Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Obsessive Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Mice, Inbred C57BLRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.

Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption. (1/1450)

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (2/1450)

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (3/1450)

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

Expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck), a zinc-finger signal transduction protein, is elevated by dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction in mice. (4/1450)

Compromised immune function is common to Zn deficiency, protein and energy malnutrition; however, the causative mechanisms at the molecular level have not been elucidated. The T lymphocyte signal transduction pathway contains several Zn-finger proteins, and it is possible that the in vivo functioning of these proteins could be affected by dietary deficiency of Zn and amino acids. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects, on expression of the T lymphocyte signal transduction proteins p56(lck), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) and protein kinase C (PKCalpha), of dietary Zn deficiency (ZnDF, < 1 mg Zn/kg diet) and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes [2% protein deficiency (LP), combined Zn and 2% protein deficiency (ZnDF+LP), and diet restriction (DR, body weight equal to ZnDF)] compared with control (C) mice. Indices of nutritional status and splenocyte counts were also determined. Based on serum albumin and liver lipid concentrations, the ZnDF+LP and LP groups had protein-type malnutrition, whereas the ZnDF and DR groups had energy-type malnutrition. For Western immunoblotting of the signal transduction proteins, mouse splenic T lymphocytes were isolated by immunocolumns. The expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck) was significantly elevated in the ZnDF+LP, ZnDF and DR groups compared to the C group. In contrast, the expression of PLCgamma1 and PKC was unaffected. There was a significant negative correlation between T lymphocyte p56(lck) expression and serum Zn (r= -0.65, P = 0.0007) or femur Zn (r = -0.73, P = 0.0001) concentrations. We propose that elevated T lymphocyte p56(lck) may contribute to altered thymoctye maturation, apoptosis and lymphopenia in Zn deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes.  (+info)

Interaction between genetic and dietary factors determines beta-cell function in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. (5/1450)

The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes. We studied the interaction between diet and diabetic predisposition for beta-cell function. A 4-day high-energy (HE) diet induced a 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold increase in serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, respectively, in diabetes-prone (DP) but not diabetes-resistant (DR) P. obesus. Hyperglycemia and concurrent 90% depletion of islet immunoreactive insulin stores were partially corrected by an 18-h fast. In vitro early insulin response to glucose was blunted in both DR and DP perifused islets. The HE diet augmented early and late insulin response in DR islets, whereas in DP islets, secretion progressively declined. Dose-response studies showed a species-related increase in islet glucose sensitivity, further augmented in DP P. obesus by a HE diet, concomitant with a decreased threshold for glucose and a 55% reduction in maximal response. These changes were associated with a fourfold increase in glucose phosphorylation capacity in DP islets. There were no differences in islet glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) Km; however, GK Vmax was 3.7- to 4.6-fold higher in DP islets, and HK Vmax was augmented 3.7-fold by the HE diet in DP islets. We conclude that the insulin-resistant P. obesus has an inherent deficiency in insulin release. In the genetically predisposed P. obesus (DP), augmented islet glucose phosphorylation ability and diet-induced reduction of the glucose threshold for secretion may lead to inadequate insulin secretion and depletion of insulin stores in the presence of caloric abundance. Thus, genetic predisposition and beta-cell maladaptation to nutritional load seem to determine together the progression to overt diabetes in this species. It is hypothesized that similar events may occur in obese type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

Phosphate depletion in the rat: effect of bisphosphonates and the calcemic response to PTH. (6/1450)

BACKGROUND: The removal of phosphate from the diet of the growing rat rapidly produces hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypophosphaturia. Increased calcium efflux from bone has been shown to be the important cause of the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been proposed that the increased calcium efflux from bone is osteoclast mediated. Because bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this study was performed to determine whether bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclast function changed the biochemical and bone effects induced by phosphate depletion. METHODS: Four groups of pair-fed rats were studied: (a) low-phosphate diet (LPD; phosphate less than 0.05%), (b) LPD plus the administration of the bisphosphonate Pamidronate (APD; LPD + APD), (c) normal diet (ND, 0.6% phosphate), and (d) ND + APD. All diets contained 0.6% calcium. A high dose of APD was administered subcutaneously (0.8 mg/kg) two days before the start of the study diet and on days 2, 6, and 9 during the 11 days of the study diet. On day 10, a 24-hour urine was collected, and on day 11, rats were either sacrificed or received an additional APD dose before a 48-hour parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion (0.066 microgram/100 g/hr) via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump. RESULTS: Serum and urinary calcium were greater in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND and ND + APD groups [serum, 11.12 +/- 0.34 and 11.57 +/- 0.45 vs. 9.49 +/- 0.17 and 9.48 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (mean +/- SE), P < 0.05; and urine, 8.78 +/- 2.74 and 16.30 +/- 4.68 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 and 0.67 +/- 0.28 mg/24 hr, P < 0.05]. Serum PTH and serum and urinary phosphorus were less in the LPD and LPD + APD than in the ND and ND + APD groups (P < 0.05). The calcemic response to PTH was less (P < 0.05) in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND group and was less (P = 0.05) in the LPD + APD than in the ND + APD group. Bone histology showed that phosphate depletion increased the osteoblast and osteoclast surface, and treatment with APD reduced the osteoblast surface (LPD vs. LPD + APD, 38 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2%, P < 0.05, and ND vs. ND + APD, 20 +/- 2 vs. 5 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and markedly altered osteoclast morphology by inducing cytoplasmic vacuoles. CONCLUSIONS: (a) Phosphate depletion induced hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that were not reduced by APD administration. (b) The calcemic response to PTH was reduced in phosphate-depleted rats and was unaffected by APD administration in normal and phosphate-depleted rats, and (c) APD administration markedly changed bone histology without affecting the biochemical changes induced by phosphate depletion.  (+info)

Growth hormone promotes somatic and skeletal muscle growth recovery in rats following chronic protein-energy malnutrition. (7/1450)

The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and/or a diet enriched in protein and energy to improve growth recovery following prolonged malnutrition was examined in male rats food-restricted from birth until 120 d of age. At d 121, restricted rats were randomly assigned to recovery groups receiving either a control or enriched diet with or without daily subcutaneous injections of GH. Rats were killed after 16 or 47 d of recovery. At d 16, GH treatment stimulated liver, heart, plantaris, soleus, carcass and body weight gain and inhibited fat gain when compared to recovery controls. Rats receiving GH also exhibited the highest serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and total muscle protein. At d 47, GH effects on body and muscle recovery were minimal, and differences among recovery groups in serum IGF-I concentration and total muscle protein were no longer present. Consumption of an enriched diet increased fat pad and liver mass, but did not promote muscle recovery. There were no differences among treatment groups in skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA levels at d 16 or 47. In summary, GH had positive effects on somatic and skeletal muscle growth early in the recovery process, possibly via endocrine IGF-I-stimulated protein accretion. In contrast, the enriched diet promoted fat deposition with no impact on skeletal muscle growth recovery.  (+info)

Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens. (8/1450)

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.  (+info)

  • Subsequently, re-feeding for 5, 30 and 60 min duration was carried out and the mass of food consumed during these periods was determined and compared to the mass of food consumed by the ad libitum controls. (
  • Food deprivation for up to 6 h, and then re-fed for 60 min consumed the same amount of food compared to the ad libitum (control) animals. (
  • In the present experiment, the analgesia produced by 24 hr of food deprivation was examined following adrenalectomy, hypophysectomy, naltrexone (7 mg/kg), dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg), or saline treatment. (
  • Recent increases in obesity prevalence have led to research into the neighbourhood food environment. (
  • Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and associations between food outlet locations and diet are less clear. (
  • Unadjusted associations were examined with error-bar plots and linear regression was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and sales of unhealthy food, while controlling for covariates known to predict weight status in children. (
  • In light of the available data and with the prevalence of sleep deprivation (SD), we sought to determine the effect of SD on neuronal functioning. (
  • Given the well recognized cognitive effects and the prevalence of sleep deprivation in society today, a determination of the impact of SD on cellular physiology is of interest. (
  • The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. (
  • The objective of this study was to analyse the association between area deprivation at municipality level and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity across Germany, controlling for individual socioeconomic status (SES). (
  • Based on a nationwide dataset, we were able to show that area deprivation at municipality level is significantly associated with the prevalence of T2D and obesity. (
  • To better address the negative consequences of both food insecurity and obesity, it is important to increase our knowledge surrounding food insecurity and its prevalence, understand the relationship between food insecurity and obesity, and be aware of the resources currently available for families experiencing food insecurity. (
  • Sleep deprivation is linked to a variety of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. (
  • These results shed light on how the brain becomes impaired by sleep deprivation, leading to the selection of more unhealthy foods and, ultimately, higher rates of obesity," said Stephanie Greer, a doctoral student in Walker's Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory and lead author of the paper. (
  • We found a positive association of area deprivation with T2D and obesity. (
  • Thus, this study focuses on the relatively small-scale municipality level and the hypothesis that the prevalences of T2D and obesity both increase with increasing area deprivation, even after controlling for individual-level SES using multilevel modelling. (
  • How are food insecurity and obesity related? (
  • Obesity is a complex disease that is influenced by a variety of factors, including dietary behaviors, such as the ability to make healthier food choices in order to maintain energy balance and avoid weight gain (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).The link between food insecurity and obesity is best explained as one mediated by socioeconomic variables such as income and education (Fongillo & Bernal, 2014). (
  • These environmental limitations as well as limited financial resources often result in reduced access to healthy food options and cycles of food excess and deprivation that can both contribute to obesity. (
  • Research shows that those who have access to fresh foods tend to have healthier diets and therefore are at lower risk for obesity (Food Research & Action Center, 2015). (
  • Obesity is also thought as one of the effects of sleep deprivation. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight status of children. (
  • This study examined the association between weight status in children (4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds) measured in the National Child Measurement Programme over three time points (2008/9, 2009/10, 2010/11) and annual sales of unhealthy foods (2012/3), as identified from a large supermarket chain. (
  • The researchers found that when the participants viewed the images of unhealthy foods while sleep deprived (only four hours of sleep) there was certain activity in the reward centers of the brain in seven different areas but the same activity was absent in the reward center when participants were allowed sufficient sleep. (
  • Date: Sep 05, 2013A bad night's sleep may make people buy more unhealthy foods the next day, according to new research. (
  • The UC Berkeley researchers measured brain activity as participants viewed a series of 80 food images that ranged from high-to low-calorie options and from healthy-to-unhealthy foods. (
  • Sleep deprivation was found to enhance activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (which controls reactions to stress and regulates body functions such as digestion , the immune system , mood , sex, or energy usage) while suppressing growth hormones . (
  • As the authors explain, "sleep deprivation stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in an increased production of corticosterone that leads to cell damage. (
  • Food Deprivation Level Alters the Effects of Morphine on Pigeons' Key " by Amy Laurie Odum, Stephen C. Haworth et al. (
  • Thus, food-deprivation levels altered both the rate-decreasing and rate-increasing effects of morphine. (
  • and 2) to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI). (
  • Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. (
  • Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods). (
  • Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with having certain store types that may promote less healthy food options. (
  • Fatigue isn't exactly the best inspiration to get out there and stretch your legs but sitting sedentary at your desk all day or collapsed on your couch won't exactly do much to tackle those pesky sleep deprivation symptoms either. (
  • When you think of sleep deprivation, you probably immediately associate the problem with symptoms such as fatigue, irritability or headaches. (
  • Without an adequate supply of energy, your digestive system won't be able to break down your food as efficiently, leading to a wide range of unpleasant symptoms. (
  • Sleep deprivation is closely linked to a variety of symptoms, a few of which can have serious repercussions for your digestive system. (
  • Some of the curcumin-treated mice also received supplemental L-arginine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) to test the hypothesis that the modulation of nitric oxide release was associated with the symptoms of sleep deprivation. (
  • More generally, although brief hallucinations and easily controlled episodes of bizarre behaviour have been observed after 5 to 10 days of continuous sleep deprivation, those symptoms do not occur in most subjects and thus offer little support to the hypothesis that sleep loss induces psychosis . (
  • In any event, the symptoms rarely persist beyond the period of sleep that follows the period of deprivation. (
  • Read below to learn more on food intolerance symptoms. (
  • Hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before the scan, as were appetite ratings in response to food images after the scan. (
  • These results provide evidence that acute sleep loss enhances hedonic stimulus processing in the brain underlying the drive to consume food, independent of plasma glucose levels. (
  • This means that your digestive system will be working constantly to break down your food to meet this demand however, when you sleep, your need for glucose is greatly reduced. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the role of dioscin in oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induction in hippocampal cells in vitro and in vivo . (
  • The oxygen‑glucose deprivation model in primary hippocampal neurons was used to mimic cerebral IRI in vitro . (
  • Glucose concentrations in bulls decreased from 114 to 97 mg dL ‑1 , but remained unchanged in steers, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased from 0.39 to 0.57 following deprivation. (
  • Glucagon significantly suppressed feeding relative to saline only in 0- and 4-hr-food-deprived intact rabbits. (
  • Analyses indicated that expired carbon monoxide levels were significantly greater in the food-deprived condition than in the non-deprived condition (p = .05), although no differences were found in the total number of cigarettes smoked during the laboratory session. (
  • Analysis of smoking topography indicated that the time to first puff was significantly greater in the non-deprived condition (p = .03), while the sum of the interpuff intervals (p = .02) and the time to removal from the last puff were greater in the food-deprived condition (p = .03). (
  • Systemic and central administration of general opioid antagonists significantly reduce deprivation-induced feeding in rats and mice (e.g. (
  • When the anticipatory response of 18 adults was measured after they had a normal night's sleep and then again after they had stayed awake for 24 hours, researchers found sleep deprivation significantly amplified anticipatory activity in the brain -- particularly among people who were more anxious to begin with. (
  • The findings revealed that sleep-deprived men bought significantly more calories and grams of food than they did after one night of sleep. (
  • Walker adds, "high-calorie foods also became significantly more desirable when participants were sleep-deprived. (
  • The PET-FBB images showed significantly higher uptake of FBB tracer in the right lateralized cluster (hippocampal, parahippocampal, and thalamic regions) area of the brain in 19/20 participants after sleep deprivation. (
  • By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. (
  • Are you deprived of sleep then the most probable chances are that you are attracted to junk food or find yourself drawn to vending machines for drawing junk food. (
  • Recent unpublished study do indicate that eating junk food such as sweets, chips, candy, pepperoni pizza etc. seems quite a good option when the concerned individuals were deprived of their normal sleeping patterns. (
  • Two new studies shed light on the link between sleep deprivation and junk food cravings. (
  • The Government should restrict marketing by stopping junk food adverts from being shown on TV before the 9pm watershed. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a third of U.S. workers get less than 6 hours of sleep each night, and sleep deprivation costs U.S. businesses more than $63 billion annually in lost productivity. (
  • Many food-insecure families live in food deserts, which are defined by the USDA as limited access to inexpensive healthy foods as a result of living far from a supermarket or large grocery store and having limited means of transportation (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). (
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010), over 25 percent of Americans experience occasional sleep deprivation. (
  • The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation. (
  • The present study employs the deprivation intensity discrimination paradigm to assess the interoceptive sensory properties of ghrelin in rats. (
  • After asymptotic performance of this discrimination was achieved, these animals (1 h food deprived) were administered ghrelin or saline, either i.p. (3 or 6 nmol) or i3vt (0.1 or 1 nmol), placed in the training context, and appetitive responses were measured. (
  • After a night of sleep deprivation the men's ratings of hunger and ghrelin levels were higher than after the night when the men got sufficient sleep. (
  • Lack of sleep also causes ghrelin levels to rise, which means your appetite is stimulated, so you want more food,' said co-author Radha Rao, MD, DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX. (
  • LC-HF rats had increased plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and de-creased insulin levels, and patterns of NPY and POMC mRNA expression were consistent with those of food-deprived rats. (
  • Sleep deprivation makes you hungrier by increasing the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin and makes it harder for you to get full by reducing levels of the satiety-inducing hormone leptin. (
  • However, there was no link between individual ghrelin levels and food purchasing. (
  • Participants' resolution in both experiments was higher to detect changes in food size compared with baseline when they were hungry due to a short period of food deprivation. (
  • A recent study asked participants to estimate the size of a water glass, under fluid deprivation, and showed that deprived participants perceived a glass of water as bigger compared with nondeprived participants (Veltkamp et al. (
  • More recently, Radel and Clement-Guillotin ( 2012 ) showed that food-deprived participants were more likely to identify briefly presented food-related words compared with nondeprived participants. (
  • A within-subjects design was utilized to test the primary hypotheses that smoking rate and expired carbon monoxide levels would be greater among the participants in the food-deprived condition than in the non-deprived condition. (
  • Swedish researchers found that participants purchased more food in a mock supermarket when they didn't get enough sleep the night before. (
  • After just one night of sleep deprivation the participants required less stimulation to elicit hand movement. (
  • The results of the brain imaging showed an increase of lower brain function and a decrease of upper brain function which caused participants to crave junk foods when they were sleep deprived. (
  • Accordingly, in this study we sought to specify the effects of sleep deprivation on economic decision making, focusing on preferences (uncertainty and loss aversion) and the information participants utilize to make their decisions (strategy), through a task that controls for potentially-confounding effects on other cognitive domains (such as learning). (
  • WASHINGTON A study of more than 15,000 men with early stage prostate cancer finds that those who received androgen deprivation as their primary treatment instead of surgery or radiation did not live any longer than those who received no treatment. (
  • The results show that food deprivation changes the way people perceive their environment. (
  • The results obtained demonstrate for the first time in a teleost the existence of changes in brain metabolism due to food deprivation. (
  • Results There was little evidence linking fast-food outlets to diet or BMI. (
  • Results: HF rats consumed more food and gained more weight than rats on CH or LC-HF diets. (
  • Our results show a flexible, non-monotonic response of free-ranging wild animals to increasing hunger levels, reflecting a trade-off between increasing motivation to find food and the risk of starvation. (
  • The results demonstrate that 24 hr of food deprivation induced an opiate-mediated analgesic system that involves hormonal factors. (
  • The primary outcome measures were changes in PET-FBB results after a night of restful sleep vs changes in PET-FBB results after a night of sleep deprivation. (
  • Very low food security, previously described as food insecurity with hunger , interrupts normal eating patterns and results in hunger. (
  • According to these results, sleep deprivation could be considered as a risk factor for the onset but not for the evolution of the disease. (
  • On the basis of results from a study ( 13 ) in which sleep deprivation (SD) caused the invasion of normally sterile body tissues by pathogenic bacteria, it may considered that abnormalities of host defense including immune suppression would render healthy sleep-deprived individuals susceptible to disease. (
  • 2002). Sleep deprivation can lead to traffic accidents due to fatigue and alterations in the biological rhythm. (
  • Percentage of Households Classified by Food Security Status: 2002 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Household Food Security in the United States, 2002. (
  • At home, students attending schools serving areas of greater deprivation consume food and beverage items putting them at nutritional risk at a greater average frequency than students attending schools serving areas of lesser deprivation. (
  • Hence the sufferers need to consume food that are rich in tryptophan like cheese, milk, chicken, fish, nuts, bananas, avocados etc as they have a natural sedative effect on the body. (
  • In this study, we used a guinea pig model to investigate the influence of high light levels on FDM and differences in refraction between form-deprived and contralateral eyes, in order to explore the protective or inhibitory effects of high lighting on the form-deprivation myopia and explore whether form-deprivation (FD) could induce myopia under high illumination of 10,000 lux. (
  • The study provides novel findings linking supermarket food sales with the weight status of children. (
  • Matthew Walker, a UC Berkeley professor of psychology and neuroscience and senior author of the study, says the findings indicate that, "getting enough sleep is one factor that can help promote weight control by priming the brain mechanisms governing appropriate food choices. (
  • The equivocal nature of previous findings suggests that there is a need to compare food deprivation responses of subterranean and surface species in order to elucidate whether there are widespread adaptations to low energy systems in subterranean taxa. (
  • Findings 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. (
  • In this paradigm, one group of rats was placed in a training context and presented with sucrose pellets when 24 h food deprived, but not when 1 h food deprived (24+ group). (
  • Antisense probes directed against the κ opioid receptor (KOP), nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP), and δ opioid receptor (DOP) genes in rats result in reductions similar to κ and δ antagonists, whereas antisense probes directed against the μ opioid receptor (MOP) gene produced modest reductions relative to μ antagonists, suggesting that isoforms of the MOP gene may mediate deprivation-induced feeding. (
  • Therefore, it appears that opioid receptor mediation of deprivation-induced feeding in rats occurs primarily through the μ, secondarily through the κ, and minimally through the δ receptor. (
  • The modest reductions observed in the food-deprived rats after MOP antisense administration clearly diverged from the potent reductions observed after μ-selective antagonists. (
  • Pairings of ethanol sipper with food induces Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: evidence of long-term retention and effects of sipper duration. (
  • LC-HF rats did not show rebound hyperphagia after food deprivation, and levels NPY, POMC, and AgRP mRNA expression were not affected by deprivation. (
  • This study observed the first evidence of brain damage in rats as a direct result of sleep deprivation. (
  • The study does not report what type of nitric oxide synthase is responsible for the excess nitric oxide release associated with sleep deprivation, that is, whether it is the inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with inflammation or nitric oxide produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase or that produced by the endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (
  • Octopamine, a functional analogue of mammalian norepinephrine, has been implicated in the responses associated with the absence of food in invertebrate species, such as insects and worms. (
  • 2000). The conditions, experiences, and behavior patterns surrounding the food security issue led the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify the following four levels of food security to describe the range within the population: high, marginal, low, and very low. (
  • Sleep deprivation can have an immediate impact on our physical performance and cognitive function, but can also lead to long term health problems, including cardiovascular and respiratory conditions,' said Suhail Raoof, MBBS, FCCP, President of the American College of Chest Physicians. (
  • This unhealthy food response may be due to the cognitive control as told by St-Onge. (
  • Deprivation of sleep can result in dire consequences to health and to cognitive performance ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • General sleep deprivation may be either total (e.g., a person has no sleep at all for a period of days) or partial (e.g., over a period of time a person obtains only three or four hours of sleep per night). (
  • On a three-hour sleep schedule, partial deprivation does not reproduce in miniaturized form the same relative distribution of sleep patterns achieved in a seven- or eight-hour sleep period. (
  • In this four-part series, Wylde shares information ranging from the connection between sleep deprivation and heart disease to the diagnosis of sleep apnea and the impact of snoring, as well as steps you can take to ensure a quality night's sleep. (
  • In a seminal study that looked at the effects of food deprivation on perception, Lazarus and his colleagues ( 1953 ) provided initial evidence that mild food deprivation may lead to a decreased threshold for shape identification of food-related stimulus. (
  • Conclusion This exploratory study offers a first step for considering complexity and pathways linking fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and BMI. (
  • The secondary commercial database used in this study was insufficient to characterize the rural retail food environment. (
  • Study finds it changes preferred type of food and portion size. (
  • Getting too little sleep can affect not only what foods most interest you, but also how much of those foods it seems right to eat, according to a study published in Psychoneuroendocrinology . (
  • The 16 men in the study were tested after they got eight hours of sleep and again after a night of sleep deprivation. (
  • sleep deprivation also could cause your skin to age faster , according to a new study. (
  • Sleep deprivation might prevent people from consolidating memories of experimental trauma, reducing their tendency to experience flashbacks, according to a new Oxford-led study. (
  • The study also found that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation may alleviate clinical depression because it mimics selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (
  • The study engaged the participation of 20 individuals to evaluate synaptic plasticity with and without sleep deprivation. (
  • A recent study may shed more light on how sleep deprivation can affect your ability to focus on tasks. (
  • This technique has allowed us to study the effects of food deprivation on neuropeptide gene expression in the mouse hypothalamus and adrenal gland. (
  • On August 6, 2013 researchers from UC Berkeley published a study in the journal Nature Communications showing that sleepless nights have a direct impact on brain regions that control decision making and make us more inclined to crave fast food rather than healthier options. (
  • This is the first study to identify a specific brain mechanism linked to food cravings a sleepless night. (
  • In the present study, we investigated a possible degradation of social function by testing the effect of sleep deprivation on the precision of signaling in European honey bees ( Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758). (
  • Another study from 2012, published in the journal Academic Pediatrics , assessed the food offerings in 14 California children's hospitals, rating each hospital on a scale from 0 (unhealthy) to 37 (healthy). (
  • During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. (
Ranger School - Wikipedia
Ranger School - Wikipedia (
Hormetic heat stress and HSF-1 induce autophagy to improve survival and proteostasis in C. elegans | Nature Communications
Hormetic heat stress and HSF-1 induce autophagy to improve survival and proteostasis in C. elegans | Nature Communications (
Sleep Deprivation Linked To Aging Skin, Study Suggests | HuffPost
Sleep Deprivation Linked To Aging Skin, Study Suggests | HuffPost (
Gender Differences In Teen Sleep Deprivation And Related Weight Gain
Gender Differences In Teen Sleep Deprivation And Related Weight Gain (
Insomnia Increases Junk Food Cravings | Psychology Today
Insomnia Increases Junk Food Cravings | Psychology Today (
The effect of food deprivation on human resolving power | SpringerLink
The effect of food deprivation on human resolving power | SpringerLink (
Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation | SpringerLink
Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation | SpringerLink (
The Rights of Prisoners and International Law - Global ResearchGlobal Research - Centre for Research on Globalization
The Rights of Prisoners and International Law - Global ResearchGlobal Research - Centre for Research on Globalization (
These chefs are trying to make hospital food better. - Big Think
These chefs are trying to make hospital food better. - Big Think (
Sensory deprivation in Staphylococcus aureus | Nature Communications
Sensory deprivation in Staphylococcus aureus | Nature Communications (
Starvation | ASPE
Starvation | ASPE (
Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease - Kindle edition by Robert H. Lustig. Health,...
Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease - Kindle edition by Robert H. Lustig. Health,... (
24 Application of Cognitive Performance Assessment Technology to Military Nutrition Research | Emerging Technologies for...
24 Application of Cognitive Performance Assessment Technology to Military Nutrition Research | Emerging Technologies for... (
I Tried a Sensory Deprivation Tank - I Tried Flotation Therapy and It Was Amazing | Men's Health
I Tried a Sensory Deprivation Tank - I Tried Flotation Therapy and It Was Amazing | Men's Health (
5 Tips for a Healthy Halloween (Without Deprivation!) | Institute for Integrative Nutrition
5 Tips for a Healthy Halloween (Without Deprivation!) | Institute for Integrative Nutrition (
What You Need to Know About Cholesterol | VitaMedica
What You Need to Know About Cholesterol | VitaMedica (
Evaluating the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention on early childhood development in paediatric HIV care and...
Evaluating the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention on early childhood development in paediatric HIV care and... (
Sleepless? Know the Signs of Sleep Deprivation
Sleepless? Know the Signs of Sleep Deprivation (
The Death of Terri Schiavo: An Epilogue
The Death of Terri Schiavo: An Epilogue (
Optimizing Physical Performance During Fasting and Dietary Restriction: Implications for Athletes and Sports Medicine - CRC...
Optimizing Physical Performance During Fasting and Dietary Restriction: Implications for Athletes and Sports Medicine - CRC... (
Sleep deprivation affects high level cognitive functions, cardio... - TV Fanatic
Sleep deprivation affects high level cognitive functions, cardio... - TV Fanatic (
Rise in insulin and glucose levels | themedguru
Rise in insulin and glucose levels | themedguru (
15 Hair-Raising Consequences of Sleep Deprivation
15 Hair-Raising Consequences of Sleep Deprivation (
Having trouble focusing lately? Blame sleep deprivation | Healthy Living
Having trouble focusing lately? Blame sleep deprivation | Healthy Living (
Orexin - Wikipedia
Orexin - Wikipedia (
Transform Your Body With A Gradual Weight Loss Without Deprivation
Transform Your Body With A Gradual Weight Loss Without Deprivation (
Suzanne Somers' Get Skinny on Fabulous Food by Suzanne Somers,  Leslie Hamel |, Paperback | Barnes & Noble®
Suzanne Somers' Get Skinny on Fabulous Food by Suzanne Somers, Leslie Hamel |, Paperback | Barnes & Noble® (
When Is a Headache More Than a Headache?
When Is a Headache More Than a Headache? (
How Sleep Deprivation Affects Appetite | Runner's World
How Sleep Deprivation Affects Appetite | Runner's World (
Ritual Abuse - MCRAIS
Ritual Abuse - MCRAIS (
Pine siskin - Wikipedia
Pine siskin - Wikipedia (