The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The consumption of edible substances.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
The selection of one food over another.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Abstaining from all food.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Glucose in blood.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Sexual activities of animals.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.

Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption. (1/1450)

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (2/1450)

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (3/1450)

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

Expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck), a zinc-finger signal transduction protein, is elevated by dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction in mice. (4/1450)

Compromised immune function is common to Zn deficiency, protein and energy malnutrition; however, the causative mechanisms at the molecular level have not been elucidated. The T lymphocyte signal transduction pathway contains several Zn-finger proteins, and it is possible that the in vivo functioning of these proteins could be affected by dietary deficiency of Zn and amino acids. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects, on expression of the T lymphocyte signal transduction proteins p56(lck), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) and protein kinase C (PKCalpha), of dietary Zn deficiency (ZnDF, < 1 mg Zn/kg diet) and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes [2% protein deficiency (LP), combined Zn and 2% protein deficiency (ZnDF+LP), and diet restriction (DR, body weight equal to ZnDF)] compared with control (C) mice. Indices of nutritional status and splenocyte counts were also determined. Based on serum albumin and liver lipid concentrations, the ZnDF+LP and LP groups had protein-type malnutrition, whereas the ZnDF and DR groups had energy-type malnutrition. For Western immunoblotting of the signal transduction proteins, mouse splenic T lymphocytes were isolated by immunocolumns. The expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck) was significantly elevated in the ZnDF+LP, ZnDF and DR groups compared to the C group. In contrast, the expression of PLCgamma1 and PKC was unaffected. There was a significant negative correlation between T lymphocyte p56(lck) expression and serum Zn (r= -0.65, P = 0.0007) or femur Zn (r = -0.73, P = 0.0001) concentrations. We propose that elevated T lymphocyte p56(lck) may contribute to altered thymoctye maturation, apoptosis and lymphopenia in Zn deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes.  (+info)

Interaction between genetic and dietary factors determines beta-cell function in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. (5/1450)

The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes. We studied the interaction between diet and diabetic predisposition for beta-cell function. A 4-day high-energy (HE) diet induced a 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold increase in serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, respectively, in diabetes-prone (DP) but not diabetes-resistant (DR) P. obesus. Hyperglycemia and concurrent 90% depletion of islet immunoreactive insulin stores were partially corrected by an 18-h fast. In vitro early insulin response to glucose was blunted in both DR and DP perifused islets. The HE diet augmented early and late insulin response in DR islets, whereas in DP islets, secretion progressively declined. Dose-response studies showed a species-related increase in islet glucose sensitivity, further augmented in DP P. obesus by a HE diet, concomitant with a decreased threshold for glucose and a 55% reduction in maximal response. These changes were associated with a fourfold increase in glucose phosphorylation capacity in DP islets. There were no differences in islet glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) Km; however, GK Vmax was 3.7- to 4.6-fold higher in DP islets, and HK Vmax was augmented 3.7-fold by the HE diet in DP islets. We conclude that the insulin-resistant P. obesus has an inherent deficiency in insulin release. In the genetically predisposed P. obesus (DP), augmented islet glucose phosphorylation ability and diet-induced reduction of the glucose threshold for secretion may lead to inadequate insulin secretion and depletion of insulin stores in the presence of caloric abundance. Thus, genetic predisposition and beta-cell maladaptation to nutritional load seem to determine together the progression to overt diabetes in this species. It is hypothesized that similar events may occur in obese type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

Phosphate depletion in the rat: effect of bisphosphonates and the calcemic response to PTH. (6/1450)

BACKGROUND: The removal of phosphate from the diet of the growing rat rapidly produces hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypophosphaturia. Increased calcium efflux from bone has been shown to be the important cause of the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been proposed that the increased calcium efflux from bone is osteoclast mediated. Because bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this study was performed to determine whether bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclast function changed the biochemical and bone effects induced by phosphate depletion. METHODS: Four groups of pair-fed rats were studied: (a) low-phosphate diet (LPD; phosphate less than 0.05%), (b) LPD plus the administration of the bisphosphonate Pamidronate (APD; LPD + APD), (c) normal diet (ND, 0.6% phosphate), and (d) ND + APD. All diets contained 0.6% calcium. A high dose of APD was administered subcutaneously (0.8 mg/kg) two days before the start of the study diet and on days 2, 6, and 9 during the 11 days of the study diet. On day 10, a 24-hour urine was collected, and on day 11, rats were either sacrificed or received an additional APD dose before a 48-hour parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion (0.066 microgram/100 g/hr) via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump. RESULTS: Serum and urinary calcium were greater in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND and ND + APD groups [serum, 11.12 +/- 0.34 and 11.57 +/- 0.45 vs. 9.49 +/- 0.17 and 9.48 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (mean +/- SE), P < 0.05; and urine, 8.78 +/- 2.74 and 16.30 +/- 4.68 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 and 0.67 +/- 0.28 mg/24 hr, P < 0.05]. Serum PTH and serum and urinary phosphorus were less in the LPD and LPD + APD than in the ND and ND + APD groups (P < 0.05). The calcemic response to PTH was less (P < 0.05) in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND group and was less (P = 0.05) in the LPD + APD than in the ND + APD group. Bone histology showed that phosphate depletion increased the osteoblast and osteoclast surface, and treatment with APD reduced the osteoblast surface (LPD vs. LPD + APD, 38 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2%, P < 0.05, and ND vs. ND + APD, 20 +/- 2 vs. 5 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and markedly altered osteoclast morphology by inducing cytoplasmic vacuoles. CONCLUSIONS: (a) Phosphate depletion induced hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that were not reduced by APD administration. (b) The calcemic response to PTH was reduced in phosphate-depleted rats and was unaffected by APD administration in normal and phosphate-depleted rats, and (c) APD administration markedly changed bone histology without affecting the biochemical changes induced by phosphate depletion.  (+info)

Growth hormone promotes somatic and skeletal muscle growth recovery in rats following chronic protein-energy malnutrition. (7/1450)

The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and/or a diet enriched in protein and energy to improve growth recovery following prolonged malnutrition was examined in male rats food-restricted from birth until 120 d of age. At d 121, restricted rats were randomly assigned to recovery groups receiving either a control or enriched diet with or without daily subcutaneous injections of GH. Rats were killed after 16 or 47 d of recovery. At d 16, GH treatment stimulated liver, heart, plantaris, soleus, carcass and body weight gain and inhibited fat gain when compared to recovery controls. Rats receiving GH also exhibited the highest serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and total muscle protein. At d 47, GH effects on body and muscle recovery were minimal, and differences among recovery groups in serum IGF-I concentration and total muscle protein were no longer present. Consumption of an enriched diet increased fat pad and liver mass, but did not promote muscle recovery. There were no differences among treatment groups in skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA levels at d 16 or 47. In summary, GH had positive effects on somatic and skeletal muscle growth early in the recovery process, possibly via endocrine IGF-I-stimulated protein accretion. In contrast, the enriched diet promoted fat deposition with no impact on skeletal muscle growth recovery.  (+info)

Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens. (8/1450)

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.  (+info)

The effects of sleep deprivation can be severe and long-lasting, including:

1. Impaired cognitive function: Sleep deprivation can affect attention, memory, and decision-making skills, making it more difficult to perform daily tasks and make sound judgments.
2. Emotional distress: Lack of sleep can lead to irritability, anxiety, and depression, which can negatively impact relationships and overall well-being.
3. Physical health problems: Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and immune system dysfunction.
4. Impaired motor function: Sleep deprivation can cause coordination problems, clumsiness, and a higher risk of accidents, particularly in activities that require attention and quick reflexes (e.g., driving).
5. Premature aging: Chronic sleep deprivation can accelerate the aging process and reduce the body's ability to repair and regenerate cells.
6. Reduced productivity and performance: Sleep deprivation can lead to decreased productivity, poor work quality, and increased absenteeism, which can negatively impact career advancement and financial stability.
7. Increased risk of accidents and injuries: Drowsy driving and workplace accidents are common consequences of sleep deprivation, which can result in fatalities and long-term disabilities.
8. Weakened immune system: Sleep deprivation can weaken the immune system, making it more difficult to fight off infections and diseases.
9. Negative impact on relationships: Sleep deprivation can lead to mood swings, irritability, and difficulty interacting with others, which can strain personal and professional relationships.
10. Increased risk of mental health disorders: Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk of developing anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders.

To avoid these negative consequences, it's essential to prioritize sleep and make it a critical component of your daily routine. Establishing a consistent sleep schedule, creating a sleep-conducive environment, and practicing relaxation techniques can help improve sleep quality and duration. Additionally, avoiding stimulating activities before bedtime, limiting exposure to electronic screens, and seeking professional help if sleep problems persist can contribute to better overall health and well-being.

The criteria for obsessive hoarding include:

1. Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value.
2. The difficulty is due to a perceived need to save the items and not to a desire to collect them.
3. The difficulty leads to cluttered living spaces that are difficult to use for their intended purpose.
4. The difficulty significantly interferes with daily functioning or causes significant distress.
5. The difficulty is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. The hoarding behavior is not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as delusional disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

The exact cause of obsessive hoarding is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Some research suggests that hoarding may be related to abnormalities in brain regions involved in decision-making, emotional regulation, and executive functioning. Additionally, obsessive hoarding may be associated with other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders and depression.

Treatment for obsessive hoarding typically involves a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and professional organizing. CBT can help individuals understand the underlying causes of their hoarding behavior and learn strategies to manage it, while professional organizing can help individuals develop the skills and resources needed to declutter their living spaces. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as anxiety or depression.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of food hypersensitivity, including:

1. Food Allergy: An immune system reaction to a specific food that can cause symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Common food allergies include reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
2. Non-Allergic Food Hypersensitivity: Also known as non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, this type of reaction does not involve the immune system. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headaches. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, and high-FODMAP foods.
3. Food Intolerance: A condition where the body cannot properly digest or process a specific food. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gas. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, and celiac disease.
4. Food Aversion: An emotional response to a specific food that can cause avoidance or dislike of the food. This is not an allergic or physiological reaction but rather a psychological one.

The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as skin prick testing or blood tests. Treatment options for food hypersensitivity depend on the type and severity of the reaction and may include avoidance of the offending food, medication, or immunotherapy.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

September 2013). "Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men". ... In most literature, sleep deprivation is also noted as acute sleep deprivation or chronic partial sleep deprivation. Chronic ... A meta-analysis of several studies regarding sleep deprivation suggests that the effects of partial sleep deprivation are ... partial sleep deprivation is sleep deprivation caused when students obtain some but not adequate sleep. Acute sleep deprivation ...
Food was seen as the primary drive and the relationship, or "dependency" was secondary. He had already found himself in ... Maternal deprivation as a discrete syndrome is a concept that is rarely used other than in connection with extreme deprivation ... Wootton B. (1962). "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation". Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its ... Complete or almost complete deprivation could "entirely cripple the capacity to make relationships". Partial deprivation could ...
The rough tactics range from waterboarding (simulated drowning) to keeping suspects naked and denying them solid food. These ... sleep-deprivation, prolonged shackling, and threats to a detainee's family. One of the memos also authorized a method for ... eating food out of toilets; crawling on hands and knees while American soldiers sat on their backs, sometimes requiring them to ... including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of ...
Food deprivation. Victims include CPP founder Jose Maria Sison and Rev. Cesar Taguba. Pompyang (cymbals) / Telephone / Ear ... "Debt, deprivation and spoils of dictatorship , 31 years of amnesia". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on 2017-06 ... Sleep deprivation. Victims include Ninoy Aquino and Maria Elena-Ang. Playing loud, repetitive music. Victims include Ninoy ...
Causes of headaches may include dehydration; fatigue; sleep deprivation; stress; the effects of medications (overuse) and ... exercise and food. While mobile electronic diaries for smartphones are becoming increasingly common, a recent review found most ... recreational drugs, including withdrawal; viral infections; loud noises; head injury; rapid ingestion of a very cold food or ...
In particular, the five techniques of wall-standing; hooding; subjection to noise; deprivation of sleep; deprivation of food ... deprivation of sleep: pending their interrogations, depriving the detainees of sleep deprivation of food and drink: subjecting ... this leads to effects which have similarities to sensory deprivation. Sensory deprivation techniques were developed by some of ... Food, drink, and toilet facilities are provided in the room and are at the discretion of the tester, who can communicate with ...
... and sleep deprivation are the side effects of excessive warmness. Some actions or consuming some food stuff can contribute to ... They should abstain from spices, pepper, spicy food, sweets, salty and deep fried food items. Instead they should eat food with ... although spicy foods are warmer and dryer than bitter and salty foods respectively. Sweetness is warm and wet and most food ... deep fried foods, tomato paste and sauces, and fast food; and instead they should consume high calories and low volume foods. ...
... deprivation of sleep; deprivation of food and drink. The Court ruled that the five techniques used together and combined with ... "sensory deprivation" techniques, were not used in any cases other than the fourteen so indicated above. It emerges from the ...
... sleep deprivation; 'underground membership.'" In 2020, the fraternity chapter at Furman University was suspended for four years ... forcing new members to consume food items such as jalapeños, habaneros, red onions, and milk until vomiting was induced; ...
... deprivation of edible food; spectators paying to watch him suffering and, what for Asgill was the final straw, deprivation of ...
Virtually all our sample were subject to: verbal abuse, humiliation and threats of injury; sleep and food deprivation; hooding ... The food is of poor quality and quantity, and detainees lose weight. During interrogation, detainees are exposed to threats, ... withholding food and blindfolding for long periods; insertion of bottles or sticks into anus; insertion of wire into penis; ... deprived of sleep and food, given cold showers and being forced to stand naked outside in rain at night. The first study of ...
... deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using famine scales. Food loss ... Food portal Drink portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal Bulk foods Beverages Food and Bioprocess Technology Food engineering ... Price levels depend on the food production process, including food marketing and food distribution. Fluctuation in food prices ... Food, Inc., a 2009 documentary Food science Future food technology Industrial crop List of foods Lists of prepared foods ...
He also practices food deprivation. He went to Ireland, his native country, in 1835, at the end of these years of ...
Food deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using famine scales. Food loss ... Food portal Drink portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal Bulk foods Beverages Food and Bioprocess Technology Food engineering ... Price levels depend on the food production process, including food marketing and food distribution. Fluctuation in food prices ... Food, Inc., a 2009 documentary Food science Future food technology Industrial crop List of foods Lists of prepared foods ...
The alleged torture included beatings; threats of electrocution; deprivation of sleep, food and water; and being choked by a ...
Nonetheless the poor experienced real deprivation). Food was donated to war-refugees in Spain. The nation did need to import ... While Ireland's food production was increasing, British food imports were falling; for example the UK imported 1,360,000 tons ... Although Ireland had a surplus of food, some foods were not grown in Ireland, as the climate was unsuitable. Only small plots ... When the war was over, she returned to Naples with a cargo of food, a gift from Ireland to war-ravaged Italy. Irish Hazel was ...
Malnutrition and food deprivation also occur. A number have depression and suicidal thoughts because of the trauma. Some are ...
In rats, prolonged, complete sleep deprivation increased both food intake and energy expenditure with a net effect of weight ... Sleep deprivation can be used to disorientate abuse victims to help set them up for abusive control. Sleep deprivation can be ... Sleep deprivation is used to create a different time schedule pattern that is beyond a typical 24 hour day. Sleep deprivation ... Sleep deprivation, whether total or not, can induce significant anxiety and longer sleep deprivations tend to result in ...
... based on the observation that long-term sleep deprivation in rodents dramatically increases food intake and energy metabolism, ... Sleep deprivation then leads to a lack of energy. In order to make up for this lack of energy, many people use high- ... Sleep deprivation also increases orexin-A transmission. The orexin system may thus be more important in the regulation of ... Ghrelin is a short-term factor secreted by the stomach just before an expected meal, and strongly promotes food intake. Orexin- ...
Another common disciplinary measure was food deprivation. The children lived in fear and were deprived of all love and ...
Incentive size, food deprivation, and food preference. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1953. Effect of cortical implantation of ... In one situation, the wire mother held a bottle with food, and the cloth mother held no food. In the other situation, the cloth ... The monkeys overwhelmingly chose the cloth mother, with or without food, only visiting the wire mother that had food when ... Touch deprivation may cause stress-induced activation of the pituitary-adrenal system, which, in turn, leads to increased ...
For example, food deprivation is a motivating operation; if a person is hungry, food is strongly reinforcing, but if a person ... For example, food deprivation changes the value of food, making it more reinforcing, and it also evokes learned behaviors that ... Likewise, food satiation reduces both the reinforcing effect of food and the probability of food-getting behaviors. Note that a ... Deprivation of food, water, sleep, activity, sex, or oxygen; becoming too warm or too cold; and increase of a painful stimulus ...
... deprivation of food, sleep, and use of toilet; rape and gang rape; asphyxiation; and threat, extortion, and termination of ... Practitioners of Falun Gong are forbidden to kill living things-including animals for the purpose of obtaining food-though they ...
Later the housefather finds the letter; The group will be punished with food deprivation. Wolfgang tries to steal tomatoes from ... for example by rationing the food or a smoking ban. He leaves it to the pupils to personally punish the "guilty one", and then ...
Hunger in History: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. Blackwell. J.X. Kasperson and R.W. Kates, (eds.), 1990. Overcoming ... Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Berkeley: University of California Press. [runner-up for ... Climate Change and World Food Security special issue of Global Environmental Change, Vol. 4 No.1, March, 1994, pp. 1-88. Burton ... Hunger in the 1990s, a special issue of Food Policy, Vol.15, No. 4, pp. 273-368. Turner, B.L. II, Hyden G, and R.W. Kates (Eds ...
The VCT can be done with food deprivation too. Before beginning the test animals must be acclimated to the cage and food ... If doing the VCT using food, animals must be trained to be able to pull the lever for the food dispenser and accept the pellet ... Water deprivation is 18 hours or water is provided for 1 hour a day for four days before beginning the test. Electrical shock ... If the shock the animals are receiving is too low, then animals might ignore the shock and continue to get food or water which ...
Zitron-Emanuel, Noa; Ganel, Tzvi (1 September 2018). "Food deprivation reduces the susceptibility to size-contrast illusions". ... Further testing showed that when chimpanzees were offered food on small and large plates, as they often picked the food on the ... Parrish & Beran (2014) found that chimpanzees would regularly select food platters that contained more food. ... In 2012, Ittersum and Wansink published a study that hinted to the Delboeuf illusion as a factor in increased food servings. ...
... humiliation and deprivation of food, education and healthcare. Details of the mistreatment and abuse that emerged in ... dental care unethical use as test subjects of experimental medication and drugs extreme physical hardship lack of healthy food ...
... and food deprivation resulting from lack of access to food in Mexico." According to the CONEVAL, the CNCH has reached 7.1 ... Food access: Food access refers to how easily the adequate supply of quality food can be accessed. Food stability: Food ... Food utilization: Food utilization refers to the way that the body physiologically uses the food. This is affected by both ... However, even when food supplies are sufficient, there can be food insecurity. Between 2003 and 2005, the total Mexican food ...
Food deprivation is another cue for spiders to disperse. Acute feeding stress, feeding history and age all influence how food ... The habitat chosen by the mother can affect ballooning behavior in offspring because of temperature, food availability, and ... deprivation influences tip-toe behavior. Increases in temperature are another cue for E. atra dispersal behavior. In late ...
The prices of food would skyrocket, as the province ran out of money to pay for the scarce produces and trade effectively ... Sen, Amartya (1983), Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford University Press, pp. 39-, ISBN 978-0 ... By late December, food prices had spiked sharply and the western districts of Bengal along with Bihar were also in a precarious ... First, the high costs involved in the culture of silk-cocoons meant that the chassars had no reserves to buy food at famine- ...
Oxygen deprivation can lead to permanent disabilities in the child, such as cerebral palsy. Risk factors for fetal birth injury ... "Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD003930. doi: ... Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough ... choking on recently eaten foods) in the event of an emergency delivery due to the increased relaxation of the esophagus in ...
He couldn't bring himself to eat the American food served there. He said that while he wasn't beaten there, other detainees ... Rubin reported that Hamidullah described being subjected to sleep deprivation, but that while he could hear other detainees ... where interrogation techniques like sleep deprivation, prohibited under the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, were still ...
Food, Drug, Cosmetic Law Journal. 13 (11): 692-697. ISSN 0015-6361. JSTOR 26655375. Boister, Neil (1996). "The international ... and only a serious offense is liable to adequate punishment particularly by imprisonment or other penalties of deprivation of ... "shall be liable to adequate punishment particularly by imprisonment or other penalties of deprivation of liberty." The Article ...
... called after the enormous quantity of food absorb before the deprivation of Lent. It is the definitive day of carnival. In ...
Poverty increases the chances of having these diseases as the deprivation of shelter, safe drinking water, nutritious food, ... A food desert lacks supermarkets that offer healthy and fresh food options and instead have highly processed foods. Because of ... Food insecurity refers to the lack of access to quality food for a healthy lifestyle. The rate of hunger and malnutrition in ... Food Prices, and Obesity in Urban Food Deserts". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 47 (5): 587-595. doi:10.1016/j.amepre ...
There is also some deprivation in rural areas, particularly around Haltwhistle. Based on the latest published old age ... It includes substantial agricultural holdings, forestry, wood processing, food, minerals, and manufactured hardware industries ...
World Health Organization Ringed seals were once the main food staple for the Inuit. They are still an important food source ... to allow extended diving times and cope with oxygen deprivation. If oxygen is depleted (hypoxia), marine mammals can access ... The Arctic food chain would be disrupted by the near extinction or migration of polar bears. Arctic sea ice is the polar bear's ... Food and Agriculture Department of the United Nations. pp. 1-2. ISBN 978-92-5-103292-3. OCLC 30643250. Perrin, William F.; ...
... have been paired with sensory deprivation, sleep deprivation, food and drink deprivation, and stress positions. A BBC News ... Methods often reported include prolonged sleep deprivation; beatings; prolonged restraint in painful positions, sometimes ... food, drink or sleep. South Korea has broadcast K-pop music across the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) into North Korea using ... observed sleep deprivation interviews w/strobe lights and loud music. Interrogator said it would take 4 days to break someone ...
The "care" to be provided could include payments, food, apprenticeships, boarding or referral to a workhouse. Originally the ... Meanwhile, the rise of industrialisation, lead to a rapidly more urbanized population, causing great social deprivation. It ...
One theory states that remittances to some degree make up for the lack of care by providing more resources for food and ... "The main [hazardous condition] is the sleep deprivation that they experience - just long hours of work that the [U.S.] workers ... Many face hardships such as lack of food, abuse, and low wages with deportation being their biggest fear. In Bangkok, Thailand ... Migrant workers may also be denied adequate food and living conditions, as well as medical treatment. In a study undertaken by ...
It is a common myth that C. maculatum alkaloids can enter the human food chain via milk and fowl, and scientific studies have ... causing death from oxygen deprivation. It has been observed that poisoned animals return to feed on the plant after initial ... It is used as a food plant by the larvae of some lepidoptera, including silver-ground carpet moths and particularly the poison ... Vetter, J (September 2004). "Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum L.)". Food Chem Toxicol. 42 (9): 1374-82. doi:10.1016/j.fct. ...
After periods of long sleep deprivation, the first post-deprivation sleep shows a marked drop in IL-6 and an increase in slow ... This makes overeating more likely and people tend to consume foods and drinks high in sugars and carbohydrates. This increased ... In addition, sleep deprivation can cause a change in perceptions as well. Being sleep-deprived for 24 hours leads to a dramatic ... Since both sleep deprivation and stress have similar impacts on one's body, the overall likelihood of serious health issues ...
The 4 police leaders of the Hamburg pocket were declared guilty of deprivation of personal freedom, but only admonishment and ... The demonstrators were held without food, water and toilets. Demonstrations against the use of nuclear power developed in the ...
Depression has been linked to touch deprivation in adults and research has established associations between touch deprivation ... he presented the infants with a clothed surrogate mother and a wire surrogate mother which held a bottle with food. It turns ... Men have been found more likely to experience touch deprivation than women due to stronger social prohibitions against same-sex ... S2CID 6699845.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) What is touch deprivation? enotes. Published 7 ...
He started by writing articles encouraging like-minded readers to join him in the formation of groups who would provide food ... others tackled educational problems but all had the core belief in an end to the deprivation suffered by tens of thousands of ... Julia Dawson was the first National Secretary and she made a significant role in managing the clubs, which provided food and ... The Cinderella Movement was a late nineteenth century British movement to provide food and entertainment for poor children. ...
The main social deficiencies of Arandas in 2015 were deprivation of social security, educational backwardness and deprivation ... and Temporary Accommodation and Food Preparation and Drinks (507 units). The products with the highest level of international ... The vulnerable population due to social deprivation reached 36.8%, while the vulnerable population by income was 5.82%. Poverty ...
The volunteers in this study were deprived of fluids for three and a half days and only allowed to eat the kind of dried food ... Of all the experiments conducted at the institute, the water deprivation experiment was the one most disliked by the volunteers ... This was an important consideration in wartime Britain, where food was in short supply. The experiments into deficiency of ... Another early experiment looked into water deprivation of survivors in lifeboats. However, the most important work of the ...
Rice is the most important food crop, a staple food in most of the country. It is produced extensively in Luzon (especially ... "Debt, deprivation and spoils of dictatorship , 31 years of amnesia". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on June 26 ... Rice production in the Philippines is important to the food supply in the country and economy. The Philippines is the 8th ... After the re-establishment of the Commonwealth in 1945, the country was left with a devastated city, food crisis and financial ...
... deprivation, or cravings. All that is needed is to sprinkle all the food one eats with flavor-enhancing Sensa crystals, and ... According to the "Sensa diet", when using the product, there is no specific diet regimen or list of food restrictions ... Under the order, the defendants are barred from making weight-loss claims about dietary supplements, foods, or drugs, unless ... According to the advertisements promoting the Sensa diet, you can eat your favorite foods without counting calories, ...
Eating sugary foods causes the brain to release natural chemicals called opioids and dopamine in the limbic system. Tasty food ... Hill and colleagues set out to research the effect of estrogen deprivation on the development of compulsive behavior in mice. ... In this study, rats were taught to press a lever to receive food in an operant conditioning task. Once food was no longer ... When given free access to food and an exercise wheel, rats normally develop a balanced routine between exercise and food intake ...
They also stated there is at most a weak correlation between economic deprivation and the political inclination to change. ... according to the testimony of UN humanitarian coordinators and the World Food Program), means the US had to punish Saddam by ...
In 2005 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted Cortex Pharmaceuticals' Investigational New Drug (IND) application ... and it counteracted the effects of sleep deprivation. However, a 2006 study funded by DARPA found that CX717 did not improve ... "Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717) in nonhuman primates". ...
... is a deprivation of the equal liberty of the person protected by the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The federal ... to regulate interstate commerce extends to a restaurant that is not patronized by interstate travelers but which serves food ... and the protections of the Fourteenth Amendment extend to citizens who suffer deprivations of their rights at the hands of a ...
The chamber was equipped with a food box and a water-bottle holder, and was covered with a pyramid top [removed in the ... Stephens, M.L. Maternal Deprivation Experiments in Psychology: A Critique of Animal Models. AAVS, NAVS, NEAVS, 1986. Suomi, ... who also conducted deprivation experiments elsewhere, said that Harlow "kept this going to the point where it was clear to many ... hands changed his bedding or delivered fresh water and food. Baby monkeys were placed in these boxes soon after birth; four ...
Militiamen loyal to Atto are also alleged to be responsible for a July 14, 2001, ambush of a World Food Programme (WFP) relief ... Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life (10th paragraph). The ambush was first reported in: Somalia, Country Reports on Human ...
For instance, 'bail wi want pata' means 'We do not want food', and 'bail' indicates the negation of the sentence. Port Jackson ... where missionaries provided a safe place for Indigenous Australians from the surrounding areas to escape deprivation at the ... As a result, the local ecosystem could no longer provide food for the Aboriginal people, and they became increasingly dependent ... The settlers needed Bennelong's knowledge of Aboriginal culture, food, technology and the environment, while the Aboriginal ...
Food Security Act: How are poor states doing?, Ideas for India, 29 June 2016. Jean Dreze & Reetika Khera: Any state can reform ... Regional Patterns of Human and Child Deprivation, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 47, No. 39, 29 September 2012. With Jean ... Thought for Food, खाद्य सुरक्षा: सुधर सकते हैं फिसड्डी राज्यों के भी हालात Outlook, 21 August 2015. With Jean Dreze. आधार: ... Aadhaar and Food Security in Jharkhand, Pain Without Gain?, With Jean Drèze, Nazar Khalid and Anmol Somanchi. Economic and ...
There are no images of reindeer, even though that was the principal source of food for the artists. Geometric images have also ... patterns overlapping the representational images of animals are very similar to hallucinations provoked by sensory-deprivation ...
"FDA approves Zytiga for late-stage prostate cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-04-28. Archived from the original ... Datta M, Schwartz GG (2012). "Calcium and vitamin D supplementation during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a ... "FDA approves new treatment for a type of late stage prostate cancer" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 2012-08-31 ... "FDA approves new drug for advanced prostate cancer" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 15 May 2013. Archived from ...
FSA funded research has found that exercise and sleep deprivation can put people with a peanut allergy at greater risk of a ... The work, which could be applied to other foods, reveals that exercise, sleep deprivation or stress significantly reduce the ... or you wish to whistleblow regarding a food business for which you work, contact Food Crime Confidential on 0207 276 8787 (9am ... The Food Standards Agency Chair, Heather Hancock said:. "The FSA commissioned and funded this ground-breaking research because ...
Heres a study that shows the link between sleep deprivation and weight gain. ... The prices of the high-caloric foods were then varied to determine if total sleep deprivation affects the flexibility of food ... Sleep Deprivation Linked To High Calorie Food Choices. There is more science supporting the fact that getting a good nights ... Researchers at Uppsala University investigated whether sleep deprivation may impair or alter an individuals food purchasing ...
The proportion of food-insecure residents living in very high-deprivation areas (22.6%) was approximately twice that of those ... Odds of infection increased with level of deprivation and were two times greater in high-deprivation areas (weighted OR = 2.08 ... Incidence of confirmed COVID-19 increased with area deprivation level, from 545 in very low-deprivation areas to 674 in low-, ... Testing rates also increased with deprivation level; the rate in very high-deprivation areas (13,374 per 100,000 persons) was ...
Expedia releases 2023 Vacation Deprivation report. According to Expedias 23rd annual Vacation Deprivation Report, global ... Ainad Shriners Parade & Feztival of Food. Weekend events take over downtown Belleville on June 2nd and 3rd. ...
30 cmOther title: Measurement and assessment of food deprivation and undernutrition [Portion of title]Subject(s): Malnutrition ... Measurement and assessment of food deprivation and undernutrition : International Scientific Symposium, Rome, 26-28 June 2002 ... International Scientific Symposium on Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition ( 2002 : Rome, Italy) ... Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.; Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping Systems ; ...
... fast food, tobacco and gambling, within Glasgow City, Scotland. For all categories of outlets combined, nu … ... Keywords: Alcohol; Area deprivation; Cluster analysis; Fast food; Gambling; Tobacco. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by ... Do environmental bads such as alcohol, fast food, tobacco, and gambling outlets cluster and co-locate in more deprived areas ... fast food, tobacco and gambling, within Glasgow City, Scotland. For all categories of outlets combined, numbers of clusters ...
MARTINS, Karla Patrícia Holanda; LIMA, Maria Celina Peixoto; SIMAO, Gabriela Monteiro e SOUSA, Allan Ratts de. Food deprivation ... Palavras-chave : child malnutrition; hunger; demand; food refusal; psychoanalytical evaluation at the age of 3. ... taking into account that the privation of food may be paradoxically correlated to its refusal. ...
... a new study demonstrates another unsavory effect of sleep deprivation: It could actually spur junk food cravings, similar to ... The study, published in the journal SLEEP, found that subjects who were sleep-deprived were more likely to consume junk foods ... blood levels of endocannabinoids-chemicals known to enhance the desire for food intake that are also found in the bloodstream ... a new study demonstrates another unsavory effect of sleep deprivation: It could actually spur junk food cravings, similar to ...
Heres what you should know about the theory of food addiction and... ... Speaking about or diagnosing addiction to food - as opposed to drugs or alcohol - can be controversial. ... "Id suggest eating them as part of an adequate and well-balanced diet so hunger and deprivation arent driving the bus. Making ... but as she relaxed her food rules and let herself find pleasure in all sorts of foods - including nutritious foods - and made ...
Processed foods versus ultra-processed foods (45:16) - Is it problematic that institutions fund nutrition studies? (50:09) - ... A study on sleep deprivation & sugar cravings. - A study on fecal transplants & metabolic health. - Taymount Clinic, Genova ... The best metabolism-boosting foods (~44:43) - The most unexpected foods to help burn fat (~50:59) - How ACV helps you maintain ... fermented foods. - A study on fiber & stress. - A study on depression & the gut microbiome. - A study on Saccharomyces ...
The truth is that the high-fat, super-rich foods African-Americans have been piling on their plates for decades are hurting ... "Its about moderation, not deprivation - thats our motto," Ebron said. "Its a learning process. Were not saying its easy; ... Snack food items, such as chips, cheese puffs, corn chips and pork skins should be eaten only occasionally FOOD GROUPS Fats, ... Due to high fat content, these foods belong to the fats, Oils & sweets group and should be used sparingly. Foods in this group ...
Headache may be triggered or worsen with certain types of foods, activities, medications, or stress. Below is a list of ...
Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation.. Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, ... Food Deprivation:physiology, Hypothalamus:growth & development, Leptin:blood, Pregnancy, RNA, Messenger:metabolism, Rats,. ... Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. ...
Food-deprivation; Food ... acids and proteins is a serious cause of malnutrition when food ... The most important of the beneficial effects are increasing global and regional food supplies and increased nutritional quality ... of available foods. However, lack of adequate dietary intake of amino ...
The result is an inadequate provision of food and/or inadequate intake of food. It is most common in the setting of poverty. ... Whether the failure to thrive in these infants is related to hormonal factors in addition to nutrient deprivation is open to ... or structural anomaly of the upper gastrointestinal tract-is well recognized as a cause of food refusal, as swallowing food ... Many of these children had feeding behavior disorders such as sensory food aversion and infantile anorexia with FTT. [22] ...
Second, its the definition of a deprivation diet. "Youre starving yourself, and youll gain the weight back when you start ... eating real food," Scritchfield says. "Youre also stopping your digestive system in its tracks because theres no fiber, so ...
The food they do receive is often of poor quality, rotten, or bug-infested. ... This 40-page report details how conscripts are deprived of adequate food. The diet of conscripts often lacks meat and green ... Similarly, temporary deprivation of food can also be a legitimate part of a conscript soldiers training. ... Spoiled foods. Several conscripts were fed spoiled foods, including bread, potatoes, fish, meat, and eggs. One said: "I peeled ...
Sleep mode: The energy cost of sleep deprivation. The findings show that missing a night of sleep burns roughly ... DGAC report offers food and nutrition practitioners insights on helping combat obesity epidemic. ... Eating 100 fewer calories a day?roughly three bites of a fast-food hamburger?could prevent the 1.8 to 2.0 pounds that the ... DURHAM, NC and KING COUNTY, WA - An effort in King County, Washington, to add nutrition facts labeling to fast food menus had ...
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, ... Biochemical and physiologic consequences of boron deprivation in humans. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:59-63.. View abstract ...
... food deprivation, sleep deprivation, prolonged wall standing, and beatings.. According to The Tibet Post, Geshe Tsewang Namgyal ... According to TCHRD, authorities also subjected inmates to collective punishment, food and sleep deprivation, prolonged wall ... Then the guards transferred them to area B, where they ate poor quality food and were permitted to use the bathroom. They went ... According to HRW, any indications of religious piousness, along with "storing lots of food in ones home" or owning fitness ...
All is compared to the Shoah, dwarfed by the Shoah and therefore all is allowed be it fences , sieges ... curfews, food and ... water deprivation or unexplained killings. All is permitted because we have been through the Shoah and you will not tell us how ...
... food deprivation, illness, and forced confinement. In the worst cases, workers die from murder, failed escape attempts, or ... Many employers deprive their domestic workers of food-often giving spoiled food, inedible leftovers, tiny portions of rice or ... sleep and food deprivation and inadequate living conditions; and verbal, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. The average ... To keep the childrens weight low, trainers deprive them of food and give them salty water to drink, which increases diarrhea. ...
Sleep deprivation stirs cravings for junk food-study Health News. What Causes Motion Sickness? ...
Could it be widespread sleep deprivation? That food is now more processed? The pervasiveness of environmental pollutants that ... Weight gain is not just about over-eating or the wrong food choices. Its dependent on genetic factors, some of which we can ... The researchers report: "We observe that for a given amount of self-reported food intake, people will be about 10 percent ... The statements made herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Products are not intended to diagnose, ...
Sleep deprivation and depression often go hand-in-hand. Understanding the complex link between them may help improve symptoms ... Just like food, water, and air, restorative sleep is vital for your health. In terms of your mental health, sleep allows your ... Acute Sleep Deprivation and Depression. Studies suggest that chronic sleep deprivation, or reduced sleep over time, may lead to ... Psychological Effects of Sleep Deprivation Besides making you feel drowsy and out of it, sleep deprivation can have major ...
Based on animal studies, can things like food deprivation and antidepressants also promote neurogenesis or growth? ... neighborhoods where there is not access to good food, no safe places to exercise and theres chaos and noise all the time. Its ...
Surreal scenes underscore the new deprivation. A doctor friend told me she was driving her son home from school when they saw ... When she stopped to help, she discovered he had simply fainted after going without food for three days. He gobbled down the ...
Does he enjoy his fast food and sweets? Sure. But even though he doesnt believe in deprivation, he does try to keep those to a ... He also doesnt like vegetables and refuses to give up fast food. His diet is simple, usually consisting of foods like chicken ... eating whole foods, being consistent with meal frequency, and removing problem foods. And he likes to enjoy the occasional ... Food selection is a huge part of Marks philosophy, which is why he created THE ONLY BAR, a clean, gluten-free, plant-based ...
This paper highlights that more research is needed on consumers motives for choosing and eating ultra-processed foods in order ... Cross-cultural studies of food choices are important tools that could help improve the current understanding of factors that ... influence the eating behavior of ultra-processed foods to promote healthy food choices through local and global perspectives. ... and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Cluster analyses provided three consumer segments for each population sample: the ...
  • Is There A Link Between Sleep Deprivation and Weight Gain? (
  • If you or someone you love is having trouble sleeping or struggling with symptoms of depression, you likely already have an intimate understanding of the link between sleep deprivation and depression . (
  • These areas were characterized by larger proportions of Hispanic and non-White residents, persons working in manual, essential, and public-facing sectors, more crowded housing, and food and health care insecurity. (
  • The dietitian deems it inappropriate to make an opportunistic brief intervention on food insecurity. (
  • INTRODUCTION: A healthy diet is recommended to support diabetes management, including HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol (ABC) control, but food insecurity is a barrier to consuming a healthy diet. (
  • We determined the prevalence of food insecurity and diet quality among US adults with diabetes and the associations with ABC management. (
  • Food insecurity was assessed using a standard questionnaire and diet quality was assessed using quartiles of the 2015 Healthy Eating Index. (
  • Adjusted ORs (aOR, 95% CI) were calculated from logistic regression models to determine the association between household food insecurity/diet quality and the ABCs while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, smoking, medication for diabetes, blood pressure, or cholesterol, and body mass index. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity, regardless of diet quality, was significantly associated with elevated A1c. (
  • For people with food insecurity, providing resources to reduce food insecurity could strengthen the overall approach to optimal diabetes management. (
  • Aside from making your mind less sharp and generally making you feel crappy, a new study demonstrates another unsavory effect of sleep deprivation: It could actually spur junk food cravings, similar to those induced by marijuana. (
  • Published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the team found that exercise and sleep deprivation each significantly reduce the threshold of reactivity (the amount of peanut needed to trigger a reaction) in people with peanut allergy, putting them at greater risk of a reaction. (
  • The work, which could be applied to other foods, reveals that exercise, sleep deprivation or stress significantly reduce the amount of peanut required to cause an allergic reaction. (
  • Sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep. (
  • Results from the study show that sleep deprivation significantly decreased activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the brain during food desirability choices, combined with increased activity in the amygdala. (
  • These strategies might include increasing availability and accessibility of SARS-CoV-2 testing, contact tracing, isolation options, preventive care, disease management, and prevention guidance to facilities (e.g., clinics, community centers, and businesses) in areas with high levels of deprivation. (
  • Another problem with food addiction research is that it centers on responses - real or theoretical - to "hyperpalatable" foods high in sugar, fat and sometimes caffeine. (
  • These findings will pave the way for better food labelling and greater understanding of the factors that can lead to allergic reactions. (
  • Findings from a study published in the journal Nature Communications found that losing sleep can make you more likely to crave junk food rather than healthy food. (
  • The findings, from 30 adults with normal insulin sensitivity and normal weight and 24 adults with impaired insulin sensitivity and obesity, suggest that metabolic signals, particularly ones that promote energy restoration in a setting of energy deprivation caused by insulin or a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, "profoundly influence neuronal processing," said Tittgemeyer. (
  • The study, published in the journal SLEEP, found that subjects who were sleep-deprived were more likely to consume junk foods offered to them, even when they had recently consumed meals that offered 90 percent of their necessary caloric intake. (
  • To better understand how area-level deprivation might reinforce ethnic, racial, and workplace-based COVID-19 inequities ( 3 ), the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) analyzed confirmed cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), COVID-19 hospitalizations, and SARS-CoV-2 testing rates in relation to deprivation as measured by Utah's Health Improvement Index (HII) ( 4 ). (
  • Local jurisdictions should use measures of deprivation and other social determinants of health to enhance transmission reduction strategies (e.g., increasing availability and accessibility of SARS-CoV-2 testing and distributing prevention guidance) to areas with greatest need. (
  • This study utilised an innovative application of spatial cluster analysis to examine the socio-spatial patterning of outlets selling potentially health-damaging goods/services, such as alcohol, fast food, tobacco and gambling, within Glasgow City, Scotland. (
  • 95, Dutton), says it's time for black women to make the connection between soul food, weight and bad health. (
  • While it's long been understood that mental health conditions like depression often trigger issues like insomnia or oversleeping , recent research suggests the relationship between sleep deprivation and depression is bidirectional. (
  • Today environmental justice addresses disparate social conditions holistically, working to bring justice for communities that experience food deserts, climate change, inaccessible transportation and health needs, economic deprivation, dilapidated housing, and other environmental hazards that directly impact human health and human life. (
  • It includes consideration of access to food, public health services and the ability to actively respond to risks 8 . (
  • It provides cut-off levels appropriate for the UK population which longer-term could help regulators and the food industry develop accurate evidence-based food labelling - keeping consumers safe and enabling greater variety of diet. (
  • Sleep deprivation leads to increased blood levels of ghrelin, a hormone that increases hunger. (
  • However, there was no correlation between individual ghrelin levels and food purchasing, suggesting that other mechanisms such as impulsive decision making may be more responsible for increased purchasing. (
  • According to Expedia's 23rd annual Vacation Deprivation Report, global vacation deprivation levels are the highest they've been in 10 years. (
  • To figure out why sleep-deprived subjects were eating more, the authors also measured participants' blood levels of endocannabinoids-chemicals known to enhance the desire for food intake that are also found in the bloodstream after marijuana consumption. (
  • Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation. (
  • Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, Kinouchi R, Gereltsetseg G, Murakami M, Kuwahara A, Yasui T, Irahara M. Developmental changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA levels to food deprivation. (
  • epidemic towards decreased physical activity in 2013, 23.8% (95% uncertainty levels - because of the increasing- interval [UI], 22.9-24.7%) of boys Obesity is a result of a positive en- ly sedentary nature of recreational and 22.6% (95% UI, 21.7-23.6%) ergy balance (i.e. energy intake that activities, changing modes of trans- of girls were overweight or obese. (
  • Do 'environmental bads' such as alcohol, fast food, tobacco, and gambling outlets cluster and co-locate in more deprived areas in Glasgow City, Scotland? (
  • Co-location of individual types of outlets (alcohol, fast food, tobacco and gambling) within similar geographical areas was also evident. (
  • Food addiction is a hot topic, but the idea that we can become addicted to food in the same way we might become addicted to drugs or alcohol is also very controversial . (
  • It was based on Yale University research suggesting that in people who report food addiction, eating addictive foods trigger brain responses that look very similar to responses to alcohol or hard drugs. (
  • Food is far more complex than a single substance like cocaine or alcohol. (
  • This seems like a good place to point out that human food addiction studies generally don't assess attitudes about "good" and "bad" foods, nor do they screen for history of chronic dieting or disordered eating . (
  • Studies suggest that chronic sleep deprivation, or reduced sleep over time, may lead to depression due to changes in the brain's neurotransmitter serotonin. (
  • however, this increase did not correlate with food purchasing behavior. (
  • DURHAM, NC and KING COUNTY, WA - An effort in King County, Washington, to add nutrition facts labeling to fast food menus had no effect on consumer behavior in its first year. (
  • Food relates directly to serotonin, a key hormone that - along with vitamin B6, B12 and folic acid - helps promote healthy sleep," says dietitian Kristin Kirkpatrick, RD. (
  • The key to working with foods that feel addicting, Evans said, is to begin to introduce them in your diet in a more regular way, with the goal of making all foods routine and predictable. (
  • Second, it's the definition of a deprivation diet. (
  • and 35.2% had food security/high diet quality. (
  • and food security/low diet quality with elevated A1c. (
  • With the analysis, it was possible to relate the prevalence of malnutrition with the processes of establishment of demand, taking into account that the privation of food may be paradoxically correlated to its refusal. (
  • However, lack of adequate dietary intake of amino acids and proteins is a serious cause of malnutrition when food supplies are inadequate because of poverty, drought, floods, wars, and displacements of people as refugees. (
  • Interestingly enough, the food addiction research nicely demonstrates with rodents what I see in the clients I work with. (
  • Based on animal studies, can things like food deprivation and antidepressants also promote neurogenesis or growth? (
  • I'm so glad that this important research is being done to help address the issue of food labelling which is real day-to-day problem for me. (
  • Multiple feeding teams have noted that among children with nonorganic failure to thrive, there is frequently a subtle organic problem such as dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux , constipation, or food allergy/intolerance that has created pain and/or fear in this cohort. (
  • They call themselves Breatharians, a new-ish kind of spirituality that dubiously believes that the human body can-and should -sustain itself not on food but on air and "universal energy. (
  • Breatharian couple survives on 'the universe's energy' instead of food. (
  • Social vulnerability is a multifaceted concept often defined as the entirety of the social deficits faced by patients, including social and environmental inequalities and deprivation, which affect their social cohesion and capacity to respond to situations of social risk 6 . (
  • If you have any concerns or information relating to fraud or criminality in food supply chains, or you wish to whistleblow regarding a food business for which you work, contact Food Crime Confidential on 0207 276 8787 (9am to 4pm Monday-Friday) or report via our online service . (
  • Conscript soldiers in Russia performing their first year of compulsory military service are routinely denied adequate food and access to medical care, in violation of their human rights. (
  • Human Rights Watch documented cases of denial of adequate food and medical care to first-year conscripts from more than fifty military units throughout Russia. (
  • In some cases we documented, the denial of adequate food and medical care had grave consequences. (
  • FSA funded research has found that exercise and sleep deprivation can put people with a peanut allergy at greater risk of a reaction. (
  • This is not an exercise in deprivation. (
  • Led by the allergy research team at Addenbrooke's, and funded by The Food Standards Agency ( FSA ), the TRACE study is hugely significant, as one in every 100 adults and one in every 50 children, have peanut allergies - the most common cause of fatal allergic reactions. (
  • A new study published in the journal Food Product Design, by Author Colin Chapman, MSc, of Uppsala University says that people who were deprived of one night's sleep purchased more calories and grams of food in a mock supermarket the following day. (
  • 95% CI = 2.98-3.24) in very high-deprivation areas, compared with those in very low-deprivation areas. (
  • The men were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods and 20 low-caloric foods. (
  • The prices of the high-caloric foods were then varied to determine if total sleep deprivation affects the flexibility of food purchasing. (
  • This change in brain activity is further associated with an increase in the desire for weight gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation. (
  • The truth is that the high-fat, super-rich foods African-Americans have been piling on their plates for decades are hurting black women in ways they never imagined. (
  • It's meant to be a celebration of the abundance of the high-quality food we have in Maine in August. (
  • The most important of the beneficial effects are increasing global and regional food supplies and increased nutritional quality of available foods. (
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a substantial impact on racial and ethnic minority populations and essential workers in the United States, but the role of geographic social and economic inequities (i.e., deprivation) in these disparities has not been examined ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • This is rather consequential for understanding food-intake behaviors. (
  • On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation, as well as after one night of sleep, the researchers gave 14 normal-weight men a fixed budget (approximately $50). (
  • On the other hand, acute sleep deprivation (such as one night without sleep) may help combat depression, though this is not without side effects and more research is needed before this can be considered a treatment option. (
  • rates of hospitalization and testing were also higher in higher-deprivation areas. (
  • Researchers at Uppsala University investigated whether sleep deprivation may impair or alter an individual's food purchasing choices based on its established tendency to impair higher-level thinking and to increase hunger. (
  • They hypothesised that sleep deprivation's impact on hunger and decision making would make for the 'perfect storm' with regard to shopping and food purchasing - leaving individuals hungrier and less capable of employing self-control and higher level decision making processes to avoid making impulsive, calorie-driven purchases. (
  • But if you're sleep deprived, your hedonic drive for certain foods gets stronger, and your ability to resist them may be impaired. (
  • When food is restricted, our brains are brilliant enough to create an even stronger reward when we finally do eat those forbidden foods. (
  • That couple, a life-coaching duo named Akahi Ricardo and Camila Castillo, belong to a community of people who believe you don't need food to live, that surviving on non-food substances like sunlight, air, and "prana" allows people to live more evolved, healthy, spiritual lives. (
  • Going without water is something that most doctors consider dangerous, but for Breatharians, an "initiation" fast is essential to beginning a life where food is optional. (
  • Why give up a central part of human life, go against medical advice, when there are so many spiritual practices out there that don't require you to give up food? (
  • I don't mean to oversimplify this, as food and our relationship to it can become incredibly complex. (
  • In future, it could support precautionary allergen labelling so people will know exactly when a food poses a real risk to them which can increase the trust they have in their food. (
  • Might add a little meat to the bones, but soul food won't hurt a sistah. (
  • I see this in my practice all the time and it's a completely normal response to deprivation," Evans said. (
  • While it can be a challenging process, when people stop restricting and food loses that extra charge, the feelings of compulsion and loss of control tend to ease up over time," Evans said. (
  • They need to know that these foods not only cause serious weight gain, but that that weight can be linked to diabetes and hypertension and all the other diseases that tend to plague us. (
  • Weight gain is not just about over-eating or the wrong food choices. (
  • Coincidentally - or not - these are the types of foods most likely to be labeled as "bad," and, let's face it, forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest. (
  • The Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association is challenging anyone eating in Maine next month - residents, second-home owners, students and visitors alike - to take a pledge to consume as much local and organic food as they can. (
  • USDA Agricultural Census data released in May indicates it is getting easier to find local and organic food in Maine. (
  • Eating 100 fewer calories a day?roughly three bites of a fast-food hamburger?could prevent the 1.8 to 2.0 pounds that the average person gains per year, according to new estimates by James Hill and colleagues. (
  • In other words, the more we label certain foods as "bad" and try to avoid them, the more attractive they become. (
  • The value of local food produced in Maine and sold directly to consumers here jumped from $25 million in 2012 to $38 million in 2017. (
  • While our bodies are evolutionarily hard-wired to withstand periodic caloric deprivation, the ever-present cornucopia of modern food opportunities outstrips the output that our aging musculature can maintain. (
  • You're starving yourself, and you'll gain the weight back when you start eating real food," Scritchfield says. (
  • It dangerously excludes both food and water for one week, followed by two weeks of juice or water fasting. (
  • Sleeping your way to the stars also meant carrying far less food, water and oxygen, making the ultimate long-haul flight more practical. (
  • The food conscripts do receive is often of poor quality, rotten, or bug-infested. (