The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The consumption of edible substances.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
The selection of one food over another.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Abstaining from all food.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Glucose in blood.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Sexual activities of animals.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.

Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption. (1/1450)

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (2/1450)

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (3/1450)

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

Expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck), a zinc-finger signal transduction protein, is elevated by dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction in mice. (4/1450)

Compromised immune function is common to Zn deficiency, protein and energy malnutrition; however, the causative mechanisms at the molecular level have not been elucidated. The T lymphocyte signal transduction pathway contains several Zn-finger proteins, and it is possible that the in vivo functioning of these proteins could be affected by dietary deficiency of Zn and amino acids. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects, on expression of the T lymphocyte signal transduction proteins p56(lck), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) and protein kinase C (PKCalpha), of dietary Zn deficiency (ZnDF, < 1 mg Zn/kg diet) and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes [2% protein deficiency (LP), combined Zn and 2% protein deficiency (ZnDF+LP), and diet restriction (DR, body weight equal to ZnDF)] compared with control (C) mice. Indices of nutritional status and splenocyte counts were also determined. Based on serum albumin and liver lipid concentrations, the ZnDF+LP and LP groups had protein-type malnutrition, whereas the ZnDF and DR groups had energy-type malnutrition. For Western immunoblotting of the signal transduction proteins, mouse splenic T lymphocytes were isolated by immunocolumns. The expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck) was significantly elevated in the ZnDF+LP, ZnDF and DR groups compared to the C group. In contrast, the expression of PLCgamma1 and PKC was unaffected. There was a significant negative correlation between T lymphocyte p56(lck) expression and serum Zn (r= -0.65, P = 0.0007) or femur Zn (r = -0.73, P = 0.0001) concentrations. We propose that elevated T lymphocyte p56(lck) may contribute to altered thymoctye maturation, apoptosis and lymphopenia in Zn deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes.  (+info)

Interaction between genetic and dietary factors determines beta-cell function in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. (5/1450)

The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes. We studied the interaction between diet and diabetic predisposition for beta-cell function. A 4-day high-energy (HE) diet induced a 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold increase in serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, respectively, in diabetes-prone (DP) but not diabetes-resistant (DR) P. obesus. Hyperglycemia and concurrent 90% depletion of islet immunoreactive insulin stores were partially corrected by an 18-h fast. In vitro early insulin response to glucose was blunted in both DR and DP perifused islets. The HE diet augmented early and late insulin response in DR islets, whereas in DP islets, secretion progressively declined. Dose-response studies showed a species-related increase in islet glucose sensitivity, further augmented in DP P. obesus by a HE diet, concomitant with a decreased threshold for glucose and a 55% reduction in maximal response. These changes were associated with a fourfold increase in glucose phosphorylation capacity in DP islets. There were no differences in islet glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) Km; however, GK Vmax was 3.7- to 4.6-fold higher in DP islets, and HK Vmax was augmented 3.7-fold by the HE diet in DP islets. We conclude that the insulin-resistant P. obesus has an inherent deficiency in insulin release. In the genetically predisposed P. obesus (DP), augmented islet glucose phosphorylation ability and diet-induced reduction of the glucose threshold for secretion may lead to inadequate insulin secretion and depletion of insulin stores in the presence of caloric abundance. Thus, genetic predisposition and beta-cell maladaptation to nutritional load seem to determine together the progression to overt diabetes in this species. It is hypothesized that similar events may occur in obese type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

Phosphate depletion in the rat: effect of bisphosphonates and the calcemic response to PTH. (6/1450)

BACKGROUND: The removal of phosphate from the diet of the growing rat rapidly produces hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypophosphaturia. Increased calcium efflux from bone has been shown to be the important cause of the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been proposed that the increased calcium efflux from bone is osteoclast mediated. Because bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this study was performed to determine whether bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclast function changed the biochemical and bone effects induced by phosphate depletion. METHODS: Four groups of pair-fed rats were studied: (a) low-phosphate diet (LPD; phosphate less than 0.05%), (b) LPD plus the administration of the bisphosphonate Pamidronate (APD; LPD + APD), (c) normal diet (ND, 0.6% phosphate), and (d) ND + APD. All diets contained 0.6% calcium. A high dose of APD was administered subcutaneously (0.8 mg/kg) two days before the start of the study diet and on days 2, 6, and 9 during the 11 days of the study diet. On day 10, a 24-hour urine was collected, and on day 11, rats were either sacrificed or received an additional APD dose before a 48-hour parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion (0.066 microgram/100 g/hr) via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump. RESULTS: Serum and urinary calcium were greater in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND and ND + APD groups [serum, 11.12 +/- 0.34 and 11.57 +/- 0.45 vs. 9.49 +/- 0.17 and 9.48 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (mean +/- SE), P < 0.05; and urine, 8.78 +/- 2.74 and 16.30 +/- 4.68 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 and 0.67 +/- 0.28 mg/24 hr, P < 0.05]. Serum PTH and serum and urinary phosphorus were less in the LPD and LPD + APD than in the ND and ND + APD groups (P < 0.05). The calcemic response to PTH was less (P < 0.05) in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND group and was less (P = 0.05) in the LPD + APD than in the ND + APD group. Bone histology showed that phosphate depletion increased the osteoblast and osteoclast surface, and treatment with APD reduced the osteoblast surface (LPD vs. LPD + APD, 38 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2%, P < 0.05, and ND vs. ND + APD, 20 +/- 2 vs. 5 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and markedly altered osteoclast morphology by inducing cytoplasmic vacuoles. CONCLUSIONS: (a) Phosphate depletion induced hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that were not reduced by APD administration. (b) The calcemic response to PTH was reduced in phosphate-depleted rats and was unaffected by APD administration in normal and phosphate-depleted rats, and (c) APD administration markedly changed bone histology without affecting the biochemical changes induced by phosphate depletion.  (+info)

Growth hormone promotes somatic and skeletal muscle growth recovery in rats following chronic protein-energy malnutrition. (7/1450)

The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and/or a diet enriched in protein and energy to improve growth recovery following prolonged malnutrition was examined in male rats food-restricted from birth until 120 d of age. At d 121, restricted rats were randomly assigned to recovery groups receiving either a control or enriched diet with or without daily subcutaneous injections of GH. Rats were killed after 16 or 47 d of recovery. At d 16, GH treatment stimulated liver, heart, plantaris, soleus, carcass and body weight gain and inhibited fat gain when compared to recovery controls. Rats receiving GH also exhibited the highest serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and total muscle protein. At d 47, GH effects on body and muscle recovery were minimal, and differences among recovery groups in serum IGF-I concentration and total muscle protein were no longer present. Consumption of an enriched diet increased fat pad and liver mass, but did not promote muscle recovery. There were no differences among treatment groups in skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA levels at d 16 or 47. In summary, GH had positive effects on somatic and skeletal muscle growth early in the recovery process, possibly via endocrine IGF-I-stimulated protein accretion. In contrast, the enriched diet promoted fat deposition with no impact on skeletal muscle growth recovery.  (+info)

Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens. (8/1450)

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormonal mediation of the analgesia produced by food deprivation. AU - Hamm, Robert J.. AU - Knisely, Janet S.. AU - Watson, Ann. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. AU - Bossut, D. F B. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Research has demonstrated that a wide variety of environmental conditions are capable of producing analgesia. In the present experiment, the analgesia produced by 24 hr of food deprivation was examined following adrenalectomy, hypophysectomy, naltrexone (7 mg/kg), dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg), or saline treatment. Results revealed that 24 hr of starvation elicited an analgesic response in the saline-treated and sham-operated groups. Naltrexone, dexamethasone, adrenalectomy, and hypophysectomy blocked the analgesia produced by food deprivation. The results demonstrate that 24 hr of food deprivation induced an opiate-mediated analgesic system that involves hormonal factors.. AB - Research has demonstrated that a wide variety of environmental conditions are capable of producing analgesia. ...
We studied the regulation of brain acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were deprived of food and water for time periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours and were then allowed to re-feed for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Mice that were deprived for up to 6 h, and then re-fed for 60 min, consumed the same amount of food compared to the ad libitum (control) animals. However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the controls. The ACC activity was measured in the whole mouse brain of controls and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of food deprivation. Brain extracts assayed from control mice expressed an ACC activity of 0.988 ± 0.158 fmol/min/mg tissue without citrate and 0.941 ± 0.175 fmol/min/mg tissue with citrate. After 1 h of food deprivation, the total ACC activity without citrate decreased to 0.575 ± 0.087 fmol/min/mg and in the
This study was conducted to determine the roles of plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in the acquisition of thermotolerance in broiler chickens subjected to neonatal feed restriction.Equal numbers of chicks were divided into one of the four feeding regimens: ad libitum (control), 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5 and 6 (FR60), 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5 and 6 + 1500 mg/kg metyrapone (FR60M) and 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5 and 6 + 1500 mg/kg quercetin (FR60Q). From 35 to 42 days of age, all birds were exposed to 37 ± 1°C and 70-80% relative humidity for 3 h/day. The neonatal feed restriction elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (HLR), CORT and Hsp70 expression in FR60 chicks. The FR60M and FR60Q treatments suppressed CORT and Hsp70 expression, respectively. Subjecting birds to FR60 improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight gain, and reduced HLR when compared to controls in response to heat exposure. Following heat ...
Twice-daily injection of ICV administration of OXM for 7 days caused a reduction in daily food intake with no tachyphylaxis. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in body weight gain that was associated with a decrease in adipose tissue. Animals were observed daily and showed no signs of illness or behavioral abnormality. In the pair-fed group, animals gained slightly less weight than control animals, although this was not statistically significant. However, the OXM-treated animals gained significantly less weight than either of the two control groups. Furthermore, the reduction in WAT and BAT observed after chronic ICV OXM administration was not observed in the pair-fed group. This is suggestive of OXM causing weight loss and reduced body adiposity by mechanisms additional to its effects on food intake.. It is known that, during fasting and chronic food restriction, the expression of prepro-TRH in the PVN is suppressed. This reduces the secretion of TSH from the pituitary, which, in ...
The World Food Summit mandated FAO to measure and monitor progress towards the Summit goal of halving the number of hungry by 2015. The decision to hold a scientific symposium on the measurement of food deprivation and undernutrition was motivated by this objective and the need to review the current status of the widely used methods for measuring hunger. It also aimed to recommend improvements in the methods, which would help FAO to further its work in carrying out this mandate. Since the monitoring of the progress towards the World Food Summit goal involves national and international stakeholders, the Symposium also provided an opportunity for them to present their perspectives.. By promoting dialogue among advocates of various methods, the Symposium served to create a greater appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods as well as how the corresponding measures complement each other. The main consensus to emerge at the Symposium was that no single measure can capture ...
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32°C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23°C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24°C; maximum, 34°C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 ...
Dietary restriction extends lifespan and retards age-related disease in many species and profoundly alters endocrine function in mammals. However, no causal role of any hormonal signal in diet-restricted longevity has been demonstrated. Here we show that increased longevity of diet-restricted Caenor …
Daily 23-h food deprivation for 1-5 days induced gastric ulcers and atrophic changes of the spleen and thymus, accompanied by a rise in plasma cortisol and catecholamine levels in mice. It also modulated several immune cell functions in the spleen including a drop in the B cell population but no cha …
The results of the childrens study have been published in a separate article in the American medical journal Pediatrics. In the families, there were 827 children who only participated in the diet intervention. Thus, they were never required to go on a diet or count calories -- they simply followed the same diet as their parents. Approx. 45% of the children in these families were overweight. The results of the childrens study were remarkable: In the group of children who maintained a high-protein, low-GI diet the prevalence of overweight dropped spontaneously from approx. 46% to 39% -- a decrease of approx. 15%. Proteins and low-GI foods ad libitum -- the way ahead. The Diogenes study shows that the current dietary recommendations are not optimal for preventing weight gain among overweight people. A diet consisting of a slightly higher protein content and low-GI foods ad libitum appears to be easier to observe and has been documented to ensure that overweight people who have lost weight ...
Australian children are bombarded with junk food ads on their way to school.. NSW researchers looked for ads within 500 metres of 40 schools and found more than 9,000. A quarter of these were food ads - mostly for non-core items such as soft drinks and alcohol. Read the abstract: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Dec 2008. Read more: The Australian, 10 Dec 2008. ...
Michael: I agree. Animal care in general, and food restriction in particular, are not just appropriate topics, they are at the core of what I look for zebrafish listserv. Its is the only one that everybody working on zebrafish is guaranteed to find relevant! I do not know any of the animal care literature on whether fish (or other ectotherms) experience pain and suffering from food restriction. One positive health effect of food restriction could come from an improvement in water quality. From my aquaria at home, I can report that over-feeding is a much greater fish welfare problem than not feeding. Fish at my house (not covered by an animal care and use protocol!) have gone months without food; if anything this seemed to make them more robust. On the other hand, when we had a neighbor stop by to feed the fish and the cat for a week, most fish died, and the ones that survived her over-feeding were grotesquely distended. Stephen ----------------------- Stephen H. Devoto, Associate Professor ...
FOOD RESTRICTION AS A SIGNAL INHIBITING THE AGING PROGRAM. Food restriction is an example of one of the most universal ways to slow the aging program due to signals of certain receptors. From 1934, K. M. MacCay and T. B. Robertson published a series of articles on the 50-70% increase in lifespan of mice and rats restricted in food consumption [4-7]. It is also worth noting that the cases of death caused by lung infections and some tumors dramatically decreased in these animals. They observed that those long-living animals looked young and agile during their entire lifetime regardless of age. Later, the beneficial effect of food restriction on lifespan was demonstrated for a wide variety of eukaryotic species ranging from yeast to rhesus macaques and humans. Harmans hypothesis on the role of ROS in aging [8] led to a new explanation for this phenomenon: the most likely cause was seen to be the reduction of the amount of food oxidized by oxygen and hence the decrease in ROS production and their ...
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At the beginning of the 20th century, dietary deficiency diseases were at the forefront of nutritional and medical research. A new paradigm was becoming widely accepted, notably that minor constituents of food were essentialfor life. From 1915 to the 1950s, some 40 essential nutrients were identified and characterized and their functions were explored (1). Among the approaches used to study these essential compounds were dietary studies in humans, which bridged the gap between the human population-based studies of deficiency and the animal studies of essentiality.. Controlled feeding studies in healthy humans were used to establish the quantitative requirements and confirm essentiality of nutrients in humans. Typically, these studies had small sample sizes, were intensively controlled, and often focused on restriction and refeeding ofspecific nutrients or nutrient sources. They evaluated the acute effects of food deprivation (2), showed experimentally the effects of dietary restrictions on ...
Feed withdrawal in broiler flocks that are about to be taken to slaughter, greatly influences processing and carcase quality. It does not only affect carcass yield, but also increases the operating expenses if this is not done properly. Managing this process well in advance at the farm, may help reduce unwanted consequences later on in the processing plant.
Good question: why am I in such a rush to lose weight? I dont know the answer to that. Maybe because I dont believe that real life will ever allow me to be thin; only crash diets, food deprivation etc. I am scared of being myself, eating what I want etc, cos I know where that has got me over the last 20 yrs. ...
Professor Ortiz is also pursuing studies that address the link between diabetes and obesity with hypertension.. From an evolutionary perspective, he is interested in the physiological mechanisms marine-adapted vertebrates use to regulate water and electrolytes during a variety of altered environmental conditions, such as prolonged food deprivation or extended fresh water exposure.. ...
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Two 42-d studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restricted feed intake and feeding frequency on the performance of pigs weighing from 150 to 250 lb (initially 148 lb in Exp. 1 and 155 lb in Exp. 2). Our objective ...
Highlights 17 million people are food insecure, a staggering seven million of whom are at risk of famine. Acute food insecurity is expected to deteriorate further without continued, ...read more ...
The role of nutrition on the develo pment of the endocrine pancreas was studied in a rat model obtained by maternal food restriction. A 50 % food restriction was a p plied to female rats from day 15 o
Animals exhibit different behavioral responses to the same sensory cue depending on their state at a given moment in time. How and where in the brain are sensory inputs combined with internal state information to select an appropriate behavior? Here we investigate how food deprivation affects olfactory behavior in Drosophila larvae. We find that certain odors reliably repel well-fed animals but attract food-deprived animals. We show that feeding state flexibly alters neural processing in the first olfactory center, the antennal lobe. Food deprivation differentially modulates two separate output pathways that are required for opposing behavioral responses. Uniglomerular projection neurons mediate odor attraction and show elevated odor-evoked activity in the food-deprived state. A multiglomerular projection neuron mediates odor aversion and receives odor-evoked inhibition in the food-deprived state. The switch between these two pathways is regulated by the lone serotonergic neuron in the antennal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat offspring. AU - Fujii, T.. AU - Yura, S.. AU - Tatsumi, K.. AU - Kondoh, E.. AU - Mogami, H.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Kakui, K.. AU - Aoe, S.. AU - Itoh, H.. AU - Sagawa, N.. AU - Fujii, S.. AU - Konishi, I.. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Maternal food restriction is known to cause developmental hypertension in offspring. We have previously shown that maternal high-protein diet can reverse fetal programming of hypertension and that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma were increased by maternal high-protein intake. Then, we hypothesized that isocaloric supplementation with BCAA to a maternal food restriction can reverse the adverse outcome. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups at 7.5 days postcoitum: normally nourished (NN) and 70% undernourished (UN) groups with and without BCAA supplementation (NN-standard ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
Overall, the evidence from the interventions reviewed suggests that weight loss of 5% in NAFLD or 7-10% in NASH is beneficial, and this should be achieved by a combination of moderate dietary restriction and 30-60 min of moderate-intensity exercise on 3-5 days per week. Moderate-intensity exercise requires moderate effort and noticeable acceleration of the heart rate with some increase in rate of breathing, but the person should still be able to hold a conversation. Moderate-intensity activities include brisk walking, taking stairs, using a cross trainer, gardening or vigorous housework. High-intensity exercise requires a large effort with substantial increase in heart rate and rapid breathing, for example, running or fast cycling; individuals are considerably less able to hold a conversation. The combination of diet and exercise appears to increase the likelihood of achieving the required weight loss and leads to greater improvements in markers of NAFLD activity; current guidelines reflect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles. AU - Meyer,Stefan. AU - Caldarone,E.M.. AU - Chicharo,M.A.. AU - Clemmensen,C.. AU - Faria,A.M.. AU - Faulk,C.. AU - Folkvord,A.. AU - Holt,G.J.. AU - Høie,H.. AU - Mahlzahn,A.. AU - Moran,D.. AU - Petereit,C.. AU - Støttrup,Josianne. AU - Peck,M.A.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across-species analysis of starvation-induced changes in biochemical condition in early life stages of ninemarine and freshwater fishes. Datawere compiled on changes in body size (dry weight, DW) and biochemical condition (standardized RNA-DNA ratio, sRD) throughout the course of starvation of ...
Haitis rural communities already faced poverty, lack of infrastructure before quake World Vision providing food and other essential items to rural communities Contact: Laura Blank, World Vision, 646-245-2496, [email protected] PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti, March 2 /Christian Newswire/ -- World Vision warns Haitis rural communities are at risk for chronic food and water shortages as the burden to care for the displaced grows. Families in these communities are struggling
Food-deprived animals were acclimated and trained on 2 successive days. On the day before acclimation, all animals were provided with three food pellets in their home cages to familiarize them with the novel reinforcer. On the acclimation day, each mouse was placed in the four alleys of the maze, but the openings between the alleys were blocked so that the animals could not navigate the maze. Each animal was confined to the start and subsequent two alleys for 4 min and for 6 min in the last (goal) alley, where three food pellets were present in the food cup. This acclimation period promotes stable and high levels of activity on the subsequent training day. On the training day, each animal was placed in the start box and allowed to traverse the maze until it reached the goal box and consumed the single food pellet present in the cup. After it consumed the food, the animal was returned to its home cage for a 20 min interval (ITI), after which it was returned to the start box to begin the next ...
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Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line-types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months, to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line-types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high, and did not change in the low BMR line-type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
We have demonstrated that the mGlu5 receptor modulates food intake and energy balance in rodents. Adult mice with a transgenic deletion of the receptor weigh less than their wild-type littermates. Although mGluR5-/- mice ingested the same number of kilocalories per gram of body weight, they tended to gain less weight and ate less in response to food deprivation. When placed on a high fat diet, mGluR5-/- mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity, they gained less weight, and had lower plasma insulin and leptin concentrations than their wild-type counterparts. The selective mGlu5 antagonist MTEP dose-dependently decreased fasting-induced refeeding in wild-type, but not mGluR5-/- mice, suggesting that acute reduction in food intake by MTEP is mGlu5-dependent. MTEP decreased food intake in rats, and when chronically administered, it decreased body weight and adiposity in lean and DIO rats.. Acute Appetite. In both rats and mice, MTEP decreased food intake. In mouse, pharmacological effects of MTEP ...
Synonyms for starvation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for starvation. 6 synonyms for starvation: lack of food, famine, malnourishment, food deprivation, famishment, starving. What are synonyms for starvation?
Historically, a moderate degree of overweight was considered desirable. In a society in which food was scarce, fatness demonstrated greater than average wealth and prosperity.. This attitude persists in many developing countries today; food is scarce, and few people have enough to eat, let alone too much.. There is a good biological (evolutionary) argument in favour of a modest degree of overweight. A person who has reserves of fat is more likely to be able to survive a period of food deprivation or famine than a person with smaller fat reserves. So, at least in times past, fatter people may have been at an advantage. This is no longer so in developed countries, where there are no longer seasonal shortages of food. Widespread hunger is not been a problem in Western Europe or North America, although, as discussed in Chapter 8, lack of food is still a major problem in many countries.. Figure 6.3 shows that in 1998 (the most recent year for which data are available) more than half of all people in ...
Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. Gorging mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non
The researchers found that so-called hypocretin neurons--having important roles in both arousal and appetite--lack the ability of most neurons to filter noise from signal, reported Tamas Horvath and Xiao-Bing Gao of Yale University School of Medicine. The neurons also rapidly reorganize themselves, becoming even more excitable, in response to stresses such as food deprivation, they found ...
Report by AGRA warns that Africa will not alleviate its chronic food shortages and unemployment unless youth get more involved in agriculture
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The Japanese blogs are always among the most interesting, so Im really looking forward to yours. Im feeling very Japanese food-deprived (its just about ...
Do you suffer from vitiligo? Did you know that your diet may be making your symptoms worse? The following foods have been linked with increasing symptoms of vitiligo. Read more about the connection below.
Well, you really are what you eat.The following foods when taken in excess can lead to pain in the joint. A little change in this area can do a lot of good.
The following foods are awesome muscle packed foods to keep yourself updated of when creating, cooking or even buying your diet. What you take into program is so important, and will affect package from this tool.. My first tip that you choose to build muscle and lose weight quick while traveling is to workout either the day you are leaving or go with the day prior to this. The reason you should achieve is mainly because weight room at the hotel you are staying out may have weird opening hours and also the equipment at the weight room might be limited and unable to fulfill your lifting needs.. Knowing how to build muscle when you are skinny doesnt really require much skill, just one little bit of helpful facts. One of the items that are convinced do wrong is feel their meals are just superior.. Next you have to get enough free weights and the bars. Each morning . spend any cash on dumbbells, because tips for building muscle you need two dumbbell rods and it is simple to add weight to ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
A crash diet refers to willful nutritional restriction (except water) for more than 12 hours. The desired result is to have the body burn fat for energy with the goal of losing a significant amount of weight in a short time. There is a possibility of ...
Diets falling into the low-carb category restrict carbohydrates in favor of protein. While the diet concept is the same, the specific food restrictions and plans vary between the major low-carb diets.
7CFR Restrictions on the Introduction of Regulated Articles Definitions Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests Notification for the introduction of certain regulated
I am opening this up for discussion: what are the limits to posting here.For those that dont know, SpiceWorks admins have the powe... | 14 replies | PowerShell
Food and sleep deprivation[edit]. A Ranger student's diet and sleep are strictly controlled by the Ranger Instructors. During ... A drastically lowered metabolic rate, combined with a nearly insatiable appetite (the result of food deprivation and the ... Since food and sleep are at the bottom of the priorities of those in the infantry behind security, weapons maintenance, and ... eat civilian food, and watch television. In years past, the "Gator Lounge" served this purpose, but it was destroyed by a fire ...
Competition for food[edit]. Specifically, when competing for food, aggression occurs based on amount of food available and is ... Effect of sleep deprivation[edit]. However, like most behaviors requiring arousal and wakefulness, aggression was found to be ... This is possibly due to an over-abundance of food resources. On a larger scale, food was found to determine the boundaries of a ... "How a Fly Detects Poison"-WhyFiles.org article describes how the fruit fly tastes a larva-killing chemical in food. ...
The rough tactics range from waterboarding (simulated drowning) to keeping suspects naked and denying them solid food. These ... sleep-deprivation, prolonged shackling, and threats to a detainee's family. One of the memos also authorized a method for ... eating food out of toilets; crawling on hands and knees while American soldiers sat on their backs, sometimes requiring them to ... including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of ...
Food deprivation. Victims include CPP founder Jose Maria Sison and Rev. Cesar Taguba. Pompyang (cymbals) - ear clapping. ... "Debt, deprivation and spoils of dictatorship , 31 years of amnesia". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on 2017-06 ... Sleep deprivation. Victims include Ninoy Aquino and Maria Elena-Ang. Playing loud, repetitive music. Victims include Ninoy ...
Food deprivation. Victims include NPA founder Jose Maria Sison and Rev. Cesar Taguba. Pompyang (cymbals) - ear clapping. ... "Debt, deprivation and spoils of dictatorship , 31 years of amnesia". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on June 26 ... Sleep deprivation. Victims include Ninoy Aquino and Maria Elena-Ang. Playing loud, repetitive music. Victims include Ninoy ... The protesters who stormed Malacañang Palace would later loot it, many would steal documents, jewelries, food from the pantries ...
... and sleep deprivation are the side effects of excessive warmness. Some actions or consuming some food stuff can contribute to ... They should abstain from spices, pepper, spicy food, sweets, salty and deep fried food items. Instead they should eat food with ... although spicy foods are warmer and dryer than bitter and salty foods respectively. Sweetness is warm and wet and most food ... deep fried foods, tomato paste and sauces, and fast food; and instead they should consume high calories and low volume foods. ...
... deprivation of sleep; deprivation of food and drink. The Court ruled that the five techniques used together and combined with ... "sensory deprivation" techniques, were not used in any cases other than the fourteen so indicated above. It emerges from the ...
... or deprivation of food, shelter or other necessities may constitute a menace of a penalty. The absence of a voluntary offer ... Deprivation of food • Debt bondage / manipulated debt • Withholding or non-payment of wages • Retention of identity documents ... bonded labourers repay a loan through their work and face deductions for food, tools, housing or employers charges). ILO Forced ...
... sleep deprivation; 'underground membership.'" In 2020, the fraternity chapter at Furman University was suspended for four years ... forcing new members to consume food items such as jalapeños, habaneros, red onions, and milk until vomiting was induced; ...
... deprivation of edible food; spectators paying to watch him suffering and, what for Asgill was the final straw, deprivation of ...
Virtually all our sample were subject to: verbal abuse, humiliation and threats of injury; sleep and food deprivation; hooding ... The food is of poor quality and quantity, and detainees lose weight. During interrogation, detainees are exposed to threats, ... withholding food and blindfolding for long periods; insertion of bottles or sticks into anus; insertion of wire into penis; ... deprived of sleep and food, given cold showers and being forced to stand naked outside in rain at night. The first study of ...
There, she founded the food and lifestyle brand Emma's Kitchen. In 2017, she became a brand ambassador for Fiorucci. She also ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Emma Weymouth , Moderation Not Deprivation". Emma-weymouth.com. Retrieved 29 November ... The same year, she hosted the first annual Longleat Food and Drink Festival. In February 2018, she walked in Dolce & Gabbana's ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Longleat Food Festival". Emma Weymouth. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017. CS1 ...
The alleged torture included beatings; threats of electrocution; deprivation of sleep, food and water; and being choked by a ...
Nonetheless the poor experienced real deprivation). Food was donated to war-refugees in Spain. The nation did need to import ... While Ireland's food production was increasing, British food imports were falling; for example the UK imported 1,360,000 tons ... Although Ireland had a surplus of food, some foods were not grown in Ireland, as the climate was unsuitable. Only small plots ... When the war was over, she returned to Naples with a cargo of food, a gift from Ireland to war-ravaged Italy. Irish Hazel was ...
Malnutrition and food deprivation also occur. A number have depression and suicidal thoughts because of the trauma. Some are ...
... based on the observation that long-term sleep deprivation in rodents dramatically increases food intake and energy metabolism, ... Sleep deprivation then leads to a lack of energy. In order to make up for this lack of energy, many people use high- ... Sleep deprivation also increases orexin-A transmission. The orexin system may thus be more important in the regulation of ... Ghrelin is a short-term factor secreted by the stomach just before an expected meal, and strongly promotes food intake. Orexin- ...
"Food Deprivation: A Basis for Refugee Status?" Social Research International Quarterly 327-339. Hathaway, J. (ed.) 2013. Human ...
Another common disciplinary measure was food deprivation. The children lived in fear and were deprived of all love and ...
Incentive size, food deprivation, and food preference. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1953. Effect of cortical implantation of ... In one situation, the wire mother held a bottle with food, and the cloth mother held no food. In the other situation, the cloth ... In one situation, the wire mother held a bottle with food, and the cloth mother held no food. In the other situation, the cloth ... Touch deprivation may cause stress-induced activation of the pituitary-adrenal system, which, in turn, leads to increased ...
For example, food deprivation is a motivating operation; if a person is hungry, food is strongly reinforcing, but if a person ... For example, food deprivation changes the value of food, making it more reinforcing, and it also evokes learned behaviors that ... Likewise, food satiation reduces both the reinforcing effect of food and the probability of food-getting behaviors. Note that a ... Deprivation of food, water, sleep, activity, or oxygen; becoming too warm or too cold; and increase of a painful stimulus all ...
... deprivation of food, sleep, and use of toilet; rape and gang rape; asphyxiation; and threat, extortion, and termination of ... Practitioners of Falun Gong are forbidden to kill living things-including animals for the purpose of obtaining food-though they ...
Later the housefather finds the letter; The group will be punished with food deprivation. Wolfgang tries to steal tomatoes from ... for example by rationing the food or a smoking ban. He leaves it to the pupils to personally punish the "guilty one", and then ...
5-7. ISBN 978-1-85984-739-8. Murton Brian (2001). Kenneth F. Kiple (ed.). The Cambridge world history of food. 2. Cambridge ... Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19 ... ISBN 978-0-521-40215-6. Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University ... as the survivors migrated in search of food. Many cultivated lands were abandoned-much of Birbhum, for instance, returned to ...
Hunger in History: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. Blackwell. J.X. Kasperson and R.W. Kates, (eds.), 1990. Overcoming ... Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Berkeley: University of California Press. [runner-up for ... Climate Change and World Food Security special issue of Global Environmental Change, Vol. 4 No.1, March, 1994, pp. 1-88. Burton ... Hunger in the 1990s, a special issue of Food Policy, Vol.15, No. 4, pp. 273-368. Turner, B.L. II, Hyden G, and R.W. Kates (Eds ...
The VCT can be done with food deprivation too. Before beginning the test animals must be acclimated to the cage and food ... If doing the VCT using food, animals must be trained to be able to pull the lever for the food dispenser and accept the pellet ... Water deprivation is 18 hours or water is provided for 1 hour a day for four days before beginning the test. Electrical shock ... If the shock the animals are receiving is too low, then animals might ignore the shock and continue to get food or water which ...
Zitron-Emanuel, Noa; Ganel, Tzvi (1 September 2018). "Food deprivation reduces the susceptibility to size-contrast illusions". ... Further testing showed that when chimpanzees were offered food on small and large plates, as they often picked the food on the ... Parrish & Beran (2014) found that chimpanzees would regularly select food platters that contained more food. ... In 2012, Ittersum and Wansink published a study that hinted to the Delboeuf illusion as a factor in increased food servings. ...
"Corticosterone Feeding Behavior and Food Deprivation in Passerine Birds". American Zoologist. 29 (4): 1-195A. doi:10.1093/icb/ ... Migration by this bird is highly variable, probably related to food supply. Large numbers may move south in some years; hardly ... providing extra food on cold days. They will alternately eat the young buds of willows, elms and maples, and the soft stems and ... which they then feed to the young as a protein-rich food that contributes to their growth. By the time of winter, even first ...
... humiliation and deprivation of food, education and healthcare. Details of the mistreatment and abuse that emerged in ... dental care unethical use as test subjects of experimental medication and drugs extreme physical hardship lack of healthy food ...
Food deprivation is another cue for spiders to disperse. Acute feeding stress, feeding history and age all influence how food ... The habitat chosen by the mother can affect ballooning behavior in offspring because of temperature, food availability, and ... deprivation influences tip-toe behavior. Increases in temperature are another cue for E. atra dispersal behavior. In late ...
by Paul R. Greenough; Subject to Famine: Food Crises and Economic Change in Western India, 1860- 1920. by Michelle B. McAlpin; ... by Morgan D. Maclachlan; Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. by Amartya Sen" (PDF), The Journal of ... 108-146, ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7 Ghose, Ajit Kumar (1982), "Food Supply and Starvation: A Study of Famines with Reference to the ... sfn error: no target: CITEREFCambridge1983 (help) Arun Agrawal (2013), "Food Security and Sociopolitical Stability in South ...
Laboratory studies have linked short-term sleep deprivations to changes in glucose metabolism, nervous system activity, or ... "Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies". European ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November ... Giltay EJ, Gooren LJ (2009). "Potential side effects of androgen deprivation treatment in sex offenders". The Journal of the ... Unlike combined birth control pills, it is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for this purpose.[1][ ... Facial redness triggered by heat or the consumption of alcohol or spicy food is also more suggestive of rosacea.[73] The ...
bed bug on the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Featured Creatures Web site ...
In 2005 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted Cortex Pharmaceuticals' Investigational New Drug (IND) application ... and it counteracted the effects of sleep deprivation. However, a 2006 study funded by DARPA found that CX717 did not improve ... "Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717) in nonhuman primates". ...
... of daily food consumption.[15] Fish was the second major food source,[16] supplemented by small amounts of wheat.[J] The ... Sen, Amartya (1981a). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. New York: Oxford University Press. (See ... even as the beginning of a food crisis began to become apparent.[Y] The influx of refugees created more demand for food,[75] ... Collingham, Lizzie (2012). Taste of War: World War II and the Battle for Food. New York: Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1- ...
DeprivationEdit. As measured by the English Indices of Deprivation 2007, the region shows similarities with Southern England in ... Trowbridge has Apetito UK,[150] Wiltshire Farm Foods, Danone UK and their subsidiary Numico.[151] Cereal Partners make Shredded ... "Deprivation indices 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.. ... "Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2007". Data.gov. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ...
"European Food Safety Authority. September 18, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2018.. *^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration 14. ... Suggested function from deprivation effects or active metabolic handling, but no clearly-identified biochemical function in ... The elements may be naturally present in the food (e.g., calcium in dairy milk) or added to the food (e.g., orange juice ... Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[19][20] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[21] ...
A hanged body is more exposed to air and thus will dry out faster leaving less food source for the maggots. ... When conditions are dry, the deprivation of moisture outside drives many pests inside searching for water. While the rainy ... This is because the insects are in search of food, water, and shelter. Damp weather causes reproduction and growth enhancement ... forensic entomology is often used in litigation over insect infestation or contamination of commercially distributed foods.[8] ...
In significant cases of OSA, one consequence is sleep deprivation due to the repetitive disruption and recovery of sleep ... For patients who cannot use a continuous positive airway pressure device, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2014 granted ... Without treatment, the sleep deprivation and lack of oxygen caused by sleep apnea increases health risks such as cardiovascular ... FDA "Premarket Approval (PMA) Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation System" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 30, 2014. ...
In particular, studies have indicated that rats have memory for where they have hidden food and what type of food they have ... Sleep deprivation and sleep has also been a researched association. Sleep deprivation actually hinders memory performance ... to the arms of the maze where they have previously hidden preferred food than to arms with less preferred food or where no food ... In most cases, the rat is placed in the center of the maze and needs to explore each arm individually to retrieve food while ...
"Food Chemistry. 138 (2-3): 1034-1041. 2013-06-01. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.102. ISSN 0308-8146.. ... These metabolic stresses include hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and an increase in proliferation. These stresses activate ... is induced in response to the nutrient depletion that occurs in animals at birth after severing off the trans-placental food ...
These metabolic stresses include hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and an increase in proliferation. These stresses activate ... is induced in response to the nutrient depletion that occurs in animals at birth after severing off the trans-placental food ...
... indicating an extreme deprivation of a primary food source.[28] ... Food securityEdit. Main article: food security. Long term ... Food shortages in a population are caused either by a lack of food or by difficulties in food distribution; it may be worsened ... Climate and Food Security: Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Climate Variability and Food Security in ... a chance to work for food or cash. Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally ...
When the birds were given both water and food, total water gain was 8.5 L·d−1. In the food only condition total water gain was ... In times of water deprivation, urine electrolyte and osmotic concentration increases while urination rate decreases. Under ... the most important source of water is food. When ostriches were restricted to the no food or water condition, the metabolic ... The bolus may be as much as 210 ml (7.1 US fl oz). After passing through the neck (there is no crop) the food enters the ...
Fishery provides Gaza with a large share of its food production and provided more than 12,000 jobs. According to Amira Hass, ... "Deprivation in the Gaza Strip". Boston Globe.. *^ "Deprived and Endangered: Humanitarian Crisis in the Gaza Strip". Human ...
Find out that restaurants trick you, and how the looks of food can turn you away. ... How does 36 hours without sleep affect your brain? Learn the dangers of sleep deprivation. ...
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES,FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, CENTER FOR DRUG EVALUATION AND RESEARCH, ... keskkonna mõjud - Über-/Unterforderung, väärkohtlemine, hooletusse jätmine, Deprivation.[64]. Komorbiidsed seisundid[muuda , ...
Ongoing sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk for some chronic health problems. In addition, sleep deprivation ... The food guide pyramid is a pyramid-shaped guide of healthy foods divided into sections. Each section shows the recommended ... A healthy diet includes a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods that provide nutrients to your body. Such nutrients ... Main articles: Sleep and Sleep deprivation. Sleep is an essential component to maintaining health. In children, sleep is also ...
Food, dress, law and burials[edit]. In Albania Halal slaughter of animals and food is permitted, mainly available in the ... Due in part to the deprivation and persecution experienced during the communist period, Muslims within Albania have showed ... hospitals and so on and people requesting Halal food in those places are usually sidelined. Muslim dress is not prohibited in ... No centralised organisation exists for Halal certification of food which is unavailable in Albanian state institutions like ...
Conditions of sleep deprivation encourage more episodes of alcohol consumption.[2] Increased alcohol consumption during the ... Wine and food matching. *Long-distance race involving alcohol. *List of countries by alcohol consumption per capita *Alcohol ...
"Food & Nutrition Research. 52: 10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1641. doi:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1641. PMC 2596738 . PMID 19109662.. ... "Hormone (androgen deprivation) therapy for prostate cancer". cancer.org. Retrieved 3 October 2013.. ... "Effect of peptides derived from food proteins on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" ...
... like that needed for spooning food onto a plate.[29][non-primary source needed] Grip strength impairments are less common.[29][ ... Missiuna, C; Pollock N (October 1991). "Play deprivation in children with physical disabilities: the role of the occupational ... Due to sensory and motor impairments, those with CP may have difficulty preparing food, holding utensils, or chewing and ... not being able to bend the hips enough to allow the arms to stretch forward to reach and grasp food or utensils, and lack of ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-04-28. Archived from the original on 2013-09-22.. ... "Increased androgen receptor activity and altered c-myc expression in prostate cancer cells after long-term androgen deprivation ... United States Food and Drug Administration. 2012-08-31. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02.. ... Research, World Cancer Research Fund ; American Institute for Cancer (2007). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the ...
Spencer, Laci (2015-05-29). Flotation: A Guide for Sensory Deprivation, Relaxation, & Isolation Tanks. Lulu.com. ISBN ... Grehlin stimulates hunger and the intake of food and leptin acts to signal satiety (fullness). ... Spencer, Laci (2015). Flotation: A Guide for Sensory Deprivation, Relaxation, & Isolation Tanks. Lulu.com. p. 29. ISBN ...
According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058-111), the government was also expected to store up food supplies in ... National (general deprivation). *Carstairs index. *Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 (IMD2000). *Indices of deprivation 2004 ( ... the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month. ... has been linked to a rise in food banks. A study published in the British Medical Journal in 2015 found that each 1 percentage ...
According to news reports from RBS news, he will have to serve eight years on charges such as riot and deprivation of liberty, ... then accused of stealing food from the school kitchen. He then killed a security guard, who was suspected of being the actual ... than half committed while in jail-but was sentenced again in August 2018 for participating in six riots and for deprivation of ...
"Nurses have increased risk of sleep disorders, sleep deprivation - AASM". American Academy of Sleep Medicine - Association for ... the US Food and Drug Administration) for excessive sleepiness associated with SWSD.[28] ... There is an inevitable degree of sleep deprivation associated with sudden transitions in sleep schedule.[3] ... Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are factors that contribute significantly to these errors.[8] ...
Deprivation associated with poor-quality neighbourhoods, schools, and housing sets children off on paths that are not conducive ... The United States Centers for Disease Control defines social determinants of health as "life-enhancing resources, such as food ... Nutritional deprivation during childhood has lasting health effects as well. Pathway effects are experiences that set ... "A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Depression, Anxiety, and Sleep Disorders in US Adults with Food Insecurity." Journal ...
The mate deprivation hypothesis alludes to the concept that the threshold for rape is lowered in males that lack alternative ... such as access to food, protection from aggression and overall helping them attain personal survival and an increased social ...
REM sleep deprivation and food intake.. Bhanot JL1, Chhina GS, Singh B, Sachdeva U, Kumar VM. ... The effect of REM-sleep deprivation (REM-SD) on diet preference was studied in rats. REM-SD for a period of 72 hrs produced an ...
It has been established that hunger, caused by food deprivation, influences peoples physiological and emotional state and ... Food deprivation did not lead to any biases in the average perception of food size. The results show that food deprivation ... Unlike the effect food deprivation had on visual resolution in the present investigation, food deprivation did not lead to any ... when they were hungry following a mild period of food deprivation. The fact that mild food deprivation increases human ...
The decision to hold a scientific symposium on the measurement of food deprivation and undernutrition was motivated by this ... The food intake surveys measure actual food intake at the individual level. The modalities for data collection include taking a ... International Scientific Symposium on Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition: executive summary. The ... as well as of the food composition tables used for determining the energy content of foods. There are problems as well with the ...
Induction of leptin receptor expression in the liver by leptin and food deprivation.. Cohen P1, Yang G, Yu X, Soukas AA, ... and short term food restriction. However, induction of SLR by leptin is abolished in mice with selective deletion of Ob-R from ...
... died from oxygen deprivation. (SR) Former Idaho House Speaker Lawerence Denney will run for secretary of state. (CdA Press) The ... the FDA is considering new rules for animal food. (WaPo). ... MORNING BRIEFING: Oxygen deprivation, JonBenet and new pet food ...
Twelve intact and six vagotomized animals received infusions terminating food deprivations of 4, 8, and 24 hr while the ... Although glucagon infusion in 4-hr food-deprived intact rabbits produced 38% suppression of food intake during the first hr ... Longer deprivations followed by glucagon did not produce suppression, and glucagon was completely ineffective in suppressing ... These results indicate that glucagon can suppress food intake without depletion of liver glycogen. It is suggested that ...
The weight of fourth instars and adults declined in an accelerating pattern as food deprivation period increased. However, food ... Mpho W. Phoofolo, Kristopher L. Giles, and Norman C. Elliott "Larval Life History Responses to Food Deprivation in Three ... Percentage weight loss of larvae was affected by food deprivation period and coccinellid species. Both C. maculata and H. ... The increase in H. axyridis larval development time as a result of an increase in food deprivation period was curvilinear. ...
The participants were asked to rate the food items and as an incentive could choose the food they craved most following the MRI ... According to experts, people short on sleep are more inclined to gorge on unhealthy junk food which spells doom for their ... In a bid to understand whether lack of proper sleep makes junk food more appealing, the researchers conducted a study.They ... Top 10 magnesium-rich foods. Diet & Nutrition Jyotika Thakur - February 12, 2021. 0 ...
Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brains Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study. Benedict, Christian Uppsala ... Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most ... Our objective was to examine brain activation after sleep and sleep deprivation in response to images of food. ... total sleep deprivation was associated with an increased activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex in response to food ...
9038999 - Food hoarding is increased by pregnancy, lactation, and food deprivation in siberian ha.... 24226039 - Risk ... Food Deprivation / physiology*. Gastrointestinal Agents / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Ghrelin. Injections, ... ghrelin and 0.1 and 1 nmol i3vt ghrelin all generalized to a state of 24 h food deprivation, indicating that exogenous ghrelin ... but not when 1 h food deprived (24+ group). A second group was trained using the opposite sucrose-deprivation level contingency ...
The capacity of carbohydrate and ketone bodies metabolism in brain and liver was evaluated in fed and food-deprived Atlantic ... Atlantic salmon brain liver food deprivation glucose ketone bodies This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Food deprivation and refeeding in Atlantic salmon,Salmo salar: effects on brain and liver carbohydrate and ketone bodies ... Metabolic responses to food deprivation and refeeding in juveniles ofRutilus rutilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Env. Biol. Fish. ...
Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation.. ... Food Deprivation:physiology, Hypothalamus:growth & development, Leptin:blood, Pregnancy, RNA, Messenger:metabolism, Rats,. ... Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. ...
... ... Food intake was determined using a food balance method. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured using a closed-circuit ... to variations of food availability was examined in weaned male KM mice that were acclimated to a random food deprivation (FD) ... Development is affected significantly by lower food availability but recovers to the normal level when food is plentiful. ...
However, little is known about the effects of food deprivation on substance use in humans. The purpose of the present study was ... The Effect of Food Deprivation on Cigarette Smoking in Females. by Kendzor, Darla E. ... Studies have shown that food deprivation is associated with increases in the self-administration of nicotine and other ... and smoking topography in 15 female participants during a state of acute food deprivation and in a non-deprived state. A within ...
... whereas neither food deprivation nor food restriction altered immunoreactivity of the MOP gene in any of these sites, food ... Kim EM, Welch CC, Grace MK, Billington CJ, and Levine AS (1996) Chronic food restriction and acute food deprivation decrease ... food restriction or food deprivation alter opioid peptide and receptor gene expression or protein levels in a number of these ... h following food reintroduction. Body weight was monitored on all 4 days so that deprivation-induced weight loss and food ...
... ... bold,Conclusion,/bold,: At home, students attending schools serving areas of greater deprivation consume food and beverage ... School food environments actually promote consumption of nutritionally protective foods among students attending schools of ... but no other food or beverage items. Away from school, area-level deprivation showed a significant positive association with ...
Effects of season, food deprivation and re-feeding on leptin, ghrelin and growth hormone in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on ...
Reconsidering the relationship between fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and body mass index: an ... Reconsidering the relationship between fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and body mass index: an ...
"Effects of food deprivation and immobilization on tryptophan and other amino acids in rat brain, Journal of Neurochemistry" on ... Effects of food deprivation and immobilization on tryptophan and other amino acids in rat brain. Effects of food deprivation ... Effects of food deprivation and immobilization on tryptophan and other amino acids in rat brain. Knott, P. J.; Joseph, M. H.; ... "Effects of food deprivation and immobilization on tryptophan and other amino acids in rat brain." Journal of Neurochemistry ...
Neighbourhood deprivation has been shown to be associated both to BMI and the food environment; particularly fast-food outlets. ... Area-level deprivation. We used the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 as a measure of area-level deprivation as it ... It provided food outlet locations (easting and northings). Food outlets were categorised into fast-food outlets (n=6259) ... Food swamps by area socioeconomic deprivation in New Zealand: a national study. International Journal of Public Health 2017;62: ...
Short food deprivation inhibits orexin receptor 1 expression and orexin-A induced intracellular calcium signaling in acutely ... Short (overnight) food deprivation markedly depresses receptor expression and inhibits orexin-A induced increases in [Ca2+](i ... Bengtsson MW, Makela K, Herzig KH, Flemstrom G. Short food deprivation inhibits orexin receptor 1 expression and orexin-A ... There were no significant [Ca2+](i) responses in enterocytes from animals food deprived overnight, and overnight fasting ...
Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into ... Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into ... and responses to food deprivation: insight into the metabolic organization and starvation survival strategy of cephalopods ... Food limitation is a common challenge for animals. Cephalopods are sensitive to starvation because of high metabolic rates and ...
The ACC activity was measured in the whole mouse brain of controls and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of food deprivation. ... However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the ... After 1 h of food deprivation, the total ACC activity without citrate decreased to 0.575 ± 0.087 fmol/min/mg and in the ... activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were ...
... selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods). ... to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI). ... in their neighborhood have lower odds of living in a low deprivation neighborhood relative to a high deprivation neighborhood. ... but lower for non-traditional food retailers; dollar stores (0.20) and Farmers Markets (0.50). For traditional food outlets, ...
Thus, food-deprivation levels altered both the rate-decreasing and rate-increasing effects of morphine. These effects may share ... When pigeons were less food deprived, reductions in pecking rates occurred at lower doses under both schedules for 3 of 4 birds ... When pigeons were more food deprived, low doses of morphine increased rates of pecking in the initial portions of fixed ... activity produced by drugs and with increased drug self-administration under conditions of more severe food deprivation. ...
Ethanol intake as a function of concentration during food deprivation and satiation. by R. A. Meisch et al. ... Ethanol intake as a function of concentration during food deprivation and satiation.. *. R. A. Meisch, T. Thompson ... Induction and maintenance of ethanol self-administration without food deprivation in the rat. *Kathleen A. Grant, Herman H. ... article{Meisch1974EthanolIA, title={Ethanol intake as a function of concentration during food deprivation and satiation.}, ...
The study provides novel findings linking supermarket food sales with the weight status of children. Food sales in ... The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight ... Future research could identify factors that might modify food shopping in supermarkets and use of purchasing data could be an ... Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, ...
Learn how sleep deprivation causes problems with vision, sex drive, concentration, and various other mental and physical tasks ... Discover some tips to fight sleep deprivation as you learn how to spot the symptoms. ... sleep deprivation can cause trouble. From weight gain to back pain to pimples, sleeplessness can play havoc on your bodys good ... Think you may have sleep deprivation? Whether short term or long term, ...
... for 4 weeks followed by 24 h food deprivation on two occasions, after which food intake and hypothalamic POMC, NPY, and AgRP ... for 4 weeks followed by 24 h food deprivation on two occasions, after which food intake and hypothalamic POMC, NPY, and AgRP ... for 4 weeks followed by 24 h food deprivation on two occasions, after which food intake and hypothalamic POMC, NPY, and AgRP ... for 4 weeks followed by 24 h food deprivation on two occasions, after which food intake and hypothalamic POMC, NPY, and AgRP ...
Food Deprivation. NourishBlog Posts, Postscurrent events, eating disorder recovery, food, food insecurity, mental health, ... Witnessing food deprivation due to mental illness was baffling given that we had a kitchen full of food and four grocery stores ... In entered the food ministry at our church. It started with an invitation to help deliver some food-filled backpacks to food- ... Food deprivation is right in front of us every day. Bringing it out of the shadows and admitting that more can be done is key. ...
  • Area-level deprivation showed a significant positive association with school average frequency of consumption for 1% or nonfat fluid milk and 2% or regular fluid milk at school, but no other food or beverage items. (washington.edu)
  • Away from school, area-level deprivation showed a significant positive association with school average frequency of consumption for snacks and sugar sweetened beverages. (washington.edu)
  • A significant inverse association was observed for area-level deprivation in relation to school average frequency of consumption for fruit, vegetables and 1% or nonfat milk. (washington.edu)
  • We use structural equation modelling to explore an alternative hypothesis to existing research using area-level deprivation as the predictor of BMI and fast-food outlets and diet quality as mediators. (bmj.com)
  • However, there was more evidence that area-level deprivation was associated with increased BMI, both as an independent effect and through poorer diet quality. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion This exploratory study offers a first step for considering complexity and pathways linking fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and BMI. (bmj.com)
  • To better understand how area-level deprivation might reinforce ethnic, racial, and workplace-based COVID-19 inequities ( 3 ), the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) analyzed confirmed cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), COVID-19 hospitalizations, and SARS-CoV-2 testing rates in relation to deprivation as measured by Utah's Health Improvement Index (HII) ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Area-level measures of deprivation were assigned to 64 middle schools (n=64) in Washington State using Singh Deprivation Index methodology. (washington.edu)
  • Area-level measures of deprivation can be used to identify schools within communities serving students at the greatest risk for consuming food and beverage items commonly associated with poor diet quality. (washington.edu)
  • Local jurisdictions should use measures of deprivation and other social determinants of health to enhance transmission reduction strategies (e.g., increasing availability and accessibility of SARS-CoV-2 testing and distributing prevention guidance) to areas with greatest need. (cdc.gov)
  • It also discusses summary measures of poverty, following the Board's recommendation that dependence measures not be assessed in isolation from measures of deprivation. (hhs.gov)
  • The effect of REM-sleep deprivation (REM-SD) on diet preference was studied in rats. (nih.gov)
  • The present study employs the deprivation intensity discrimination paradigm to assess the interoceptive sensory properties of ghrelin in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this paradigm, one group of rats was placed in a training context and presented with sucrose pellets when 24 h food deprived, but not when 1 h food deprived (24+ group). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antisense probes directed against the κ opioid receptor (KOP), nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP), and δ opioid receptor (DOP) genes in rats result in reductions similar to κ and δ antagonists, whereas antisense probes directed against the μ opioid receptor (MOP) gene produced modest reductions relative to μ antagonists, suggesting that isoforms of the MOP gene may mediate deprivation-induced feeding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since these isoforms were initially identified in mice, the present study compared the effects of general and selective opioid receptor antagonists on deprivation-induced feeding in rats and mice and antisense probes directed against exons of the MOP, DOP, KOP, and NOP genes on deprivation-induced feeding in the mouse. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Food-deprived (12 and 24 h) rats and mice displayed similar profiles of reductions in deprivation-induced feeding following general, μ, and κ opioid antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, mice, but not rats, displayed reductions in deprivation-induced intake following δ antagonism as well as DOP antisense probes, suggesting a species-specific role for the δ receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Systemic and central administration of general opioid antagonists significantly reduce deprivation-induced feeding in rats and mice (e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, it appears that opioid receptor mediation of deprivation-induced feeding in rats occurs primarily through the μ, secondarily through the κ, and minimally through the δ receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • demonstrated that deprivation-induced feeding in rats was maximally reduced by an AS ODN probe directed against exon 2 of the KOP gene, an effect complementary to κ antagonist effects, whereas probes directed against exons 2, 3, or 4 of the MOP gene, exon 1 of the DOP gene, and exon 1 of the NOP gene resulted in modest reductions in deprivation-induced intake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The modest reductions observed in the food-deprived rats after MOP antisense administration clearly diverged from the potent reductions observed after μ-selective antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pairings of ethanol sipper with food induces Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: evidence of long-term retention and effects of sipper duration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Research Methods and Procedures: Food intake and body weight were monitored in rats with access to chow (CH), LC-high-fat (HF), or HF diets. (elsevier.com)
  • A second set of rats had access to diet (chow or LC-HF) for 4 weeks followed by 24 h food deprivation on two occasions, after which food intake and hypothalamic POMC, NPY, and AgRP mRNA expression were measured. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: HF rats consumed more food and gained more weight than rats on CH or LC-HF diets. (elsevier.com)
  • LC-HF rats had increased plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and de-creased insulin levels, and patterns of NPY and POMC mRNA expression were consistent with those of food-deprived rats. (elsevier.com)
  • LC-HF rats did not show rebound hyperphagia after food deprivation, and levels NPY, POMC, and AgRP mRNA expression were not affected by deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Restricting the food intake of mice and rats to well below that of ad libitum-fed animals markedly slows the aging processes. (isharonline.org)
  • The disk-over-water method permits chronic sleep deprivation of rats with gentle physical stimulation that can be equally applied to yoked control rats. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Recently we found that food-deprived rats kept under a light-dark cycle showed a progressive reduction in body temperature during the light phase on each subsequent day while body temperature in the dark phase did not differ from baseline values. (elsevier.com)
  • In the SCN-lesioned rats in which daily rhythms of body temperature and activity were abolished, body temperature was unchanged by food deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • The main causes of sleep deprivation include poor sleep hygiene, biology, use of technology, and use of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of reasons one might have trouble falling asleep but in the cases of chronic insomnia here are some of most common causes of sleep deprivation. (hubpages.com)
  • Find out what the major causes of sleep deprivation are according to webmd. (hubpages.com)
  • It has been established that hunger, caused by food deprivation, influences people's physiological and emotional state and their everyday behavior. (springer.com)
  • We focus on the effect of hunger, caused by mild food deprivation, on human perceptual resolution. (springer.com)
  • The present study examined the effects of hunger on the perceptual resolution of physical food size. (springer.com)
  • The decision to hold a scientific symposium on the measurement of food deprivation and undernutrition was motivated by this objective and the need to review the current status of the widely used methods for measuring hunger. (fao.org)
  • and (5) qualitative methods for measuring people's perception of food insecurity and hunger. (fao.org)
  • Hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before the scan, as were appetite ratings in response to food images after the scan. (diva-portal.org)
  • Compared with sleep, total sleep deprivation was associated with an increased activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex in response to food images, independent of calorie content and prescan hunger ratings. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results support the notion that endogenous ghrelin contributes to an interoceptive hunger cue, and that this may be a mechanism by which ghrelin influences food intake and appetitive behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consequently, the relationship between hunger and foraging has received considerable attention, leading to the common conception that hunger primarily enhances a "food-intake maximization" (FIMax) strategy and intensive search. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transmitters combining GPS and accelerometers provided high-resolution data on vultures' movements and behavior, enabling the identification of feeding events and the estimation of food deprivation periods (FDPs, measured in days), which is used as a proxy for hunger. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show a flexible, non-monotonic response of free-ranging wild animals to increasing hunger levels, reflecting a trade-off between increasing motivation to find food and the risk of starvation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This small Swedish study evaluated what effect sleep deprivation would have on hunger and estimates of ideal food portions. (runnersworld.com)
  • Researchers measured appetite, levels of ghrelin (the hunger hormone), and the men's ratings of ideal portions of food before and after they ate breakfast. (runnersworld.com)
  • After a night of sleep deprivation the men's ratings of hunger and ghrelin levels were higher than after the night when the men got sufficient sleep. (runnersworld.com)
  • Because Ilana understands we are all different, I learned so much about myself on this program - not just which foods aid in weight loss - but about trusting myself, learning not to emotionally eat, recognizing signs of true hunger, and learning what it is to be satisfied. (rockycicini.com)
  • Researchers said that sleep deprivation also boosted levels of ghrelin, a hormone that increases hunger, the following morning. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • We hypothesized that sleep deprivation's impact on hunger and decision making would make for the 'perfect storm' with regard to shopping and food purchasing-leaving individuals hungrier and less capable of employing self-control and higher-level decision-making processes to avoid making impulsive, calorie-driven purchases," first author Colin Chapman, MSc, of Uppsala University, said in a news release. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • The lack of food leads to malnutrition, which is evidenced by illness and disorder, and ultimately to death by hunger, which is called starvation. (citizendium.org)
  • Data is also necessary to assess growing risks of deprivation or even hunger. (dawn.com)
  • Low food security, previously food insecurity without hunger , is categorized by a decrease in diet quality or preference without a change in food consumption. (ufl.edu)
  • Very low food security, previously described as food insecurity with hunger , interrupts normal eating patterns and results in hunger. (ufl.edu)
  • Household food insecurity, including (at a severe level) direct hunger among children in the household, is related to general income poverty and is expected to affect children's health, cognitive and social development, and general school success. (hhs.gov)
  • In this timely and important book, Dr. Robert Lustig presents the scientific evidence for the toxicity of sugar and the disastrous effects of modern industrial food on the hormones that control hunger, satiety, and weight. (amazon.com)
  • These results provide evidence that acute sleep loss enhances hedonic stimulus processing in the brain underlying the drive to consume food, independent of plasma glucose levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • Blood samples showed that sleep deprivation led to high levels of insulin, the hormone that signals cells to take up glucose from the blood. (naturalnews.com)
  • How Sleep Affects Fat The authors found that sleep deprivation made fat cells less sensitive to insulin, a hormone that cells use to take in glucose for energy. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • This means that your digestive system will be working constantly to break down your food to meet this demand however, when you sleep, your need for glucose is greatly reduced. (avogel.co.uk)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the role of dioscin in oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induction in hippocampal cells in vitro and in vivo . (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The oxygen‑glucose deprivation model in primary hippocampal neurons was used to mimic cerebral IRI in vitro . (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, this increase did not correlate with food purchasing behavior. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • Researchers said the next step is to see if partial sleep deprivation also affects food-purchasing behavior, and to see with sleep deprivation influences purchasing behavior in general. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • An ethologically relevant mouse behavior is locating food using information about odor concentration. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2000). The conditions, experiences, and behavior patterns surrounding the food security issue led the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify the following four levels of food security to describe the range within the population: high, marginal, low, and very low. (ufl.edu)
  • Yet, it remains unclear whether and in which manner food deprivation affects the way people perceive their environment. (springer.com)
  • These data also suggest that maintenance on an LC-HF diet affects food intake by reducing compensatory responses to food deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • The prices of the high-caloric foods were then varied to determine if total sleep deprivation affects the flexibility of food purchasing. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • In the long term, consuming excessive amounts of foods with saturated fat affects the homeostasis of the whole body, including brain health. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, the sleep-deprived students were not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twelve normal-weight male subjects were examined on two sessions in a counterbalanced fashion: after one night of total sleep deprivation and one night of sleep. (diva-portal.org)
  • On the morning after either total sleep deprivation or sleep, neural activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in a block design alternating between high- and low-calorie food items. (diva-portal.org)
  • Relative to the postsleep condition, in the total sleep deprivation condition, the activation in the anterior cingulate cortex evoked by foods correlated positively with postscan subjective appetite ratings. (diva-portal.org)
  • Researchers gave each of the men a budget of $50 to purchase as much items as they could out of a possible 40 items on the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation, as well as after one night of sleep. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • Thus, hypothalamic NPY neurons are responsive to nutritional deprivation and developmental status, suggesting that NPY neurons may be important in energy homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Investigators wanted to see whether sleep deprivation impairs or changes an individual's food purchasing choices. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • Deprivation of sleep before task training also impairs performance in many behavioral tasks ( Stern, 1971 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Sleep deprivation impairs learning and memory. (sciencemag.org)
  • Food Deprivation Level Alters the Effects of Morphine on Pigeons' Key " by Amy Laurie Odum, Stephen C. Haworth et al. (usu.edu)
  • Thus, food-deprivation levels altered both the rate-decreasing and rate-increasing effects of morphine. (usu.edu)
  • According to experts, people short on sleep are more inclined to gorge on unhealthy junk food which spells doom for their waistlines and predisposes them to obesity . (themedguru.com)
  • In a bid to understand whether lack of proper sleep makes junk food more appealing, the researchers conducted a study.They recruited 23 healthy men and women who underwent a two phase study. (themedguru.com)
  • Are you deprived of sleep then the most probable chances are that you are attracted to junk food or find yourself drawn to vending machines for drawing junk food. (peopleview.com)
  • Recent unpublished study do indicate that eating junk food such as sweets, chips, candy, pepperoni pizza etc. seems quite a good option when the concerned individuals were deprived of their normal sleeping patterns. (peopleview.com)
  • Two new studies shed light on the link between sleep deprivation and junk food cravings. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The Government should restrict marketing by stopping junk food adverts from being shown on TV before the 9pm watershed. (newsweek.com)
  • While chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to medical problems such as obesity, diabetes, cancer and immune deficiency, its effects on skin function have previously been unknown. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • However, recent studies show that chronic sleep deprivation is prevalent in the United States . (naturalnews.com)
  • If you're looking for verifiable human evidence - you won't find any however, when we look at the alterations that occur in the rodent model following 11-33 days of chronic sleep deprivation. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Chronic sleep deprivation may be required to reveal the most serious physiological consequences of sleep loss, but it usually requires strong stimulation which can obscure the interpretation of effects. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Long-term health outcomes from chronic sleep deprivation include obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • Supports the National Strategy to Reduce Chronic Undernutrition with the provision of Vitacereal™ (a locally produced, fortified and blended food) to 100,000 children aged 6 to 35 months and 50,000 pregnant or lactating women, in areas with more than 60 percent chronic undernutrition. (wfp.org)
  • At school however, neighborhood deprivation does not influence the average frequency of consumption for nutritionally problematic foods. (washington.edu)
  • and 2) to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with having certain store types that may promote less healthy food options. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the quiet here, the sensory deprivation tank of the office throws everything into razor relief. (everything2.com)
  • This might sound like the start to a slasher flick (or at least an extremely dark dystopian thriller), but in reality, it's the start of my first experience in a sensory deprivation tank . (menshealth.com)
  • But when I heard about flotation therapy, which involves being immersed in a tiny, dark sensory deprivation tank, I was skeptical yet intrigued. (menshealth.com)
  • The mean of this distribution refers to the usual food consumption level and is estimated by the daily dietary energy supply per capita for a country derived from its food balance sheet (averaged over three years). (fao.org)
  • The variance, as measured by the coefficient of variation, is derived on the basis of food consumption or income data from household income and expenditure surveys. (fao.org)
  • These surveys allow each household's average food consumption and energy intake to be calculated, since they typically ask respondents to recall their consumption of food items over a reference period, e.g. the previous week. (fao.org)
  • Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. (diva-portal.org)
  • Testing was conducted in extinction, eliminating confounding effects of food consumption. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Only a few studies have examined food consumption at school and away from school for the specific purpose of uncovering the links between food patterns and the child's socioeconomic environment. (washington.edu)
  • The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how socioeconomic environments contribute to the consumption of food items common used to assess diet quality in school-aged children. (washington.edu)
  • Linear regression was used to determine the association between area-level measures of depression and frequency of consumption for food and beverages items. (washington.edu)
  • School food environments actually promote consumption of nutritionally protective foods among students attending schools of greater deprivation relative to their lesser deprived counterparts. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers suggest that there are two ways sleep deprivation could increase food consumption. (runnersworld.com)
  • Additional interest lies in the secondary measures of weight loss during deprivation, water intake during the consumption period, and weight gained during the consumption period. (richmond.edu)
  • If consumption of certain foods make you sick, then most likely you are suffering from food intolerance. (iloveindia.com)
  • Carving pumpkins, watching movies, haunted houses, costume parties, arts-and-crafts - for many people, these activities form some of the best memories of their lives, and involve zero consumption of food at all! (integrativenutrition.com)
  • As a result, consumption of cholesterol-containing foods must be limited in these individuals. (vitamedica.com)
  • These results shed light on how the brain becomes impaired by sleep deprivation, leading to the selection of more unhealthy foods and, ultimately, higher rates of obesity," said Stephanie Greer, a doctoral student in Walker's Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory and lead author of the paper. (themedguru.com)
  • Recent increases in obesity prevalence have led to research into the neighbourhood food environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and associations between food outlet locations and diet are less clear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unadjusted associations were examined with error-bar plots and linear regression was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and sales of unhealthy food, while controlling for covariates known to predict weight status in children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better address the negative consequences of both food insecurity and obesity, it is important to increase our knowledge surrounding food insecurity and its prevalence, understand the relationship between food insecurity and obesity, and be aware of the resources currently available for families experiencing food insecurity. (ufl.edu)
  • How are food insecurity and obesity related? (ufl.edu)
  • Obesity is a complex disease that is influenced by a variety of factors, including dietary behaviors, such as the ability to make healthier food choices in order to maintain energy balance and avoid weight gain (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).The link between food insecurity and obesity is best explained as one mediated by socioeconomic variables such as income and education (Fongillo & Bernal, 2014). (ufl.edu)
  • These environmental limitations as well as limited financial resources often result in reduced access to healthy food options and cycles of food excess and deprivation that can both contribute to obesity. (ufl.edu)
  • Research shows that those who have access to fresh foods tend to have healthier diets and therefore are at lower risk for obesity (Food Research & Action Center, 2015). (ufl.edu)
  • As food insecurity becomes more severe, intake of nutrient-dense foods declines further (Dinour, Bergen, & Yeh, 2007), contributing to poor weight management and obesity. (ufl.edu)
  • Processed foods rich in saturated fat have become a major part of our diet and culture in Western countries, contributing to an obesity epidemic associated with a multitude of health complications and excessive economic costs. (nature.com)
  • 17 The aim of the POI (Prevention of Overweight in Infancy) study was to determine whether a conventional approach (food, activity, and breastfeeding intervention [FAB]), and/or an indirect approach (sleep intervention), to obesity prevention would result in lower BMI at 2 years of age compared with standard care. (aappublications.org)
  • Sleep deprivation is linked to a variety of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Significance of plasticity in energy budget and development of animals in response to variations of food availability was examined in weaned male KM mice that were acclimated to a random food deprivation (FD) for 4 weeks, and then refed ad libtum for another 4 weeks. (scialert.net)
  • Food intake increased significantly on ad libitum day in FD mice, but BMR and activity decreased. (scialert.net)
  • Antisense probes directed against the KOP and NOP genes also reduced deprivation-induced intake in mice in a manner similar to κ antagonism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retired male BALB/C breeder mice (n = 3/group) were deprived of food (LabDiet Rodent Diet 5001), water and bedding for periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After mice were trained to navigate to odor sources paired with food reward, we observed behavioral changes consistent with localization 10-45 cm away from the source. (frontiersin.org)
  • see also the Focus by Sweatt and Hawkins) found that sleep deprivation in mice suppressed activation of the kinase complex mTORC1 and consequently protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons, which impaired their memory. (sciencemag.org)
  • Restoring protein synthesis by increasing the amount of phosphorylated 4EBP2 protein in the hippocampus-a function normally performed by mTORC1-protected mice from the memory impairment caused by sleep deprivation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Food insecurity is usually defined as limited or uncertain access to enough food due to financial resource constraints, or as inadequate food intake. (upenn.edu)
  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization's State of Food Insecurity in the World (1999), 800 million people were food insecure worldwide, and 164 million people in China suffered food insecurity in 1999. (upenn.edu)
  • The implications of food insecurity for children's functioning are not yet well established, particularly in less-developed countries where the problem is likely to be most pronounced. (upenn.edu)
  • Food insecurity is related to the nutritional status of children, a topic about which much has been written in developing country contexts, but food insecurity is not synonymous with nutritional status. (upenn.edu)
  • Food insecurity has been linked via both nutritional and non-nutritional pathways to adverse outcomes in children. (upenn.edu)
  • I find it curious that I have a daughter recovering from an eating disorder and a volunteer job coordinating a food assistance program for public school students with food insecurity. (thenourishcookbook.com)
  • Additionally, youth with eating disorders and youth with food insecurity are invisible to so many of us. (thenourishcookbook.com)
  • Food insecurity in our community became very real to us as we met these invisible families and walked through parts of our town we did not know existed. (thenourishcookbook.com)
  • These areas were characterized by larger proportions of Hispanic and non-White residents, persons working in manual, essential, and public-facing sectors, more crowded housing, and food and health care insecurity. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of household food insecurity were first measured in 1995 when the US Census Bureau implemented the first Food Security Supplement to its Current Population Survey (CPS) (Bickel et al. (ufl.edu)
  • Overall, Florida is ranked 10th in food insecurity and 8th in child food insecurity. (ufl.edu)
  • Because food insecurity is defined as inconsistent food access due to limited financial resources (Pruitt et al. (ufl.edu)
  • WFP's activities in Guatemala are geared towards reducing food insecurity, improving the nutritional status of mothers and children under 5 and living conditions of vulnerable groups by increasing agricultural productivity and farmer's marketing practices. (wfp.org)
  • The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After asymptotic performance of this discrimination was achieved, these animals (1 h food deprived) were administered ghrelin or saline, either i.p. (3 or 6 nmol) or i3vt (0.1 or 1 nmol), placed in the training context, and appetitive responses were measured. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results of these tests showed that 6 nmol i.p. ghrelin and 0.1 and 1 nmol i3vt ghrelin all generalized to a state of 24 h food deprivation, indicating that exogenous ghrelin has sensory properties in common with the stimuli produced by 24 h food deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, there was no link between individual ghrelin levels and food purchasing. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • The study also found that blood levels of ghrelin were higher after sleep deprivation. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • Lack of sleep also causes ghrelin levels to rise, which means your appetite is stimulated, so you want more food,' said co-author Radha Rao, MD, DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sleep deprivation makes you hungrier by increasing the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin and makes it harder for you to get full by reducing levels of the satiety-inducing hormone leptin. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Although glucagon infusion in 4-hr food-deprived intact rabbits produced 38% suppression of food intake during the first hr postadministration, glycogen analysis revealed no significant reduction under the behavioral testing paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Findings suggest that females may alter the manner in which they smoke during acute food deprivation. (openthesis.org)
  • The study provides novel findings linking supermarket food sales with the weight status of children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings revealed that sleep-deprived men bought significantly more calories and grams of food than they did after one night of sleep. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • Matthew Walker, a UC Berkeley professor of psychology and neuroscience and senior author of the study, says the findings indicate that, "getting enough sleep is one factor that can help promote weight control by priming the brain mechanisms governing appropriate food choices. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The equivocal nature of previous findings suggests that there is a need to compare food deprivation responses of subterranean and surface species in order to elucidate whether there are widespread adaptations to low energy systems in subterranean taxa. (txstate.edu)
  • These findings suggest that the SCN plays some role in body temperature modulation due to food deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • The capacity of carbohydrate and ketone bodies metabolism in brain and liver was evaluated in fed and food-deprived Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in a time period covering from 1 to 7 days (Experiment I), and in Atlantic salmon food deprived for 6 weeks, and food deprived for 4 weeks and refed for 2 weeks (Experiment II). (springer.com)
  • The results obtained demonstrate for the first time in a teleost the existence of changes in brain metabolism due to food deprivation. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to examine patterns in basal metabolism and the effects of food deprivation in closely related subterranean- and epigean- amphipods, Stygobromus pecki and Synurella sp. (txstate.edu)
  • Optimizing Physical Performance During Fasting and Dietary Restriction examines the effects of sustained fasting and food restrictions on metabolism and physical performance in athletes. (crcpress.com)
  • We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. (bioone.org)
  • Subsequently, re-feeding for 5, 30 and 60 min duration was carried out and the mass of food consumed during these periods was determined and compared to the mass of food consumed by the ad libitum controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, it appears that although S. pecki are currently found in shallow phreatic and spring opening environments, they have maintained more efficient metabolic adaptations to deal with prolonged periods of food deprivation. (txstate.edu)
  • While flight speed, flight straightness and the proportion of active flights were invariant in relation to food deprivation, a clear hump-shaped response was found for daily flight distances, maximal displacements and flight elevation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In relation to institutional care there has been a great deal of subsequent research on the individual elements of privation, deprivation, understimulation and deficiencies that may arise from institutional care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that food deprivation is associated with increases in the self-administration of nicotine and other substances in laboratory animals. (openthesis.org)
  • 1 Internationally, fast-food outlets have received substantial attention as they sell cheap, energy-dense and nutritionally poor foods which contribute to increases in body mass index (BMI). (bmj.com)
  • Short (overnight) food deprivation markedly depresses receptor expression and inhibits orexin-A induced increases in [Ca2+](i). (diva-portal.org)
  • It is also observed that a self-reported desire for sweet and salty food increases after a period of sleep deprivation. (peopleview.com)
  • Researchers at UC Berkeley found that sleep deprivation increases the activity of deeper, primal brain regions that respond directly to rewards. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The researchers performed brain scans while the volunteers were shown 80 different images of unhealthy foods such high calorie burgers, pizza and donuts combined with healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and oatmeal. (themedguru.com)
  • The study found brains of the subjects responded differently to images of unhealthy food after poor sleep. (themedguru.com)
  • Areas of linked with craving were more active in sleep deprived adults when they saw images of unhealthy food, than when viewing the healthier options. (themedguru.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight status of children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study examined the association between weight status in children (4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds) measured in the National Child Measurement Programme over three time points (2008/9, 2009/10, 2010/11) and annual sales of unhealthy foods (2012/3), as identified from a large supermarket chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers found that when the participants viewed the images of unhealthy foods while sleep deprived (only four hours of sleep) there was certain activity in the reward centers of the brain in seven different areas but the same activity was absent in the reward center when participants were allowed sufficient sleep. (peopleview.com)
  • This unhealthy food response may be due to the cognitive control as told by St-Onge. (peopleview.com)
  • Date: Sep 05, 2013A bad night's sleep may make people buy more unhealthy foods the next day, according to new research. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • The UC Berkeley researchers measured brain activity as participants viewed a series of 80 food images that ranged from high-to low-calorie options and from healthy-to-unhealthy foods. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Another study from 2012, published in the journal Academic Pediatrics , assessed the food offerings in 14 California children's hospitals, rating each hospital on a scale from 0 (unhealthy) to 37 (healthy). (bigthink.com)
  • Objective: To model how consuming a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet influences food intake and body weight. (elsevier.com)
  • Discussion: Our results demonstrate that an LC diet influences multiple systems involved in the controls of food intake and body weight. (elsevier.com)
  • Swedish researchers found that participants purchased more food in a mock supermarket when they didn't get enough sleep the night before. (mumanu.co.uk)
  • On August 6, 2013 researchers from UC Berkeley published a study in the journal Nature Communications showing that sleepless nights have a direct impact on brain regions that control decision making and make us more inclined to crave fast food rather than healthier options. (psychologytoday.com)
  • When the anticipatory response of 18 adults was measured after they had a normal night's sleep and then again after they had stayed awake for 24 hours, researchers found sleep deprivation significantly amplified anticipatory activity in the brain -- particularly among people who were more anxious to begin with. (huffpost.com)
  • Researchers at Columbia University found that people actually consume more food when they're sleep-deprived-nearly 300 calories worth, which is enough to 'lead to rapid and robust weight gain' if maintained, said Eve Van Cauter of University of Chicago. (lifehacker.com)
  • In a new study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine , researchers determined that four nights of sleep deprivation reduced insulin sensitivity in fat cells by a whopping 30 percent. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Moreover they study participants chose the high calorie foods when sleep deprived than when they were well rested. (themedguru.com)
  • In the second, sleep deprivation appears to increase the sensitivity of the brain's reward system to high-calorie foods. (runnersworld.com)
  • Walker adds, "high-calorie foods also became significantly more desirable when participants were sleep-deprived. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In light of the available data and with the prevalence of sleep deprivation (SD), we sought to determine the effect of SD on neuronal functioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Given the well recognized cognitive effects and the prevalence of sleep deprivation in society today, a determination of the impact of SD on cellular physiology is of interest. (jneurosci.org)
  • To assess the social impacts of any change in dependence, changes in the level of poverty or deprivation also must be considered. (hhs.gov)
  • Even if they are not technically slaves, they are denied elementary freedoms and remain imprisoned in one way or another by economic poverty, social deprivation, political tyranny or cultural authoritarianism. (worldcat.org)
  • Analyses indicated that expired carbon monoxide levels were significantly greater in the food-deprived condition than in the non-deprived condition (p = .05), although no differences were found in the total number of cigarettes smoked during the laboratory session. (openthesis.org)
  • No significance was found in the 5 min refeeding group upon deprivation [F(5,12) = 1.19, p = 0.370]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have found a link between insomnia and increased appetite , and cravings for sweet, salty foods and calorically dense foods. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 2016), it is no surprise that many food-insecure households are found in low-income communities that may not have grocery stores or farmers' markets that provide access to healthier food options than those found at corner or convenience stores. (ufl.edu)
  • Some of the most crucial nutrients come from potassium that is found in various food sources. (iloveindia.com)
  • NutrientReference.com is a free online reference database of phytonutrients (natural medicines found in foods) and their health benefits. (naturalnews.com)
  • Changes in dependence may or may not be associated with changes in the level of deprivation, depending on the alternative sources of support found by families who might otherwise be dependent on welfare. (hhs.gov)
  • Senior study author Jen-Tsan Ashley Chi, associate professor of molecular biology and microbiology at Duke University School of Medicine, said, "We found that the same machinery that makes these tumors so aggressive also makes them vulnerable to nutrient deprivation. (medindia.net)
  • At home, students attending schools serving areas of greater deprivation consume food and beverage items putting them at nutritional risk at a greater average frequency than students attending schools serving areas of lesser deprivation. (washington.edu)
  • Also, ketone bodies appear to increase their importance as a metabolic fuel from day 7 of food deprivation onwards. (springer.com)
  • We investigated how enzymatic capacities of key metabolic pathways are modulated during starvation in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to gain insight into the metabolic organization of cephalopods and their strategies for coping with food limitation. (embrc.eu)
  • Moreover, the two nights of catch-up sleep failed to restore the participants' metabolic processing of fat from food, suggesting that sleep restriction causes complex metabolic shifts to occur. (naturalnews.com)
  • Participants' resolution in both experiments was higher to detect changes in food size compared with baseline when they were hungry due to a short period of food deprivation. (springer.com)
  • The World Food Summit mandated FAO to measure and monitor progress towards the Summit goal of halving the number of hungry by 2015. (fao.org)
  • You can lose weight happily, without feeling deprived or hungry, without exercising, or cutting out whole food groups. (rockycicini.com)
  • No deprivation or feeling hungry. (rockycicini.com)
  • Your body seems to crave higher-calorie foods when you're tired. (medicinenet.com)
  • The results of the brain imaging showed an increase of lower brain function and a decrease of upper brain function which caused participants to crave junk foods when they were sleep deprived. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Across the board, participant's who were sleep deprived were more inclined to crave high-calorie junk foods. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The system is a healthy approach to eating that lets you feel full and satisfied while arming you with proven strategies that will help you co-exist with food in real-world situations, satisfy cravings, and anticipate setbacks before they happen - so you can win the weight-loss struggle every single time. (rockycicini.com)
  • This is the first study to identify a specific brain mechanism linked to food cravings a sleepless night. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation. (nel.edu)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare smoking rates, expired carbon monoxide levels, and smoking topography in 15 female participants during a state of acute food deprivation and in a non-deprived state. (openthesis.org)
  • A within-subjects design was utilized to test the primary hypotheses that smoking rate and expired carbon monoxide levels would be greater among the participants in the food-deprived condition than in the non-deprived condition. (openthesis.org)
  • These strategies might include increasing availability and accessibility of SARS-CoV-2 testing, contact tracing, isolation options, preventive care, disease management, and prevention guidance to facilities (e.g., clinics, community centers, and businesses) in areas with high levels of deprivation. (cdc.gov)
  • Firstly, since sleep is so essential for healthy energy levels, your body will be crying out for more food to help supply the fuel you need. (avogel.co.uk)
  • We discuss the possible role of attention in mediating the effect of food deprivation on the visual resolution of food size. (springer.com)
  • Note, however, that the last study focused on the effect of food deprivation on semantic word identification rather than on visual resolution of food-related stimuli. (springer.com)
  • However, food deprivation period had no significant effect on pupal development time for any of the three species or on larval development time for C. maculata and H. convergens . (bioone.org)
  • An independent association between fast-food outlet availability and BMI operated counterintuitively and was small in effect. (bmj.com)
  • For their study, Ness and her colleagues recruited 15 healthy male participants in their 20s to assess the effect of sleep deprivation on their postprandial lipemia, or the rise in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after eating. (naturalnews.com)
  • Dr Kate Porcheret, from the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, said: 'We wanted to see what effect sleep deprivation would have on the development of intrusive memories - what in a clinical setting are called flashbacks. (healthcanal.com)
  • Most of the extra calories came from high-fat foods like ice cream or fast food, and the effect was greater for women than for men. (lifehacker.com)
  • I definitely can attest to this, though I tend to pick healthier foods when available to try to cub the effect. (lifehacker.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of lesioning the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) on body temperature modulation by food deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • We also examined the effect of food deprivation on the daily changes in Fos expression in the SCN. (elsevier.com)
  • This tendency was prominent in the dorsal part of the SCN, while the ventral part showed no effect of food deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Maternal deprivation is a scientific term summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute) although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the significant reductions in deprivation-induced feeding following antisense probes directed against either exons 2, 4, 7, 8, or 13 of the MOP gene were modest compared with μ antagonism, suggesting a role for multiple μ-mediated mechanisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previously, the impact of sleep deprivation on the brain mechanisms that control anticipatory reactivity had not been investigated. (huffpost.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated whether or not gestational food deprivation alters offspring tyrosine hydroxylase expression, possibly leading to alterations in susceptibility to addiction. (susqu.edu)
  • Ethanol intake as a function of concentration during food deprivation and satiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study is an attempt to investigate food intake as a function of hours of food deprivation for a wide range of deprivation values. (richmond.edu)
  • Food deprivation induced a two-fold increase in the amount of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA, but did not increase NPY mRNA in the brainstem. (elsevier.com)
  • These effects may share a common mechanism with increased locomotor activity produced by drugs and with increased drug self-administration under conditions of more severe food deprivation. (usu.edu)
  • Effects of Sleep Deprivation - Sleep Deprived Comas, Severe Hallucinations and More! (hubpages.com)
  • Provides assistance to food-insecure populations and particularly, 25,000 families whose livelihoods were affected by 2009 severe drought, following the Government of Guatemala's declaration of a "state of public calamity" on September 8, 2009. (wfp.org)
  • Induction of leptin receptor expression in the liver by leptin and food deprivation. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel, we also observed induction of plasma-soluble leptin receptor (SLR) protein by leptin administration, pair feeding, and short term food restriction. (nih.gov)
  • Central administration of general and selective opioid receptor subtype antagonists in the rat has revealed a substantial role for μ, a moderate role for κ, and a minimal role for δ receptors in the mediation of deprivation-induced feeding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Endogenous opioid peptides and receptor systems are intimately involved in the mediation of food intake (see review, Bodnar, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bengtsson MW, Makela K, Herzig KH, Flemstrom G. Short food deprivation inhibits orexin receptor 1 expression and orexin-A induced intracellular calcium signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • A well-developed food and activity intervention did not seem to affect children's weight status. (aappublications.org)
  • Human tissues vary markedly in their ability to tolerate O 2 deprivation. (jci.org)
  • Marginal food security denotes existence of occasional anxiety about adequate food access without a reduction in diet quality. (ufl.edu)
  • Extensive deprivation from sensory experiences can result in hallucinations, depression,extreme anxiety, and strange thought processes. (streetdirectory.com)
  • More research is needed to guide the choice, the duration, and the schedule of hormone deprivation therapy and the impact of long-term hormone therapy with regard to toxicity and the patient's quality of life. (medscape.com)
  • In the present study, the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to food deprivation for a period of 6 or 12 days and changes in the luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactivity in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary gland and the testicular activity were examined. (intelaquares.com)
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a substantial impact on racial and ethnic minority populations and essential workers in the United States, but the role of geographic social and economic inequities (i.e., deprivation) in these disparities has not been examined ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Macro-level or the neighbourhood food environment covers proximity and density of food outlets and micro-level or consumer environment covers the food availability and accessibility within food outlets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Variety and quality of healthy foods differ according to neighbourhood deprivation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The modalities for data collection include taking a dietary history, administering a food frequency questionnaire, recording weights of foods consumed, asking respondents to recall what they ate in the previous 24 hours or analysing the chemical and nutrient content of diets. (fao.org)
  • Tang subjected the cancer cells to a nutrient deprivation test, removing each of the 15 amino acids from their growth media, one by one. (medindia.net)
  • It's hard to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day and still find the room or desire to overeat processed, sugary, nutrient-deficient foods. (integrativenutrition.com)
  • Food deprivation can be stressful and has been shown to result in weight gain in humans. (horsecity.com)
  • The results demonstrate that 24 hr of food deprivation induced an opiate-mediated analgesic system that involves hormonal factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, refeeding to food-deprived fish on day 6 onwards resulted in occurrence of few intensely stained LH secreting cells and significantly higher numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids concomitant with sparse spermatozoa in majority of tubules compared to those of food-deprived fish. (intelaquares.com)
  • Glucagon significantly suppressed feeding relative to saline only in 0- and 4-hr-food-deprived intact rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Development is affected significantly by lower food availability but recovers to the normal level when food is plentiful. (scialert.net)
  • Analysis of smoking topography indicated that the time to first puff was significantly greater in the non-deprived condition (p = .03), while the sum of the interpuff intervals (p = .02) and the time to removal from the last puff were greater in the food-deprived condition (p = .03). (openthesis.org)
  • In addition, although the mean gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices among different experimental groups did not show any statistically significant difference, the mean numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were significantly lower in food-deprived fish on days 6 or 12 compared to those of controls. (intelaquares.com)