Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.RestaurantsCampylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Frozen FoodsFatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Consumer Product SafetyAnimal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.United StatesProbiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Isospora: A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Desulfovibrionaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bifidobacteriales Infections: Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Food Contamination, RadioactiveCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Spirochaetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Lawsonia Bacteria: A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Menu PlanningPredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
  • The topic today is those disposable gloves food handlers use to prevent the spread of bacteria. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • And the startling finding that some of these new disposable gloves contain feces and bacteria. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • The bacterial species E. coli is a type of coliform bacteria and a specific indicator used by slaughter and processing plants to check for fecal contamination of food products and water. (wordpress.com)
  • The diversity of the bacteria living in your feces is linked to how much fat you have in your body, according to a new study. (kfor.com)
  • People with lower levels of visceral fat, or leaner people, had a more diverse range of bacteria in their feces. (kfor.com)
  • That's according to scientists at the Wake Forest School of Medicine, who have developed a probiotic "cocktail" derived from gut bacteria strains found in baby feces. (abcactionnews.com)
  • Gastroenteritis can be caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria or viruses (food poisoning), but also from a viral infection that you have taken from someone else. (bloedinontlasting.org)
  • Diarrhea , nausea and vomiting are sometimes side effects of antibiotics, which destroy the harmless bacteria in the gut that help digest food. (bloedinontlasting.org)
  • Officials say the food partygoers ate Saturday night is believed to have carried Shigella, a highly contagious bacteria found in the stool of an infected person. (kplr11.com)
  • Scientists have discovered new antimicrobials found on human skin and sheep feces could be used as biological tools to control harmful bacteria. (irishcentral.com)
  • The scientists at the APC Microbiome Ireland SFI Research Centre have added to their arsenal of new antimicrobials with discoveries of Nisin J, a new antimicrobial produced from staphylococcal bacteria found on human skin and actifensins produced by Actinomycetes isolated from sheep feces. (irishcentral.com)
  • Nisin J, which was isolated from Staphylococcus capitis, a strain of bacteria between the human toes, is a type of nisin, commonly used in the food industry as a preservative. (irishcentral.com)
  • Latin: fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would further raise the possibility that various bacteria and viruses may be contaminating pet food. (forbes.com)
  • They are made up of indigestible food, bacteria, and secretions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rationalizing and advancing the 3-MPBA SERS sandwich assay for rapid detection of bacteria in environmental and food matrices. (umass.edu)
  • No one to cook their food and to make sure they do not contract dangerous bacteria such as E. Coli or Salmonella, and most especially, no one to ensure they receive the correct ratio of calcium to phosphorus so that puppies will have perfect bone growth. (barfworld.com)
  • Many organisms feed on feces, from bacteria to fungi to insects such as dung beetles, who can sense odors from long distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of Salmonella in Mouse Feces and Raw Pet Food Using ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System A critical need exists for new and validated methods of rapidly analyzing contaminants within the pet food production and distribution environments. (grantome.com)
  • Conduct a multi-lab validation of methods for detecting Salmonella in raw pet food and mouse feces (Our collaborating labs include, the Vet Diagnostic Lab at Iowa State University, the College of Vet Medicine at Texas A &M University, Animal Diagnostic Lab at New Jersey Dept of Ag, and the Vet Diagnostic Lab at the University of Minnesota) 2. (grantome.com)
  • the viability of Salmonella under various conditions in raw pet food &mouse feces This project will broaden the capacity of the Vet-LIRN labs to provide fast response to Salmonella contamination events. (grantome.com)
  • Detection of Salmonella in Mouse Feces and Raw Pet Food Using ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System RELEVANCE: Because raw pet food and mice droppings are well-known for harboring Salmonella and the bacterium has spread extensively before being detected, there is a critical need to develop and validate methods for detecting Salmonella in these two prominent analytes. (grantome.com)
  • fresh mouse feces throughout basement. (philly.com)
  • Can Pet Food Ingredients Reduce the Odor of Pet Feces? (mercola.com)
  • In conclusion, diet supplementation with CPE may be adopted with the purpose of increasing calves health and production, but it may alter odor characteristics of feces and increase feedlot nuisance if not managed properly. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ovipositing insects use odor cues to select suitable food substrates for their offspring in order to increase the survival rates of the larvae. (mpg.de)
  • The distinctive odor of feces is due to bacterial action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumption of foods prepared with spices may result in the spices being undigested and adding to the odor of feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perceived bad odor of feces has been hypothesized to be a deterrent for humans, as consuming or touching it may result in sickness or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, an animal who eats feces may be attracted to its odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A woman with a history of fighting New Jersey's controversial annual black bear hunt scored a court victory this week when a judge ruled that the pile of bear-friendly food and bear feces found in her front yard did not prove she had violated state laws against feeding the animals. (latimes.com)
  • Kehoe, 61, was acquitted in a court in Vernon on Tuesday night, the Star-Ledger reported , despite testimony from state wildlife officials that they found dog food, sunflower seeds and bear feces in the front yard of Kehoe's home in a rural area of northern New Jersey. (latimes.com)
  • Officers found three of the children on a couch in the living room surrounded by feces. (theroot.com)
  • We, personally, have found that a whole food vegan diet has helped our own health, and simply wish to share with others the things we have found. (all-creatures.org)
  • Actifensin is another new bacteriocin found in a strain of Actinomyces ruminicola isolated from sheep faeces. (irishcentral.com)
  • Salads from the fast food giant have found to be contaminated with fecal matter from restaurants in ten different states. (neonnettle.com)
  • As you can see from the map , the greatest concentrations of feces were found on Turk between Leavenworth and Hyde, and on the two blocks bounded by Jones, Mason, Eddy, and Ellis Streets. (sfist.com)
  • Also, capillarid eggs were more abundant in intestinal than in caecal faeces, whereas the inverse pattern was found for coccidian oocysts. (cambridge.org)
  • As long as water is available for microbial growth, microorganisms can be found foods and processing environments at solids-liquid, gas-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces. (umass.edu)
  • Seeds also may be found in feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is found naturally in apple skins, cabbage and other foods, and in this form acts as a healthy insoluble fiber. (losethebackpain.com)
  • Choi admitted she never physically saw any rodents in the food court, but she told KTLA she is positive the small object that fell in her partially eaten meal was fecal matter. (wqad.com)
  • This comes due to the fact that fecal matter is a much cheaper alternative to commercial fish food. (healthyfoodhouse.com)
  • It said most of the cases of contamination involving imported food in the U.S. are related to exposure to fecal matter. (endoftheamericandream.com)
  • Of course, as with any fake meat, the steaks - which many claim tastes "just like beef" - are pumped full of artificial food dyes and dangerous soy proteins . (foodrenegade.com)
  • One in every two supermarket chickens is contaminated with feces," says PCRM president Neal Barnard, M.D. "Meat packers can't avoid contaminating poultry products during production, and consumers are cooking and eating chicken feces in about half the cases. (wordpress.com)
  • Pretty much everyone is fine with eating foods that don't have any meat or eggs or dairy once in a while, or even frequently, and they're probably even some omnivore's very favorite things in the world and they could eat them over and over and over. (insufferablevegan.com)
  • In addition, foods that are rich in iron such as beans and red meat can also contribute to green feces. (livestrong.com)
  • While the general components of dog food may seem similar, such as meat, to what humans eat, the parts, proportions, contaminants, and additives can be quite different. (forbes.com)
  • Mr Beauchesne explained that Crusoe enjoys cooking anything that includes a lot of butter, cheese, meat or dairy.Olive oil helps carry the flavor of foods and spices, Click Through The Following Website provides a pleasing really feel in the mouth, and satisfies the appetite. (wikidot.com)
  • This is another word for wood pulp… and it's commonly used in crackers, ice cream, pancake syrup, vegetarian meat substitutes, pancakes, snack bars and more because it adds fiber (i.e. bulk) to foods and extends shelf life. (losethebackpain.com)
  • Researchers used a new scanning technology to look inside the ancient faeces, known as coprolites, taken from the Rhaetian bone bed near Chipping Sodbury in south Gloucestershire. (aol.co.uk)
  • Tiny pieces of plastics are turning up in the feces of seals that feed on whole fish, demonstrating how seaborne contamination can move up the food chain, British researchers report. (seeker.com)
  • Researchers tested the feces of 34 infants and said they did so because they are unaffected by diseases associated with aging. (abcactionnews.com)
  • Hey, you're so edible, when you are food. (fark.com)
  • According to the police report, the only edible food in the apartment was some bread, bologna, hot dogs and chips that a neighbor had recently brought over to the house. (kfor.com)
  • Nearly half the chicken products marketed by national brands and sold in supermarkets are contaminated with feces, according to laboratory test results of chicken samples from 15 grocery store chains in 10 major U.S. cities. (wordpress.com)
  • The food-handling and reingestive behaviour of feces by Ctenomys pearsoni Lessa and Langguth, 1983, was studied in the laboratory. (rcin.org.pl)
  • In this work, we isolated, identified and characterized 26 strains of Lactobacillus and 23 strains of Enterococcus from the feces of normo and hypercholesterolemic humans. (omicsonline.org)
  • The FDA states that, "gloves are not total barriers to microbial transmission, and will not be an effective barrier alone for food workers without education on proper glove use and handwashing requirements. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect, regarding the metabolic and microbial profile of feces, of diet supplementation of healthy adults with pomegranate juice (PJ). (nih.gov)
  • In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy. (mdpi.com)
  • FOUR dogs have been discovered chained in an abandoned house without food on the Costa Blanca. (theolivepress.es)
  • Despicable farmers have chained these four dogs on short leads amid stinking faeces and all other sorts of rubbish," Ballantine said through a social media post. (theolivepress.es)
  • He confirmed to the Olive Press that a nearby casita was also abandoned as the dogs had been left without any visible food. (theolivepress.es)
  • Dogs don't routinely tell you when they don't feel well after eating or that the food that they are eating tastes like. (forbes.com)
  • Hookworm eggs are passed on to the soil by the feces of the infected person or animals like dogs and cats. (medindia.net)
  • This process is known as coprophagia, and occurs in various animal species such as young elephants eating the feces of their mothers to gain essential gut flora, or by other animals such as dogs, rabbits, and monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive gastroscopic food-sensitivity test reactions were noted in 5 of 6 dogs. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse reactions to food (diarrhea, vomiting, or pruritus) were detected in all 6 dogs during the provocative dietary trial. (nih.gov)
  • Food processing of infant formula alters chemical structures, including the formation of Maillard reaction products between proteins and sugars. (nih.gov)
  • This to investigate the relationship between breast milk and infant feces also the difference between the intestinal flora of infants vaginally delivered and those born by Caesarean section in the population from Oran (Algeria). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Upon entering the apartment, officers reported finding "deplorable" conditions, saying that the smell of feces and rotting food made it hard to "walk through [the unit] without vomiting. (theroot.com)
  • The concerning thing here is that the vomit smells like feces, which is a common smell when there is a foreign body. (justanswer.com)
  • In addition, the smell of larval feces is known to attract predators, the enemies of the larvae. (mpg.de)
  • Thus, the chemical signal from the frass helps not only the caterpillars which are already feeding on a plant but also the hovering moths: By avoiding the smell of larval feces, they may find better food for their offspring. (mpg.de)
  • These tanks are used to remove the birds feathers, but are essentially a breeding ground for feces to transfer from one carcass to the next. (all-creatures.org)
  • The proposal would reduce the time poultry workers have to inspect each carcass for feces and could result in more contaminated chicken products reaching supermarket shelves. (wordpress.com)
  • MIAMI (AP) - Court officials say a Florida man charged with burglary defecated during his criminal trial and tried to throw his feces at the judge. (wfla.com)
  • It is in the final cutting and packaging process that the contamination has it's final chance to shift further into the food chain, just waiting to be purchased by the trusting consumer. (all-creatures.org)
  • The FDA has rejected thousands of food shipments from Asia in recent years due to fecal contamination, but the FDA inspects less than 3 percent of all imported food. (endoftheamericandream.com)
  • Given that most of our food is packaged in plastic, it is highly likely we are consuming small amounts of plastic as a result of contamination on a regular basis," Nelms said. (seeker.com)
  • This study will also create greater awareness of vulnerabilities related to rodents and raw pet food. (grantome.com)
  • When Moton finally did open the door, officers reported that they could tell within seconds that the apartment was filthy and smelled of feces. (theroot.com)
  • FARK.com: (7604494) Couple that left poodle in such filthy conditions that 'Its eyes were shut with feces. (fark.com)
  • Small pieces of harder, less moist feces can sometimes be seen impacted in the distal (final or lower) end. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their lawsuit, the plaintiffs complained of large pits holding hog feces that, in addition to causing horrible smells, attracted buzzards and insects. (newser.com)
  • However, she hypothesizes that the microbiome, or gut flora, of obese people may result in them extracting more nutrients from the foods they eat, contributing to more fat being formed. (kfor.com)
  • The FDA Food Code discourages bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and sandwiches and, in fact, that violation is often noted on restaurant and food facility inspection reports. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Now, this doesn't mean that you can't find places somewhere in the world where you can get unusual parts of the cow, but hide and feces sandwiches are not standard fare in grocery stores or restaurants. (forbes.com)
  • Steve Ardagh, Chief Executive Officer of Eagle Protect said in a statement, "Strictly speaking, FDA compliance for food contact gloves does not mean gloves are clean or even intact and food safe.We have visited factories reusing dirty water during manufacturing, and packing gloves in open walled, dirty environments. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Water is absorbed by the colon and the lack of water causes the colon to absorb a large amount of water from the feces. (hubpages.com)