarat Keyuraphan this week, reports Thai newspaper, the Bangkok Post. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The study analyzed sales trend data from Vermont after a law went into effect requiring labels on genetically engineered, or GE, foods -- the only mandatory statewide GE labeling policy that ever has been implemented in the U.S. (worldhealth.net)
  • The USDA withdrew these standards after the agency was criticized for allowing organic labels on foods that were irradiated or contain genetically modified organisms, chemicals, antibiotics or sewage sludge. (mediamonitors.net)
  • A calorie is a way to measure how much energy a food provides to your body. (kidshealth.org)
  • A calorie is a unit of energy that measures how much energy a food provides to the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • The FDA has announced new rules that require calorie labeling on vending machines and in all restaurants. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • In addition to helping consumers to make healthier decisions, calorie labelling also aims to encourage businesses to reformulate the food and drink they offer and provide lower calorie options for their customers. (brent.gov.uk)
  • The Government encourages smaller businesses who fall outside the criteria of this legislation to voluntarily adopt calorie labelling. (brent.gov.uk)
  • CNN) -- Food labels detailing how much exercise is needed to burn off a product's calorie content could help to combat obesity, according to UK researchers. (cbsnews.com)
  • Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels could improve on labels that identify only calories and nutrient content, according to a new scientific review . (cbsnews.com)
  • The large-scale application of PACE labels could, on average, cut calorie consumption by up to 200 calories per person per day, according to researchers, whose work is published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. (cbsnews.com)
  • Amanda Daley, lead researcher from the University of Loughborough, said that PACE labels would present the information in a more accessible way to consumers than the existing calorie and nutrient content labels. (cbsnews.com)
  • The team looked at data from 14 studies that examined the effectiveness of PACE labeling in reducing calorie consumption. (cbsnews.com)
  • They found that PACE labeling is more effective than no labeling, but was no more effective than calorie-only labeling. (cbsnews.com)
  • Duncan Stephenson, deputy chief executive at the RSPH, who welcomed the research, said that "small changes" like PACE labeling can "make a big overall difference to calorie consumption, and ultimately weight gain. (cbsnews.com)
  • Testifying before the House Agriculture Subcommittee on Livestock and Horticulture, Hammonds proposed the labeling program as an alternative to mandatory country-of-origin labeling legislation currently under consideration in Congress. (fmi.org)
  • Days after Senator Pat Roberts got the 'go' on his voluntary GMO labeling bill, a mandatory GMO labeling bill has been proposed by Senator Jeff Merkley. (foodprocessing.com)
  • In a turnaround, Campbell Soup said it supports enacting federal legislation to create a mandatory labeling standard for foods derived from GMOs. (foodprocessing.com)
  • A 2007 poll conducted for the consumer group Food & Water Watch found that 82% of respondents supported a mandatory COOL program. (ipetitions.com)
  • We the undersigned, then, support mandatory country of origin labeling of the main ingredient(s) in single- and multi-ingredient food products. (ipetitions.com)
  • We know that GE products are 'safe', but many are concerned that mandatory labeling would lead to people rejecting these products and increased problems with food insecurity," Fan said. (worldhealth.net)
  • We wanted to analyze the effects of Vermont's mandatory labeling law as a case study to see how the new nationwide law may affect sales of GE products. (worldhealth.net)
  • They compared data from Vermont in 2016 after the state implemented Act 120 to data from Oregon and Washington, which were close to passing a statewide mandatory GE labeling law but failed to do so. (worldhealth.net)
  • In the end, he may not have to take a position: Given long-standing opposition among House Republicans to mandatory labeling, a bill may not land on the President's desk. (mintz.com)
  • But with the clock ticking - Congress adjourns at the end of this week for its summer recess - and the prospect of Vermont's law becoming the de facto labeling standard, skeptics of mandatory GE labeling may hold their nose and back the bill. (mintz.com)
  • In 2016, Chile published a simplified food labeling system, which inspired the creation of a similar system for Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2020, labeling standards were applied to 85% of the food products consumed in Mexico, one of the most obese countries in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the Nutrition Facts label on food items can help you make healthier choices. (cdc.gov)
  • The nutrition facts label on your favorite breakfast cereal tells you it's full of vitamins and minerals. (kidshealth.org)
  • The Nutrition Facts label gives you information about which nutrients (say: NEW-tree-ents) are in the food. (kidshealth.org)
  • The Nutrition Facts label is printed somewhere on the outside of packaged food, and you usually don't have to look hard to find it. (kidshealth.org)
  • The nutrition facts label always lists a serving size, which is an amount of food, such as 1 cup of cereal, 2 cookies, or 5 pretzels. (kidshealth.org)
  • Last week, I spoke at the FDA public meeting on Proposed Rules on Food Labeling: Nutrition Facts Label and Serving Size. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In 2003, FDA issued a rule requiring the labeling of trans fats on the Nutrition Facts label in response to scientific evidence of a trans fat link to heart disease. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) also regulate any health claims that companies make on their food labels. (kidshealth.org)
  • USDA, the Government Accounting Office and others have raised cost and trade concerns in reports on the impact of country-of-origin labeling. (fmi.org)
  • After lengthy hearings, surveys and reviews of science-based information, USDA published a "fresh" labeling rule that went into effect in December 1997. (usda.gov)
  • The USDA has called for unified "used by" dates on food labels to prevent food waste, and calls on consumers to use their own judgment on spoilage. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • In late December 2000, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) unveiled its final rule on national standards for organic foods. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Although the USDA organic seal is good news for consumer choice, the federal government must ensure that consumers aren't misled by the labels, said Dr. Susan Ferenc, vice president of scientific and regulatory policy for the Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA), a Washington, D.C.-based organization representing food, beverage and consumer product companies. (mediamonitors.net)
  • GMA believes that the USDA must conduct post-market consumer research to closely monitor public understanding of the meaning of the new marketing shield approved for organically produced foods," Dr. Ferenc pointed out. (mediamonitors.net)
  • The bill requires that labels appear either as an on-pack, USDA-created symbol or a QR or bar code that smartphones could read. (mintz.com)
  • 1. Certified Labels (such as 'Animal Welfare Approved,' 'Certified Humane' and 'USDA Organic') are defined by a formal set of publicly available animal care standards, and compliance with those standards is verified by a third-party audit. (packagingdigest.com)
  • The label breaks down the amount of calories, carbs, fat, fiber, protein, and vitamins per serving of the food, making it easier to compare the nutrition of similar products. (cdc.gov)
  • This is why accurately describing your products on labeling is critical. (forbes.com)
  • WASHINGTON, DC - September 26, 2000 - In an effort to promote beef products from cattle raised in America, food retailers are proposing a voluntary "Made in the USA" beef labeling program, according to congressional testimony presented today by Food Marketing Institute (FMI) President and CEO Tim Hammonds. (fmi.org)
  • It could also trigger trading partners that view labeling as a non-tariff barrier to retaliate by restricting imports of U.S. products. (fmi.org)
  • FMI brings together a wide range of members across the value chain - from retailers that sell to consumers, to producers that supply food and other products, as well as the wide variety of companies providing critical services - to amplify the collective work of the industry. (fmi.org)
  • UPFs are defined as "industrial formulations made by deconstructing natural food into its chemical constituents, modifying them and recombining them with additives into products liable to displace all other NOVA food groups. (medscape.com)
  • Global Trade Watch's mission is to ensure that in this era of globalization, a majority have the opportunity to enjoy economic security, a healthy environment, safe food, medicines and products, access to quality affordable services such as health care and the exercise of democratic decision-making about the matters that affect our lives. (citizen.org)
  • SALEM, Ore. , Oct. 3, 2023 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- Trustwell , a pioneering food safety, supply chain management, and product development and compliant labeling company that combines the revolutionary products of Genesis and FoodLogiQ, today announced a joint partnership with Specright, the leader in Specification Management software that helps customers take control of their supply chain data. (prweb.com)
  • This will empower food companies to confidently build new products and improve speed to market using tech-based, seamless solutions that enable collaborative formulation and workflow processes across packaging and supplier data while ensuring regulatory compliance, transparency, and food safety. (prweb.com)
  • Consumers are more health-conscious than ever, so some food manufacturers use misleading tricks to convince people to buy highly processed and unhealthy products. (healthline.com)
  • Front labels try to lure you into purchasing products by making health claims. (healthline.com)
  • Despite what the label may imply, these products are not healthy. (healthline.com)
  • Front labels are often used to lure people into buying products. (healthline.com)
  • Food and Drug staff had been asked to work with the Agriculture and Co-operatives Ministry in gathering details on food products likely to contain GMO's. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Consumers in the United States have repeatedly and overwhelmingly expressed their support for 'Country Of Origin Labeling' (COOL) of food products. (ipetitions.com)
  • Many consumers may wish to purchase food from producers in their own country or may wish to purchase products from another country known for producing a particular food. (ipetitions.com)
  • Products should be labeled with the country of origin of the main ingredient(s) as well as the place of processing. (ipetitions.com)
  • All 27 EU member states will have to adhere to new rules on food labelling, giving consumers more information about the nutritional aspects of packaged food products. (timesofmalta.com)
  • Wholesalers have always been a large part of the private-label market," says Dayne Twinings, a spokesman for the Private Label Manufacturers Association (PLMA) in New York, "but now, wholesalers have increased the amount of energy and attention they are giving to their private-label brands, expanding categories and the range of products available, and making more upscale products. (foodlogistics.com)
  • Sales of private-label products topped $40.5 billion last year, an all-time high. (foodlogistics.com)
  • According to Fan, many food manufacturers traditionally have opposed such laws, worried that these labels have the potential to hurt the sales of GE products. (worldhealth.net)
  • The researchers also studied sales trends of organic products and products labeled "non-GMO," since these could be seen as alternatives for customers who did not want to buy the GE-labeled products. (worldhealth.net)
  • Once the law was no longer in effect, sales of GE-labeled products actually increased by 6%, suggesting improved attitudes toward GE products over time," Fan said. (worldhealth.net)
  • While it is still too early to know how the new National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard will affect sales of GE products, Fan said, the effects may be smaller than what they found in their current study. (worldhealth.net)
  • Beverage products entering the Middle Eastern market need to be clean label and low in sugar in order to gain a strong local foothold, with both regulatory pressure and consumer demand firmly pushing trends in this direction. (confectionerynews.com)
  • The New England supplier of 100% pure and organic maple syrup and maple sugar recently highlighted how its maple products can help bakers tick consumer boxes: sustainability, plant-based/vegan, clean label, sugar alternative, organic and a good source. (confectionerynews.com)
  • The three Cs - Get into a routine where you CHECK what your food contains, COMPARE it with similar products, and CHOOSE the healthiest option. (royalnavy.mod.uk)
  • Marketing differences between national brands and private-label food products may explain the smaller price differential during a time of rising food prices. (usda.gov)
  • Private-label products have lower advertising and procurement costs. (usda.gov)
  • When accounting for the effects of advertised sales, average prices were only 1 percent higher for both national brands and private-label products during the recessionary period than in the post-recession period. (usda.gov)
  • Due to a wide range of factors, most notably the cost-of-living crisis but also concerns around sustainability, private label (supermarket own) products are growing in popularity across Europe. (beveragedaily.com)
  • Traditionally, the idea of buying 'private label' products in supermarket retailers - products branded by the supermarket itself rather than a more widely available brand, or 'national brand' - has been considered the cheap option. (beveragedaily.com)
  • An increasing number of private label drinks are gaining traction in space traditionally reserved for 'premium' brands, according to Canadean, as retailers appreciate the margins such products can offer. (beveragedaily.com)
  • American consumers will see this summer new labeling for organic foods under the first national standards for growing and producing products without the use of genetic engineering, irradiation, pesticides or growth hormones. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Farmers are allowed to post their products' exact percentage of organic content on the primary display label. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Environmental Health are responsible for ensuring compliance with food safety legislation including safety of food products and hygiene standards in food premises. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • Demand is growing for GMO-free labels on food products, according to the Non-GMO Project, one of the principal suppliers of the label. (wypr.org)
  • Now, General Mills is just one of the big food companies selling non-GMO products. (wypr.org)
  • The bill has fewer exemptions than the Vermont law, which does not require labeling for tens of thousands of processed food products. (mintz.com)
  • However, it does exempt foods in which meat, poultry, or egg products are the main ingredient. (mintz.com)
  • Several years ago, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring all food manufacturers to post nutritional information on all products. (rochester.edu)
  • California's attorney general filed a lawsuit against Whole Foods Market for allegedly mislabeling their cosmetic products. (thecut.com)
  • The new guide aims to help consumers who purchase meat, dairy and eggs interpret the meaning of label claims and locate products from animals that were humanely raised and handled. (packagingdigest.com)
  • While not as reliable as certified labels, consumers should choose these products over products without any welfare claims. (packagingdigest.com)
  • Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. (lu.se)
  • Accordingly, the first o A um NUS CRIP T ers actually prefer products with 14 examine the degree to which consumers ta ke Mbjective of the current study is to the initial step to actually attend to 15 ingredient information on food packaging. (lu.se)
  • Eat fewer foods that are higher in added sugars, saturated fat , and sodium (salt), and avoid trans fat . (cdc.gov)
  • Almost all foods contain sodium. (kidshealth.org)
  • Processed, packaged, and canned foods usually have more sodium than fresh foods. (kidshealth.org)
  • These numbers tell you how much cholesterol and sodium (salt) are in a single serving of the food. (kidshealth.org)
  • Evaluating industry responses, labeling decreased product contents of sodium by 8.9% (95% CI= -17.3%, -0.6%, n=4) and artificial trans fat by 64.3% (95% CI= -91.1%, -37.5%, n=3). (nih.gov)
  • From reviewing 60 intervention studies, food labeling reduces consumer dietary intake of selected nutrients and influences industry practices to reduce product contents of sodium and artificial trans fat. (nih.gov)
  • These labels can be very helpful to consumers, providing information on recommended serving size, calories, and fat and sodium content, as well as nutritional value. (rochester.edu)
  • We understand the unique requirements of the food & beverage industry, which is why we provide software solutions to help simplify the entire labeling process, starting with label creation. (teklynx.com)
  • Whether you have a simple or complex labeling process, you can meet virtually any food & beverage compliance labeling requirement with TEKLYNX. (teklynx.com)
  • Easily create and print barcode labels that are compliant with food and beverage industry standards. (teklynx.com)
  • While 43% of American consumers would describe their financial situation as "healthy", price still remains the most important factor in food and beverage purchases for many shoppers, according to Mintel's 2018 North American Consumer Trends report. (beveragedaily.com)
  • The influence of food and beverage labeling (food labeling) on consumer behaviors, industry responses, and health outcomes is not well established. (nih.gov)
  • More generally, shifting responsibility to the consumer to worry about their own "energy balance" and exercise routine is a common strategy by sugar interests (for example, check out the advice of the food industry's Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation and Coca-Cola's Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness). (foodsafetynews.com)
  • These "Nutrition Facts" labels can help you make smarter food choices and eat a healthy diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Just because a food is high in vitamins doesn't mean it's healthy overall. (kidshealth.org)
  • Eating healthy means choosing lots of different types of food throughout the day to get all the nutrients you need, such as vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fiber, and - yes - even fat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Nutrition Facts labels give you information that can help you decide what to choose as part of an overall healthy eating plan. (kidshealth.org)
  • When a food says "healthy," "light" ("lite"), or "low fat" on the label, it must meet strict government definitions in order to make that claim. (kidshealth.org)
  • This article explains how to read food labels so that you can differentiate between mislabeled junk and truly healthy foods. (healthline.com)
  • Health claims on packaged food are designed to catch your attention and convince you that the product is healthy. (healthline.com)
  • This label says very little about whether a product is healthy. (healthline.com)
  • This includes the introduction of nutrition labelling schemes that support healthy choices at the point of purchase. (who.int)
  • Best practices , guidance documents, infographics, signage and more for the food industry on the COVID-19 pandemic. (fmi.org)
  • And FALCPA doesn't cover business-to-business product movement, leaving smaller food processors at the mercy of their suppliers' disclosures and good manufacturing practices (GMP). (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Foodsafety.org visitors must independently validate any and all food safety information before using such information to inform food handing, storage, and food preparation practices in their homes and/or businesses. (foodsafety.org)
  • According to a study of 2,000 people by OnePoll that was commissioned by my company, 75% of respondents noted that if the term "organic" was used in product marketing, they were more likely to purchase it, and nearly 60% would be attracted to an item that was labeled "all natural. (forbes.com)
  • A label can sell your product, but it can also affect your reputation. (forbes.com)
  • Do not use words and labels that make your product misleading. (forbes.com)
  • Calling a product natural is fine, so far, but a clean label speaks to the consumers who pay the most attention, and more processors are making it a priority. (foodprocessing.com)
  • In August 2011, Public Citizen petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to revise its regulations to allow generic drug manufacturers to update product labeling to warn patients about newly discovered risks associated with their drugs. (citizen.org)
  • In November 2013, the FDA granted our petition and issued a proposed rule that, when finalized, would establish procedures for generic drug manufacturers to change product labeling to reflect new information in advance of FDA's review of the change. (citizen.org)
  • Currently, FALCPA indicates that the sources of commonly allergenic foods must be declared in plain English (e.g. milk, peanut, etc.) on product labels. (aaaai.org)
  • With increasing FDA regulation and high frequency of product change and reformulations, an end-to-end digital solution for food labeling is critical," said Matthew Wright , Specright founder & CEO. (prweb.com)
  • Our partnership with Trustwell will enable our customers to get the best-of-breed solution for Specification Data Management, tightly integrated with their Genesis Foods product, which is the industry standard for nutritional analysis and label development. (prweb.com)
  • Combining FoodLogiQ's supply chain management software with Genesis' nutritional analysis and label development solution, the Trustwell Connect platform creates the food industry's only software platform connecting product development and regulatory-compliant labeling into supplier compliance, enhanced traceability, and automated recall management. (prweb.com)
  • If you having a problem with a food product, let FSIS know or find the appropriate public health organization. (usda.gov)
  • No. The National Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Criteria for Foods, as well as several scientific organizations, agreed that there is no increased microbiological risk associated with raw product maintained at 40 °F or below. (usda.gov)
  • In fact, research shows that adding health claims to front labels makes people believe a product is healthier than the same product that doesn't list health claims - thus affecting consumer choices ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (healthline.com)
  • Nutrition labels state how many calories and nutrients are in a standard amount of the product - often a suggested single serving. (healthline.com)
  • Quality inspections ensure product labeling is defect- and error-free. (cognex.com)
  • Under the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act, manufacturers have until May 1994 to add "Nutrition Facts" to their product labels. (healthy.net)
  • At present some foods which are made, packed and sold on the same premises are not required to show ingredient or allergy information on the product label. (food.gov.uk)
  • Private label is also a huge opportunity to capture sales of some product categories that are not being served by the large manufacturers. (foodlogistics.com)
  • Food supplies are presented with opportunity to attract customers based off product labeling and design. (53.com)
  • Durable life - This indicates the anticipated amount of time an unopened food product will keep its freshness, taste, nutritional value and other qualities when stored under appropriate conditions. (canada.ca)
  • Best before date - The "best before" date does not guarantee product safety, but it does give you information about the freshness and potential shelf-life of the unopened food you are buying. (canada.ca)
  • The food label is one of the most important and direct means of communicating product information between buyers and sellers. (who.int)
  • The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. (lu.se)
  • Have Food Allergies? (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with food allergies need to check ingredient lists to avoid foods that can cause an allergic reaction. (kidshealth.org)
  • Instead, for food allergies, the ingredient list and any warning labels are the most important. (aaaai.org)
  • This is an important and welcome step towards our ambition for the UK to become the best place in the world for people who have food allergies and intolerances. (food.gov.uk)
  • Success will mean more choice and better protection for the millions of people - our families, friends, colleagues and neighbours across the UK - who have food allergies. (food.gov.uk)
  • The introduction of Natasha's Law brings greater transparency about what people are buying and eating, lays down new standards for the food companies, and highlights the battle against the growing epidemic of allergies. (food.gov.uk)
  • A Statutory Instrument (SI) has been laid in Parliament today extending labelling requirements which will allow people with food allergies and intolerances to make safe food choices. (food.gov.uk)
  • Though such an extreme reaction is rare, food allergies are linked to 30,000 emergency room visits and up to 250 deaths a year in the US. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • "This legislation will make that task easier for the 11 million Americans who have food allergies and their family and friends who are reading labels on their behalf," ​ said Anne Munoz- Furlong, CEO and founder of FAAN ​, the active food allergy network group that pushed hard for the new rules. (dairyreporter.com)
  • Although wheat is mandated to be labelled through FALCPA as it is one of the big eight allergenic sources, other sources of gluten (barley and rye) are not. (aaaai.org)
  • FALCPA deals with package labels only. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • In addition to total carbohydrate, the food label lists dietary fiber , total sugar , and added sugars per serving. (kidshealth.org)
  • I spoke in support of an added sugars label in those proposed rules, carrying with me the support of 170-plus medical, public health, and nutrition experts , 600-plus scientists and other technical experts, and an additional 23,000-plus citizens . (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Since then, FMI has held a series of discussions with the American Farm Bureau Federation, American Meat Institute (AMI), National Cattleman's Beef Association and National Meat Association to forge a mutually beneficial voluntary labeling policy. (fmi.org)
  • Some labels will give you information about calories and nutrients for both the whole package and each serving size. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you eat the whole thing, you are eating 8 times the amount of calories, carbs, fat, etc., shown on the label. (cdc.gov)
  • That's because all the information on the rest of the label - from calories to vitamins - is based on that amount. (kidshealth.org)
  • The number of calories listed on the food label shows how many calories are in 1 serving. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you eat 2 servings, you need to double the calories listed on the label to know how many calories you ate. (kidshealth.org)
  • The information on food labels is based on an average adult diet of 2,000 calories per day. (kidshealth.org)
  • Mexico and France get about 30% of calories from these foods. (medscape.com)
  • You can get a general idea about whether the food has lots of nutrients, how much is in a serving, and how many calories are in a serving. (kidshealth.org)
  • The number of calories that's listed on the food label shows how many calories are in 1 serving. (kidshealth.org)
  • In doing so, manufacturers try to deceive consumers into thinking that the food has fewer calories and less sugar. (healthline.com)
  • An EC food labelling directive coming into force in October 1993 requires only the most basic nutritional information to be listed (calories, protein, carbohydrate and fat). (healthy.net)
  • Under the proposed system, a small bar of chocolate would carry a label informing consumers that it would take 23 minutes of running or 46 minutes of walking to burn off the 230 calories it contains. (cbsnews.com)
  • It also promotes the idea that calories, rather than nutrients, are the main consideration when it comes to food, she added. (cbsnews.com)
  • In response to the new labeling requirement, food manufacturers began innovating new ways to formulate foods with minimal or no use of trans fats, rather than be required to disclose trans fat content, a move that manufacturers might have feared could lead to lower sales. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Food labeling in Mexico refers to the official norm that mainly consists of placing labels on processed food sold in the country in order to help consumers make a better purchasing decision based on nutritional criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why I believe it's critical for leaders to create authentic labels and provide a transparent experience for their consumers. (forbes.com)
  • A federal court has ruled that putting a QR code on a label is not an adequate means to inform consumers that the food has been bioengineered. (foodprocessing.com)
  • Labels are often an underutilized method of communicating with consumers. (foodprocessing.com)
  • While many consumers today are showing more interest on where their food comes from there are some marketing efforts being made that sometime muddies the water a bit rather than making things more clear. (kbtx.com)
  • Food labeling regulations are complex, making it harder for consumers to understand them. (healthline.com)
  • Also in 2007, a Consumers Union poll found that 92% of respondents believed that imported foods should be labeled with their country of origin, while the international polling firm Zogby released survey results that demonstrated that not only did 85% of respondents say that knowing where their food comes from is important, but 88% of respondents said that they want all retail foods labeled with country of origin information. (ipetitions.com)
  • In addition, the Zogby survey reported that 95% of respondents believe consumers have a right to know the country of origin of the foods they purchase. (ipetitions.com)
  • Country of origin labeling can provide consumers with additional information to make informed choices about the food they wish to purchase and consume. (ipetitions.com)
  • Without labeling that identifies where food has been produced, consumers are unable to make those choices in an informed manner when they are at the point of purchase. (ipetitions.com)
  • We believe that food safety is absolutely paramount -- above all other concerns about how food is grown, processed, and distributed -- and until all countries in the global economy treat the issue with the urgency and care required, country of origin labeling provides consumers with additional information to help them make safe food choices. (ipetitions.com)
  • US consumers are to be given fuller information about the content of the food they eat. (healthy.net)
  • As food manufacturers compete for position on store shelves and in refrigerated cases, and ultimately into the shopping carts of American consumers, they're finding new and legitimate competition from an unlikely source-grocery wholesalers with their own private-label brands. (foodlogistics.com)
  • We're in a new era of food manufacturing with the ability to create a more connected experience for consumers and more efficient. (confectionerynews.com)
  • ERS researchers also examined how the frequency and magnitude of price discounts affected consumers' food costs. (usda.gov)
  • This finding highlights the importance of price discounts for consumers seeking to save on grocery bills during times of higher-than-normal inflation or volatile food prices. (usda.gov)
  • Private labels are bouncing back after stalling during the pandemic when consumers sought sanctuary from the familiarity offered by the big-name brands. (beveragedaily.com)
  • If evidence comes to light that the USDA's new marketing seal misleads consumers into believing that organic foods are safer or better than other foods, the seal should be redesigned or removed. (mediamonitors.net)
  • She says natural foods stores began the process of defining a standard, involving other interested players along the way, including consumers. (wypr.org)
  • After all, research from the International Food Information Council Foundation reports that a majority of consumers, 59 percent, always read the labels on foods before they buy. (53.com)
  • And while the nutrition panel and ingredient list are often the first things a consumer scans, the same study reports that about half of consumers also consider front-of-label claims. (53.com)
  • Roughly three-quarters of consumers look for the term "natural" when making purchasing decisions, according to Consumer Reports , while 58 percent of consumers seek out "organic" labels in the grocery aisle. (53.com)
  • Consumers should look for these labels. (packagingdigest.com)
  • When consumers in a survey by Demeter Communications were asked what they would like to know about food production that they didn't currently know, more than two-thirds said they wanted to know what farmers are doing to ensure animal care. (packagingdigest.com)
  • In another survey commissioned by the U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance, 70 percent of consumers said their food purchasing decisions are influenced by how food is grown or raised. (packagingdigest.com)
  • However, while consumers want this information, they are not currently receiving it from package labels-the preferred source of information for a large majority of shoppers. (packagingdigest.com)
  • The welfare of animals raised for food is important to consumers and is increasingly a strong consideration in buying food,' says Dena Jones, AWI's farm animal program manager. (packagingdigest.com)
  • This guide helps consumers decipher label claims and make decisions consistent with their values regarding how animals raised for food should be treated. (packagingdigest.com)
  • 3. Shifting responsibility to consumers Speakers claimed there is no evidence that an added sugar label will change consumers' behavior. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • It is one of the primary means by which consumers differentiate between individual foods and brands to make informed purchasing choices. (who.int)
  • Consumers are increasingly taking an interest in how their food is produced. (lu.se)
  • The FSA is developing a working interpretation of the types of food to which this legislation applies . (food.gov.uk)
  • Trading Standards are responsible for enforcing legislation that seeks to ensure that food is correctly labelled and is compositionally correct as well as ensuring that the packaging is neither misleading or excessive. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • Trading Standards ensure compliance with food standards by carrying out routine inspections of food premises, taking food samples for compositional analysis by the Public Analyst's laboratory and advising and assisting food businesses with food standards legislation. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • In a disappointment to some labeling advocates, the bill would preempt state laws, including Vermont's Act 120 , which took effect July 1st. (mintz.com)
  • Food labels provide information about the nutritional content in packaged food. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The main changes will concern the origin of all type of meat and nutritional information on all packaged food. (timesofmalta.com)
  • These labels provide nutritional information per 100g and per portion, for energy (kilocalories), carbohydrate, protein and fat. (royalnavy.mod.uk)
  • Trading Standards also ensure that nutritional claims and labels are accurate. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • Expiration date - This must appear on formulated liquid diets, foods for use in a very low-energy diet, meal replacements, nutritional supplements and infant formulas. (canada.ca)
  • Use label "real estate" to market the facts, and make sure to include certifiers on your labels to back up your claims. (forbes.com)
  • The program would require cattle feeders and beef packers to maintain adequate systems and records, and to make consistent and accurate labels. (fmi.org)
  • Market expert John Stanton asks: Why not make your labels more powerful. (foodprocessing.com)
  • This can make reading food ingredient labels difficult and it may be hard to know how a particular ingredient relates to your allergy. (aaaai.org)
  • The introduction of this law will make it easier for allergy sufferers to make clear, safe choices when buying food. (food.gov.uk)
  • The answer is simple: private label is a low-cost way to make easy money and improve market share as everyone tries to address competition from the Wal-Marts of the world. (foodlogistics.com)
  • Other inputs, namely food commodities and energy, make up a larger share of total production and marketing costs for private-label foods than for national brands, making private-label foods more responsive to rising commodity and energy costs. (usda.gov)
  • The market researcher's latest 'FMCG Demand Signals' has revealed that private labels now make up 36% of total FMCG value sales in Europe (€216bn) - up from 34% earlier this year, illustrating the extent retailers are trying to manage the impact of rising. (beveragedaily.com)
  • they also rely on food labels to make well-informed and health-conscious purchasing decisions. (53.com)
  • Labels can make all sorts of vague claims - even claims that don't seem vague. (foodrenegade.com)
  • The rule of origin will also apply to other types of food such as honey, olive oil, fresh fruit and vegetables and in future could also be extended to other categories, like meat when used as an ingredient, milk or unprocessed foods. (timesofmalta.com)
  • For further information have a look at our Guidance Note on the labelling of meat . (fsai.ie)
  • Traceability of Europe's food became a major issue during the recent E. coli outbreak. (timesofmalta.com)
  • the Senate's leading champion of organic agriculture, said the organic rule comes none too soon for the organic farming industry, which has experienced tremendous growth since 1990 when Congress passed Organic Foods Production Act. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Ten databases were searched in 2014 for studies published after 1990 evaluating food labeling and consumer purchases/orders, intakes, metabolic risk factors, and industry responses. (nih.gov)
  • They're going to get that from a mix of good foods that are already in the grocery store and a lot of times the cheaper food is just as good as the higher priced food that was marketed and just put a higher price on it and calling it something that maybe wasn't ever in there to begin with like gluten or Non-GMOs. (kbtx.com)
  • Mislabeling, inaccurate claims or missing label copy can occur at any stage of the supply chain. (53.com)
  • Actors with interests in sugar - including the Sugar Association, the Grocery Manufacturers Association and the American Frozen Foods Institute - made the inaccurate claims listed below at the FDA public meeting. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • As the food industry association, FMI works with and on behalf of the entire industry to advance a safer, healthier and more efficient consumer food supply chain. (fmi.org)
  • TEKLYNX is proud to be a Food Logistics' Top Software & Technology Providers, and to have four Food Logistics Rock Stars of the Supply Chain! (teklynx.com)
  • The rest of the label tells you how many nutrients are in 1 serving. (kidshealth.org)
  • When patients with celiac disease ingest gliadin, an immunologically mediated inflammatory response occurs that damages the mucosa of their intestines, resulting in maldigestion and malabsorption of food nutrients. (medscape.com)
  • Such revisions would cure the illogical disparity between labeling regulations for generic companies and brand-name companies, as brands are permitted to promptly revise drug labeling to provide updated safety information. (citizen.org)
  • The national and state regulations and guidelines pertaining to zinc and compounds in air, water, food, and other media are summarized in Table 8-1. (cdc.gov)
  • We believe existing exemptions to COOL, such as those for butcher shops, fish markets, and uncovered processed foods, should be eliminated -- ALL foods sold in the United States should be COOL compliant. (ipetitions.com)
  • The grocery industry is moving to alleviate consumer confusion over sell-by dates on food packs to better define what "sell-by" labels mean. (foodprocessing.com)
  • Given the large community of food allergy sufferers-11 million and growing, by some estimates-the act also is an opportunity for processors to build a bond of trust with a fiercely brand-loyal consumer segment. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Dan Mazur, senior vice president of center store program management at Topco, Skokie, IL, reports the 5,500 private-label items in his company's stable of 17 brands generally cost 30 percent to 60 percent less to produce, offer 15 percent to 20 percent difference in cost to the consumer and 10 percent to 15 percent more cost reductions and margin enhancements for retailers. (foodlogistics.com)
  • For us, the costs for procurement of private labels are a lot cheaper and we are able to pass those savings on to the retailer, who then passes it on to the consumer," he says. (foodlogistics.com)
  • If you are a consumer and have a food standards related enquiry or wish to report a food standards complaint please visit the consumer advice page for advice. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • An important point to be made here is that labeling can be effective in ways beyond consumer behavior change. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • This public health success story was attributed to consumer behavior change, but also to changes in food processing. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The evidence produced can support professionals who act directly or indirectly with the consumer to devise strategies that help them to choose food using food labels as a tool to promote health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Detailed nutrition content will be compulsory on most packaged foods, including items like mayonnaise and bread. (healthy.net)
  • After the expiration date, the food may not have the same nutrient content declared on the label. (canada.ca)
  • From food and supplement manufacturers to retail grocers and restaurant chains, food companies around the world use Trustwell software as their trusted source for compliance and quality solutions in the food industry. (prweb.com)
  • Manufacturers are often dishonest in the way they use these labels. (healthline.com)
  • The new EU food labelling laws were given the last nod by the European Parliament last week and are expected to enter into force in three years' time, giving food manufacturers ample time to adapt to the new regime. (timesofmalta.com)
  • With two years to prepare, manufacturers had sufficient time to get their labeling houses in order. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Private label wine is building momentum in the US, thanks to national supermarket chains such as Aldi, Trader Joe's, Costco, and Whole Foods taking on the identity as trusted wine vendors, says Brian Sharoff, president of Private Label Manufacturers Association. (beveragedaily.com)
  • 2. Red herrings: Overlooking the core, established science motivating FDA In its comments, the Grocery Manufacturers Association was quick to claim that there is no differing physiological effect for added vs. naturally present sugar, and, thus, no reason to treat added sugar differently on labels. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • It included questions related to the comprehension of the GDA food labeling system, and the results determined that nationwide the surveyed people understood the system poorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the household interview, the interviewer asked to see the container for the salt that is usually added to food at the table and the salt that is usually used in cooking or preparing foods at home. (cdc.gov)
  • For people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity , labeling can be inconsistent. (aaaai.org)
  • In 2010, the Secretariat of Health (SALUD) requested the establishment of a food labeling norm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Institute of Public Health [es] (INSP) started in 2011 to investigate the effectiveness of the labeling system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some food labels also state which country the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. (kidshealth.org)
  • According to doctors who presented during the meeting, ultra-processed foods are drawing increased attention, because researchers have been examining them in National Institutes of Health-funded studies and journalists have been writing about them. (medscape.com)
  • During the debate session at the meeting, some experts said that, with obesity and poor health skyrocketing, increased awareness and labeling of UPFs can only be a good thing. (medscape.com)
  • Carlos Monteiro, MD, PhD, professor of nutrition and public health at the University of Sao Paolo, was part of the group favoring the NOVA system's classifying certain foods as UPFs, during the debate. (medscape.com)
  • It's notable here that, although these differences are significant, both groups are consuming a pretty high proportion of their diet from ultra-processed foods," said Vernarelli, associate professor of public health at Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Conn., during her presentation. (medscape.com)
  • While policies would be drawn up on the basis of Codex (a joint effort between the Food and Agriculture Organisation ​ and World Health Organisation ​), officials would not wait for final resolutions from the grouping. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The FDA has sent Kind LLC a warning letter, saying its granola bars do not qualify as health food. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Trading Standards together with colleagues in Environmental Health are responsible for ensuring compliance by all food premises with the Food Safety Act. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • The Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH), an organization of health care professionals in the UK, is also an advocate of the labels. (cbsnews.com)
  • Since 2009, the Food and Drug Administration has been cracking down on misleading front-of-package labels and health claims, and sending warning letters to repeat offenders. (53.com)
  • Sugar interests - including the Sugar Association and the American Frozen Foods Institute - claimed there is no science linking sugar to adverse health impacts. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Strict segregation of bulk commodities is almost impossible, which is why the standard of identity allows up to 25 percent wheat in commodities labeled as oats. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • What are the labeling requirements for frozen, raw poultry? (usda.gov)
  • This will be published on 1 October which will give food businesses a two-year transition period to prepare for the new requirements. (food.gov.uk)
  • Does not include food you package and sell from the same premises (see requirements for non-prepacked food ). (fsai.ie)
  • You can find more detailed information on these requirements in the labelling section of our website. (fsai.ie)
  • Set up an auditing and surveillance system to help ensure that the supplies sent your way are labeled correctly. (53.com)
  • Brenda Tan and Matt Cost worked with DNA barcoding experts at Rockefeller University and other researchers at the American Museum of Natural History to identify hundreds of food samples, assorted hairs and animal bits in their neighborhood. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Monochrome and color models identify color errors and inspect labels for consistency and quality in size, shape, color, and texture. (cognex.com)
  • And of course, the label itself doesn't always identify all of those. (wypr.org)
  • I have gone through the requirement and understand that you want to develop a food delivery/collection app like uber eats Deliver. (freelancer.com)
  • She called PACE a "really simple and really straightforward" strategy, and suggested it could be used on food and drink packaging, supermarket labels and restaurant menus. (cbsnews.com)
  • While Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack has called for a national uniform labeling standard, President Obama has been noticeably tight-lipped. (mintz.com)
  • Recent food safety issues related to tainted beef and to specific Chinese imports only highlight the need for country of origin labeling (imported toys and many other goods are so labeled, so why not food! (ipetitions.com)
  • I would have killed for a beef label decoder. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Thanks to the good folks at National Geographic's Green Guide for doing the research and Mark's Daily Apple for the link, I can now share one of the most useful interactive tools I've seen online - a Beef Label Decoder . (foodrenegade.com)
  • The Beef Label Decoder analyzes 6 competing certifications across 5 categories. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Food labels provide more than just nutrition facts. (kidshealth.org)
  • These standards provide guidelines for growing food, including limits on the types of pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics and hormones. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Global Trade Watch has led the fight against corporate-rigged "trade" agreements that provide special powers for Big Pharma to raise medicine prices, promote the outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries and undermine the food safety and other safeguards on which our families rely. (citizen.org)
  • Daley told CNN that the aim is to add PACE information to existing labels, rather than replace them, in order to provide the public with more information. (cbsnews.com)
  • the food companies are required by law to provide accurate and reliable information. (rochester.edu)
  • There have been cases of brands making fraudulent claims that their food is "organic. (forbes.com)
  • The Trinity School seniors discovered 95 different species of animal and 11 cases of fraudulent food labeling. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers found that while sales of GE-labeled foods decreased while the law was in effect, this trend reversed once the law was repealed. (worldhealth.net)
  • The researchers found that private-label prices fluctuated more than prices of national brands between the periods. (usda.gov)
  • Foods that carry the Canadian Organic Logo must meet the Canadian Organic Standards. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • This quality control measure reduces the incidence of error, helps meet label quality standards, and guarantees customer satisfaction. (cognex.com)
  • Reasons for this vary from environmental and ethical principles to food quality, safety, and standards choices. (ipetitions.com)
  • I encourage businesses large and small to work with the Food Standards Agency to get this right. (food.gov.uk)
  • As long as rigorous government safety standards are being met, we stand ready to do what we can to help support any farmer and help market any kind of food. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Trading Standards are also responsible for enforcing that part of the food safety act that prohibits fresh pre packed food being sold after its "use by" date. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • If you need advice for your business regarding any aspect of food standards please contact Trading Standards. (flintshire.gov.uk)
  • Animal Welfare - Some labels have vague standards regarding animal welfare, while others have very stringent standards. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Food Safety training, resources and guidance that help you create a company food safety culture. (fmi.org)
  • Two weeks before the law went into effect, the Food and Drug Administration tried to drive this point home in a final industry guidance. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • So front-of-package labeling that highlights, for example, no added sugar, could be the best way to catch the attention of younger customers. (53.com)
  • She told CNN that the current labeling system "hasn't made a huge difference to obesity in the UK. (cbsnews.com)
  • Fast-food settings were defined as establishments where payment is made before receiving food. (cdc.gov)
  • Total Carbohydrate shows you types of carbs in the food, including sugar and fiber. (cdc.gov)
  • Labels include the nutrition facts table and ingredient list. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The ingredient list is another important part of the food label. (kidshealth.org)
  • Understanding how to read these labels is a key factor in making healthier choices. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The Out of Home Sector is a food outlet where non-prepacked or pre-packed for direct sale food/drink is prepared in a way that means it is ready for immediate consumption, on or off the premises. (brent.gov.uk)
  • Some foods naturally contain sugar, like fruit and milk. (kidshealth.org)
  • Label-Free quantitation of milk oligosaccharides from different mammal species and heat treatment influence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Raw poultry held at a temperature of 0 °F or below must be labeled with a "keep frozen" handling statement. (usda.gov)
  • Both fresh and frozen poultry are inspected by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service. (usda.gov)