The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
The selection of one food over another.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consumption of edible substances.
The physical measurements of a body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.

Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. (1/1057)

The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.  (+info)

Natural (13)C abundance reveals trophic status of fungi and host-origin of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests. (2/1057)

Fungi play crucial roles in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems, most notably as saprophytes decomposing organic matter and as mycorrhizal fungi enhancing plant nutrient uptake. However, a recurrent problem in fungal ecology is to establish the trophic status of species in the field. Our interpretations and conclusions are too often based on extrapolations from laboratory microcosm experiments or on anecdotal field evidence. Here, we used natural variations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) as an approach to distinguish between fungal decomposers and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungal species in the rich sporocarp flora (our sample contains 135 species) of temperate forests. We also demonstrated that host-specific mycorrhizal fungi that receive C from overstorey or understorey tree species differ in their delta(13)C. The many promiscuous mycorrhizal fungi, associated with and connecting several tree hosts, were calculated to receive 57-100% of their C from overstorey trees. Thus, overstorey trees also support, partly or wholly, the nutrient-absorbing mycelia of their alleged competitors, the understorey trees.  (+info)

Unanswered questions in ecology. (3/1057)

This is very much a personal view of what I think are some of the most important unanswered questions in ecology. That is, these are the questions that I expect will be high on the research agenda over the coming century. The list is organized hierarchically, beginning with questions at the level of individual populations, and progressing through interacting populations to entire communities or ecosystems. I will try to guess both at possible advances in basic knowledge and at potential applications. The only thing that is certain about this view of the future is that much of it will surely turn out to be wrong, and many of the most interesting future developments will be quite unforeseen.  (+info)

The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. (4/1057)

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

Ecological basis of extinction risk in birds: habitat loss versus human persecution and introduced predators. (5/1057)

Understanding the ecological mechanisms that underlie extinction is fundamental to conservation. It is well established that not all taxa are equally vulnerable to extinction, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This may be, in part, because different taxa are threatened by different mechanisms. Theoretically, sources of extinction risk that perturb the balance between fecundity and longevity, such as human persecution and introduced predators, should be particularly hazardous for taxa that have slow rates of population growth. In contrast, sources of extinction risk that reduce niche availability, such as habitat loss, should represent a particular threat to taxa that are ecologically specialized. Here we test these predictions by using a phylogenetic comparative method and a database on 95 families of birds. As theory predicts, extinction risk incurred through persecution and introduced predators is associated with large body size and long generation time but is not associated with degree of specialization, whereas extinction risk incurred through habitat loss is associated with habitat specialization and small body size but not with generation time. These results demonstrate the importance of considering separately the multiple mechanisms that underlie contemporary patterns of extinction. They also reveal why it has previously proven so difficult to identify simple ecological correlates of overall extinction risk.  (+info)

Reciprocal subsidies: dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs. (6/1057)

Mutual trophic interactions between contiguous habitats have remained poorly understood despite their potential significance for community maintenance in ecological landscapes. In a deciduous forest and stream ecotone, aquatic insect emergence peaked around spring, when terrestrial invertebrate biomass was low. In contrast, terrestrial invertebrate input to the stream occurred primarily during summer, when aquatic invertebrate biomass was nearly at its lowest. Such reciprocal, across-habitat prey flux alternately subsidized both forest birds and stream fishes, accounting for 25.6% and 44.0% of the annual total energy budget of the bird and fish assemblages, respectively. Seasonal contrasts between allochthonous prey supply and in situ prey biomass determine the importance of reciprocal subsidies.  (+info)

Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration. (7/1057)

Food-web processes are important controls of oceanic biogenic carbon flux and ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. Two key controlling parameters are the growth efficiencies of the principal trophic components and the rate of carbon remineralization. We report that bacterial growth efficiency is an inverse function of temperature. This relationship permits bacterial respiration in the euphotic zone to be computed from temperature and bacterial production. Using the temperature-growth efficiency relationship, we show that bacterial respiration generally accounts for most community respiration. This implies that a larger fraction of assimilated carbon is respired at low than at high latitudes, so a greater proportion of production can be exported in polar than in tropical regions. Because bacterial production is also a function of temperature, it should be possible to compute euphotic zone heterotrophic respiration at large scales using remotely sensed information.  (+info)

Surprising findings following a Belgian food contamination with polychlorobiphenyls and dioxins. (8/1057)

We found that 12.1% of Belgian export meat samples from chicken or pork, unrelated to the PCB/dioxin crisis from 1999, contained more than 50 ng polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/g fat and that 6.5% of samples contain more than 20 ng/g fat for the sum of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites. Part of this background contamination stems from imported animal feed ingredients (fish flour and grains), sometimes contaminated by recent use of DDT, as can be deduced from the ratio between DDT and its main metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE). However, after comparing PCB concentrations in fish flour and grains with those found in meat, we suggest that the high concentrations stem from recycled fat. This is the first paper describing background concentrations of PCBs in animal meat from Belgium.  (+info)

Soil food webs of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are simple. These include primary trophic levels of mosses, algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and their protozoan and metazoan consumers (including relatively few species of nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, and microarthropods). These biota are patchily distributed across the landscape, with greatest faunal biodiversity associated with wet soil. Understanding trophic structure is critical to studies of biotic interactions and distribution; yet, McMurdo Dry Valley soil food web structure has been inferred from limited laboratory culturing and micro- scopic observations. To address this, we measured stable isotope natural abundance ratios of C (13C/12C) and N (15N/14N) for di erent metazoan taxa (using whole body biomass) to determine soil food web structure in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Nitrogen isotopes were most useful in di erentiating trophic levels because they fractionated predictably at higher trophic levels. Using ...
Global climate change will affect fish sizes in unpredictable ways and, consequently, impact complex food webs in our oceans, a new IMAS-led study has shown.
In this paper, we prove the existence of a limit cycle for a given system of differential equations corresponding to an asymmetrical intraguild food web model with functional responses Holling type II for the middle and top predators and logistic grow for the (common) prey. The existence of such limit cycle is guaranteed, via the first Lyapunov coefficient and the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation theorem, under certain conditions for the parameters involved in the system.
Abstract. The significant impact of dust deposition on heterotrophic bacterial dynamics in the surface oligotrophic ocean has recently been evidenced. Considering the central role of bacteria in the microbial loop, it is likely that dust deposition also affects the structure and the functioning of the whole microbial food web. In the frame of the DUNE project, aiming to estimate the impact of dust deposition on the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea through mesocosm experiments, the main goal of the present paper was to assess how two successive dust deposition events affect the dynamics of the microbial food web. The first dust seeding delivered new P and N to the amended mesocosms and resulted in a pronounced stimulation of bacterial respiration. It also induced pronounced, but transient, changes in the bacterial community composition. No significant effects were observed on the abundances of viruses and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The second dust seeding also delivered new P and N to the ...
The grazing food chain is one of the major types of food chain that is seen as a food chain process dominantly occurring in organisms. The grazing food chain starts from the autotrophs (green plants), the major energy for this chain is taken from the sun as the plants carry out the process of photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. The green plants work as the primary producer of this type of food chain; later the herbivores get fed upon the green plants. The chain goes on further as the primary consumers (herbivores) are eaten by the secondary consumers (omnivores) in this type of food chain. This food chain doesnt consist of microbes or other decomposers; it is carried out by the macroscopic organisms. The grazing food chain is the simpler type of food chain as it begins from the primary producers (green plants), who are the dominant producers in different ecosystems across the globe. The name of the food chain itself tells that it possess the green plants as a major source or the one ...
Web structures comprising a tuft and methods for making same are provided. More particularly, web structures comprising a polymeric structure comprising a crosslinked, hydroxyl polymer, wherein the web structure comprises a tuft and processes for making such web structures are provided.
Full publication list available from Google scholar and see my profile on Research Gate. Selected key publications: Ruiter, P. C. de, and U. Gaedke (2017) Emergent facilitation promotes biological diversity in pelagic food webs. Food Webs (in press). Coutinho, R., T. Klauschies, and U. Gaedke (2016) Bimodal trait distributions with large variances question the reliability of trait-based aggregate models. Theoretical Ecology, 6: 4141-4159 DOI 10.1007/s12080-016-0297-9. Klauschies, T., D. A. Vasseur, and U. Gaedke (2016) Trait adaptation promotes species coexistence in diverse predator and prey communities. Ecology and Evolution, 9: 389-408 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2172. Boit, A., N.D. Martinez, R. J. Williams, U. Gaedke (2012) Mechanistic theory and modeling of complex food web dynamics in Lake Constance. Ecol. Lett., 15:594-602 Massie, T. M., B. Blasius, G. Weithoff, U. Gaedke, and G. Fussmann (2010) Cycles, phase synchronization and entrainment in single-species phytoplankton populations. Proc. Nat. ...
Reason: Some of the organisms are of Omnivores in nature. Some of the worksheets below are Free Food Chain Worksheets, definition of Food Chains and Food Webs, Classify organisms by their roles in the food chain, Mans impact on food chains, Food chain quiz, … Once you find your worksheet(s), you can either click on the pop-out icon or download button to print or download your desired worksheet(s). This means that when we eat the meat from the cow, were at the tertiary level or higher. way up to the top of the food chain. 17. called the producers, and they get their energy directly from sunlight and inorganic nutrients. The size of a food chain can vary, yet there is a limit to the number of levels that a food chain can reach. View All. The consumer-resource system is another name for a food web. As you probably know, Choose three (3) food chains. About 50% of the energy (possibly as much as 90%) in food is lost at each trophic level when Related Video. Most food chains consist of three or ...
This PhD deals with spatial and temporal community patterns in Barents Sea marine food webs and benthic communities in Svalbard. A main aim of this PhD project has been to study how community and food-web structure changes along environmental and climatic gradients, and to elucidate how species respond to climate warming in the Arctic. We used network analysis to study how the network of who eats whom in the Barents Sea changes from the boreal, warm-water regions in the southwest to the cold-water, arctic regions in the northeast. We documented differences in the food-web structure across the entire Barents Sea, separating biogeographic food-web regions. Our study provides further evidence that food-web structure is linked to broad-scale environmental gradients through environmental constraints on niche space and environmental filtering of species spatial distributions. We also showed that the current climate-driven poleward shift of boreal fish in the Barents Sea affects the arctic food web by ...
Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs Is Influenced by Habitat Type and Watershed Land Use. Larson JH, Richardson WB, Knights BC, Bartsch LA, Bartsch MR, Nelson JC, Veldboom JA, Vallazza JM, 2013, Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs Is Influenced by Habitat Type and Watershed Land Use. PLoS ONE, v 8, i 8, e70666. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070666. Abstract. Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). ...
Primary consumers make up the second trophic level as they feed on primary producers. In other words, primary consumers are organisms that take up food directly from plants.
Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from
The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments
The size and trophic structure of fluvial fish communities are driven by energy availability, competition, energy loss through trophic transfers, predation, and predator gape limitations. Size and trophic analyses can provide important information about overall food web structure and function of fish communities. Fish community assemblages were sampled in three tributaries of the Saginaw Bay watershed, Lake Huron in 2011 and 2012. We used a combination of community size-spectra (CSS, log abundance x log body-size regression), stable isotope, and trophic guild analyses to test the hypotheses that fluvial fish communities will be (a) strongly size-structured and (b) that variation in trophic guild composition will influence the community size-structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that the fish communities are strongly size-structured (mean CSS slope = -2.24), and there is a negative correlation between piscivores and Cyprinids (r = -0.64) and piscivores and large bodied low trophic position ...
Soil Food Web Definition - In horticulture, the soil food web refers to the community of living micro-organisms and organisms that live out and...
Functional biodiversity enables aquatic communities to remain stable despite stressors such as temperature rise, increasing stratification or eutrophication. The Working Group on Aquatic Food Webs investigates functional biodiversity with regard to the biotic and abiotic factors that regulate the principal acquisition mode for energy including phototrophy, mixotrophy, and heterotrophy including herbivory, carnivory, and detritivory (in the following trophic functional groups: TFGs) in different compartments of aquatic food webs, as well as their supply with nutrients (namely nitrogen).. This is done by the analysis of nitrogen stable isotopes in amino acids. For the first time, this analysis allows TFGs and their inorganic nitrogen sources to be determined together from the same field sample, so that both can be directly related to the environmental conditions on site. This enabled us to show for the first time that entire food webs were functionally adapted to cope with stratification and ...
Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for re-establishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure, with focus on bottom-up-driven changes in macroinvertebrate consumer assemblages in the saltmarshes of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. We combined quantified estimates of the changing community composition with stable isotope data (C-13:C-12 and N-15:N-14) to compare the general trophic structure between created (2-14years) marshes and reference sites and along topographic elevation gradients within saltmarshes. Macrofaunal invertebrate consumers exhibited ...
An ecological network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem, in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links). These interactions can be trophic or symbiotic. Ecological networks are used to describe and compare the structures of real ecosystems, while network models are used to investigate the effects of network structure on properties such as ecosystem stability. Historically, research into ecological networks developed from descriptions of trophic relationships in aquatic food webs; however, recent work has expanded to look at other food webs as well as webs of mutualists. Results of this work have identified several important properties of ecological networks. Complexity ([linkage density): the average number of links per species. Explaining the observed high levels of complexity in ecosystems has been one of the main challenges and motivations for ecological network analysis, since early theory predicted that complexity should lead to ...
The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the worlds ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems. Available evidence indic
Food web and food chain The terms food chain and food web both refer to groups of organisms that are dependent on each other for food. A food chain is a single series of organisms in which each plant or animal depends on the organism above or below it. Source for information on Food Web and Food Chain: UXL Encyclopedia of Science dictionary.
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. fish generally experienced higher 15N and lower 13C relative to jellyfish, which resulted in low assemblage\level trophic overlap. Fish buy 616202-92-7 assemblages had larger market widths than jellyfish in most cases and, along with whole community trophic diversity, exhibited contrasting seasonal patterns across oceanographic basins, which was positively correlated to panorama variance in terrestrial Kit connectivity. In contrast, jellyfish market widths were unrelated to terrestrial connectivity, but weakly negatively correlated to urban land use in adjacent catchments. Our results indicate that fishCjellyfish trophic structure is highly heterogeneous and that disparate processes may underlie the trophic ecology of these taxa; consequently, they may respond divergently to environmental switch. In addition, spatiotemporal variance ...
|p|From whales to striped bass, important marine animals eat smaller fish and organisms to survive. These prey, or forage fish, in the food web are critical to a healthy ocean ecosystem. But people are not doing enough to ensure the abundance of prey species to feed valuable fish populations and marine life. The need to protect this basic prey, which ranges from mackerel and menhaden to herring and anchovies, is growing more urgent. Populations of some of these small fish have plummeted. Millions are scooped up by industrial fishing gear and ground into fertilizer and pet food. Millions more are caught by accident in trawler nets. Without this important food staple, diets are compromised, and its a scramble to find suitable substitutes. That disruption can send an unhealthy ripple effect stretching across the ocean ecosystem. Protecting the prey is fundamental to rebuilding depleted fish populations, conserving marine animals, and maintaining a balanced food web.|/p|
This volume provides a current synthesis of theoretical and empirical food web research. Whether they are binary systems or weighted networks, food webs are of particular interest to ecologists in providing a macroscopic view of ecosystems. They describe interactions between species and their environment, and subsequent advances in the understanding of their structure, function, and dynamics are of vital importance to ecosystem management and conservation.
Vitamin B complex foods include fish, sunflower seeds, meat, eggs and spinach. Read for recommended daily allowance of B Vitamins and tips to increase its intake.
Buy Consumer-Resource Dynamics (9780691006581) (9780691006574): NHBS - William W Murdoch, Cheryl J Briggs and Roger M Nisbet, Princeton University Press
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Freshwater influx drives the Alaska Coastal Current which in turn sustains commercial and subsistence fisheries as well as millions of coastal marine birds and mammals. Nearly half of this freshwater is derived from glacial melt-water, but we know little about how this glacial runoff contributes to marine production in glacial-marine ecosystems. This question is timely given the widespread and rapid retreat of glaciers in Alaska owing to global warming. Water and organic nutrients derived from terrestrial sources have distinct isotopic signatures compared to those of marine origin. We hypothesize that organic nutrients of terrestrial origin significantly enhance secondary and tertiary productivity in glacial-marine pelagic food webs. This study traces the flow of nutrients and organic matter through marine food webs using stable and radio isotopes. To better understand the scale at which glacial runoff influences food webs in coastal waters, we also examine the extent of freshwater infiltration ...
Food webs are organized into three main categories, depending on the kinds of organisms they contain. These three categories are known as trophic levels. The three primary trophic levels are those that consist of (1) producers, (2) consumers, and (3) decomposers. Producers are organisms that can make their own organic compounds or food using energy and simple inorganic compounds. Producers are sometimes called autotrophs, meaning self-feeders. For example, green plants are autotrophs because they manufacture the compounds they need through photosynthesis. The next trophic level above the producers consists of consumers. Consumers are organisms that cannot make their own foods and so have to eat other organisms to obtain the nutrients they use. The consumer trophic level can be subdivided depending on the kind of organisms included. Immediately above the producers are the herbivores, organisms that eat plants only. Some common examples of the herbivores include squirrels, rabbits, mice, deer, ...
Small herbivorous mammals appear to have the capacity to control the expansion of northern woody plants, but predators have the potential to prevent this by limiting rodent numbers. According to our results, primary productivity determines whether small mammals are regulated by predation or whether they are food limited and, hence, control the vegetation. Conversely, colleagues working on the coastal tundra have found evidence for predation limitation of lemmings even from unproductive tundra areas. Our working hypothesis is that this contrast reflects the subsidizing effect of marine-based resources on terrestrial food web dynamics. We will test this hypothesis by conducting parallel studies on predator-rodent-plant interactions in coastal and inland tundra.. Prof. Erkki Korpimäki, Univ. Of Turku (ekorpi[at] Senior Res. Tarja Oksanen, Univ. of Turku (tarja.oksanen[at] ...
Trawl bans are relatively uncommon, particularly at the level of an entire coastal jurisdiction, and have seldom been studied in the tropics. A permanent territory-wide trawl ban has been implemented in Hong Kong coastal waters since the beginning of 2013. We used isotope-based metrics, in addition to traditional community measurements, to determine whether benthic crustacean assemblages had shown any signs of recovery three years after the trawl ban. We expected increases in species richness, abundance and biomass as well as shifts in trophic structure, including longer food-chain length (FCL) and greater trophic diversity after the ban. We further anticipated that carnivorous crustaceans would have higher mean trophic positions (MTPoC) at the assemblage level, and broader trophic niches at the species level. Sampling was undertaken at six sites in three regions (eastern, western and southern waters) before (in 2012) and after (in 2015) the ban. In general, there were no changes in assemblage ...
Ecosystem engineers. More and more scientific studies emphasize the importance of ecosystem engineers in intertidal areas such as the Wadden Sea. Ecosystem engineers are organisms that not only respond to environmental conditions (such as sediment properties and hydrodynamics), but also strongly influence them by their presence. They create suitable living conditions for themselves as well as for other species. Thus they play a key role in retaining biodiversity and the natural functioning of ecosystems.. Restore musselbeds, increase diversity. The participants in the project Waddensleutels investigate whether restoring ecosystem engineers - especially mussel beds - can restore the ecosystem to a more species-rich and complex food web, with herbivores, predators of herbivores, predators of these predators, and finally top predators. In an experiment to be carried out at a number of locations in the Wadden Sea, resaearchers attempt to restore mussel beds.. Stable isotopes. In addition, on the ...
New research indicates that the acidification and warmer temperatures caused by climate change negatively impact marine food webs and biodiversity.
Stable isotopes are widely used to identify trophic interactions and to determine trophic positions of organisms in food webs. Comparative studies have provided general insights into the variation in isotopic composition between consumers and their diet (discrimination factors) in predator-prey and herbivore-plant relationships while other major components of food webs such as host-parasite interactions have been largely overlooked.
Historically, the Center has been the basin-wide leader in fisheries science in deepwater habitat. In fact, the Center has invaluable long-term data sets (dating back to the 1970s) that have been used to understand how biotic and abiotic factors drive long-term fish community and population dynamics. As a result, the Center is well positioned to be a leading contributor to an emerging interdisciplinary approach to understanding Great Lakes food webs. In addition, Center scientists are increasingly using our fleet of research platforms to sample biota at lower trophic levels. The Center continues to develop ecosystem-level models that improve our understanding of food web structure and function, which also allow managers to explore different what if management scenarios. As a whole, deepwater research will build on its strong history by collaborating with complementary researchers from agencies and academic institutions to 1) deliver and improve on our long-term fish population data series and ...
The topology of ecological communities is structured through the many and varied interactions active in food webs [1]. Direct trophic interactions, mutualism, competition, commensalism and parasitism are all modes that interconnect various elements of a community and to a certain extent, govern overall ecosystem dynamics [2]. There is also a growing realization that there are subtler, indirect effects in play [3,4] where third-party actors can be subsumed to play the role of a bait or a protector. The interaction of direct and indirect effects is most evident in so-called intra-guild predation, a tri-trophic arrangement where a consumer and its predator share a common resource [5]. While ecological communities are often described by the topology of the connections among species, their dynamics are controlled by the strength of the interactions these connections represent [6]. Further, the strength of these interactions is not static. Whatever the architecture of ecological communities, the ...
By Ivano Aiello (28 July 2016). Popular science magazines and documentaries depict marine scientists as sea going adventurers equipped with a pair of binoculars or a fish net, or explorers who dive in the abyss using SCUBA or with submersibles to observe the big things that populate the oceans.. The development of modern marine science in the last century has demonstrated that it is only by fully understanding the small-scale processes and features that we improve our knowledge of the vastness and complexity of the oceans habitats. In a sense, the small (the micro) is the new frontier to understand the big (the macro).. The numbers speak for themselves. According to recent estimates, about ½ of the global biomass (the weight of all living things) could be made of single celled microbes most of which live in or underneath the oceans. Big living things are at the top of very complex food webs while foundations are made of often very small organisms: for instance a whale can consume as much ...
e) Which organism is a secondary consumer ? We eat bot… and Inverse Proportions, Areas The carbon cycle is an important gaseous cycle which has its reservoir pool in the atmosphere. Try it now. The transfer of food energy from the producers, through a series of organisms (herbivores to carnivores to decomposers) with repeated eating and being eaten, is known as food chain. The path of energy in a feeding relationship between organisms is called A FOOD CHAIN. A food chain starts with the primary energy source. Himachal Board exam dates 2021 for class 12, 10 announced, exams dates will be released soon. (d) None of the above In ecosystem …chains is made up of decomposers, those heterotrophs that break down dead organisms and organic wastes. Which of the food chain directly depends on solar radiations? (c) In aquatic ecosystems, the limiting factor for the productivity is _________. DRAFT. Living Systems as Energy Converters documents the proceedings of the European Conference on Living Systems ...
The Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation has recommended that Harvard Forest Senior Ecologist Aaron Ellisons proposal Moths, ants, and carnivorous plants: the spatial dimension of species interactions be funded, beginning March 1, 2006. The goal of this 5-year, $585,000 research project, is to understand how species interactions change the spatial distribution of dynamic habitat patches across the landscape, and to determine how food webs are structured within and among these patches.. ...
All organisms, both land-based and aquatic, are interconnected by their need for food. This network of interconnections is referred to as a food web. The entire earth can be considered a single global food web, and food webs can also be described for a particular environment. At the base of any food web are organisms that make their own food, followed by the animals that eat them, then the animals that eat those animals, and so forth ...
All organisms, both land-based and aquatic, are interconnected by their need for food. This network of interconnections is referred to as a food web. The entire earth can be considered a single global food web, and food webs can also be described for a particular environment. At the base of any food web are organisms that make their own food, followed by the animals that eat them, then the animals that eat those animals, and so forth ...
Climate-change induced alterations of the organic matter flow from various primary production sources to the benthic system in the Arctic Chukchi Sea could have major implications on carbon cycling, sequestration, and benthic food web structure sustaining upper trophic levels. In particular, the role and contribution of terrestrial matter and bacterial matter could become more prominent, with increasing erosion and permafrost melt being discharged from land, and warming water temperatures raising bacterial metabolism. In this study, I used essential amino acid (EAA) specific stable isotope analysis to trace the proportional contributions of bacterial, phytoplankton, and terrestrial organic matter in sediments, as well as benthic invertebrates on the Chukchi Sea shelf. Across the upper 5 cm of sediments, most organic matter sources were equally distributed, except for a slight decrease with depth in phytoplankton EAA. Terrestrial sources contributed the majority of EAA (~76 %) in all sediment ...
We had planned tasks as a learning journey activity this week, some children had used these to entertain themselves and their friends on the way there and back.. The Aratiatia team embarked on a jam packed day exploring, catching, classifying and learning about Our Place and how everything works together to make it healthy. We learnt about food chains and food webs, how everything is interlinked and if you remove the balance it all falls over. We made a food web model.. ...
The mission of our research group is to reveal the role of infectious diseases in ecosystems. We investigate parasite ecology, disease ecology, food web dynamics, ecology and evolution of infectious strategies, and control of human parasites ...
The energy is passed on from trophic level to trophic level and each time about 90% of the energy is lost, with some being lost as heat into the environment (an effect of respiration) and some being lost as incompletely digested food (egesta). Therefore, primary consumers get about 10% of the energy produced by autotrophs, while secondary consumers get 1% and tertiary consumers get 0.1%. This means the top consumer of a food chain receives the least energy, as a lot of the food chains energy has been lost between trophic levels. This loss of energy at each level limits typical food chains to only four to six links. ...
Inhibitory analysis in ecology.. This is about a discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology, item 3 on the list of 18 (the list see here [3]). This new approach in ecology allows to see better the real role of organisms of a higher trophic level in regulation of the organisms of a lower trophic level.. The method that was applied was to inhibit the functional activity of the organisms of a higher trophic level and to observe the consequences: what happens with the organisms of a LOWER trophic level.. It was done by the inventor of this methodology in the laboratory experimental systems with bivalve mollusks that that a higher trophic level organisms as compared to phytoplankton algae. The algae are a lower trophic level organisms as compared to bivalve mollusks. The bivalves feed on algae.. In my experiments, I decreased trophic activity of bivalves using special chemical inhibitors. I used my previous discovery that some chemical - surfactants - can decrease filtering ...
Detection of pathogens present in food samples typically takes at least 12 to 36 hours in food safety labs. But a small chip developed by researchers at the University of Maryland promises to speed the process up considerably, detecting pathogens in less than an hour.. This new innovation, created by Associate Professor Javier Atencia-Fernandez of the Fischell Department of Bioengineering, is one of nine nominees for Invention of the Year Award. Atencia-Fernandez said that his new apparatus extracts bacteria from food samples without enrichment-the procedure of increasing the number of bacteria to enable pathogen detection without interference from the food matrix-and is therefore very rapid. Typically, [it takes] 30 minutes to extract 75% of the bacteria, 2.5 hours to extract 99%, he said.. Atencia-Fernandez said that there is a pressing commercial need for technologies like his, which reduce or eliminate the process of enrichment prior to detection. The time required for enrichment was the ...
In this application note, learn how mass detection can be deployed in food QC lab environments to provide the selectivity and sensitivity necessary to detect low levels of compounds in complex matrices, such as orange juice.
Manufactured foodstuffs typically exist in the form of complex, multi-phase, multi-component, colloidal systems. One way to try to make sense of their chemical and structural complexity is to study simple model systems in which the nature and properties of the polymer molecules and dispersed particles are relatively well : Elsevier Science.
Work in the chemical ecology and tropical diversity laboratory focuses on direct and indirect trophic interactions in complex biotic communities with emphases on global change, documenting the diversity of multi-trophic interactions, and examining the effects of plant secondary compounds on insect herbivores and their natural enemies. The main source of funding for our research comes from the National Science Foundation, Earthwatch Institute, the Department of Defense, and private funding sources. The major continuing research topics of our laboratory and collaborators include: 1) Chemical ecology; 2) Diversity of interactions in tropical and temperate forests; 3) Variation in tritrophic interactions due to climate change; 4) Conservation and applied ecology; 5) Quantitative ecology; 6)Coevolution across multiple trophic levels ...
why are decomposers important to the food chain food web with decomposers decomposers in food chain consumers in ecosystem decomposers in an ecosystem
The mean chain length of an entire web is the arithmetic average of the lengths of all chains in the food web. The food chain ... Each level of a food chain represents a different trophic level. A food chain differs from a food web because the complex ... Food chains are very important for the survival of most species. When only one element is removed from the food chain it can ... All food chains must start with a producer. In the deep sea, food chains centered on hydrothermal vents and cold seeps exist in ...
Look up food chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The food chain in ecology is a chain of trophic relations. Food chain ... Food chain may also refer to: Food Chain (Buffy comic), a comic based on Buffy the Vampire Slayer "Food Chain" (Adventure Time ... a 2014 play by Nicky Silver The Food Chain, a 1984 book by Michael Allaby Food Chains, a 2014 film Food Chain (EP), a 2014 EP ... an episode of an animated series The Food Chain, a Philippine-based charity The Food Chain, ...
"The Bunny The Bear - Food Chain". Alternative Press. Retrieved 14 February 2015. "Food Chain - The Bunny the Bear - Awards - ... Food Chain is the fifth studio album by experimental post-hardcore band The Bunny the Bear, released through Victory Records on ... "Food Chain - The Bunny the Bear - Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 February 2015. " ...
"About The Food Chain". Retrieved 2012-10-10. Downer, Kirsten (2005-12-14). "The Food Chain Win Guardian Charity of the Year ... "The Food Chain winning the 'Inspiration Trophy' at the National Lottery Awards (2006)". Retrieved 2007-11-01. The Food Chain ... The Food Chain won the Queen's Award for Volunteer Organisation of the Year. The Food Chain also won The Guardian Charity of ... The Food Chain is a London, United Kingdom-based charity who provide nutritional support services for people living with HIV in ...
"Food Chains". Archived from the original on 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-09-03. "Food chains and food webs , WWF". ... Consumers balance the food chain in an ecosystem by keeping plant populations at a reasonable number. Without proper balance, ... A consumer in a food chain is a living creature that eats organisms from a different population. A consumer is a heterotroph ... Within an ecological food chain, consumers are categorized into primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers ...
"Sean Danielsen's 'Food Chain'". Pollstar. Retrieved December 8, 2014. Chris Gonda. "Sean Danielsen - "Food Chain" [Exclusive ... "SEAN DANIELSEN - Food Chain - Screamer Magazine". Screamer Magazine. Retrieved January 9, 2015. "Sean Danielsen: Food Chain ... "Sean Danielsen's 'Food Chain' - Food Industry Today". Retrieved December 8, 2014. "Sean Danielsen of Smile Empty ... Food Chain is the second solo extended play album from American recording artist Sean Danielsen, who is also the lead guitarist ...
... ". Shut Up & Sit Down. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2022. Food Chain Magnate at BoardGameGeek Food ... "Food Chain Magnate > Lautapeliopas". Lautapeliopas (in Finnish). 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2022-10-07. "Of course Food Chain ... Food Chain Magnate is a strategy board game published in 2015 by Dutch board game publisher Splotter Spellen. The game involves ... In 2019, Splotter Spellen released Food Chain Magnate: The Ketchup Mechanism & Other Ideas, an expansion to the main game. In ...
Fast-food chains of India, Restaurants established in 2012, Fast-food franchises, Restaurant franchises, Fast-food hamburger ... Burgs is an Indian fast food chain that mainly serves gourmet burgers including chicken, lamb, fish, prawn, beef and pork, as ... "Gozoop bags social media mandate for burger chain Burgs". exchange4media News Service. 2013-07-12. Archived ... "Gozoop wins social media mandate of burger chain Burgs". BestMediaInfo Bureau. 2013-07-12. Retrieved 2013-07 ...
"Food Chain", which details how the food chain works. "Food Chain" was written, storyboarded, and directed by noted Japanese ... "Food Chain" would be an excellent episode to use in a classroom setting in order to teach about the actual food chain. The site ... "Food Chain", although the two did not win. "Food Chain" was later selected for competition at the 2015 Annecy International ... "Food Chain" is the seventh episode of the sixth season of the American animated television series Adventure Time. The episode ...
Thus the Food Chain Workers Alliance was born. Food Chain Workers Alliance program areas: Worker Leadership and Solidarity ... The Food Chain Workers Alliance (FCWA) is a national coalition of 31 worker-based organizations of workers in many sectors of ... Prior to 2008, a number of organizations of workers along the food chain had been struggling with ways to integrate their work ... This report is called "The Hands That Feed Us: Challenges and Opportunities for Workers Along the Food Chain." The Alliance ...
"单位地址: 福建省福州市台江区同德路226号同德园13号楼南半部三层(心家泊小区对面苍霞街道办事处三楼)" "Fast food chicken chains in China ruffle feathers at KFC". Yahoo! News. ... 2 in the China Daily list of the " Top 10 fast-food chains in China". "" (Archive) Retrieved on March ... is a fast food chain in China. Its head office is in Taijiang District, Fuzhou, Fujian. Its English name was originally Wallace ... Wallace, Fujian Food
Food Chain was the largest Buffy graphic novel to come out before the Buffy: Omnibus volumes. Food Chain contains a collection ... The title "Food Chain" is used only on the trade paperback collected edition and the story from Buffy the Vampire Slayer #16. ... Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Food Chain is a trade paperback collecting comic stories based on the Buffy the Vampire Slayer ... However, two of the stories in the Food Chain collection - "Bad Dog" and "Double Cross" - were written by Buffy television ...
The National Food Chain Safety Office operates the food chain laboratory system and the national reference laboratory network. ... National Food Chain Safety Office (Nébih/NFCSO) is the integrated food safety authority of Hungary, established on 15 March ... food processing, retail and catering. Besides this, the most significant suppliers of the food chain are also registered by ... food chain network analysis, food consumption patterns and risk perception of consumers. A significant share of the research ...
... is an album released in 2004 by Jukeboxer. The songs were constructed digitally using music editing ...
The New York Times Top of the Food Chain at IMDb Top of the Food Chain at AllMovie v t e v t e (Articles with short description ... Top of the Food Chain is a 1999 Canadian comedy-horror film directed by John Paizs and starring Campbell Scott, Fiona Loewi, ...
... ' Documentary Getting U.S. Distribution, Variety, March 31, 2014 Frank Scheck, 'Food Chains': Film Review, The ... Food Chains is a 2014 American documentary film about agricultural labor in the United States directed by Sanjay Rawal. It was ... He concluded that Food Chains was 'simultaneously inspirational and deeply depressing.' Writing for the San Francisco Chronicle ... Food Chains': Movie Review, The New York Daily News, November 20, 2014 Jeannette Catsoulis, In for a Penny, in for a Pound, and ...
The analysis of short food supply chains has fed a broader debate on "alternative food chains", "alternative food networks", ... short food supply chains are increasingly taken into consideration by rural and food policies as a driver of change in the food ... Short Food Supply Chains and Local Food Systems in the EU. A State of Play of their Socio-Economic Characteristics. a ... A broad range of food production-distribution-consumption configurations can be characterised as short food supply chain (SFSCs ...
... meaning all food production, food processing, food distribution and food service. With food safety in mind, the agency is also ... Through the food chain, the toxic contamination made its way to supermarkets and consumers, inciting a nationwide scandal when ... "Het FAVV in een notendop" [The FASFC in a nutshell] (pdf) (in Dutch). Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. 24 July ... The Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) is an authority tasked with ensuring the quality and safety of ...
Companies portal Food portal Lists portal List of the largest fast food restaurant chains List of chicken restaurants List of ... The following is a list of notable current and former fast food restaurant chains, as distinct from fast casual restaurants ( ... see List of ice cream parlor chains), and pizzerias (see List of pizza chains). 85°C Bakery Cafe A&W Restaurants Adyar Ananda ... see List of casual dining restaurant chains), coffeehouses (see List of coffeehouse chains), ice cream parlors ( ...
This is a list of defunct fast-food chains. A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants with the same name in many ... was a regional chain of fast food restaurants in the U.S. State of Utah. Founded in 1977, the chain focused on gourmet burgers ... the United States List of defunct retailers of the United States List of fast food restaurant chains List of restaurant chains ... Defunct fast-food chains, Lists of restaurants, Lists of companies by industry, Lists of defunct companies). ...
This is a list of notable fast-food chains in Canada. This list includes fast-food chains that are located in Canada, with the ... Food Companies Canada Lists (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Fast-food chains of ... Tim Hortons Valentine Wendy's White Spot Yogen Früz List of Canadian restaurant chains List of fast food restaurant chains ...
This is the list of the largest fast food restaurant chains by their number of locations in the world. List of fast food ... "Top 10 fast-food chains in China (Ting Hsin)". China Daily Information Co (CDIC). 2014-07-28. Retrieved 2022-09-16. "Panera ... "Top 10 fast-food chains in China (Pala Hamburguer)". China Daily Information Co (CDIC). 2014-07-28. Retrieved 2022-09-16. " ... 18 biggest fast-food chains in the world "Froneri , 2021 Annual Report". Froneri. Retrieved 2022-09-16. "Café Coffee Day , 2022 ...
"Food Chain". "Food Chain" was later selected for competition at the 2015 Annecy International Animated Film Festival, On April ... The first, "Food Chain", was helmed by noted Japanese animator Masaaki Yuasa, and was entirely animated by Yuasa's own studio. ... The episode "Food Chain" was nominated for several Annie Awards, as well as an Annecy International Animated Film Festival ... "Adventure Time 'Food Chain'". Annecy International Animated Film Festival. Retrieved March 31, 2015. Eiga, Natalie (June 22, ...
p. 4. "Food chain". Sun Herald. 26 March 1995. "Pamela Clark (Australian Womens Weekly)". Retrieved 3 November 2017. Clark, ... Clark was credited as Food Editor since her 1984 appointment, through to the 1990s, and then variously as Food Director (2002 ... Her role as Food Editor included tasting and approving 2000 recipes in a year, which would then be included across 12 months' ... Clark, Pamela (2018). "Food from the start". Memories & recipes from the test kitchen. Sydney, N.S.W.: Bauer Media Group. p. 7 ...
"Food Chain". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015. Mjölkö ...
"Food Chain". 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2013. " ... Baxters Food Group Limited, also known as Baxters of Speyside or Baxters, is a food processing company, based in Fochabers, ... Food manufacturers of Scotland, Food and drink companies of Scotland, British Royal Warrant holders, Brand name soups, 1868 ... Baxters Food Australia Pty Ltd. was established in 2006 to act as an in-country customer service division for Baxter's growing ...
The introductions to the guest-animated episodes "A Glitch Is a Glitch" and "Food Chain" are each unique, featuring animation ... Yuasa, Masaaki (director & storyboard artist) (June 12, 2014). "Food Chain". Adventure Time. Season 6. Episode 7. Cartoon ... "Food Chain"), David Ferguson ("Water Park Prank"), and Kristen Lepore ("Bad Jubies"). Since the first season, the show has also ... "Food Chain" was written, storyboarded, and directed by Japanese anime director Masaaki Yuasa, and was animated entirely by ...
"Thai food chain Camile opens London outlet". Irish Times. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2021. "Camile Thai ... Use dmy dates from April 2022, Fast-food chains of Ireland, Thai restaurants). ... Camile is an Irish restaurant chain, serving Thai cuisine. Originating in Dolphin's Barn, Dublin in 2010, the chain was co- ... founded by Brody Sweeney (previously associated with the O'Briens Irish Sandwich Bars chain). The chain, which operates via a ...
Food Chain Records. Retrieved 13 October 2016. Riippi, Joseph (6 May 2006). "Dept. of Energy". Three Imaginary Girls. Retrieved ... In 2003, the band moved to Foodchain records for their third album Stories of Our Lives. The album was well-received, and ... LPs 2000: Rewriting the Wrongs (Roam Records 4) 2002: Unbroken (Roam Records 9) 2003: Stories of Our Lives (Foodchain Records ...
ISBN 978-88-476-0925-9. Veiga, Alexandra; Empis, José (2010). "Food Chain Defense and Its Potential Implications on Traditional ... 2010) [1998]. Dictionary of Food: International Food and Cooking Terms from A to Z (Electronic ed.). London: A & C Black. p. ... Food Chain Security. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer ... Portugal portal Food portal Bosnian Pot Cocido lebaniego Cocido montañés Irish stew Pot-au-feu Istrian stew List of stews ...
The segment titled "Fist Boy" had Karas take on fast food restaurant chain McDonald's for slaughtering billions of friendly ... The magician decides he will do his jump in a bag (tied up), in a locker on wheels that is chained and padlocked, which is on ... The men have a celebratory feast to initiate their newest member, but when Steve realises that both the food and the skin he ... Luckily, Steve managed to chain all the pokie machines to the prize car in the chaos and drives off with exactly $1,000,000. ...
Bachelor of Science in Food Technology •Bachelor of Science in Food Packaging Technology •Bachelor of Science in Library ... Sustainability Systems Master of Professional Studies in Supply Chain Management Master of Psychology Master of Science in ... and food processing. Fishery including seaweed farming is considered as constrained performer which can best perform if ... Policy MBA in Cybersecurity MBA in Food and Agribusiness Management MBA in Innovation & Entrepreneurship MBA in Marketing & ...
... long-chain fatty acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications. Mega-purple - a Kosher food additive made from ... The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation. Food Additive Status List , FDA Australian Food Additive Codes Portal: Food ( ... food acid Ammonium fumarate - food acid Ammonium hydroxide - mineral salt Ammonium lactate - food acid Ammonium malate - food ... Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive. ...
... against United Food and Commercial Workers Local 1001 following several months of union complaints against the retail chain. ... was a chain of home improvement retail stores founded in Seattle, Washington, United States. Ernst was started in 1893 by ... On November 8, 1985, Pay 'n Save's drugstore chain became controlled by a company equally owned by the Trump Group and a ... PayLess Drug Stores, who had then-recently acquired Pay 'n Save, hit the chain with a counterclaim, which accused Ernst of ...
The food service industry, which includes public premises like restaurants and bars, strongly opposed this measure. In 2018, ... Product liability The liability of any or all parties along the chain of manufacture, distribution and sale of any product for ... March 2001: The US Supreme Court affirmed the Circuit Court's ruling that the Food and Drug Administration could not class ... tobacco as a pharmaceutical, so could not control its production through the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (FDA v. Brown & ...
... and form the base of a very similar food chain. Additionally, bacterial populations absorb nitrogen and phosphorus compounds as ... Logs of this size are not intended to be used as structural members of the dam; rather, the bark is used for food, and ... and holds their food during winter. These structures modify the natural environment in such a way that the overall ecosystem ... impact access to food, affect water quality, and endanger downstream fish populations. Pools formed by the dams store heat, ...
1.5 million to the retail chain Asda and moved their base to the Shay. There have been many top players for Halifax over the ... a physio room and new food and beverage kiosks for fans. The brand new East Stand, conference facilities and car park at ...
This has changed in recent years and colonies have started to depend a little more on outside sources for food, clothing and ... Pacifists in Chains: The Persecution of Hutterites during the Great War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013. ...
"Fibres from Extended Chain Aromatic Polyamides, New Fibres and Their Composites," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ... and PV20x photovoltaic metallization pastes Building 307 Qualicon Bax riboprinter to ensure food safety Building 320 Suva HCFC ...
Emphasizing that population growth depended on food supplies, he emphasized the abundance of food and available farmland in ... He tried to influence American moral life through the construction of a printing network based on a chain of partnerships from ... "Benjamin Franklin on Food". Feast and Phrase. Retrieved February 8, 2020. Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (2013). History of ... He thereby invented the first newspaper chain.[citation needed] It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers ...
and Hardee's fast food chains. On July 9, 2018, it was announced that Esten was cast in a recurring role in the TNT thriller ...
... and oysters by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction are being employed by governmental laboratories such as the Food ... Foods other than shellfish may be contaminated by infected food handlers. Many norovirus outbreaks have been traced to food ... Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 6 (1): 411-33. doi:10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015643. PMID 25884284. Morillo SG ... "Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental surfaces and their transfer to food". International Journal of Food Microbiology ...
"Alfred Peet, 87; founder of California-based chain of coffee stores". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 May 2016. "Individuals ... American food company founders, American chairpersons of corporations, Directors of Starbucks). ...
Early circuit riders often arose well before dawn for solitary prayer; they remained on their knees without food or drink or ... through a long chain which goes back to] "the first disciples in the company of the Lord Himself ... This is our doctrine of ... food, medicine, and stay' of the believing soul. Methodism makes a distinction between the ceremonial law and the moral law ... when thousands are suffering for food and raiment, and millions are perishing for the Word of life. Let the dress of every ...
He constantly strives to break the chains in which he was bound by UL. He once hatched a plot to obtain the Orb of Aldur and ... Practicality and a strong work ethic are intrinsic to the Sendarian national identity, and a lot of food eaten in the west is ...
The GIZ of the German Development Cooperation has embarked on a value chain study on one of the most important products in ... Generally, rice is the staple food of the province, and corn is also used. Mountain‑living folks, however, prefer root crops, ... Fiesta, a Spanish term meaning "festivity", is celebrated in the province with prayer, food, drinking, dance and music. Every ... Martin, Bob (20 November 2006). "German council embarks on Region 8 value chain study on coconut". Nov 20, 2006. Archived from ...
This has usually been done with regression models, but Markov chain methods have also been applied. Within regression ... and affects everything from parking to sanitation, staffing and food and beverage. Almost all operational aspects can be ...
The chain has six malls in Denver, Des Moines, Kansas City, Omaha, Phoenix, and the Phoenix suburb of Goodyear, Arizona. ... have known each other since Gottula hired Briddle in 1980 to work at one of the Food 4 Less grocery franchises he developed and ... The Brass Armadillo Antique Mall® is a privately held chain of antique malls based in Ankeny, Iowa, USA. The company was ... The Brass Armadillo is notable as one of the first chains of antique malls. Larry Gottula, Brass Armadillo president, and Dave ...
Many motorists, including more than 100 trucks, were stuck on the interstate for nearly 24 hours, without food, water and ... Due to the near-record amounts of snow in the Appalachian Mountain chain, National Weather Service officials had issued ...
He founded the Pure Food Campaign, which opposed the introduction of genetically-modified foods into consumer markets. Because ... were sold in the major supermarket chains Sainsbury's and Safeway UK. At one point the paste outsold normal tomato paste but ... Food Fray. Amacom Publishing The case of the FLAVR SAVR tomato July 1, 2000. G. Bruening & J.M. Lyons, California Agriculture ... "Transcript: GMO Food Fears and the First Test Tube Tomato". Retro Report. June 24, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2022.{{cite web}}: ...
... is a Japanese chain of hamburger fast food restaurants founded in 1987. The company operates 17 stores in ... Fast-food chains of Japan, Hakodate, Restaurants established in 1987, All stub articles, Japanese company stubs, Japanese ... The Nikkei named its Chinese Chicken Burger Japan's "best local hamburger". In 2005, the chain released a hamburger with whale ...
A large portion of the available army and naval personnel had to be put to work growing food. Allied pilots took delight in ... Bougainville is part of the Solomon Islands chain. As a result, within the various accounts of the campaign it is referred to ... one of the major islands in the Solomons chain. Unlike on Guadalcanal and the New Georgias, Allied planners were unable to gain ... down the Solomon Islands chain, to Guadalcanal and New Guinea and beyond. To the Allies, Bougainville would later also be ...
H. salinarum has also been found in high-salt food such as salt pork, marine fish, and sausages. The ability of H. salinarum to ... Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving it a negative charge. The negative charge is ... Type strain of Halobacterium salinarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Food (CS1 Afrikaans-language ... resulting in termination of the radical chain reaction. H. salinarum has been found to be responsible for the bright pink or ...
... a brand name for the artificial sweetener Aspartame in the food industry (Coca-Cola lite) Teflon as a coating for pots and pans ... Juan Zhang and his co-authors introduced a dynamic cooperative advertising model in an assemble supply chain where the end ... "Ingredient branding strategies in an assembly supply chain: models and analysis". International Journal of Production Research ...
Future President Herbert Hoover led the Food Administration; the Federal Fuel Administration, run by Harry Augustus Garfield, ... giving the United States more freedom of action but requiring for the creation of new organizations and supply chains. Russia ...
She is seen sitting on the stage, chained by her ankles underneath a red dress, wearing red lipstick with her hair formally ... Boarding a bus after eating at a street food stall, Lizzie begins to feel progressively ill and takes more of Charlotte's ... stole the meat cleaver from the food stall, and manipulated Lizzie into cutting off her own hand. Three weeks later, Anton and ...
The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, ... He found that most of the food he took in was lost through what he called "insensible perspiration". In these early studies, ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "How Cells Obtain Energy from Food". Molecular Biology of ...
Fast-food chains of the United States, Fast-food franchises, Pretzels, Privately held companies based in Pennsylvania, ... The chain has more than 1,200 locations around various locations, such as in shopping malls and outlet malls, as well as non- ... Auntie Anne's is an American franchised chain of pretzel shops founded by Anne F. Beiler and her husband, Jonas, in 1988. ... In 2013, Anne and Auntie Anne's was featured in the reality TV series Food Court Wars. Auntie Anne's founder Anne Beiler ...
Ovens may have their origin in the practice of enclosing food in clay or leaves before placing it in the fire, still used in ... This is a container usually made of metal that hangs from three chains. Inside it, powdered incense that has been put on a ... Ovens make it practical to cook slowly, heating the food throughout, and are the basis of many types of cuisine. Ovens enable ... Once humans had learned to contain, control and sustain fires, they had an invaluable tool for cooking food that would have ...
It is said that local villagers helped in the rescue by way of hot drinks, food and warm blankets.[citation needed] Salvage ... Midship facing toward land View seaward from bow Links from an anchor chain Fore-aft keel section "Søk". Brevik historielag. " ...
... food traceability solution built on blockchain that benefits all stakeholders and is ushering in a new era of smarter food ... Increased supply chain efficiency Run a more efficient food network by helping to eliminate bottlenecks in the supply chain. ... Walmart tracks food products through its supply chain using IBM Food Trust built on the IBM Blockchain Platform. ... Your savings with Food Trust Calculate your potential savings from joining Food Trust, including total saved by avoiding food ...
business models of all the firms operating in the food supply chain regardless of their positions in the. chain. The findings ... Keyphrases: Business Model Innovation, business models, food security, food supply chain, Systematic Literature Review ... Food Supply Chain and Business Model Innovation. EasyChair Preprint no. 2372. 25 pages•Date: January 13, 2020. Saeed ... supply chains. Through a systematic literature review, the notable business model innovations in the food. industry are ...
Cold chain guide seeks to improve food safety in the UK. By News Desk on July 16, 2021. ... Food chain role considered in WHOs COVID-19 origin report. By News Desk on April 1, 2021. ... Introduction of the novel coronavirus through food chain products has been judged a possible pathway, according to a report on ... The Cold Chain Federation said the guidance should make it easier for members…. Continue Reading Cold chain guide seeks to ...
What is tiger salamander food chain?. what part of the food chain are tiger salamanders ... What is a bengal tigers food web?. A Bengal tiger food web is a web/diagram of what food the Bengal tiger eats. ... the Bengal tiger is at the top of the food chain, but still other tigers will eat the grown up. the cubs are eaten by all of ... How are Bengal tigers at the top of the food chain?. Nothing eats a tiger, but a tiger will eat whatever it can kill. ...
The entire marine food chain is in danger of collapse because of a decline in tiny phytoplankton, which scientists are linking ... Basis of marine food chain. The researchers in this study say the decline in phytoplankton was likely to have wider ... The entire marine food chain is in danger of collapse because of a decline in tiny phytoplankton, which scientists are linking ... converting sunlight into organic matter which then serves as the first step in the entire marine food chain. ...
A new study clarifies that impact: Hydrocarbons from the Macondo well trickled into the ocean food chain via its tiniest ... one of the main concerns during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the impact on the food chain. ... Yes, Deepwater Horizon Oil Did Enter the Food Chain. Along with the death of scores of marine animals and seabirds, one of the ... A new study clarifies that impact: Hydrocarbons from the Macondo well trickled into the ocean food chain via its tiniest ...
the first national fast food chain to add CBD-infused food to its menu. In another nod to the marijuana... ... The vote came a day after Think Progress reported that newly released tax documents show the fast-food chain donated $1.8 ... The tracking technique will help researchers twofold: Theyll be able to better understand the food chain, and theyll find out ... 5,000 in damages after repeatedly being denied the fast food chains sold-out sandwich. WRCBs Caroline Corrigan reports. ...
Further up the food assistance supply chain, the Good Shepherd Food Bank is also navigating pandemic-related challenges. ... The rising cost of goods and global supply chain issues are trickling down to community food pantries.Surging food prices ... Welch said.Further up the food assistance supply chain, the Good Shepherd Food Bank is also navigating pandemic-related ... Dawn DiFiore, the food banks director of community partnerships, said supply chain issues have been a constant struggle since ...
Agility and Collaboration will be key to building resilient food product supply. Learn more. ... Food supply chain: Reacting to a famine mentality. Collaboration and agility will be key to building resilient food product ... Food producers are understandably focused on short term supply chain disruptions brought about by the pandemic and crises in ... But the good news is food producers can strengthen resilience using existing relationships and increase supply chain agility ...
Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, ... "Management of chemical and biological risks in agri-food chain," MPRA Paper 30905, University Library of Munich, Germany. ... "Risk Management in Agri-food Chain," MPRA Paper 39594, University Library of Munich, Germany. * Hrabrin Bachev, 2013. "Risk ... risk management; market; private; public governance; agri-food chain; All these keywords. JEL classification:. *L11 - ...
Beverages selector determines your best What Is Your Go-To Fast Food Chain? match. ... What is your Food & Beverages IQ?. Test Your Food & Beverages knowledge with these What Is Your Go-To Fast Food Chain? Quizzes ... Wanted: Article Writers With Opinions About Food & Beverages.. What Is Your Go-To Fast Food Chain? 5 from 1 votes. See 31 ... what kind of food are you? Which lunch meat are you?? What Is Your Go-To Fast Food C Which Fast Food Mascot Are You Which ...
... canned food, oil, among others. Yemeni people consume local vegetables and fruits. While many would process food at home, there ... of its food, including wheat, rice, sugar, dairy products, ... Food Industry Value Chain August 9, 2020 A market study with ... There is high potential for expanding the food manufacturing value chain, as 91% would like to expand their business in the ... Food tends to take the highest share of peoples spending. Therefore, demand can be considered high for certain food products. ...
... by Hilbert Hagedoorn on: 09/22/2012 07:32 AM , source: , 5 comment(s) ... NVIDIA GeForce GTX 650 Ti Specs Leak · Far Cry 3 - Top Of The Food Chain Video · Zalman CNPS14X HSF CPU cooler » ... » News » Far Cry 3 - Top Of The Food Chain Video ...
The ghastly labor practices that Americas food workers have to endure are nothing new-everybody from… ... Food Chains Directed by Sanjay Rawal SCREEN MEDIA ... Food Chains. Directed by Sanjay Rawal. SCREEN MEDIA The ghastly ... In these scenes, Food Chains (which was executive produced by actress Eva Longoria and Fast Food Nation author Eric Schlosser, ... The film centers around a protest by the Coalition of Immokalee Workers in Florida against the supermarket chain Publix. Its ...
FOOD SECURITYWhy the Food Crisis Will Pass. Even though the food crisis triggered by the war in Ukraine is now causing acute ... FOOD SECURITYAmid Climate Change and Conflict, More Resilient Food Systems a Must: Report. Increased demand for water will be ... FOOD SECURITYRise of Precision Agriculture Exposes Food System to New Threats. By George Grispos and Austin C. Doctor ... FOOD SECURITYFood Production Vulnerable to Cyberattacks. Wide-ranging use of smart technologies is raising global agricultural ...
Plastic Has Entered Antarctic Terrestrial Food Chain, Researchers Find It In Gut Of Microorganisms. 3 min read 271 Shares ... Plastic Has Entered Antarctic Terrestrial Food Chain, Researchers Find It In Gut Of Microorganisms ... Plastic Has Entered Antarctic Terrestrial Food Chain, Researchers Find It In Gut Of Microorganisms ... They say that the microplastic pollution has now penetrated the worlds most remote land-based food systems. This puts other ...
Claire Sand published February 2020- How IoP Can Connect the Packaged Food Value Chain , Find, read and cite all the research ... April 2017- Reducing food waste in packaged food. April 2017 · Food Technology ... February 2020- How IoP Can Connect the Packaged Food Value Chain. *February 2020 ... January 2020- How Food Entrepreneurs Drive Package Innovation. January 2020 · Food Technology ...
Or, make out a check to Food Chain Workers Alliance and mail it to:. 3055 Wilshire Boulevard. Suite 300, Room Q. Los Angeles, ... Food Chain Workers Alliance •• 3055 Wilshire Blvd Suite 300 Room Q, Los Angeles, CA 90010 •• 213-700-8372 •• [email protected] ...
Food Chains Ecology Quiz Food Chains Ecology Quiz How well do you know about Food Chain? Trivia Questions Quiz How well do you ... biology revision - ENERGY AND BIOMASS IN FOOD CHAIN biology revision - ENERGY AND BIOMASS IN FOOD CHAIN ... Fast Food Chain Quiz Fast Food Chain Quiz ... Energy and Food Chains Food Chain Vocabulary Quiz Food Chain ... Which of the following shows the correct producer and consumer in a food chain? ...
... which is why our Food Chain Partnership is such a critical endeavor. ... our Food Chain Partnership brings together farmers, food processors, retailers, traders, and others along the food value chain ... everyone contributes in tangible Food Chain Partnership initiatives to improved sustainability, food safety, quality, yields, ... BayG.A.P. is a service program, which supports farmers worldwide to get certified and connected to the food value chain. ...
With new food product reviews, recipes, food allergy information and more. ... When did fast food get to be not so fast?. And if assembling the order and serving the customer takes so much time that ... That is nine seconds longer than the industry average, and it is the chains slowest time in 15 years the study has been done. ... Add in the high churn rate of fast-food employees, and the need for training, and constant checks for order quality and ...
Transforming Food, Agri Supply Chain GLOBAL - The operating environment for food and agri companies is becoming increasingly ... Rabobank believes that switching to a new supply chain model has the potential to transform the food and agri industry. In a ... The report identifies the dedicated supply chain model as the best next step for food and agri companies. This structure has ... Adopting the dedicated supply chain model positions food and agri companies for longer-term growth, as the sector rises to meet ...
Food Chain. By F.R. Duplantier. Some people will complain. Or think that youre insane. When you send out ten. To foe and ... And start a fruitcake chain.. But those ten people then. Will send out ten again:. Not one will deign. To break the chain. And ...
When John Stark Regional High School food service director Morgan Trahan places orders on Tuesdays and Fridays, she has come to ... School food service departments get creative as supply chain issues impact meal planning. ... Trahan also sees shortages with paper products used to serve the food, including disposable trays and paper food boats. Upon ... Supply chain issues are causing problems everywhere in the U.S. this year, stemming from everything from a scarcity of haulers ...
Tags: Chlorophyll Consumer Decomposer Ecosystem food chain Food web Homeschool Homeschool at Irvine Hydric Hydrophyte Irvine ... Tags: animal tracks food chain Food web fox fungus Homeschool Homeschool at Irvine Irvine Irvine Homeschool Irvine Nature ... Center Phenology raccoon skunk cabbage snow snow painting spicebush squirrel tracking tracks Turkey Vulture wetland food chain ...
Heres how blockchain can help create a smarter global and local food supply chain. ... Following Your Food. Multinational food giant Nestlé is one in a growing list of food suppliers deploying blockchain to trace ... whose IBM Food Trust helps food producers, transporters and retailers access and share supply chain data using the blockchain. ... That makes safety a crucial aspect of every part of the food supply chain - especially in the event of a recall, in which case ...
... demonstrate a strong commitment to food safety, without the threat of legislation, says Instinctif Partners, which gives ... food and drink firms should do the right thing and ... Act now on food safety, out-of-home chains told. By Oliver ... Related topics: Prepared foods, Labelling, Food labelling, Food safety, Food Safety & Quality ... OOH food and drink firms should do the right thing and demonstrate a strong commitment to food safety, without the threat ...
A Temperate Forest Food Chain A Who-Eats-What Adventure in North America. From the Series Follow That Food Chain ... Follow That Food Chain. Play the food chain game! This interactive series shows animals in their habitats while illuminating ... chain bordering most of the interior spreads resembles a game board. In fact, each volume in the Follow That Food Chain series ... She is the co-author of all twelve books in the Follow That Food Chain series, as well as the biography, Dr. Kate: Angel on ...
Food Chain Reaction: A Global Food Security Game was a tabletop planning exercise with 65 "thought leaders" and policy makers ... food shortages. • social control. Description. Set in the 2020 to 2030 period, the exercise focused on problems in the food ... saved at ... ...
  • As we enter 2022, many food and beverage executives are wondering if the supply chain crisis will abate this year. (
  • Food Logistics' thanks you for your dedicated readership in 2022. (
  • PHOENIX - One topic flowed as an undercurrent this afternoon even though it wasn't on the session agenda for a group of panelists at the 2021 Conference of the International Association for Food Protection. (
  • A Food & Beverages Selector by gtnish7, created March 2021. (
  • After creating a food traceability system [based on blockchain], Walmart could trace the mangoes stored in its U.S. stores within 2.2 seconds," Walmart said in a 2021 blog post . (
  • Despite the runaway growth of these smaller chains, fast-food giants including McDonald's and Burger King still command at least 80 per cent of the North American market. (
  • Researchers analyzed nutritional data from McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Jack in the Box and Dairy Queen's french fries and found that three of the restaurant chains had decreased trans fat and saturated fats in their cooking oil. (
  • A fter commercial districts, residential markets and malls, fast-food chains like McDonald's, Barista Coffee and Nirula's have now trained their guns on highways. (
  • On highways, we have observed there is higher average expenditure on food as people move in large or big groups," said McDonald's India (North & East) Managing Director Vikram Bakshi. (
  • Ultimately the report makes the case that it's time that McDonald's stop directing fast food to kids. (
  • The group plans to hold events outside of McDonald's throughout the country and wants the fast food chain to stop using its corporate mascot. (
  • OAK BROOK, Ill. (KTVU) - A push to ban plastic straws in the U.S. may be gaining steam with fast-food behemoth McDonald's considering a new plan that could end up phasing out the use of the straws at its U.S. restaurants. (
  • Food producers are understandably focused on short term supply chain disruptions brought about by the pandemic and crises in Ukraine and Indonesia. (
  • But the good news is food producers can strengthen resilience using existing relationships and increase supply chain agility with creative solutions. (
  • Post-pandemic, the emphasis on human connection in negotiations has stimulated new levels of trust between food producers and suppliers. (
  • Recently, leading food producers have sought deeper relationships with retailers to increase demand predictive capabilities. (
  • These collaborations enable food producers to think creatively and harness bigger, structural and technology-based solutions with a long term view. (
  • Food producers don't need to look far for creative solutions and the past has a great deal of sources of inspiration. (
  • The reintroduction of regional production centers is allowing food producers to react quickly to local market demands, with consumers also benefiting from preferred local tastes. (
  • There is a good opportunity for women to join food manufacturing as 78% of respondents think that working in the food sector can be considered an opportunity for income generation for vulnerable women, especially as producers and distributers. (
  • We wanted a product in which trust meant something," Chris Tyas, global head of supply chain at Nestlé, told IBM , whose IBM Food Trust helps food producers, transporters and retailers access and share supply chain data using the blockchain. (
  • Shoppers who want to know more about what they're putting in their bodies can use blockchain-based solutions to diligently track food supplies while producers can better answer their demands for certain types of products with certain kinds of lineage. (
  • Students complete a food chain diagram then listen to a clear explanation of each link in the chain from producers to third-level consumers. (
  • The National Pork Producers Council, for example, blames increased transportation costs, supply bottlenecks and delays and increased labor costs throughout the pork chain as bigger culprits of rising prices. (
  • The assessments of the barriers that small food producers face in meeting different regulatory requirements are presented. (
  • This research shows that current EU and national regulation is an obstacle to the development of short food supply chains, meaning that additional efforts are needed to tailor the regulations to small food producers involved in short supply chains. (
  • Traceability records make your supply chains less susceptible to fraud and errors with end-to-end traceability. (
  • The FDA will be proposing new food traceability rules and requirements for food safety. (
  • Blockchain technology promises greater transparency and traceability, better safety and added efficiency within the global food supply chain. (
  • World-leading food safety, traceability and sustainability certification and assurance programmes help ensure your business produces, manufactures and sells safe products to the highest standards, consistently. (
  • Increase awareness of sustainability opportunities and practices in each step of the manufacturing processes of the food chain. (
  • This network, built on blockchain, supports improved transparency, sustainability and food integrity for the seafood industry. (
  • With global warming already impacting yields and changing where certain crops can or cannot be grown, ensuring the integrity of sustainability claims is paramount to the future of food at large - and easier than ever with solutions like the IBM Food Trust. (
  • Independent assurance: helping you manage and identify food safety and sustainability risks. (
  • What are the emerging strategies to achieve landscape level impacts while helping these chains achieve best practices and long-term sustainability? (
  • It's a national problem that's being noticed locally by New Hampshire's school food service directors, who have the additional challenge of needing very specific products to comply with federal nutrition standards. (
  • Chipotle's "food with integrity" slogan emphasizes locally sourced produce, pasture-raised animals and non-genetically-modified ingredients. (
  • Previous Post Why Don't National Chains Source Food Locally? (
  • For this study, the impact of U-mine waste on a common, locally grown crop food was examined. (
  • Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. (
  • Food contamination kills 420,000 individuals every year and affects one in 10 people worldwide, according to the World Health Organization . (
  • Creating accountability and ensuring transparency across the food supply chain is a necessity rather than an afterthought, especially with food contamination being rampant across the globe. (
  • Contamination can occur at any point along the chain-during production, processing, distribution, or preparation. (
  • Once contamination occurs, further mishandling, such as undercooking the food or leaving it out on the counter at an unsafe temperature, can make a foodborne illness more likely. (
  • In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in food. (
  • But we don't know what the hazards are of ingesting food that potentially could have evidence of contamination and these things are not answers we can get today and they are going to be the kinds of answers that will take multiple years of funding. (
  • ATSDR recognizes that infants and children can be more sensitive to environmental exposure than adults in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. (
  • This study determined the incidence of bacterial pathogen contamination along the different channels of the oyster and mussel supply chain through a time -distribution simulation analysis . (
  • In recent months, food shortages resulting from the war in Ukraine have circled the globe, with price hikes of 20% to 50% for ordinary bread reported from Brazil to Pakistan and Egypt. (
  • Donna Reynolds, food service director for Concord schools, said her district has experienced similar shortages. (
  • Trahan also sees shortages with paper products used to serve the food, including disposable trays and paper food boats. (
  • Kafarakis said that manufacturers are also expanding their supply chain to avoid shortages. (
  • Supply chain snarls, labor shortages and climate challenges (plus the conflict in Ukraine) share the blame. (
  • The entire marine food chain is in danger of collapse because of a decline in tiny phytoplankton, which scientists are linking to climate change and rising ocean surface temperatures. (
  • Among the extreme weather impacts resulting from climate change, drought is a growing problem around the globe, leading to frequent wildfires, threats to water resources, and greater food insecurity. (
  • From the war to COVID-19 to climate change and rampant inflation, the global food system is susceptible to any number of political, economic and environmental risks. (
  • Teams of participants represented governments, institutions, and businesses which had to respond to a global food crisis caused by population growth, rapid urbanization , extreme weather (a buzzword for climate change ), and political crises. (
  • Renewable energy technologies can support the decarbonisation of the end-use sectors such as agri-food to promote sustainable food production while adapting to climate change. (
  • The persistence of poverty in rural areas and the role of agriculture in climate change and food security, has renewed interest in smallholder and family farming for development solutions. (
  • Desertification in the United States of America is a serious issue because the process of Desertification includes climate issues and soil issues which lead to plants not growing and plants not growing leads to livestock not having food which leads to us the humans not having any food to eat. (
  • afflicting the world today, including climate change, food and water scarcity, environmental degradation, as well as other economic and social effects like unemployment. (
  • While COVID-19 has not been transmitted by food, the pandemic has sharpened the focus on food safety-related issues, such as hygiene, antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic diseases, climate change, food fraud and the potential benefits of digitalizing food systems. (
  • Chick-fil-A announced it will take a different approach to its charitable giving in 2020 following years of protests from LGBTQ groups that have taken issue with the Atlanta-based food chain's donations to organizations that do not support gay rights. (
  • Set in the 2020 to 2030 period, the exercise focused on problems in the food supply due to population growth and severe weather, triggering social unrest. (
  • The simulation focused on the 2020 to 2030 period during a global food crisis. (
  • It is considered as one of the essential and important industries that contributes to secure food for humans and works to achieve greater self-sufficiency in food production. (
  • In this review, it emphasizes the factors could be monitor or control that contributes to the problem of food integrity. (
  • Safe food contributes to a healthy life, a healthy economy, a healthy planet and a healthy future. (
  • Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, complementarities, and challenges, and suggests recommendations for public policies improvement. (
  • Management of chemical and biological risks in agri-food chain ," MPRA Paper 30905, University Library of Munich, Germany. (
  • Chief among these are the biosecurity risks that threaten one of Australia's greatest strategic advantages: The country's ability to feed and clothe twice its own population, its food security, and ultimately its national security. (
  • A need to review, assess and address current and emerging technical issues in relation to food safety in the Australian red meat industry, as well as identify available methods to assess these potential risks, has been identified. (
  • Secondly, a review of currently available risk assessment tools, focusing on semi-quantitative methods, to be applied for the profiling and assessment of food safety and market access risks affecting the industry, and thirdly two to three semi-quantitative risk assessment tools identified in the previous activity will be used to profile and assess the food safety issues identified, and results will be compared. (
  • Elisa Bergami of the University of Siena says "Cryptopygus antarcticus has a key role in the simple Antarctic terrestrial food webs. (
  • This interactive series shows animals in their habitats while illuminating curriculum concepts related to food webs and biomes. (
  • Chains such as Chipotle Mexican Grill embody the new "fast casual" spirit, said Nancy Luna, who writes a restaurant-industry column under the handle Fast Food Maven for the Orange County Register in Southern California. (
  • With an expected TOP in 2023, the CT FoodChain is the development that people in the food factory industry are waiting for. (
  • J Food Prot;86(3): 100063, 2023 03. (
  • The vote came a day after Think Progress reported that newly released tax documents show the fast-food chain donated $1.8 million in 2017 to groups that discriminate against. (
  • The blow was clearly harder for traditional stores such as independent butchers, grocers and minimarkets, which didn't have the same leeway for discounts as the supermarket chains did at the height of the crisis. (
  • This time the main incentive was the lower prices that supermarket chains were able to offer. (
  • In fact the majority have been replaced by convenience stores developed by the major supermarket chains in the form of franchising. (
  • Close relationships with growers of fresh produce and intensive contact with industrial processors, traders and supermarket chains allow us to translate the wishes of the food chain into unique varieties with added value. (
  • The film centers around a protest by the Coalition of Immokalee Workers in Florida against the supermarket chain Publix. (
  • Blue Diamond Growers is the world's largest almond supplier and processing company cracking the supply chain strategy in the cloud. (
  • Ukraine and Russia are among the world's most important food exporters, providing more than a quarter of the world's wheat supply, along with other important crops such as corn, sunflower seed oil and barley. (
  • They say that the microplastic pollution has now penetrated the world's most remote land-based food systems. (
  • Can Blockchain Stabilize World's Fragile Food System? (
  • We help thousands of food sector organisations, from the world's best known brands to the smallest of suppliers. (
  • Established chains shouldn't try to compete with the Chipotles of the world, said Luke Sklar, president of Toronto-based marketing research and strategy firm Sklar Wilton & Associates Ltd. Their reputations are too entrenched as purveyors of guilty pleasures to lure customers in search of healthier fare, who make up less than 20 per cent of the market, by Sklar's estimate. (
  • Ensuring food quality and safety will always remain top priorities. (
  • FBOs with high employee turnover, such as those employing casual staff in a foodservice environment, have the task of ensuring that every new recruit is inducted in the organisation's food safety processes and then follows them unfailingly at all times ​," said Cross. (
  • Ensuring safe and sustainable food across the supply chain. (
  • New approaches to auditing and inspection increase supply chain visibility, delivering confidence and ensuring control over quality and safety. (
  • Public health authorities undertake risk assessment and supervise enforcement and control of activities for minimizing exposure to health hazards in order to protect the population by ensuring environmental, occupational, toxicological and food safety. (
  • Risk Management in Agri-food Chain ," MPRA Paper 39594, University Library of Munich, Germany. (
  • Risk Management in the Agri-food Sector ," Contemporary Economics , University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw. (
  • GLOBAL - The operating environment for food and agri companies is becoming increasingly complex as new external influences compound traditional pressures like rising agri commodity prices, according to a new report from Rabobank. (
  • The report identifies the dedicated supply chain model as the best next step for food and agri companies. (
  • Traditional pressures on the food and agri industry (supply and demand dynamics, a burgeoning population and rising agri commodity prices) are being compounded by a new set of external influences. (
  • The direct use of agri commodities for biofuel production and an increased awareness of the energy intensity of food production, for example, have embroiled food and agri companies in an ongoing food vs. fuel debate. (
  • This model is highly inefficient, restricting food and agri companies' ability to respond to changes in supply and demand dynamics, whilst fleeting partnerships limit productivity and restrict innovation. (
  • Rabobank believes that switching to a new supply chain model has the potential to transform the food and agri industry. (
  • Justin Sherrard, Rabobank Global Strategist said: "Closer cooperation of this sort will transform the nature of food and agri partnerships from transactional ones that are centered around chasing price, to a system focused on creating value. (
  • The use of geothermal heat in the agri-food sector is rising worldwide, with several examples in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania. (
  • These assessments might provide relevant information to support decision making, hence fostering accelerated use of geothermal heat in the agri-food sector. (
  • In the framework of the Global Geothermal Alliance , the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) collaborated with the International Geothermal Association (IGA) and the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) to organise a webinar to share global experiences and best practices for accelerating the use of geothermal heat in the agri-food sector. (
  • The objective of this initiative is to bring the different networks of territorial brands in the Alpine agri-food sector together and to trigger a lasting knowledge and experience exchange in the framework of an international conference. (
  • With the substantial contribution of its members AG6 successfully organized the international conference "Territorial Brands in the Alpine Region, A chance for a better valorisation of regional and local agri-food products! (
  • where more than 100 practitioners of the agri-food sector and experts met at EURAC Research in Bolzano/Bozen (IT) to discuss on the topic of territorial brands. (
  • Given the potential for further development of territorial brands for local sustainable growth in the agri-food sector, EUSALP Action Group 6 was able to raise awareness on the topic and to review current trends among practitioners. (
  • The challenge of food and agri products supply chains. (
  • As an innovative platform to promote partnerships and address challenges throughout our food system, our Food Chain Partnership brings together farmers, food processors, retailers, traders, and others along the food value chain to work together for sustainable agriculture. (
  • The dominant supply chain model is currently structured in a linear fashion, in which suppliers, processors and retailers form short-term partnerships independent from the influence and interests of other members of the chain. (
  • That makes safety a crucial aspect of every part of the food supply chain - especially in the event of a recall, in which case actionable food supply chain data could help retailers like Walmart actually save lives. (
  • Creating a comfortable, inviting and safe shopping experience for consumers will continue to be a differentiator for food retailers. (
  • Highways are the next destination for the big food retailers to expand as the profits are higher from these stores", said Nirula's CEO & Managing Director Samir Kukreja. (
  • See which businesses and foods are being affected and learn how the IBM Food Trust Compliance Module can help simplify regulatory compliance. (
  • This doesn't give people a license to run out to fast foods and eat whatever they want at fast food restaurants, because of the high calorie items in the menu and high sodium foods,' Harnack said. (
  • If germs contaminate surfaces used for food processing, such as a processing line or storage bins, germs can spread to foods that touch those surfaces. (
  • The separate lifts assigned for raw and cooked foods help maintain the freshness of your food products. (
  • I think and I believed that they cooked the foods differently from other branch of Mann Hann, like in Market Market they served and cooked the food nice and good that's why we always wanted to eat at Mann Hann. (
  • Many affected infants have feeding difficulties, such as an extreme dislike of certain foods or of eating at all (food or feeding aversion), nausea, and vomiting. (
  • Long-chain fatty acids are found in foods such as milk and certain oils. (
  • From cross-border logistics to cold chain shipping, logistics companies work around the clock so that consumers can have the foods they want, when they want them, no questions asked. (
  • Even with Amazon's acquisition of the premium organic grocery chain Whole Foods, Amazon has managed to keep food costs down. (
  • Given that one-third of calories in the United States comes from foods prepared away from home, this suggests a remarkable achievement in potential cardiovascular risk reduction through food policy," write lead investigator Dr Sonia Angell (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene) and colleagues online July 16, 2012 in the Annals of Internal Medicine [1]. (
  • Through a systematic literature review, the notable business model innovations in the food industry are identified, surveyed, and evaluated. (
  • Findings reveal that the innovations in the value proposition, value creation processes, and value delivery processes of business models are the successful strategies proposed in the food industry. (
  • The findings of the current study provide an insight into the food industry to design a sustainable business model to bridge the gap between food supply and food demand. (
  • Food safety could suffer as part of the problems caused by rising energy prices, according to several European and British industry groups. (
  • After two years of a pandemic, and the massive behaviour change it forced on all of us, how do companies in the food industry look to the future? (
  • The food manufacturing industry is a crucial sector in the economy of every country. (
  • The development of the food sector is related to the development of agriculture, as it is the primary source of raw materials for the food industry as well as the interface with branches of industry interest such as the packaging industry, paper and plastic and glass, as well as transport and communication. (
  • Now Rabobank has called for the industry to transform the way supply chains are organised, by adopting longer-term supply agreements and, cooperative relationships with upstream and downstream partners. (
  • Although it's famous for powering cryptocurrency markets, blockchain is now poised to help modernize the food industry. (
  • Firstly, a review of the current and new technical food safety issues affecting the Australian red meat industry, using information that is publicly available and an expert consultation exercise involving food safety regulators, public health experts, industry and consumer representatives. (
  • Project outcomes will provide the industry and risk managers with a robust risk profiling method that allows the identification of priority food safety and market access threats that pose a non-negligible risk to the industry and require further comprehensive assessments. (
  • Our large global team of food and drink sector auditors work with businesses across the supply chain to independently assess food production and manufacturing systems, procedures and operations against industry standards including those aligned by GFSI . (
  • For over 90 years, The Food Institute has been the best "single source" for food industry executives, delivering actionable information daily via email updates, weekly through The Food Institute Report and via a comprehensive web research library. (
  • Scope and approach: This review attempts to provide a wider view of supply chain management in the halal food industry. (
  • As a food industry we have the ability to partner together with the growers, the communities, the NGOs to find solutions. (
  • Industry experts offer hope to a return to normalcy in the supply chain space, but it will be a new normal of sorts and be quite the bumpy ride in getting there. (
  • For the immediate future, minimizing disruptions in the food supply chains remains one of the highest priorities of all governments, as consumers must have reliable access to food. (
  • They also agreed to strengthen existing institutions and authorities under the United Nations (e.g., the World Food Programme , the World Health Organization , the Food and Agriculture Organization , the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development) and developing better coordination among them. (
  • A trade association in the United Kingdom has published a guide on managing food safety for the temperature-controlled storage and distribution sector. (
  • According to the study, 92% of both men and women who work in the food sector operate their own businesses, and 76% of them have not receive any training in their business. (
  • High food prices will not last because the agricultural sector is equipped to ramp up production and stabilize markets. (
  • all of which will be vital if the sector is to deliver food security to a future global population of 9 billion. (
  • We have worked across the food sector for many decades, assisting with the development, formulisation and improvement of food safety standards. (
  • Background: Food integrity is not only related to the good quality of the food product, nonetheless, it distresses closely more on the health, safety, religious and cultural matters. (
  • Weaknesses in handling, monitoring, processing and other factors along the food's supply chain outbreaks the recent food integrity scandal. (
  • These outbreak food integrity scandals could be prevented if clear aspects that affect the food integrity were embraced along the food supply chain. (
  • This article is aiming to highlight the factors affecting food integrity in the context of the halal food supply chain and their potential for future research. (
  • Key findings and conclusions: Eleven 'shades' of food integrity in the halal supply chain are offered, which can be categorized into four supply chain dimensions, related to raw materials, production, service, and the consumer. (
  • In addition, the new technologies and environmental factors are the secondary contributors in business model innovation for the food processors. (
  • In a dedicated supply chain structure, upstream suppliers and processors enter into long-term partnerships with each other and a downstream chain leader. (
  • Localized food production also has other benefits. (
  • In addition, providing the market and the actors with modern machines and equipment to enable food production in a professional and healthy manner, for items such as cheese, cake and sweets. (
  • These practices could help increase crop yields and reduce costs, but the technology behind the practices is creating opportunities for extremists, terrorists and adversarial governments to attack farming machinery, with the aim of disrupting food production. (
  • Economists say the nationwide supply chain problems are the result of struggles to return to pre-pandemic operations amid the lingering effects of pandemic-related changes that reduced production. (
  • We call these steps the food production chain (see graphic ). (
  • Production means growing the plants we harvest or raising the animals we use for food. (
  • Most food comes from domesticated animals and plants, and their production occurs on farms or ranches. (
  • Sometimes, by the time a food causes illness, it has been mishandled in several ways along the food production chain. (
  • An award-winning organic farm in Finland set up a food production network with neighbouring farms aiming to achieve energy and nutrient self-sufficiency. (
  • The consumption and production of safe food have immediate and long-term benefits for people, the planet and the economy. (
  • It has also identified weaknesses or vulnerabilities in food production and control systems. (
  • Small, light, and hard to avoid, it's no wonder plastic straws dumped into the sea get stuck in sea turtles' nostrils, lodged in the stomachs of baby seabirds, and end up in our food chain after being eaten by fish,' the group wrote on its petition. (
  • In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. (
  • Key data elements better track food wasted, and food rescued while minimizing waste hot spots. (
  • Issues addressed at the conference included DEI, supply chain, operator relations, and food waste. (
  • Subscribe to The Food Institute Newsletters to enjoy more quality content like this delivered to your inbox. (
  • July 16, 2012 (New York City, New York) - The dietary ban on the use of trans fatty acids in New York City restaurants significantly reduced the trans fat content of food purchased at fast-food chains two years after the ban was implemented, a new study shows. (
  • Overall, the mean saturated fat content per purchase increased by 0.6 g, with increases observed only at sandwich and fried-chicken fast-food chains. (
  • The ghastly labor practices that America's food workers have to endure are nothing new-everybody from John Steinbeck to Cesar Chavez has addressed the issue at one point or another. (
  • The results suggest that arsenic and cadmium have entered the food-chain of Bangladesh, and the cooking practices influence the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked food. (
  • Using food safety practices at home and in our daily lives will help avoid foodborne illness. (
  • Adults or children who have used, or might continue to use, the waterways for recreation, food, or drinking water are not expected to have adverse health impacts due to exposure. (
  • The tracking technique will help researchers twofold: They'll be able to better understand the food chain, and they'll find out if tagging sharks at the surface actually traumatizes the species, disrupting their behavior. (
  • Researchers obtained the nutritional data from the fast food restaurants every year from 1997 to 2008 to look for general trends. (
  • Even though the food crisis triggered by the war in Ukraine is now causing acute problems, there is no reason for panic, according to University of Copenhagen food economist Henning Otte Hansen. (
  • Out-of-home (OOH) food and drink firms should 'do the right thing' and 'demonstrate a strong commitment to food safety', without the threat of legislation, says Instinctif Partners, which gives advice to brands on risk and crisis management. (
  • Over 3,500 food retail stores shut down between 2010 and 2013, which shows that not even shops selling essential commodities escaped having to pay the ultimate price during Greece's economic crisis. (
  • The crisis has accelerated the concentration in chain food enterprises, and in 2013 traditional food stores numbered 1,720 fewer than three years earlier. (
  • Many food manufacturers source ingredients from suppliers all over the world. (
  • A decision by a major chain such as Pizza Hut to ditch artificial ingredients is not intended to build new traffic, but to sway existing customers who may be on the fence, Sklar said: "These are veto-busters. (
  • It may involve following a complex recipe with many ingredients, simply heating and serving a food on a plate, or just opening a package and eating the food. (
  • Drawing on the results of 10 multi-actor workshops that involved 124 participants, the most problematic policy frameworks for short food supply chains and key obstacles in different regulatory requirements are summarized. (
  • This story was produced in collaboration with the Food & Environment Reporting Network , a nonprofit investigative news organization. (
  • Business leaders share insights on how supply chains were changing and key trends to watch in the coming months. (
  • This perfectly aligns the product to the current food trends. (
  • Tennessee man is taking Popeyes Louisiana Chicken to court for $5,000 in damages after repeatedly being denied the fast food chain's sold-out sandwich. (
  • The limited-time offer makes Carl's Jr. the first national fast food chain to add CBD-infused food to its menu. (
  • What Is Your Go-To Fast Food Chain? (
  • 20. Can you make a fast food joint into a movie? (
  • In these scenes, Food Chains (which was executive produced by actress Eva Longoria and Fast Food Nation author Eric Schlosser, both of whom appear in the film) also offers up a critique of wealthy do-gooders who put together fancy auctions to raise money for these workers. (
  • Which Fast Food Chain Are You? (
  • Add in the high churn rate of fast-food employees, and the need for training, and constant checks for order quality and accuracy amplifies. (
  • How can fast food chains cater to the health conscious? (
  • Stepping into a Subway restaurant - once the epitome of healthier fast food - now feels retro, down to the mustard yellow and hunter-green decor. (
  • The titans of fast food are scrambling to keep up with our changing expectations of nutritious meals on the go. (
  • instead they relied on the information supplied by the fast food chains. (
  • So people need to choose wisely at fast food restaurants. (
  • The fast food chain is going where no taco shop has gone before with the opening of its very own resort this summer. (
  • Lapidus said the fast food giant's message has some "fundamental ironies. (
  • The fast-food chain has recently announced new efforts toward becoming more environmentally sustainable. (
  • After three years, multiple strikes and dozens of bargaining sessions, the Vancouver-based fast-food chain Burgerville has reached a tentative contract with the Burgerville Workers Union. (
  • Fast-food chain Burgerville has reached a tentative labor contract with the Burgerville Workers Union. (
  • Workers at the Gladstone, Oregon, location will decide in May if they will be the second restaurant of the local fast food chain to unionize. (
  • Remember that old marketing promise from a fast food chain? (
  • this reduction was observed at hamburger, fried chicken, and Mexican fast-food chains. (
  • The rising cost of goods and global supply chain issues are trickling down to community food pantries. (
  • Global food manufacturer digitizes its Talent and HR operations and reshapes the employee experience to meet customer needs. (
  • Rather, it's the product of a vast global supply chain that's extremely large and vulnerable to disruption. (
  • Issue 8 of the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, for example, contains a recently added clause which requires food business operators (FBOs) to 'define and maintain a clear plan for the development and continuing improvement of a food safety and quality culture. (
  • Never has food been more of a global commodity than it is today. (
  • Today trade is swift and global, and therefore food no longer reflects its place or time. (
  • Global food mitigation will need to be a top priority for leading economic countries going forward. (
  • A risk-based approach to food safety and to meeting food safety requirements can help keep global food supplies open and enable consumer access to food. (
  • to prevent the next zoonotic pandemic and transforming food commitments for safe systems. (
  • The new mentality of scarcity, and resulting demand reactivity, has huge implications on supply chain planning especially when it comes to adopting innovation for sustainable growth. (
  • Also, just like some of our most sought-after food innovation, this hotel brings something entirely new for lucky fans to experience and enjoy. (
  • Surrounded well by various industrial establishments, CT FoodChain offers the ideal space for your food innovation. (
  • A January 2018 study by LendEDU found that Amazon has Walmart beat on price in one key category: food. (
  • China has linked seven COVID-19 outbreaks and almost 700 cases to contaminated imported frozen food packaging materials. (
  • In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter. (
  • Supply chain issues are causing problems everywhere in the U.S. this year, stemming from everything from a scarcity of haulers and transporters to scarcity of the materials, packaging and gas necessary for manufacturers to get their products to distributors. (
  • Supply chain issues are causing problems everywhere in the U.S. this year - from COVID tests, to automobiles and even chicken nuggets - stemming from a scarcity of haulers and transporters as well as a scarcity of the materials, packaging and fuel necessary for manufacturers to get their products to distributors. (
  • The Yemeni food includes several products such as Taizian cheese and yoghurt, cake, cookies, sweets, juice, bread and other food items that can be made at home and sold in the local market. (
  • If the local restaurant manager doesn't demonstrate a strong commitment to food safety, then it is unlikely that their employees will either, even if the senior management team at regional and head office recognises its importance. (
  • For instance, frozen hamburger patties might be trucked from a meat processing plant to a large supplier, stored for a few days in the supplier's warehouse, trucked again to a local distribution facility for a restaurant chain, and finally delivered to an individual restaurant. (
  • The saying goes that there are no new stories, only new ways of telling them, and the same could be said for changes to local food systems. (
  • A writer not a farmer, I was seeking a consistent day-to-day connection to local food-a place to run in a pinch for a head of fresh lettuce or local pork chops. (
  • I noticed a lot of us here in Maine didn't have access to local food," Putnam says now, reflecting exactly what I was sensing at the time we first met. (
  • In the Caribbean, where history is an endless succession of migrations and conquests, there is almost nothing indigenous in the "local" food. (
  • c. local food governance) in post-industrial cities, considering the dimensions of solidarity, diversity, skill and scale of action. (
  • Another example is Freshii, the 150-location salad and sandwich chain founded in Toronto by 33-year-old Matthew Corrin, a millennial himself. (
  • More than half of customers surveyed ate lunch at a hamburger chain, 28% ate a sandwich chain, 12% from fried chicken outlets, and 4% from pizza and Mexican chains. (
  • To understand what's driving the nation's largest increase in food prices in 40 years, just take a close look at your all-American cheeseburger. (
  • Considerable attention goes to 'smart' urban food procurement, with little notice of the cultural diversity within Europe. (
  • How we procure and share food is thus central to cultural understandings of citizenship: the project studies in-depth nine cases of collective food procurement across three European cities, asking if collective food procurement networks indicate emerging forms of 'food citizenship', or if they concomitantly co-produce hegemonic notions of participation and belonging - and either way, how. (
  • Ethnographically, we investigate how collective food procurement networks engage with and through food: how do they interpret and articulate solidarity? (
  • Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David S. Casalesi threats to food and water chain infrastructure nato science for peace and security series c environmental in June 2013. (
  • Due to lack of an efficient monitoring system to periodically record environmental parameters for food grain storage, a huge loss of food grains in storage is reported every y. (
  • Furthermore, the consumption demand and the product quality are two main factors affecting the business models of all the firms operating in the food supply chain regardless of their positions in the chain. (
  • But OOH food businesses should not wait for possible future legislation to create a food safety and quality culture, said Victoria Cross, a partner at Instinctif. (
  • Foodservice department will have a comfortable space to move around and produce excellent quality of food products. (
  • High quality food products based on a rich traditional heritage and a large variety of agricultural and forestry raw materials are joint assets of the entire EUSALP area. (
  • Microbiological Quality of Oysters and Mussels Along Its Market Supply Chain. (
  • Part of our life is dining out at least once in a while, and CT FoodChain is close to dining establishments such as The Ayer Rajah Food Centre and Teban Gardens Food Centre. (
  • Food safety scandals happen regularly in China. (
  • Seaspiracy, the latest Netflix documentary exposing the impact of our food systems, is making a splash. (
  • Conceptually, we deliver a critical theory of food citizenship, adding a 'meso' level of sociocultural analysis to food scenarios, which mostly focus on the 'macro' (food systems) or 'micro' (individual deliberations and habituated reflexes) scale. (
  • Our food systems need to produce enough safe food for all. (
  • They carry out photosynthesis, converting sunlight into organic matter which then serves as the first step in the entire marine food chain. (
  • Organic mercury compounds, specifically methylmercury, are concentrated in the food chain. (
  • Chicken products and whole grain bread products like hamburger rolls are particularly hard to come by these days, according to area food service directors. (
  • At a conference for New Hampshire school nutrition professionals in late October, Trahan heard an anecdote from another district where the food service director ordered a shipment of Asian-style chicken and sauce meals, and received a substitution of blueberries. (