The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
The selection of one food over another.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consumption of edible substances.
The physical measurements of a body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.

Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. (1/1057)

The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.  (+info)

Natural (13)C abundance reveals trophic status of fungi and host-origin of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests. (2/1057)

Fungi play crucial roles in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems, most notably as saprophytes decomposing organic matter and as mycorrhizal fungi enhancing plant nutrient uptake. However, a recurrent problem in fungal ecology is to establish the trophic status of species in the field. Our interpretations and conclusions are too often based on extrapolations from laboratory microcosm experiments or on anecdotal field evidence. Here, we used natural variations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) as an approach to distinguish between fungal decomposers and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungal species in the rich sporocarp flora (our sample contains 135 species) of temperate forests. We also demonstrated that host-specific mycorrhizal fungi that receive C from overstorey or understorey tree species differ in their delta(13)C. The many promiscuous mycorrhizal fungi, associated with and connecting several tree hosts, were calculated to receive 57-100% of their C from overstorey trees. Thus, overstorey trees also support, partly or wholly, the nutrient-absorbing mycelia of their alleged competitors, the understorey trees.  (+info)

Unanswered questions in ecology. (3/1057)

This is very much a personal view of what I think are some of the most important unanswered questions in ecology. That is, these are the questions that I expect will be high on the research agenda over the coming century. The list is organized hierarchically, beginning with questions at the level of individual populations, and progressing through interacting populations to entire communities or ecosystems. I will try to guess both at possible advances in basic knowledge and at potential applications. The only thing that is certain about this view of the future is that much of it will surely turn out to be wrong, and many of the most interesting future developments will be quite unforeseen.  (+info)

The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. (4/1057)

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

Ecological basis of extinction risk in birds: habitat loss versus human persecution and introduced predators. (5/1057)

Understanding the ecological mechanisms that underlie extinction is fundamental to conservation. It is well established that not all taxa are equally vulnerable to extinction, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This may be, in part, because different taxa are threatened by different mechanisms. Theoretically, sources of extinction risk that perturb the balance between fecundity and longevity, such as human persecution and introduced predators, should be particularly hazardous for taxa that have slow rates of population growth. In contrast, sources of extinction risk that reduce niche availability, such as habitat loss, should represent a particular threat to taxa that are ecologically specialized. Here we test these predictions by using a phylogenetic comparative method and a database on 95 families of birds. As theory predicts, extinction risk incurred through persecution and introduced predators is associated with large body size and long generation time but is not associated with degree of specialization, whereas extinction risk incurred through habitat loss is associated with habitat specialization and small body size but not with generation time. These results demonstrate the importance of considering separately the multiple mechanisms that underlie contemporary patterns of extinction. They also reveal why it has previously proven so difficult to identify simple ecological correlates of overall extinction risk.  (+info)

Reciprocal subsidies: dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs. (6/1057)

Mutual trophic interactions between contiguous habitats have remained poorly understood despite their potential significance for community maintenance in ecological landscapes. In a deciduous forest and stream ecotone, aquatic insect emergence peaked around spring, when terrestrial invertebrate biomass was low. In contrast, terrestrial invertebrate input to the stream occurred primarily during summer, when aquatic invertebrate biomass was nearly at its lowest. Such reciprocal, across-habitat prey flux alternately subsidized both forest birds and stream fishes, accounting for 25.6% and 44.0% of the annual total energy budget of the bird and fish assemblages, respectively. Seasonal contrasts between allochthonous prey supply and in situ prey biomass determine the importance of reciprocal subsidies.  (+info)

Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration. (7/1057)

Food-web processes are important controls of oceanic biogenic carbon flux and ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. Two key controlling parameters are the growth efficiencies of the principal trophic components and the rate of carbon remineralization. We report that bacterial growth efficiency is an inverse function of temperature. This relationship permits bacterial respiration in the euphotic zone to be computed from temperature and bacterial production. Using the temperature-growth efficiency relationship, we show that bacterial respiration generally accounts for most community respiration. This implies that a larger fraction of assimilated carbon is respired at low than at high latitudes, so a greater proportion of production can be exported in polar than in tropical regions. Because bacterial production is also a function of temperature, it should be possible to compute euphotic zone heterotrophic respiration at large scales using remotely sensed information.  (+info)

Surprising findings following a Belgian food contamination with polychlorobiphenyls and dioxins. (8/1057)

We found that 12.1% of Belgian export meat samples from chicken or pork, unrelated to the PCB/dioxin crisis from 1999, contained more than 50 ng polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/g fat and that 6.5% of samples contain more than 20 ng/g fat for the sum of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites. Part of this background contamination stems from imported animal feed ingredients (fish flour and grains), sometimes contaminated by recent use of DDT, as can be deduced from the ratio between DDT and its main metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE). However, after comparing PCB concentrations in fish flour and grains with those found in meat, we suggest that the high concentrations stem from recycled fat. This is the first paper describing background concentrations of PCBs in animal meat from Belgium.  (+info)

Soil food webs of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are simple. These include primary trophic levels of mosses, algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and their protozoan and metazoan consumers (including relatively few species of nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, and microarthropods). These biota are patchily distributed across the landscape, with greatest faunal biodiversity associated with wet soil. Understanding trophic structure is critical to studies of biotic interactions and distribution; yet, McMurdo Dry Valley soil food web structure has been inferred from limited laboratory culturing and micro- scopic observations. To address this, we measured stable isotope natural abundance ratios of C (13C/12C) and N (15N/14N) for di erent metazoan taxa (using whole body biomass) to determine soil food web structure in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Nitrogen isotopes were most useful in di erentiating trophic levels because they fractionated predictably at higher trophic levels. Using ...
Global climate change will affect fish sizes in unpredictable ways and, consequently, impact complex food webs in our oceans, a new IMAS-led study has shown.
In this paper, we prove the existence of a limit cycle for a given system of differential equations corresponding to an asymmetrical intraguild food web model with functional responses Holling type II for the middle and top predators and logistic grow for the (common) prey. The existence of such limit cycle is guaranteed, via the first Lyapunov coefficient and the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation theorem, under certain conditions for the parameters involved in the system.
Abstract. The significant impact of dust deposition on heterotrophic bacterial dynamics in the surface oligotrophic ocean has recently been evidenced. Considering the central role of bacteria in the microbial loop, it is likely that dust deposition also affects the structure and the functioning of the whole microbial food web. In the frame of the DUNE project, aiming to estimate the impact of dust deposition on the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea through mesocosm experiments, the main goal of the present paper was to assess how two successive dust deposition events affect the dynamics of the microbial food web. The first dust seeding delivered new P and N to the amended mesocosms and resulted in a pronounced stimulation of bacterial respiration. It also induced pronounced, but transient, changes in the bacterial community composition. No significant effects were observed on the abundances of viruses and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The second dust seeding also delivered new P and N to the ...
The grazing food chain is one of the major types of food chain that is seen as a food chain process dominantly occurring in organisms. The grazing food chain starts from the autotrophs (green plants), the major energy for this chain is taken from the sun as the plants carry out the process of photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. The green plants work as the primary producer of this type of food chain; later the herbivores get fed upon the green plants. The chain goes on further as the primary consumers (herbivores) are eaten by the secondary consumers (omnivores) in this type of food chain. This food chain doesnt consist of microbes or other decomposers; it is carried out by the macroscopic organisms. The grazing food chain is the simpler type of food chain as it begins from the primary producers (green plants), who are the dominant producers in different ecosystems across the globe. The name of the food chain itself tells that it possess the green plants as a major source or the one ...
Web structures comprising a tuft and methods for making same are provided. More particularly, web structures comprising a polymeric structure comprising a crosslinked, hydroxyl polymer, wherein the web structure comprises a tuft and processes for making such web structures are provided.
Full publication list available from Google scholar and see my profile on Research Gate. Selected key publications: Ruiter, P. C. de, and U. Gaedke (2017) Emergent facilitation promotes biological diversity in pelagic food webs. Food Webs (in press). Coutinho, R., T. Klauschies, and U. Gaedke (2016) Bimodal trait distributions with large variances question the reliability of trait-based aggregate models. Theoretical Ecology, 6: 4141-4159 DOI 10.1007/s12080-016-0297-9. Klauschies, T., D. A. Vasseur, and U. Gaedke (2016) Trait adaptation promotes species coexistence in diverse predator and prey communities. Ecology and Evolution, 9: 389-408 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2172. Boit, A., N.D. Martinez, R. J. Williams, U. Gaedke (2012) Mechanistic theory and modeling of complex food web dynamics in Lake Constance. Ecol. Lett., 15:594-602 Massie, T. M., B. Blasius, G. Weithoff, U. Gaedke, and G. Fussmann (2010) Cycles, phase synchronization and entrainment in single-species phytoplankton populations. Proc. Nat. ...
Reason: Some of the organisms are of Omnivores in nature. Some of the worksheets below are Free Food Chain Worksheets, definition of Food Chains and Food Webs, Classify organisms by their roles in the food chain, Mans impact on food chains, Food chain quiz, … Once you find your worksheet(s), you can either click on the pop-out icon or download button to print or download your desired worksheet(s). This means that when we eat the meat from the cow, were at the tertiary level or higher. way up to the top of the food chain. 17. called the producers, and they get their energy directly from sunlight and inorganic nutrients. The size of a food chain can vary, yet there is a limit to the number of levels that a food chain can reach. View All. The consumer-resource system is another name for a food web. As you probably know, Choose three (3) food chains. About 50% of the energy (possibly as much as 90%) in food is lost at each trophic level when Related Video. Most food chains consist of three or ...
This PhD deals with spatial and temporal community patterns in Barents Sea marine food webs and benthic communities in Svalbard. A main aim of this PhD project has been to study how community and food-web structure changes along environmental and climatic gradients, and to elucidate how species respond to climate warming in the Arctic. We used network analysis to study how the network of who eats whom in the Barents Sea changes from the boreal, warm-water regions in the southwest to the cold-water, arctic regions in the northeast. We documented differences in the food-web structure across the entire Barents Sea, separating biogeographic food-web regions. Our study provides further evidence that food-web structure is linked to broad-scale environmental gradients through environmental constraints on niche space and environmental filtering of species spatial distributions. We also showed that the current climate-driven poleward shift of boreal fish in the Barents Sea affects the arctic food web by ...
Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs Is Influenced by Habitat Type and Watershed Land Use. Larson JH, Richardson WB, Knights BC, Bartsch LA, Bartsch MR, Nelson JC, Veldboom JA, Vallazza JM, 2013, Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs Is Influenced by Habitat Type and Watershed Land Use. PLoS ONE, v 8, i 8, e70666. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070666. Abstract. Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). ...
Primary consumers make up the second trophic level as they feed on primary producers. In other words, primary consumers are organisms that take up food directly from plants.
Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from
The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments
The size and trophic structure of fluvial fish communities are driven by energy availability, competition, energy loss through trophic transfers, predation, and predator gape limitations. Size and trophic analyses can provide important information about overall food web structure and function of fish communities. Fish community assemblages were sampled in three tributaries of the Saginaw Bay watershed, Lake Huron in 2011 and 2012. We used a combination of community size-spectra (CSS, log abundance x log body-size regression), stable isotope, and trophic guild analyses to test the hypotheses that fluvial fish communities will be (a) strongly size-structured and (b) that variation in trophic guild composition will influence the community size-structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that the fish communities are strongly size-structured (mean CSS slope = -2.24), and there is a negative correlation between piscivores and Cyprinids (r = -0.64) and piscivores and large bodied low trophic position ...
Soil Food Web Definition - In horticulture, the soil food web refers to the community of living micro-organisms and organisms that live out and...
Functional biodiversity enables aquatic communities to remain stable despite stressors such as temperature rise, increasing stratification or eutrophication. The Working Group on Aquatic Food Webs investigates functional biodiversity with regard to the biotic and abiotic factors that regulate the principal acquisition mode for energy including phototrophy, mixotrophy, and heterotrophy including herbivory, carnivory, and detritivory (in the following trophic functional groups: TFGs) in different compartments of aquatic food webs, as well as their supply with nutrients (namely nitrogen).. This is done by the analysis of nitrogen stable isotopes in amino acids. For the first time, this analysis allows TFGs and their inorganic nitrogen sources to be determined together from the same field sample, so that both can be directly related to the environmental conditions on site. This enabled us to show for the first time that entire food webs were functionally adapted to cope with stratification and ...
Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for re-establishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure, with focus on bottom-up-driven changes in macroinvertebrate consumer assemblages in the saltmarshes of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. We combined quantified estimates of the changing community composition with stable isotope data (C-13:C-12 and N-15:N-14) to compare the general trophic structure between created (2-14years) marshes and reference sites and along topographic elevation gradients within saltmarshes. Macrofaunal invertebrate consumers exhibited ...
An ecological network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem, in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links). These interactions can be trophic or symbiotic. Ecological networks are used to describe and compare the structures of real ecosystems, while network models are used to investigate the effects of network structure on properties such as ecosystem stability. Historically, research into ecological networks developed from descriptions of trophic relationships in aquatic food webs; however, recent work has expanded to look at other food webs as well as webs of mutualists. Results of this work have identified several important properties of ecological networks. Complexity ([linkage density): the average number of links per species. Explaining the observed high levels of complexity in ecosystems has been one of the main challenges and motivations for ecological network analysis, since early theory predicted that complexity should lead to ...
The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the worlds ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems. Available evidence indic
Food web and food chain The terms food chain and food web both refer to groups of organisms that are dependent on each other for food. A food chain is a single series of organisms in which each plant or animal depends on the organism above or below it. Source for information on Food Web and Food Chain: UXL Encyclopedia of Science dictionary.
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. fish generally experienced higher 15N and lower 13C relative to jellyfish, which resulted in low assemblage\level trophic overlap. Fish buy 616202-92-7 assemblages had larger market widths than jellyfish in most cases and, along with whole community trophic diversity, exhibited contrasting seasonal patterns across oceanographic basins, which was positively correlated to panorama variance in terrestrial Kit connectivity. In contrast, jellyfish market widths were unrelated to terrestrial connectivity, but weakly negatively correlated to urban land use in adjacent catchments. Our results indicate that fishCjellyfish trophic structure is highly heterogeneous and that disparate processes may underlie the trophic ecology of these taxa; consequently, they may respond divergently to environmental switch. In addition, spatiotemporal variance ...
|p|From whales to striped bass, important marine animals eat smaller fish and organisms to survive. These prey, or forage fish, in the food web are critical to a healthy ocean ecosystem. But people are not doing enough to ensure the abundance of prey species to feed valuable fish populations and marine life. The need to protect this basic prey, which ranges from mackerel and menhaden to herring and anchovies, is growing more urgent. Populations of some of these small fish have plummeted. Millions are scooped up by industrial fishing gear and ground into fertilizer and pet food. Millions more are caught by accident in trawler nets. Without this important food staple, diets are compromised, and its a scramble to find suitable substitutes. That disruption can send an unhealthy ripple effect stretching across the ocean ecosystem. Protecting the prey is fundamental to rebuilding depleted fish populations, conserving marine animals, and maintaining a balanced food web.|/p|
This volume provides a current synthesis of theoretical and empirical food web research. Whether they are binary systems or weighted networks, food webs are of particular interest to ecologists in providing a macroscopic view of ecosystems. They describe interactions between species and their environment, and subsequent advances in the understanding of their structure, function, and dynamics are of vital importance to ecosystem management and conservation.
Vitamin B complex foods include fish, sunflower seeds, meat, eggs and spinach. Read for recommended daily allowance of B Vitamins and tips to increase its intake.
Buy Consumer-Resource Dynamics (9780691006581) (9780691006574): NHBS - William W Murdoch, Cheryl J Briggs and Roger M Nisbet, Princeton University Press
Freshwater influx drives the Alaska Coastal Current which in turn sustains commercial and subsistence fisheries as well as millions of coastal marine birds and mammals. Nearly half of this freshwater is derived from glacial melt-water, but we know little about how this glacial runoff contributes to marine production in glacial-marine ecosystems. This question is timely given the widespread and rapid retreat of glaciers in Alaska owing to global warming. Water and organic nutrients derived from terrestrial sources have distinct isotopic signatures compared to those of marine origin. We hypothesize that organic nutrients of terrestrial origin significantly enhance secondary and tertiary productivity in glacial-marine pelagic food webs. This study traces the flow of nutrients and organic matter through marine food webs using stable and radio isotopes. To better understand the scale at which glacial runoff influences food webs in coastal waters, we also examine the extent of freshwater infiltration ...
Food webs are organized into three main categories, depending on the kinds of organisms they contain. These three categories are known as trophic levels. The three primary trophic levels are those that consist of (1) producers, (2) consumers, and (3) decomposers. Producers are organisms that can make their own organic compounds or food using energy and simple inorganic compounds. Producers are sometimes called autotrophs, meaning self-feeders. For example, green plants are autotrophs because they manufacture the compounds they need through photosynthesis. The next trophic level above the producers consists of consumers. Consumers are organisms that cannot make their own foods and so have to eat other organisms to obtain the nutrients they use. The consumer trophic level can be subdivided depending on the kind of organisms included. Immediately above the producers are the herbivores, organisms that eat plants only. Some common examples of the herbivores include squirrels, rabbits, mice, deer, ...
Small herbivorous mammals appear to have the capacity to control the expansion of northern woody plants, but predators have the potential to prevent this by limiting rodent numbers. According to our results, primary productivity determines whether small mammals are regulated by predation or whether they are food limited and, hence, control the vegetation. Conversely, colleagues working on the coastal tundra have found evidence for predation limitation of lemmings even from unproductive tundra areas. Our working hypothesis is that this contrast reflects the subsidizing effect of marine-based resources on terrestrial food web dynamics. We will test this hypothesis by conducting parallel studies on predator-rodent-plant interactions in coastal and inland tundra.. Prof. Erkki Korpimäki, Univ. Of Turku (ekorpi[at] Senior Res. Tarja Oksanen, Univ. of Turku (tarja.oksanen[at] ...
Ecosystem engineers. More and more scientific studies emphasize the importance of ecosystem engineers in intertidal areas such as the Wadden Sea. Ecosystem engineers are organisms that not only respond to environmental conditions (such as sediment properties and hydrodynamics), but also strongly influence them by their presence. They create suitable living conditions for themselves as well as for other species. Thus they play a key role in retaining biodiversity and the natural functioning of ecosystems.. Restore musselbeds, increase diversity. The participants in the project Waddensleutels investigate whether restoring ecosystem engineers - especially mussel beds - can restore the ecosystem to a more species-rich and complex food web, with herbivores, predators of herbivores, predators of these predators, and finally top predators. In an experiment to be carried out at a number of locations in the Wadden Sea, resaearchers attempt to restore mussel beds.. Stable isotopes. In addition, on the ...
New research indicates that the acidification and warmer temperatures caused by climate change negatively impact marine food webs and biodiversity.
Stable isotopes are widely used to identify trophic interactions and to determine trophic positions of organisms in food webs. Comparative studies have provided general insights into the variation in isotopic composition between consumers and their diet (discrimination factors) in predator-prey and herbivore-plant relationships while other major components of food webs such as host-parasite interactions have been largely overlooked.
Historically, the Center has been the basin-wide leader in fisheries science in deepwater habitat. In fact, the Center has invaluable long-term data sets (dating back to the 1970s) that have been used to understand how biotic and abiotic factors drive long-term fish community and population dynamics. As a result, the Center is well positioned to be a leading contributor to an emerging interdisciplinary approach to understanding Great Lakes food webs. In addition, Center scientists are increasingly using our fleet of research platforms to sample biota at lower trophic levels. The Center continues to develop ecosystem-level models that improve our understanding of food web structure and function, which also allow managers to explore different what if management scenarios. As a whole, deepwater research will build on its strong history by collaborating with complementary researchers from agencies and academic institutions to 1) deliver and improve on our long-term fish population data series and ...
The topology of ecological communities is structured through the many and varied interactions active in food webs [1]. Direct trophic interactions, mutualism, competition, commensalism and parasitism are all modes that interconnect various elements of a community and to a certain extent, govern overall ecosystem dynamics [2]. There is also a growing realization that there are subtler, indirect effects in play [3,4] where third-party actors can be subsumed to play the role of a bait or a protector. The interaction of direct and indirect effects is most evident in so-called intra-guild predation, a tri-trophic arrangement where a consumer and its predator share a common resource [5]. While ecological communities are often described by the topology of the connections among species, their dynamics are controlled by the strength of the interactions these connections represent [6]. Further, the strength of these interactions is not static. Whatever the architecture of ecological communities, the ...
By Ivano Aiello (28 July 2016). Popular science magazines and documentaries depict marine scientists as sea going adventurers equipped with a pair of binoculars or a fish net, or explorers who dive in the abyss using SCUBA or with submersibles to observe the big things that populate the oceans.. The development of modern marine science in the last century has demonstrated that it is only by fully understanding the small-scale processes and features that we improve our knowledge of the vastness and complexity of the oceans habitats. In a sense, the small (the micro) is the new frontier to understand the big (the macro).. The numbers speak for themselves. According to recent estimates, about ½ of the global biomass (the weight of all living things) could be made of single celled microbes most of which live in or underneath the oceans. Big living things are at the top of very complex food webs while foundations are made of often very small organisms: for instance a whale can consume as much ...
e) Which organism is a secondary consumer ? We eat bot… and Inverse Proportions, Areas The carbon cycle is an important gaseous cycle which has its reservoir pool in the atmosphere. Try it now. The transfer of food energy from the producers, through a series of organisms (herbivores to carnivores to decomposers) with repeated eating and being eaten, is known as food chain. The path of energy in a feeding relationship between organisms is called A FOOD CHAIN. A food chain starts with the primary energy source. Himachal Board exam dates 2021 for class 12, 10 announced, exams dates will be released soon. (d) None of the above In ecosystem …chains is made up of decomposers, those heterotrophs that break down dead organisms and organic wastes. Which of the food chain directly depends on solar radiations? (c) In aquatic ecosystems, the limiting factor for the productivity is _________. DRAFT. Living Systems as Energy Converters documents the proceedings of the European Conference on Living Systems ...
The Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation has recommended that Harvard Forest Senior Ecologist Aaron Ellisons proposal Moths, ants, and carnivorous plants: the spatial dimension of species interactions be funded, beginning March 1, 2006. The goal of this 5-year, $585,000 research project, is to understand how species interactions change the spatial distribution of dynamic habitat patches across the landscape, and to determine how food webs are structured within and among these patches.. ...
All organisms, both land-based and aquatic, are interconnected by their need for food. This network of interconnections is referred to as a food web. The entire earth can be considered a single global food web, and food webs can also be described for a particular environment. At the base of any food web are organisms that make their own food, followed by the animals that eat them, then the animals that eat those animals, and so forth ...
All organisms, both land-based and aquatic, are interconnected by their need for food. This network of interconnections is referred to as a food web. The entire earth can be considered a single global food web, and food webs can also be described for a particular environment. At the base of any food web are organisms that make their own food, followed by the animals that eat them, then the animals that eat those animals, and so forth ...
Climate-change induced alterations of the organic matter flow from various primary production sources to the benthic system in the Arctic Chukchi Sea could have major implications on carbon cycling, sequestration, and benthic food web structure sustaining upper trophic levels. In particular, the role and contribution of terrestrial matter and bacterial matter could become more prominent, with increasing erosion and permafrost melt being discharged from land, and warming water temperatures raising bacterial metabolism. In this study, I used essential amino acid (EAA) specific stable isotope analysis to trace the proportional contributions of bacterial, phytoplankton, and terrestrial organic matter in sediments, as well as benthic invertebrates on the Chukchi Sea shelf. Across the upper 5 cm of sediments, most organic matter sources were equally distributed, except for a slight decrease with depth in phytoplankton EAA. Terrestrial sources contributed the majority of EAA (~76 %) in all sediment ...
The mission of our research group is to reveal the role of infectious diseases in ecosystems. We investigate parasite ecology, disease ecology, food web dynamics, ecology and evolution of infectious strategies, and control of human parasites ...
The energy is passed on from trophic level to trophic level and each time about 90% of the energy is lost, with some being lost as heat into the environment (an effect of respiration) and some being lost as incompletely digested food (egesta). Therefore, primary consumers get about 10% of the energy produced by autotrophs, while secondary consumers get 1% and tertiary consumers get 0.1%. This means the top consumer of a food chain receives the least energy, as a lot of the food chains energy has been lost between trophic levels. This loss of energy at each level limits typical food chains to only four to six links. ...
Inhibitory analysis in ecology.. This is about a discovery and innovation in environmental sciences and ecology, item 3 on the list of 18 (the list see here [3]). This new approach in ecology allows to see better the real role of organisms of a higher trophic level in regulation of the organisms of a lower trophic level.. The method that was applied was to inhibit the functional activity of the organisms of a higher trophic level and to observe the consequences: what happens with the organisms of a LOWER trophic level.. It was done by the inventor of this methodology in the laboratory experimental systems with bivalve mollusks that that a higher trophic level organisms as compared to phytoplankton algae. The algae are a lower trophic level organisms as compared to bivalve mollusks. The bivalves feed on algae.. In my experiments, I decreased trophic activity of bivalves using special chemical inhibitors. I used my previous discovery that some chemical - surfactants - can decrease filtering ...
Detection of pathogens present in food samples typically takes at least 12 to 36 hours in food safety labs. But a small chip developed by researchers at the University of Maryland promises to speed the process up considerably, detecting pathogens in less than an hour.. This new innovation, created by Associate Professor Javier Atencia-Fernandez of the Fischell Department of Bioengineering, is one of nine nominees for Invention of the Year Award. Atencia-Fernandez said that his new apparatus extracts bacteria from food samples without enrichment-the procedure of increasing the number of bacteria to enable pathogen detection without interference from the food matrix-and is therefore very rapid. Typically, [it takes] 30 minutes to extract 75% of the bacteria, 2.5 hours to extract 99%, he said.. Atencia-Fernandez said that there is a pressing commercial need for technologies like his, which reduce or eliminate the process of enrichment prior to detection. The time required for enrichment was the ...
In this application note, learn how mass detection can be deployed in food QC lab environments to provide the selectivity and sensitivity necessary to detect low levels of compounds in complex matrices, such as orange juice.
Manufactured foodstuffs typically exist in the form of complex, multi-phase, multi-component, colloidal systems. One way to try to make sense of their chemical and structural complexity is to study simple model systems in which the nature and properties of the polymer molecules and dispersed particles are relatively well : Elsevier Science.
Work in the chemical ecology and tropical diversity laboratory focuses on direct and indirect trophic interactions in complex biotic communities with emphases on global change, documenting the diversity of multi-trophic interactions, and examining the effects of plant secondary compounds on insect herbivores and their natural enemies. The main source of funding for our research comes from the National Science Foundation, Earthwatch Institute, the Department of Defense, and private funding sources. The major continuing research topics of our laboratory and collaborators include: 1) Chemical ecology; 2) Diversity of interactions in tropical and temperate forests; 3) Variation in tritrophic interactions due to climate change; 4) Conservation and applied ecology; 5) Quantitative ecology; 6)Coevolution across multiple trophic levels ...
why are decomposers important to the food chain food web with decomposers decomposers in food chain consumers in ecosystem decomposers in an ecosystem
An ecosystems food chain mainly shows the physical transfer of matter and of energy from one organism to another. Decomposers are often categorized as non-important or simply forgotten, yet they are one of the most important organisms that play an immensely significant role in the food web. As they break down the leftovers they intake the last energy left from the chain. With what they intake they are able to release nutrients into the air, soil or water which is later taken in by the plants and all those considered to be producers, regenerating the food chain. Without the assistance of the decomposers, all of the remaining energy and nutrients would remain inside the animals or plants dead body not being able to give it to the following organisms that allow the process to re-create. We could consider them to be the bridge of interaction between living and non-living organisms in a food web. Given this information, it is clear that a food web without decomposers would end up ...
Although a rich literature demonstrates how historical and contemporary inequities emerge and persist in human systems, a transdisciplinary perspective that integrates social and cultural processes into an urban eco-evolutionary framework remains unexplored. In todays world, humans often shape the ecological conditions that drive patterns of species distribution and evolution. Distinctive urban landscape features-including reduced habitat patch size, novel plant communities, and increased distance among similar patches-affect key ecological processes such as population dynamics, species interactions, and food web structure. Recent research emphasizes that socioeconomic and demographic factors predict within-city variation in diverse environmental conditions. Humans directly control urban plant, animal, and microbe communities. Further, decisions about urban resource management are often dictated by a subset of individuals and institutions with social or economic capital. These decisions can ...
We will explore marine lakes unknown to science and measure water characteristics and the connection to the sea. In these lakes, as well as in the surrounding sea, we will use photo transects and tissue sampling of mollusks and sponges to assess species communities. The ubiquitous mussel Brachidontes sp. will be sampled to study population connectivity and incipient speciation. Tissue samples will be taken of all species and food sources for a subset of lakes to unveil food web structures through isotope analysis.. ...
Coprolites and the Liassic food chain[edit]. Duria Antiquior - A more Ancient Dorset, 1830 watercolour by Henry De la Beche, ... He wrote a vivid description of the Liassic food chain based on these observations, which would inspire Henry De la Beche to ... Rupke, Nicolaas (1983). The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology 1814-1850. Oxford ... but supply a chain of connected evidence, amounting to demonstration, of the continuous Being, and of many of the highest ...
"Food Chain". "Food Chain" was later selected for competition at the 2015 Annecy International Animated Film Festival, On April ... The first, "Food Chain", was helmed by noted Japanese animator Masaaki Yuasa, and was entirely animated by Yuasa's own studio. ... The episode "Food Chain" was nominated for several Annie Awards, as well as an Annecy International Animated Film Festival ... "Adventure Time 'Food Chain'". Annecy International Animated Film Festival. Retrieved March 31, 2015. Eiga, Natalie (June 22, ...
"Food Chain". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015. CS1 ...
"Food Chain". 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2013. ... Baxters Food Group Limited, also known as Baxters of Speyside or Baxters, is a food processing company, based in Fochabers, ... Baxters Food Australia Pty Ltd. was established in 2006 to act as an in-country customer service division for Baxter's growing ... Fray Bentos was bought by Campbell's in 1993 and sold on to Premier Foods as part of the sale of the US food group's UK assets ...
The introductions to the guest-animated episodes "A Glitch Is a Glitch" and "Food Chain" are each unique, featuring animation ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yuasa, Masaaki (director & storyboard artist) (June 12, 2014). "Food Chain". Adventure ... "Food Chain"), David Ferguson ("Water Park Prank"), and Kristen Lepore ("Bad Jubies"). Since the first season, the show has also ... "Food Chain" was written, storyboarded, and directed by Japanese anime director Masaaki Yuasa, and was animated entirely by ...
Food Chain Records. Retrieved 13 October 2016. Riippi, Joseph (6 May 2006). "Dept. of Energy". Three Imaginary Girls. Retrieved ... In 2003, the band moved to Foodchain records for their third album Stories of Our Lives. The album was well-received, and ... LPs 2000: Rewriting the Wrongs (Roam Records 4) 2002: Unbroken (Roam Records 9) 2003: Stories of Our Lives (Foodchain Records ...
ISBN 978-88-476-0925-9. Veiga, Alexandra; Empis, José (2010). "Food Chain Defense and Its Potential Implications on Traditional ... 2010) [1998]. Dictionary of Food: International Food and Cooking Terms from A to Z (Electronic ed.). London: A & C Black. p. ... Food Chain Security. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer ... Portugal portal Food portal Bosnian Pot Cocido lebaniego Cocido montañés Irish stew Pot-au-feu Istrian stew List of stews ...
Helios does a great deal of outreach providing services for clients of the Mildmay Hospice, Food Chain, Positive UK and many ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Nutrition & HIV". The Food Chain. Retrieved 2017-04-09. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Roden is a Patron of London-based HIV charity The Food Chain. In 1999 Roden was honoured with a Prince Claus Award from the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "our patrons". The Food Chain. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2012-03-27. CS1 maint: discouraged ... The New Book of Middle Eastern Food and Arabesque-Sumptuous Food from Morocco, Turkey and Lebanon. Roden was born in 1936 in ... A Book of Middle Eastern Food, ISBN 978-0-394-71948-1 (reprint) 1970: A New Book of Middle Eastern Food, ISBN 978-0-14-046588-4 ...
"The Sandwich Factory". Food Chain Magazine. Retrieved 17 April 2017. "Cranswick buys division of Perkins Foods". The Grocer. 21 ... Cranswick plc is a leading UK food producer and supplier of premium, fresh and added-value food products. The company is listed ... "Hull food firm Cranswick sets sights on Asia sales". Hull Daily Mail. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September ... The company subsequently diversified into food production. It was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1985. In 1993 ...
"Holland's Pies - Best of British". Food Chain Magazine. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2017. Holland's 'About us' Holland's ... Holland's thus became part of one of the major food manufacturing groups in the United Kingdom. Remaining part of the Northern ... Owned by 2 Sisters Food Group, the company also produces pasties and sausage rolls. Holland's was founded by father and ...
"Svenska Pressbyrån". Food Chain Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2020. "Vision & organisation". Pressbyrån (in Swedish). Retrieved ... Pressbyrån is a chain of convenience stores in Sweden that sells magazines and newspapers, convenience foods such as chilled ...
"Patrons , People in the Chain , About Us , The Food Chain". Gerrard, Neil (9 May 2008). "Chris Smith ... He is a patron of London-based HIV charity The Food Chain, and also Patron of HIV support charity The National Long-Term ...
"Adventure Time 'Food Chain'". Annecy International Animated Film Festival. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Liu, Ed ...
... entitled Food Chain (2014), was directed by Yuasa, co-directed by Choi, and produced entirely in-house. Food Chain received ... Sava, Oliver (June 12, 2014). "Adventure Time: Food Chain". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Archived from the original on August 13, ... Franich, Darren (September 3, 2018). "Adventure Time's 30 best episodes - Food Chain". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the ... "2015 Official Selection, television index , Adventure Time: "Food Chain"". Annecy International Animated Film Festival. ...
For example, the Food Chain Workers Alliance is a coalition of agricultural production organizations founded in 2009 with the ... "Mission". Food Chain Workers Alliance. Retrieved 16 May 2013. Adam-Poupart, A., Labreche, F., Smargiassi, A., Duguay, P., ... "Mission". Food Chain Workers Alliance. Retrieved 21 April 2013. "About Us". Student/Farmer Alliance. Archived from the original ... In terms of food production worldwide, the atlas shows that women produce 80% of the food in Sub-Saharan Africa, 50% in Asia, ...
"Adventure Time 'Food Chain'". Annecy International Animated Film Festival. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. ...
Food Chain received critical acclaim as one of the best episodes of the series, was an official competition selection at Annecy ... "Adventure Time: Food Chain (TV Episode 2014) - Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved April 27, 2021. "Devilman Crybaby (2019)". ... Sava, Oliver (June 12, 2014). "Adventure Time: Food Chain". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Archived from the original on August 13, ... Science SARU's first release was the Food Chain episode of the American animated series Adventure Time (2014); its most recent ...
Changing The Food Chain is a collaboration between Food Chain Workers Alliance and The Hand That Feeds. An online interactive ... Both The Food Chain Workers Alliance and the makers of the film recognise the importance of developing a more sustainable food ... Changing The Food Chain implores those that are interested in contributing to the cause to find an organisation near you, learn ... "Changing the Food Chain". Retrieved 2019-06-07. "Is Illegal Immigration a Crime? Improper Entry v. ...
... transferring it through the food chain. In laboratory tests for toxicity members of the oceanic coccolithophore genera ... Role in the food web[edit]. Satellite photograph: The milky blue colour of this phytoplankton bloom in Barents Sea strongly ... huxleyi an important part of the planktonic base of a large proportion of marine food webs. It is also the fastest growing ...
Yeutter, Clayton (October 2003). "Cancun: Now What?" (PDF). The Chain Letter. International Food and Agribusiness Management ... The development of what was to become the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 was largely influenced by ... and the global food supply. Yeutter, Clayton K. (March 24, 1992). "When 'Fairness' Isn't Fair". The New York Times. Yeutter, ... a high rate of bankruptcy among farmers prompted the federal government to provide unprecedented subsidies through the Food ...
The entire food chain benefitted. This is one reason that the Kissimmee River restoration is considered to be the largest true ... In 2006, the South Florida Water Management District had acquired enough land along the river and in the upper chain of lakes ...
The Food Chain (1993-94); Raised in Captivity (1996-97) Anne Washburn: Mr. Burns, a post-electric play (2011-12) Craig Wright: ... But Our Chains) created by The Second City Familiar by Danai Gurira Underground Railroad Game by Jennifer Kidwell and Scott R. ...
There are six main areas of activity: developing production; strengthening the organic food chain; developing domestic ... food chain development, and research and extension services". (Organic Europe -2012). Biodynamic and Organic Agriculture in ... training actors in the organic food chain; and adapting regulations. The EU rural development program that provides, " ... Most organic food sales in the domestic markets of the countries occur in major cities such as Buenos Aires, Mexico City and ...
The Food Chain Workers Alliance. "The Hands That Feed Us: Challenges and Opportunities for Workers Along the Food Chain." June ... 3. The Food Chain Workers Alliance has 17 members, 12 of which are workers centers that work with workers in the entire food ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) InterFaith Worker Justice National Day Labor Organizing Network The Food Chain Workers ... This is a great challenge in workplaces such as fast food jobs that suffer from high turnover, or in industries such as ...
Scott, Brian M. (October 2007). "Top of the Food Chain". Tropical Fish Hobbyist. Tropical Fish Hobbyist. Retrieved 9 August ...
Lee, Hyo-won (November 25, 2009). "Bae's Food Chain in Japan". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. ... He owns health food restaurant Gorilla in the Kitchen and high-end traditional Korean restaurant Gosire. As the most famous ...
He served as president of the American-based fast-food chain McDonald's from December 2002, and additionally as chief executive ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Fraser, Jane (18 January 2005). "Top of the food chain". The Australian. Archived from ... During Bell's short time as CEO of the company, its greatest problem was criticism of the healthiness of its food, which was ... Reed, Christopher (22 April 2004). "Burger king who revived chain with salads". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 ...
He began Food Chains in 2011, after witnessing the inequality in the fields of Florida. In March 2016, Rawal was thanked by the ... "Meet Your Food Chain (VIDEO)". Civil Eats. Retrieved 2014-06-12. "InterView Sanjay Rawal MAY2013". ... Rawal was a winner of the 2015 James Beard Foundation Award for Special/Documentary for Food Chains. The film itself shared the ... His first feature length film Food Chains premiered at the Berlin Film Festival in its Culinary Cinema Programme in 2014 and ...
"Cinema Chain Scraps Snack Ban". FindLaw Australia. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2016. "Cinema chain pulls food ban". ABC ... In 2011, Amalgamated sold its 49 per cent share of a cinema chain in the Middle East. The same year, its operations in ... 2010s: In 2010, Amalgamated bought a chain of cinemas in New Zealand and Fiji from Skycity Entertainment Group. The same year, ... Event Hospitality & Entertainment owns and operates some of its cinema chains as a joint venture with Village Roadshow. Their ...
Many restaurant chains are famous for serving inasal, like Bacolod Chicken Inasal and Mang Inasal, which originated in Iloilo ... List of spit-roasted foods. ReferencesEdit. *^ "Manokan Country". Unofficial Guide, Philippines. Retrieved March 22, 2018.. .mw ...
Food chain[edit]. Main article: food chain. A common metric used to quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. ... For example, human food webs, agricultural food webs, detrital food webs, marine food webs, aquatic food webs, soil food webs, ... Food chains are nested within the trophic links of food webs. Food chains are linear (noncyclic) feeding pathways that trace ... food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology"; Elton's 'food cycle' was replaced by 'food web' in a ...
"The Return on Investment for Ingenuity Pathways Analysis within the Pharmaceutical Value Chain", Zimmerman, Reeve, and Golden, ... US Food and Drug Administration adopts IPA to review pharmacogenomics submissions 2006 - Ingenuity enters into partnerships ... Life Science Insights, an IDC company, July 2004 "The U.S. Food and Drug Administration to use IPA in review of ...
Food industry *meat industry in Canada. *meat industry in the U.S. ... UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force (WHO). *COVID-19 Supply Council (Canada) ...
Scandium is known to have reached the food chain, but in trace amounts only; a typical human takes in less than 0.1 micrograms ...
Flexible packaging and food contact applicationsEdit. *Laminates containing metallized boPET foil (in technical language called ... The orientation of the polymer chains is responsible for the high strength and stiffness of biaxially oriented PET film, which ... The result is much less permeable to gases (important in food packaging) and reflects up to 99% of light, including much of the ... Examples are coffee "foil" packaging and pouches for convenience foods.. *White boPET web substrate is used as lidding for ...
Typically this refers to operations within a warehouse or distribution center, with broader tasks undertaken by supply chain ... Factory automation with KUKA industrial robots for palletizing food products like bread and toast at a bakery in Germany ... Software or cloud-based SaaS solutions are used for logistics automation which helps the supply chain industry in automating ... chain stores), or other companies (e.g. wholesalers). A logistics automation system may provide the following: *Automated goods ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... "This is the first time that all three countries - Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - have stopped the original chains of ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 20 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.. ...
Batches of eggs can look like a long chain or a ball of foam. They may wrap their eggs around plants in the water. They do this ... In the state of California, people must have a license to catch bullfrogs for food.[31]p256 In schools, bullfrogs are dissected ... Bullfrog legs are a source of food for Southern United States and the Midwestern United States.[29] People hunt bullfrogs at ... They eat other tadpoles if food is nowhere to be found. The eggs of the spadefoot toad hatches in three days. Their tadpoles ...
It is thought that wild foods can have a significantly different nutritional profile than cultivated foods.[117] The greater ... "Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic" (PDF). World Rev Nutr Diet: 12-23. doi ... Efraim Lev; Mordechai E. Kislev; Ofer Bar-Yosef (March 2005). "Mousterian vegetal food in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel". Journal of ... A modern-day diet known as the Paleolithic diet exists, based on restricting consumption to the foods presumed to be available ...
... gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and ... food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel."[44] ...
It supplied food to the population during famine and distributed food to the poor. This welfare system the church funded ... Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Nutrition science (theoretical focus) and dietetics (practical focus) is the study of the relationship of food and drink to ...
According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink; in Munsee it is Wool-as- ... The Iroquois added the Lenape to the Covenant Chain in 1676; the Lenape were tributary to the Five Nations (later Six) until ... One big cultural change occurred during the Beaver Wars-instead of honor raids for bragging rights by stealing cattle, food ... "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, and "wolf" is tëme.[12][a] ...
According to a survey conducted by pub and bar trade magazine The Publican, the anticipated increase in sales of food following ... Since smoking is banned in Baden-Württemberg in all public rooms where food or drinks are served for consumption on the spot, ... The trade magazine's survey of 303 pubs in the United Kingdom found the average customer spent £14.86 on food and drink at ... cleanliness in places where food, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, or precision instruments and machinery are produced; ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... or through food.[7] Diagnosis is based upon a combination of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for ... LYMErix was approved on the basis of these trials by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 21 December 1998. ...
According to one source, in medieval times nuns used the night of 6 December to deposit baskets of food and clothes anonymously ... "Saint Nicholas in Chains", was built on the site of a former municipal prison.[58] Stories quickly developed about Nicholas ... and they free him from his chains and restore his vestments.[48][54] The scene of Nicholas slapping Arius is celebrated in ... released them from their chains, and angrily chastised a juror who had accepted a bribe.[41] According to Jona Lendering, this ...
Quote: "banda, Bound, fastened, fixed, chained, contained, shut up, a servant, slave, bondman, domestic (...)" ... gathering wild foods and growing crops.[1] During times of crisis, to resist slave raids and to respond to wars, the Banda ...
A carnival-like atmosphere arose around the area, with vendors selling food, balloons, and T-shirts to visitors. The city of ... It is nestled among the Winter Park Chain of Lakes, a series of lakes interconnected by a series of navigable canals, which ...
"Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, United States National Academies. 11 February 2004. Archived from the original ... The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain.[139] ... most of it comes from processed foods.[226] The Dietary Reference Intake for sodium is 1.5 grams per day,[227] but most people ... with chalcogen ions containing chains of the chalcogen atoms in question. For example, sodium can react with sulfur to form the ...
A few 18th Century roads, including the ferry road or Palmer Turnpike from Brooklyn to Jamaica, passed through the chain of ... City Line is home to many restaurants, shopping stores, and food markets. ... At the northern edge of what is now East New York, a chain of hills, geologically a terminal moraine, separates northwestern ...
Given food selects the haplotype now, might food have also positively selected the haplotype in the past. During the early ... Starting from B8, immediately followed by the MICA and MICB which stand for MHC I-like chain A and B. These two functional ... period of European settlement, what remains of coastal settlements suggests a high marine-based food calorie intake, and, in ...
... via supplements or in food) is useful to treat cancer[31] or any disease.[2][32] The US Food and Drug Administration has issued ... chemical substructure that stops oxidation by acting as a scavenger of free radicals that are responsible for oxidative chain ... "review). Food & Function. 2 (5): 235-44. doi:10.1039/c1fo10025d. PMC 4122511. PMID 21779561.. ... Formica JV, Regelson W (1995). "Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 33 ...
Triathlon handlebar, Trek carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels,[31] chain on a 55/14 gear ratio.[32]. First attempt under the ... Attempt voided for doping, after Madsen's consumption of a contaminated food supplement. ... Triathlon handlebar, BMC carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels, chain on a 56/14 gear ratio.[36]. Beat Jack Bobridge's ... Triathlon handlebar, SCOTT carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels, chain on a 55/13 gear ratio.[32]. Set new Austrian national ...
... showed his McDonald's-themed artwork-inspired by his belief about the effect of fast food franchises and restaurant chains on ... the obese fast-food mascot featured in the movie Super Size Me, and Abraham Obama, the fusion of America's 16th and 44th ...
"Donor Turns Fast Food Into Big Bucks For Hospital". The New York Times. 1995-12-08. Retrieved 2010-05-24.. ... In 2007, Chili's restaurant chain pledged $50 million to fund the construction of the seven-story Chili's Care Center, adding ...
High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are high in the food chain. They have large reserves of ... more so for toothed whales as they are higher up the food chain than baleen whales. Lactating mothers can pass the toxins on to ... "Persistent organic pollutants in the marine food chain". United Nations University. Retrieved 16 August 2013.. ... Mysticetes contain a proventriculus as an extension of the oesophagus; this contains stones that grind up food. They also have ...
"Blue Food Dye Treats Spine Injury in Rats". 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2010-01-19.. ... and basic side chains (lysine, arginine and histidine), allows Bradford assay to be used for fingerprint analysis. Bradford ...
When the prey's food resources disappear, they starve and may go extinct as well. If the prey species is herbivorous, then ... No longer having food to eat, the sea urchins populations became locally extinct as well. Also, since kelp forest ecosystems ... The prey is then able to overexploit its own food resources, until the population numbers decrease in abundance, which can lead ... The sea urchins then overexploited their main food source, kelp, creating urchin barrens where no life exists. ...
Sang Ki Rhee; Alexander Steinbüchel (2005). Polysaccharides and Polyamides in the Food Industry: Properties, Production, and ... This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule, so the chains begin to separate into an amorphous form. This prepares the ... Its major uses in commercially prepared food products are as a thickener, sweetener, and humectant (an ingredient that retains ... Glucose syrup is used in foods to sweeten, soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into ...
The links of the manipulator can be considered to form a kinematic chain. The terminus of the kinematic chain of the ... Factory Automation with industrial robots for palletizing food products like bread and toast at a bakery in Germany. ...
The Food Chain provides nutrition services including home delivered meals, essential groceries and nutrition advice to men, ... The Food Chain provides nutrition services including home delivered meals, essential groceries and nutrition advice to men, ... The Food Chain provides nutrition services including home delivered meals, essential groceries and nutrition advice to men, ... The Food Chain. London, United Kingdom. , Share. ...
Radioactive materials spewed into the air by Japans earthquake-crippled nuclear plant may contaminate food and water resources ... Asian countries like Thailand, South Korea and Singapore have begun checking Japanese food products for traces of radiation. ... Radioactive materials spewed into the air by Japans earthquake-crippled nuclear plant may contaminate food and water resources ...
Food-safety scandals highlight both the collapse of business ethics and Beijings failure to keep pace with an expanding market ... Chinas Corrupt Food Chain. By YANZHONG HUANG. AUG. 17, 2012. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue reading ... Chinas food-safety problems highlight both the collapse of the countrys business ethics and the failure of government ... And the Food Safety Law, combined with various recent rounds of administrative restructuring, has further fragmented the ...
... has many programs that support business entities involved in the food chain, including farmers markets and food hubs. For ... The reality is that food can go through a lot of steps to reach the consumer. Before it is served on the table, food travels ... Food Value Chains Kansas City KYF2 local food Louisiana Missouri Producers Ranchers regional food Rural Economy small farmers ... Food Value Chains: Creating Shared Value to Enhance Marketing Success. The report provides an overview of how food value chains ...
... officials from the Marine Mammal Center released a fully rehabilitated sea otter back into the food chain Tuesday. ... officials from the Marine Mammal Center released a fully rehabilitated sea otter back into the food chain Tuesday. "After many ... creatures a second chance at briefly occupying a middle rung in a progression of consumption where they serve as a primary food ...
... and food chain The terms food chain and food web both refer to groups of organisms that are dependent on each other for food. A ... Source for information on Food Web and Food Chain: UXL Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... food chain is a single series of organisms in which each plant or animal depends on the organism above or below it. ... Food web and food chain. The terms food chain and food web both refer to groups of organisms that are dependent on each other ...
... Observe simulation of altering a food chain. What happens when you remove an organism from a food ... I thought this was a great activity to show them if one organism is taken out the rest of the food chain falls apart. ... In my class the students have been having trouble reconinzing how important each organism is to a food chain. My sixth graders ... Analysis of Food to Check for Genetic Modification by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ...
Short food supply chains in Europes south. Download PDF The concept of short food supply chains (SFSC), where intermediaries ... Climate change and the food chain. Download PDF The European food and drink industry can boast a healthy track record in ... seems determined to increase the ambition on a new integrated food strategy that will involve the entire food supply chain, ... Brave new food world. Download PDF At the dawn of a new legislative term, Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen ...
Climate change hits base of food chain. GLOBAL warming could be driving the North Sea ecosystem to the brink of collapse. That ... which in turn is having a profound impact on the food chain. ... are eating plastic and spreading it to new food chains. ...
The Food Chain. Coronavirus: Where did all the food go?. The impact of stockpiling and lockdown on the global food supply chain ... The Food Chain. Why are people putting chemicals in our food?. Three food scientists tell us how they manipulate flavour, shelf ... The Food Chain - Foraging: Pleasure or profit? - BBC Sounds. The Food Chain ... The Food Chain. The end of the road for street food?. Why a much-loved and much-needed part of life in South East Asia is under ...
Whitbread has snapped up a 49pc stake in an upmarket London food chain as part of a new strategy to expand the business and tap ... Whitbread has snapped up a 49pc stake in an upmarket London food chain as part of a new strategy to expand the business and tap ...
Agent Orange sprayed by the United States during the Vietnam War has contaminated the countrys food chain, creating serious ... Vietnam Study Finds Dioxin in Food Chain. Asia: Agent Orange defoliant used by U.S. in war has created environmental and health ... HANOI - Agent Orange sprayed by the United States during the Vietnam War has contaminated the countrys food chain, creating ... indicating that contaminants are being transferred through the food chain. Dioxin is also found in high levels in fish and ...
Food supply chain management. [Michael A Bourlakis; Paul W H Weightman;] -- Food Supply Chain Management brings together the ... to support those who manage parts of the chain and to enhance ... ... disciplines and aims to provide an understanding of the chain, ... The US Food Supply Chain: J. R. Stock. 15. The Future of the Food Supply Chain Management: C. Bourlakis and M. Bourlakis. Index ... 2. The Food Consumer and the Supply Chain: D. Marshall. 3. Perceived Risk and Product Safety in the Food Supply Chain: M. ...
Food chains are an interesting and important subject to understand about the world around us. A food chain is an idea developed ... When talking about the real world, it is more common to think of food webs. Food chains are still an important concept to ... Re: What is a food chain?. Date: Thu Mar 5 12:15:33 1998. Posted By: Tim Susman, Staff Zoology, University of Minnesota, St. ... in the chain affects everything in the chain. The first link in the chain, the plant, is called the producer, while all the ...
Finally, it identifies contemporary opportunities and challenges for risk governance in agri-food chain. ... First, it specifies the diverse (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy etc.) type of agri-food risks, and the ( ... New Institutional Economics and presents a comprehensive framework for analyzing the risk management in agri-food sector. ... "Managing Food Chain Risks: Integrating Technical and Stakeholder Perspectives on Uncertainty," Journal of Agricultural ...
... the entire ocean food chain depends on them. The Guardian notes:. They are the foundations of the ocean food chain, ultimately ... Phytoplankton in decline: bye bye food chain?:. This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I have joined your ... Phytoplankton in decline: bye bye food chain?:. All the money is going to the Corporations and Top 1%, Thats the REAL problem ... Phytoplankton in decline: bye bye food chain?:. Thanks for taking the time to write this article. It is always good to ...
... The Food Chain ... The Food Chain. How to enjoy eating with your own children. Three parents explain how they persuaded their children to behave ... The Food Chain. Plundering the planet under cover of coronavirus. The animals and forests being used for survival and profit in ... The Food Chain. Selassie Atadika: My life in five dishes. The humanitarian aid worker-turned chef trying to empower a continent ...
Pages in category "Fast-food chains of Indonesia". The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. This list may ... Retrieved from "" ...
Title: FOOD CHAIN 5A, Author: orixe ikastola, Length: 4 pages, Published: 2012-01-17 ... FOOD CHAIN 5A by orixe ikastola What do animals eat? Black Panther´s food chain This is a panther. It eats anteaters and meat. ... What do animals eat? Black Panther´s food chain This is a panther. It eats anteaters and meat. The anteater eats ants. Ants eat ...
... microscopic zooplankton are declining with serious ramifications for the regions food chain. ... Without the ice algae, zooplankton may starve, and that means the whole Arctic food chain could eventually collapse. ... On thin ice: Disappearing zooplankton could collapse Arctic food chain. By Gloria Dickie, Arctic Deeply ... like the large copepods Calanus borealis and Calanus glacialis that are excellent at transferring energy up the food chain. ...
From free food and beverages on your birthday to points that can be used towards future purchases, these rewards programs will ... If you love popular food chains like Starbucks, Chick-fil-A, and Domino's Pizza, you're missing out if you haven&apos ... If you regularly eat at fast food chains, you could save some serious cash by joining their rewards programs. ... Heres the easiest way to get free food at 10 of your favorite fast food restaurants. Madeline Diamond ...
... food companies need to acknowledge the large numbers of migrant workers in their supply chains - both on farms and in food- ... Three areas in which food companies need to step up their game are recruitment, tracing their supply chains to the level of ... Food companies have complex and fragmented supply chains, which creates challenges for oversight. The benchmark found that ... Competition within the global food industry means many rely on cheap labor on farms and in food-processing factories. Migrant ...
... Show access keys Access keys and links (PC - ALT + number; Mac - ALT + CTRL + ... Functional food ingredients from agricultural products: Professor Bob Rastall *Determinants of food quality : Professor Don ... Animal nutrition, food composition and health: Professor Ian Givens *Health benefits and horticultural crops : Professor Philip ... Biomolecular interactions and food function : Dr. Richard Frazier *Plant genotype and environment interactions contributing to ...
Asian-food version of Chipotle,/a,.,/b, Yeah, apparently its coming. ... Chipotle Developing an Asian Fast-Food Chain?. Imagine Asian-food version of Chipotle. Yeah, apparently its coming. ...
Climate change may be weeding out the bacteria that form the base of the oceans food chain. Full Story ...
... makes food traceability possible, tracking products through all points of the food supply chain for safety and authenticity. ... Blockchain in the food supply chain. IBM Food Trust™ makes food traceability possible, tracking products through all points of ... Building resilient food supply chains in the face of COVID-19. In the midst of one of the most widespread pandemics in recent ... Recalls caused by E. Coli outbreaks and other food safety issues are disruptive and expensive to the food […] ...
Food chains, along with food webs and food networks, describe the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community. ... A food web or food network extends the food chain concept from a simple linear pathway to a complex network of interactions. ... Food chain. A food chain describes a single pathway that energy and nutrients may follow in an ecosystem. There is one organism ... Food chains are overly simplistic as representatives of what typically happens in nature. The food chain shows only one pathway ...
The supply chain to get food from producer to table is a long, complex one. One of the most critical participants in the chain ... Food is one of the most prominent vector to capture human beings and leading to grave from centuries. Food terrorism means the ... Food Defense System, A Compact Strategy To Combat Global Food Terrorism Issue. ... food companies need to acknowledge the large numbers of migrant workers in their supply chains -… Read More ...
Name different Foods and food-related items Just take the last letter of the (food)word and make a new one ... ex. Bread ... Food Chain game ok i took this from another forum and it sounds fun. Heres an easy game .... Name different Foods and food- ... Just take the last letter of the (food)word and make a new one .... ex.. Bread. Doughnut. tiramsu. etc.. I will start with ...
Mercury contamination through food chain. 2 of 2 Mercury contamination in the food chain ... The public health concerns come into play lower in the food chain, as many small mercury-contaminated animals are consumed by ... This is similar to the food chain contamination that prompts people to limit seafood intake out of concern for mercury ... it could create long-lasting problems for the food chain. ... Mercury found in California fog may threaten the food chain. * ...
  • At the dawn of a new legislative term, Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen seems determined to increase the ambition on a new integrated food strategy that will involve the entire food supply chain, from farm soils to supermarket shelves. (
  • The concept of short food supply chains (SFSC), where intermediaries between farmers and consumers are removed, was introduced in the 2014-2020 CAP and has risen in recent years. (
  • Food Supply Chain Management" brings together the most important of these disciplines and aims to provide an understanding of the chain, to support those who manage parts of the chain and to enhance the development of research activities in the discipline. (
  • Food Supply Chain Management" follows a 'farm to fork' structure. (
  • Special consideration is also given to supermarket supply networks, third party logistics, temperature controlled supply chains, organic foods and the U.S. food supply chain. (
  • A final chapter looks at the future for food supply chain management. (
  • 1. Introduction to the UK Food Supply Chain: M. Bourlakis and P. Weightman. (
  • 2. The Food Consumer and the Supply Chain: D. Marshall. (
  • 3. Perceived Risk and Product Safety in the Food Supply Chain: M. Brennan and S. Kuznesof. (
  • 10. New Product Development and Information Technology in Food Supply Chain Management: The Case of Tesco: M. Francis. (
  • 11. Third Party Logistics in the Food Supply Chain: A. C. McKinnon. (
  • 12. Temperature Controlled Supply Chains: D. Smith and L. Sparks. (
  • 14. The US Food Supply Chain: J. R. Stock. (
  • In this context, and amid rising anti-immigration-rhetoric, food companies need to acknowledge the large numbers of migrant workers in their supply chains - both on farms and in food-processing - and the specific vulnerabilities they face. (
  • A new benchmark by KnowTheChain of the world's 20 largest food companies has found that while they are aware of the risks of forced labor through their supply chains, only a handful are taking action to address it. (
  • Three areas in which food companies need to step up their game are recruitment, tracing their supply chains to the level of commodities, and worker voice. (
  • Food companies have complex and fragmented supply chains, which creates challenges for oversight. (
  • The benchmark found that while several companies have begun to trace their supply chains - an important step in identifying the risks of forced labor - this so far tends to be limited in scope to high-profile commodities such as palm oil and sugar. (
  • The industry has a responsibility to recognize migrant workers in their supply chain and treat them as more than a cheap supply of labor, taking practical steps to prevent them from being trapped in modern slavery. (
  • IBM Food Trust™ makes food traceability possible, tracking products through all points of the food supply chain for safety and authenticity. (
  • The supply chain to get food from producer to table is a long, complex one. (
  • NEW DELHI-Two weeks into the world's biggest lockdown, India's food supply chain is struggling with a shortage of one of its crucial commodities: people. (
  • The food supply chain ensures that food and drink products are delivered to the public. (
  • The final price paid by the consumer is impacted by the number of participants in the food supply chain. (
  • While the single market has brought benefits to operators in the supply chain through more market opportunities and a larger customer base, it has also brought challenges. (
  • To strengthen the position of smaller operators (farmers) in the food supply chain, in April 2018 the European Commission proposed a new directive on unfair trading practices. (
  • FDA's new import tool kit will have a huge impact on food safety, given that an estimated 15 percent of the US food supply is imported, including 60 percent of fresh fruits and vegetables and 80 percent of seafood," wrote Commissioner of Food and Drugs Margaret Hamburg , on the White House blog. (
  • Gould joins FoodChain ID as the company expands its portfolio with the addition of USDA NOP Organic certification for U.S. companies in response to the industry's growing need for integrated solutions like the company's SupplyTrak® software - already the leading compliance and supply chain solution for Non-GMO Project Verification. (
  • Client input was instrumental in development of the organic integration into FoodChain ID's SupplyTrak® supply-chain compliance software, which goes far beyond an electronic paper trail. (
  • FoodChain ID, formerly known as Global ID Group, has 20+ years offering specialized services for the food, beverage, ingredient and food commodity (i.e. grain) industries, spanning the entire food supply chain. (
  • FoodChain ID's services offer clients across the entire food supply chain higher levels of transparency, safety and sustainability. (
  • Mercury is a huge problem in the food supply. (
  • This report looks at the feasibility of blockchain in commercial food supply chains and the considerations to undertake blockchain exploration. (
  • In general, companies do not know enough about the products that they buy and sell to navigate the many complex challenges facing today's global supply chains (e.g., safe, sustainable and ethical). (
  • More can be done to equip companies with real-time traceability of products within global food supply chains. (
  • Blockchain, a type of distributed ledger technology (DLT), has been increasingly gaining market traction in supply chains-for example, in proofing product provenance and implementing track-and-trace of products through the supply chain. (
  • Four commodities were selected for their clarity in start and end points, clarity of blockchain objectives, consistent data definitions and data availability, and integration within the supply chain. (
  • Actions to mitigate the potential for the food supply chain to act as a conduit from the myriad environmental sources of antimicrobial resistance to the public health problems of antimicrobial resistant infections in people generally focus on two areas. (
  • In the presentation of their recent research to the first side event at CCAFRICA23, Professor Alex Hughes (above) of Newcastle University, UK and Dr Emma Roe (right) of University of Southampton, UK challenged us to think more about the 'hidden middle' of the food supply chain in food processing, wholesale and logistics. (
  • They pointed to insights that might be generated from geography, economics and the social sciences into opportunities for impactful interventions to counter the flows of antimicrobial resistance through global food supply chains. (
  • Leading companies operating in the global food supply chain are underestimating key environmental risks, proritising small-scale product innovations while ignoring opportunities to create a more sustainable. (
  • As much as 1.9 million tonnes of food is still being wasted in the UK grocery supply chain every year, despite recent improvements in waste prevention and redistribution efforts across the sector, according. (
  • According to Ulster University's Economic Policy Centre, companies operating in Northern Ireland's agri-food sector could be among the most vulnerable when it comes to any future Brexit deal between the UK and the European Union, because of the "level of North-South trade and the integrated nature of supply chains on the island" of Ireland. (
  • Currently several use cases have been developed on the provenance and traceability of food products across the supply chain. (
  • As global supply chains share data across multiple nodes, risk exposure is compounded by an emerging cyber security threat for which very few are set manage. (
  • Amid all this, insatiable customer expectations for greater speed and transparency - whether shipping B2B or B2C - means supply chain failure can be fatal. (
  • But, get it right, and supply chain is a huge driver of growth for your business. (
  • So, how can you mitigate supply chain risk, while integrating people, assets and technology to build the foundations for data-driven, cognitively intelligent supply chains with end-to-end visibility? (
  • Find out, at Supply Chain USA 2020. (
  • As food companies begin their technology journeys into the New Era of Smarter Food Safety, it is worth considering the implementation of a real-time supply chain temperature monitoring and visibility tool. (
  • WFP's supply chain manages the entire process of end-to-end planning, procuring and delivering food assistance. (
  • Check out this factsheet to see the latest facts and figures of WFP's supply chain operations in 2016. (
  • A group of companies across the global food supply chain will be adopting IBM's blockchain technology in a bid to prevent contaminated food from reaching consumers. (
  • In the case of the global food supply chain, all participants -- growers, suppliers, processors, distributors, retailers, regulators, and consumers -- can gain permissioned access to known and trusted information regarding the origin and state of food for their transactions. (
  • IBM and shipping giant Maersk also partnered recently to use blockchain technology to conduct, manage, and track transactions in the shipping supply chain . (
  • Since trading of packaged foods began, various types of supply chain management and logistics have orchestrated the flow of packaged foods from one location to another. (
  • The recent food crisis and the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 demonstrated that a value chain approach to focus on the consumer value of packaged food is essential to complement food supply chain management. (
  • Supply chain logistics have been augmented by the value chain, which pulls through consumer and market demands. (
  • In contrast, the food supply chain is led by supply and defines packaged food logistics from suppliers to consumers. (
  • Value chain thinking has evolved from a linear model to a more circular integrated model that aligns supply chain entities with the common thread of bringing specific value to consumers. (
  • The relationships between the supply chain entities and an expanded network that has common priorities, measurement systems, and activities are the core of the value chain. (
  • Links of the food supply chain are regaining strength after periods of uncertainty during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, instilling consumer confidence, according to Texas A&M AgriLife experts. (
  • Fearne, A., Hornibrook, S. and Dedman, S. (2001) The management of perceived risk in the food supply chain: a comparative study of retailer led beef quality assurance schemes in Germany and Italy. (
  • Aruoma, O.I. (2006) The impact of food regulation on the food supply Chain. (
  • Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 2010, 425-443. (
  • Ensuring safe and sustainable food across the supply chain. (
  • Our large global team of food and drink sector auditors work with businesses across the supply chain to independently assess food production and manufacturing systems, procedures and operations against industry standards including those aligned by GFSI. (
  • These 2nd party services can give insight into complex supply chains, capturing data and pinpointing potential issues so that businesses can manage risk and identify opportunities for improvement. (
  • Delays in supply chain, shorter fulfillment schedules, as well as extended processing from USPS have forced these delays for the time being. (
  • As rival Impossible Foods deals with supply shortages of its plant-based burgers, Beyond Meat said Thursday that it has the capacity to take on any restaurant chain. (
  • Governments all over the world have made attempts to ensure availability of staple foods and these supply chains have generally held up well, even in countries with strict social distancing requirements. (
  • But food supply chains differ across countries and crops, as do the impacts of COVID-19 on supplies. (
  • These food value chains have shown more supply disruptions owing to the risk of disease transmission, labor shortages, and disruptions in transportation and logistics. (
  • Globally, more than 30 % of all food that is produced is ultimately lost and/or wasted through inefficiencies in the food supply chain. (
  • In contrast, in the developing world the bulk of lost food occurs in the early stages of the supply chain (production, harvesting and distribution). (
  • Here, we examine the challenges of robust quantification of food wastage and consumption inefficiencies, and their associated greenhouse gas emissions, along the supply chain. (
  • Bourne M (1977) Post harvest food losses-the neglected dimension in increasing the world food supply. (
  • 1WorldSync, the leading multi-enterprise product information network, and FoodLogiQ, the leading food safety, traceability and sustainability software as a service company, announced today that they have partnered to provide the entire spectrum of the food supply industry with a supply chain traceability solution that delivers transparency while tackling food safety and compliance issues. (
  • The foodservice industry is under intense pressure for complete and accurate product information as it relates to consumer safety and the growing use of web-based platforms in the foodservice supply chain. (
  • FoodLogiQ Connect, the leading software as a service food traceability software, will leverage 1WorldSync's suite of tools that provide data validity, quality, and intelligence while enabling customers to maintain a seamless connection with trading partners to make sure accurate, complete product information is flowing through the supply chain at all times. (
  • Food industry trends are changing fast-sometimes faster than what you and your supply chain can keep up with. (
  • 1WorldSync's product information and fresh industry solutions coupled with FoodLogiQ's track/traceability and supply chain management capabilities allows the fresh industry an opportunity to be fully engaged in global product information sharing. (
  • FoodLogiQ Connect is an online supplier community used by food companies to manage quality, safety, compliance and traceability across their supply chains. (
  • FoodLogiQ® provides traceability, food safety compliance and supply chain transparency software solutions. (
  • We help restaurant operators, food retailers, consumer packaged goods companies and other food companies achieve end-to-end traceability while supporting safe and high quality food products across the supply chain. (
  • To meet mounting regulatory requirements and consumer demands for transparency, food companies are leveraging FoodLogiQ Connect to achieve end-to-end traceability for their supply chain, validate supplier compliance with food safety and sustainability standards, and act with confidence in the event of a food safety or quality issue. (
  • Management of the Food & Beverage Supply Chain: cost or opportunity? (
  • DNV GL - Business Assurance and GFK Eurisko carried out a survey on the management of the Food & Beverage supply chain. (
  • From farm to table, freezing temperatures and power outages are crippling the supply chain that people rely on for food every day. (
  • SPECIAL REPORT / As the agricultural sector faces mounting pressure to raise production, consumer trust in the safety of the food supply chain has been eroding, a European Commission official warned. (
  • But this was no surprise to Jorgo Riss, the director of Greenpeace Europe, who said the entire food supply system is flawed. (
  • And as new production technologies become available - like GMOs or cloning -, maintaining consumer trust in the food supply chain could become a bigger challenge. (
  • NEW YORK , Jan. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- 108th NRF Big Show and EXPO -- Retail giant Carrefour has chosen SAS ® Viya ® to optimize its supply chain as part of the company's global transformation plan to better meet customer expectations through advanced technologies. (
  • The deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) to optimize the supply chain is a first for the French retail sector. (
  • The SAS Viya deployment will allow us to take a step forward in our supply chain optimization. (
  • In support of agribusiness professionals, community planners, and researchers who are strategizing for a new way to market and deliver agricultural products, AMS and the Wallace Center of Winrock International , recently produced a new report, Food Value Chains: Creating Shared Value to Enhance Marketing Success . (
  • The report provides an overview of how food value chains are initiated, structured, how they function and the business advantages and challenges of this approach. (
  • To help businesses find new ways to market and deliver agricultural products, AMS recently produced the publication Food Value Chains: Creating Shared Value to Enhance Marketing Success. (
  • Gould is currently winding up a seven-year term as senior facilitator for IFOAM - Organics International, where he has been instrumental in elaborating on best practices in agriculture and its value chains, and developing the forward trajectory of the organic movement. (
  • Reward systems in companies with reliable packaging value chains are agile and adjust to each type of achievement. (
  • Organisations are striding to meet a variety of sustainability goals, such as lowering your carbon footprint and improving working conditions across value chains. (
  • Capital-intensive food value chains that are highly mechanized (predominant in rich countries for staple crops such as wheat, maize and soybeans) have continued functioning with few disruptions. (
  • In this model, a commitment to transparency, working together and providing fair returns to all partners is combined with a shared focus on producing and delivering food with attached environmental or social values. (
  • This series collects together articles published across BioMed Central's journals exploring the issue of food safety and transparency within the context of a global food chain. (
  • A blockchain empowered food chain will have high level of transparency, traceability, trust and lower level of fraud. (
  • Adrie J. (2005) Food safety and transparency in food chains and networks. (
  • From the customer demand for transparency to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's mandate for better processes, traceability is no longer just a nice-to-have asset. (
  • Guo Zhun, director of local NGO Nature's Friend Ecological Protection Association's food safety department, urged more transparency in production. (
  • Finally, it identifies contemporary opportunities and challenges for risk governance in agri-food chain. (
  • Risk Management in Agri-food Chain ," MPRA Paper 39594, University Library of Munich, Germany. (
  • THURSDAY, Dec. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Fast food gets a lot of blame for rising obesity rates, but meals at chain restaurants contain even more calories, two new international studies show. (
  • Domino's is the only chain that is even close, estimated to grow sales roughly 12% in 2018. (
  • It's always sad to say goodbye to an animal we've spent so much time caring for, but that's ultimately why we're here-to give these creatures a second chance at briefly occupying a middle rung in a progression of consumption where they serve as a primary food source for a higher organism. (
  • A food chain is a single series of organisms in which each plant or animal depends on the organism above or below it. (
  • An organism that makes its own food. (
  • What happens when you remove an organism from a food chain? (
  • In my class the students have been having trouble reconinzing how important each organism is to a food chain. (
  • I thought this was a great activity to show them if one organism is taken out the rest of the food chain falls apart. (
  • That is, if one organism is a source of food energy and material for another organism, there is an arrow pointing from the source organism to the recipient organism. (
  • A heterotroph is an organism that is incapable of making its own food from light or inorganic compounds, and feeds on organisms or the remains of other organisms to get its necessary energy to survive. (
  • The position an organism occupies in a food chain is known as its trophic level . (
  • food-chain The transfer of energy from the primary producers (green plants) through a series of organisms that eat and are eaten, assuming that each organism feeds on only one other type of organism (e.g. earthworm → blackbird → sparrowhawk). (
  • All organisms in a food chain, except the first organism, are consumers. (
  • A food chain also represents a series of events and consumption in which food and energy are consumed from one organism in an ecosystem to another. (
  • Once we have identified the full extent of the problem in pigs our future work may include screening other food animals such as cattle to work out where else this organism might be," says Dr Murphy. (
  • Within the food web, carnivores and omnivores can be on any higher trophic levels. (
  • Because energy is lost with each step up the food chain, the higher trophic levels have fewer individuals. (
  • Production at the base of the food chain limits population size of higher trophic levels through bottom-up control . (
  • A food chain describes a single pathway that energy and nutrients follow in an ecosystem, while a food web describes a complex network of interactions. (
  • A food chain describes a single pathway that energy and nutrients may follow in an ecosystem. (
  • Food sources of most species in an ecosystem are much more diverse, resulting in a complex web of relationships as shown in the figure on the right. (
  • In this ecosystem consisting of hawks, snakes, rabbits and grass, the population of each species can be studied as part of a food chain. (
  • Ecologists have formulated and tested hypotheses regarding the nature of ecological patterns associated with food chain length, such as increasing length increasing with ecosystem size, reduction of energy at each successive level, or the proposition that long food chain lengths are unstable. (
  • In any ecosystem, many food chains overlap. (
  • This paper applied the safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish reliability allocation model for cold chain systems, designed optimization algorithms, and made a case analysis. (
  • By applying system reliability allocation principle, this article firstly built safety reliability allocation model of food cold chain logistics system without cost constraint based on the safety reliability model of food cold chain logistics system, and then it set up optimal decision- making model of food cold chain logistics system with cost constraint using the functional relationship between the time, temperature of cold chain logistics and logistics costs. (
  • Zou, Y.F., Xie, R.H. and Lin C.P. (2010) Study on safety reliability of foods cold chain logistics. (
  • Food webs are organized into three main categories, depending on the kinds of organisms they contain. (
  • Food webs are, of course, collections of organisms. (
  • When talking about the real world, it is more common to think of food webs . (
  • Food chains , along with food webs and food networks , describe the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community . (
  • Food chains and food webs reveal the balance, complexity, and harmony of the universe in the flow of nutrients and energy. (
  • These organisms are typically photosynthetic plants or algae , but in rare cases, such as those organisms forming the base of deep-sea vent food webs, the organisms can be chemotrophic. (
  • Top-down control in food chains or food webs limits the number of species on lower trophic levels through predation. (
  • I have adapted the Food Chain gizmo to include a discussion and exploration of food webs as well. (
  • Levels of a climate cooling gas will change as carbon dioxide increases, affecting food webs along the way, said Dr Michael Steinke at a Science Media Centre press briefing today. (
  • DMS plays an important role in oceanic food webs" said Dr Steinke. (
  • Many food webs have a keystone species. (
  • They are simplified abstractions of real food webs, but complex in their dynamics and mathematical implications. (
  • A customer picks up his order from a locker while others place their orders via touchscreen at a MUY restaurant, a Colombian fast food chain that is planning to turn its branches into automated restaurants, in Bogota, Colombia, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020. (
  • Food in 2020: What's trending for US shoppers? (
  • FoodChain ID, one of the world's leading food safety, testing and sustainability organizations, has named David Gould as Global Head of Sustainability Programs effective January 1, 2019. (
  • FoodChain ID, previously known as Global ID Group, provides integrated food safety, quality, and sustainability solutions that address the challenges and opportunities in the rapidly evolving food industry. (
  • We are a renowned, academic and independent research institute with many years of knowledge on sustainability measurement and improvement in Agri & Food. (
  • World-leading food safety, traceability and sustainability certification and assurance programs help ensure your business produces, manufactures and sells safe products to the highest standards, consistently. (
  • Independent assurance: helping you manage and identify food safety and sustainability risks. (
  • Managing Food Chain Risks: Integrating Technical and Stakeholder Perspectives on Uncertainty ," Journal of Agricultural Economics , Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 313-327, July. (
  • On World Health Day 2015, WHO/Europe estimates that levels of foodborne disease are much higher than currently reported and underlines the need for improved collaboration among sectors to lower the health risks associated with unsafe food. (
  • Our food chain is longer and more complex than ever before, and demographic, cultural, economic and environmental developments - globalized trade, travel and migration, an ageing population, changing consumer trends and habits, new technologies, emergencies, climate change and extreme weather events - are increasing foodborne health risks. (
  • The working programme, which was organised into four different modules, covered a wide range of aspects related to risk assessment including identification of emerging risks, risk prioritisation methods, scanning surveillance, food production exposure assessment and import risk assessment of animal and human infectious diseases. (
  • This allowed for significant opportunities to 'learn‐by‐doing' the methods and the techniques that are employed to assess animal health and food safety risks. (
  • Through the Food Chain Crisis Management Framework (FCC ) , FAO addresses the risks to the human food chain through a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and institution-wide collaborative approach. (
  • Risks management studies in the agri-food sector predominately focus on the technical methods and the capability to perceive, prevent, mitigate, and recover from diverse risks. (
  • Risks and Risk Management in Agri-food Chains ," Journal of Economics Bibliography , KSP Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 312-357, June. (
  • The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation commissioned Accenture to explore the feasibility of blockchain across four commodities in the food sector. (
  • The commercial food industry is exploring the collaborative potential for enhancing workflows by using blockchain. (
  • Recent blockchain trials in food traceability are promising but it is still early. (
  • A blockchain-ready food chain is a food chain of which data (ideally machine generated) on food products and processes can be fed into and empowered by the blockchain technology (BCT). (
  • Blockchain technology is now on the radar of all mayor players in the food chain. (
  • At Wageningen University & Research we recognize the potential of blockchain technology as a powerful enabler of transparent and fair food systems. (
  • IBM has announced a partnership with Walmart, Nestlé, Unilever, and others that will see the consortium adopt the tech giant's blockchain solution to prevent food contamination. (
  • Contamination can occur at any point along the chain-during production, processing, distribution, or preparation. (
  • Once contamination occurs, further mishandling, such as undercooking the food or leaving it out on the counter at an unsafe temperature, can make a foodborne illness more likely. (
  • This is similar to the food chain contamination that prompts people to limit seafood intake out of concern for mercury poisoning. (
  • What are some common causes of food contamination? (
  • IBM said that many of the critical issues impacting food safety such as cross-contamination, the spread of food-borne illness, unnecessary waste, and the economic burden of recalls, are magnified by lack of access to information and traceability. (
  • In practice, many animals feed at several different trophic levels, resulting in a more complex set of feeding relationships known as a food web . (
  • At each stage much energy is lost as heat, a fact that usually limits the number of steps ( trophic levels ) in the chain to four or five. (
  • Each level of a food chain represents a different trophic level. (
  • A common metric used to quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. (
  • In its simplest form, the length of a chain is the number of links between a trophic consumer and the base of the web. (
  • The length of a food chain is a continuous variable providing a measure of the passage of energy and an index of ecological structure that increases through the linkages from the lowest to the highest trophic (feeding) levels. (
  • Food chains are directional paths of trophic energy or, equivalently, sequences of links that start with basal species, such as producers or fine organic matter, and end with consumer organisms. (
  • The biggest food scandal in recent years broke in 2013, when frozen beef lasagna packages in the UK were found containing up to 100% horsemeat, prompting calls for better traceability of food and more transparent labelling of products. (
  • Amid growing public discontent the Chinese government enacted the Food Safety Law. (
  • Our findings provide scientific support to what is known about the use of antibiotics in the food-animal sector amid a lack of a properly enacted antibiotics policy in this country," said Niyaz Ahmed, a senior author on the paper, which was published on 4 November in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology , in an e-mail. (
  • SINGAPORE (Reuters) - Radioactive materials spewed into the air by Japan's earthquake-crippled nuclear plant may contaminate food and water resources, with children and unborn babies most at risk of possibly developing cancer. (
  • If germs contaminate surfaces used for food processing, such as a processing line or storage bins, germs can spread to foods that touch those surfaces. (
  • Hard to spot and harder to collect, they can seriously harm marine wildlife and are believed to pose a significant risk to human health as they move through the food chain and contaminate water supplies. (
  • Without the ice algae, zooplankton may starve, and that means the whole Arctic food chain could eventually collapse. (
  • However, these species aren't as fatty or as long-lived as dominant Arctic species, like the large copepods Calanus borealis and Calanus glacialis that are excellent at transferring energy up the food chain. (
  • Beluga whales live near the top of the food chain in the Arctic ocean. (
  • It took some haggling, but when the world's best-known fast-food corporation came to New Hyde Park, it did--and has continued to do--its best to fit in with the town's character in a way many fast-food restaurants haven't. (
  • We help thousands of food sector organizations, from the world's best known brands to the smallest of suppliers. (
  • Managerial Economics of Vertically Coordinated Agricultural Firms ," Occasional Papers 233087, Regional Research Project NC-194: Organization and Performance of World Food Systems. (
  • Of course, it needs to work and it is only in the starting phase, but rather about the organization of information flows among different stakeholders, it is about different ways of organizing trust and trust-relations within the chain. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, one in 10 people fall ill -- and 400,000 die -- due to contaminated food . (
  • Agricultural systems in emerging economies such as China and India have changed radically in recent years, becoming increasingly intensive in order to meet growing domestic and global demands for animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations said in a report on Wednesday. (
  • The average fast food worker salary in New York City is $11,000 a year, according to Fast Food Forward, the organization coordinating the protests in New York. (
  • Celia Cole, the CEO of hunger-relief organization Feeding Texas, said that so far, eight food banks have asked the state for extra help feeding their communities. (
  • With the global population expected to reach nine billion in 2050, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that production will have to increase by 70% to feed the planet. (
  • These business arrangements appeal to a growing number of today's consumers who want to know the story behind their food and want to support businesses with a social consciousness. (
  • Besides seeking fresh, flavorful and healthy food, many consumers want that food to deliver better returns to farmers, be grown sustainably and be sourced locally. (
  • Above the primary consumers, the food web fans out to include two other kinds of consumers. (
  • Other higher-level consumers are tertiary consumers or third-order consumers, and eat further up on the food web or perhaps on many levels. (
  • The first link in the chain, the plant, is called the producer , while all the links above it are called consumers . (
  • Indeed, all segments of the food chain, including consumers, have gotten more careful and vigilant in the last few years since E. coli outbreaks in spinach and lettuce made national headlines, analysts say. (
  • LONDON -- Six horse carcasses that tested positive for an equine painkiller may have entered the human food chain in France, Britain's food regulator announced Thursday -- and the agency's chief said horsemeat tainted with the medicine may have been sold to consumers "for some time. (
  • The rationale for the value chain is clear from a consumer view because consumers value some packaged foods more than others. (
  • The value chain is a means to create packaged food that is valued more by consumers. (
  • Understanding what is essential to consumers becomes systemic and ensures that company goals and activities align with customers' customers, and eventually, the consumer at the front of the value chain. (
  • Anderson said prior to the COVID-19 shutdowns, consumers typically purchased about 50% of their food from grocery stores for home consumption. (
  • Food chains show how energy is passed from the sun to producers, from producers to consumers, and from consumers to decomposes such as fungi. (
  • Several consumers may eat the same kind of plant or animal for food. (
  • Consumers and the food industry will benefit from improved biosecurity measures based on our scientific findings. (
  • McDonald's has been under pressure from consumers to add a vegan burger to its menu after many of its fast-food rivals have already done so. (
  • It is unfortunate that sometimes food industries try to modernise and innovate using new approachs and techniques in full respect of a scientific advice, but then meet the opposition and hostility from consumers and pressure groups," Vin?i?nas said. (
  • OSI Group, which owns Shanghai Husi Food, posted a statement on is website saying: "We sincerely apologize to our customers for any problems caused and to consumers who may be affected by these events. (
  • It is only when the company welcomes visitors into the production workshops that consumers can be sure of food safety," Guo said. (
  • Toxic preserved fruit is the latest item on China's expanding list of unsafe food products. (
  • BOGOTA - A Colombian fast food chain is planning to turn its branches into automated restaurants at a moment when the coronavirus pandemic has slammed the food service industry worldwide. (
  • MUY is trying to adapt to the pandemic by making it easy for customers to order food from home through an app. (
  • Calderon said that the chain is selling about $1 million per month at its more than 30 locations, with sales already recovering to pre-pandemic levels. (
  • The most important impact of the pandemic on food security is through income declines that put food access at risk", said article co-author and IFPRI Director-General Johan Swinnen. (
  • Export restrictions on staple foods including rice and wheat, imposed by 21 countries in the early months of the pandemic, created volatility and upward pressure on world prices for food staples. (
  • World Health Day 2015, celebrated on 7 April, is an opportunity to recognize the important food safety role of all those involved in food production, and to strengthen collaboration and coordination among these various areas, in order to prevent, detect and respond to foodborne diseases efficiently and cost-effectively. (
  • and second, surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens in food. (
  • Avian influenza , Peste des petits ruminants , Fall armyworm , locust and other insect infestations, banana diseases , food-borne pathogens and mycotoxins are some examples of threats to the human food chain that may impact human health, food security, livelihoods, national economies and global markets. (
  • Unlike organisms in the consumer/producer part of the food web, decomposers are extremely efficient feeders. (
  • This stark warning by the second-largest chicken producer in the world highlights exactly the scale of the task facing Northern Ireland businesses and not just those who operate in the agri-food sector who are currently in the process of drawing up contingency plans for Brexit. (
  • A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at an apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria). (
  • The food chain begins with a producer, which is eaten by a primary consumer. (
  • For example, a food chain might start with a green plant as the producer, which is eaten by a snail, the primary consumer. (
  • All food chains must start with a producer. (
  • A number of fast food restaurant chains are clients of food producer OSI's subsidiary in Shanghai, but food authorities had not released a list of the company's clients by Monday evening. (
  • McDonald's Calorie Counter: Fast food chain to post nutrional info nationwide. (
  • While McDonald's has never actively hidden the nutritional information of its food , the assumption is that having it in plain sight might direct customers to healthier menu choices. (
  • McDonald's has perhaps 140,000 U.S. employees, which is a small fraction of the 4 million Americans who work at fast-food restaurants. (
  • So while McDonald's might be able to afford a bit more for workers, many industry employees work at chains that could use a little more income themselves. (
  • A McDonald's worker has revealed the fast food chain's kitchen 'secrets' - including how it cooks egg McMuffins. (
  • TikTok user 'austin.martinn' has shared videos on the social media app showing how food is prepared inside a McDonald's kitchen. (
  • The McDonald's worker, who appears to live in Canada, shared how the restaurant chain makes eggs for McMuffins. (
  • McDonald's said on Sunday night that it had informed all franchises in the country to stop using or selling the questionable products and keep all the meat from Shanghai Husi Food Co. They have organized a professional team to investigate the case and will release the results as soon as possible. (
  • Leading fast food chains in China - McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut - are expected to suffer a lingering impact from recent media reports involving a food supplier allegedly using meat products past their expiration dates. (
  • Shanghai has shut a food production factory for allegedly selling out-of-date meat to restaurant giants including McDonald's and KFC. (
  • A Shanghai television channel, which first reported the allegations on Sunday night, said that workers at Shanghai Husi Food Co Ltd mixed expired meat with fresh product and deliberately misled quality inspectors from McDonald's. (
  • Fast-food giants such as Wendy's and McDonald's said Thursday's protests and labor walkouts had a minimal effect on operations and didn't lead to any restaurant closings. (
  • Short Sharp Science: Phytoplankton in decline: bye bye food chain? (
  • Whatever the cause, it's a remarkably bad piece of news, because although phytoplankton are neither glamorous nor cute, the entire ocean food chain depends on them. (
  • And the Food Safety Law, combined with various recent rounds of administrative restructuring, has further fragmented the state's regulatory capabilities over the food industry. (
  • The European food and drink industry can boast a healthy track record in reducing its carbon footprint ahead of the COP21 conference, which opens in Paris later this month. (
  • 4. Procurement in the Food and Drink Industry in the Early 21st Century: J. Allinson. (
  • Competition within the global food industry means many rely on cheap labor on farms and in food-processing factories. (
  • Food is the lifeblood of humanity, and so it also is now with the brick-and-mortar retail industry. (
  • The scandal has uncovered the labyrinthine workings of the global food industry, where meat from a Romanian slaughterhouse can end up in British lasagna by way of companies in Luxembourg and France. (
  • The scandal has already plunged the British food industry into crisis with millions of products being withdrawn from supermarket freezer counters, initially in Britain and Ireland. (
  • The packaged food value chain age has become the means through which the packaging industry navigates to achieve goals. (
  • Coulomb D (2008) Refrigeration and cold chain serving the global food industry and creating a better future: two key IIR challenges for improved health and environment. (
  • The fresh food industry has struggled in the past in figuring out a way to engage in true data synchronization with their retail and foodservice partners," explained Nick Manzo, Global Omni-Channel Lead at 1WorldSync. (
  • Bocquet said the industry needs to make sure there is enough food in Europe, but also beyond, noting that today Europe is net importers of food. (
  • Producers are organisms that can make their own organic compounds or food using energy and simple inorganic compounds. (
  • Primary producers, or autotrophs , are species capable of producing complex organic substances (essentially "food") from an energy source (such as sunlight) and inorganic materials. (
  • THE FOOD CHAIN, Organic Theater Company. (
  • Widely recognized for its Non-GMO Project Verification services, many of FoodChain ID's clients have requested stacked organic inspections to consolidate their certifications, saving both time and money. (
  • David is the strategic and technical lead on advancing and growing FoodChain ID's programs and services in an integrated, strategic manner, with a special, near-term focus on the company's USDA Organic Certification initiatives," said Mark Dabroski, senior vice president commercial services. (
  • With almost half of FoodChain ID's Non-GMO Project Verified clients simultaneously certifying organic, the need is substantial. (
  • As an organic certification pioneer, Bioagricert's expertise in organic certification, combined with FoodChain ID's Non-GMO Project Verification expertise and SupplyTrak® mapping and label verification system, further strengthens FoodChain ID's leadership position in providing clean-label claims," says Dabroski. (
  • We surveyed 100 senior executives within the beverage sector to understand food fraud concerns. (
  • The survey was conducted in February 2013 and involved some 500 food & beverage professionals from companies in Europe, North America, South America and Asia. (
  • Perseverance Endeavors was established on February 7th, 2019 and the company is set to launch a chain of herbivore fast food restaurants. (
  • Listeria outbreak: How safe is America's food chain? (
  • Listeria-related deaths in the US from tainted cantaloupes have raised concern about America's food chain. (
  • HuffPost Food recently went on a tour de force of some of America's major casual dining chains. (
  • Food Standards Agency head Catherine Brown said that before the current crisis, the agency had tested about 5 percent of the horses slaughtered in Britain -- and about 6 percent of those had shown traces of bute. (
  • London - A crisis over horse meat in European food products deepened on Thursday when British officials said tests showed that a powerful equine drug, potentially harmful to human health, may have entered the food chain in small quantities. (
  • Until now, the crisis had been seen primarily as an issue of fraud after products containing horse meat were labeled beef, with politicians insisting that, even if millions of products sold as beef contained up to 100 percent horse meat, food safety was not at issue. (
  • Just as mall and shopping center developers reinvent themselves during a period of social and behavioral disruption, traditional supermarket chains find themselves equally challenged to present new business models, Caldwell said. (
  • Buzby JC, Wells HF, Axtman B, Mickey J (2009) Supermarket loss estimates for fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, and seafood and their use in the ERS loss-adjusted food availability data. (
  • It requires importers to verify the safety of food from their suppliers and gives the FDA authority to block foods from facilities or countries that refuse our inspection. (
  • Disruptions in food systems both contribute to increases in poverty, by affecting a critical source of income for many of the world's poor, and also exacerbate the impacts of poverty by reducing access to food, particularly nutritious foods," said Swinnen. (
  • So-called novel foods containing nanomaterials, the cloning of animals for food production or genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) have all faced scepticsim from citizens, prompting calls for stricter regulation. (
  • The discussions mainly focused on the provisions applicable to nanomaterials, the cloning of animals for food production, traditional foods from third countries, the criteria to be examined for the risk assessment and risk management, and to the procedure for the authorisation of novel foods. (
  • A food chain is an idea developed by a scientist named Charles Elton in 1927. (
  • Gould is a food scientist by training, having been involved in the food and agriculture sectors for the past 25 years. (
  • Food chains were first introduced by the Arab scientist and philosopher Al-Jahiz in the 10th century and later popularized in a book published in 1927 by Charles Elton, which also introduced the food web concept. (
  • For example, an alliance between 100 Missouri and Kansas City farmers with a regional grocery chain formed Good Natured Family Farms (GNFF). (
  • Pooling their products under one local brand enabled participants to sell their products in 28 grocery chain stores across the region. (
  • The booths of quick-service, fast-casual, and new-concept food chains were mobbed, and an executive from a REIT with a national portfolio told Chain Store Age that he continued to have substantive conversations with grocery and restaurant chain representatives on the closing day of the show, when most attendees had already left. (
  • It's either that or they die," said Jeff Edison, CEO of Phillips Edison & Company, Chain Store Age 's Fastest-Growing Acquirer of 2016 and a significant owner of grocery-anchored centers. (
  • Their relentless organizing has signed on 11 restaurant and grocery companies, as well as all major Florida tomato growers, to their innovative Fair Food Program, but Wendy's has been a hold-out. (
  • With grocery stores across the state shuttered for lack of power, supermarkets that remain open have seen supplies dwindle, shortages that ripple over to food pantries that count on grocery store surplus to keep their own shelves stocked. (
  • They are the foundations of the ocean food chain, ultimately capturing the energy that sustains the seas' great beasts such as whales. (
  • 5-Gyres Institute and its research partners are now documenting the way plastics are entering the ocean food chain and studying their possible impact on human health. (
  • My agency, the USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), has many programs that support business entities involved in the food chain, including farmers markets and food hubs . (
  • Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. (
  • From community gardens to just global policy, a national and global movement is growing to reclaim food, land, and agricultural systems from agribusiness and put them back in the hands of citizens. (
  • Agricultural and food markets are facing continuous disruptions due to labor shortages caused by lockdowns, as well as large shifts in food demand arising from income losses and the closure of schools and restaurants. (
  • It is critical to exempt agricultural practices and actors from COVID-19 lockdown measures to ensure the adequate flow of food from farm to fork", said IFPRI's Markets, Trade and Institutions Division Director Rob Vos. (
  • The researchers point to the "green lanes" the Chinese government created to ease the transport, production processes, and distribution of agricultural inputs and food products as an example. (
  • Given the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector, strategies that reduce food loss and wastage, or address excess caloric consumption, have great potential as effective tools in global climate change mitigation. (
  • Where robust food waste data and production-phase emission factors do exist-such as for the UK-we find that avoiding consumer-phase food waste can deliver significant up-stream reductions in GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. (
  • In 2008, farmers' organizations drove their tractors on the route Pancho Villa took during the 1910 revolution, traveling from the U.S. border to Mexico City as part of the "Without corn there is no country" and "The land can't take anymore" campaigns, demanding support for sustainable food production. (
  • A mix of farmers, farm workers, organizers, Native community leaders, Washington policy analysts, and immigrants' rights advocates, the group brings to the U.S., for the first time, a political demand that has long been seminal in the global South and parts of Europe: food sovereignty. (
  • Indiscriminate use of antibiotics by farmers in treating cattle diseases is posing a public health risk as the medicines enter the food chain through various avenues. (
  • Farmers use antibiotics when they prepare food for cattle and thus it is entering human bodies. (
  • Asian countries like Thailand, South Korea and Singapore have begun checking Japanese food products for traces of radiation. (
  • According to Bloomberg , the fast-food chain plans to respond to the claims that its food can lead to obesity by posting all the calorie counts of its products on menu boards throughout the United States. (
  • Authorities across Europe are testing thousands of meat products for the drug, and for horse DNA, after horsemeat was found in food products labeled as beef in several countries. (
  • Food Safety Authority of Ireland said the products had been sold to the catering and wholesale sectors and distributed to Ireland, Britain, Spain, France, Germany and the Netherlands. (
  • Most of these pilot blockchains use meta-information of food products rather than detailed measurements. (
  • In this segment of the cold chain, products normally travel at the same optimum temperature maintained during shipping from the country of origin. (
  • Some products are no longer for sale in Shanghai after Shanghai Husi Food Co Ltd, a subsidiary of the Chicago-based OSI Group, was exposed in a media report as supplying fast food restaurants with expired chicken and beef. (
  • A few Burger King products have meat from the Shanghai Husi Food Co and all of them have been removed, the company said. (
  • Brands, which owns KFC and Pizza Hut, said on Monday that they have halted buying meat products from the Shanghai supplier, and reiterated that they have zero tolerance for illegal behavior in food safety. (
  • It has apologized for the absence of some meat products because of this incident and will resume the supplies when it can make sure the food materials fully comply with laws and standards. (
  • While the Ministry of Health is now responsible for coordinating food-safety issues, three other government agencies are entrusted with overseeing food production, distribution and use, respectively. (
  • We call these steps the food production chain (see graphic ). (
  • Production means growing the plants we harvest or raising the animals we use for food. (
  • Most food comes from domesticated animals and plants, and their production occurs on farms or ranches. (
  • Sometimes, by the time a food causes illness, it has been mishandled in several ways along the food production chain. (
  • A failure in food safety at any link in this chain, from the environment, through primary production, processing, transport, trade, catering or in the home, can have significant health and economic consequences," says Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. (
  • Changes in animal food production are leading to an increase in the emergence and spread of zoonotic diseases. (
  • Estimation of production-phase GHG emissions for food wastage and excess consumption is found to be similarly challenging on a global scale, with use of IPCC default (Tier 1) emission factors for food production being required in many regions. (
  • Gu Zhenhua, deputy director of the city's Food and Drug Administration, said they had ordered the company to suspend production and seized food and raw materials for investigation. (
  • Due to the high demand of poultry meat and eggs from fast food chains, chicken farms are competing to deliver more produce in a smaller amount of time. (
  • More broadly, however, one of the greatest challenges to the food chain is its broader reach. (
  • Finally, it identifies challenges, assesses efficiency, and present responses of the agri-food risk management after the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan in March 2011. (
  • Climate change may be weeding out the bacteria that form the base of the ocean's food chain. (
  • If refrigerated food is left on a loading dock for long time in warm weather, it could reach temperatures that allow bacteria to grow. (
  • Ireland is proposing the monitoring of pig carcasses and pig meat in slaughterhouses, butchers' premises and retail outlets over the next two years in an attempt to determine how a human disease causing bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica, enters the food chain. (
  • The bacteria colonise the tonsils and the neck muscles of pigs and as a result may enter the food chain", says Dr Brenda Murphy of the Veterinary Food Safety Laboratory, Cork County Council and Centre for Food Safety, University College Dublin. (
  • China's food-safety problems highlight both the collapse of the country's business ethics and the failure of government regulators to keep pace with the expanding market economy. (
  • HANOI - Agent Orange sprayed by the United States during the Vietnam War has contaminated the country's food chain, creating serious environmental and health problems that demand urgent international attention, a Canadian consulting firm reported Friday. (
  • If you download the Panera Bread app, you can order and pay for your food ahead of time. (
  • That would say there has been a significant amount of carcasses with bute in going into the food chain for some time," she said. (
  • Out of this, exports of food and live animals from the North to the Republic recorded one of the biggest increases - soaring by 23.5 per year on year - which may help explain whymany leading agri-food producers and suppliers and Top 1000 companies, such as Fane Valley, Moy Park and Dale Farm, are now in a race against time to prepare for the UK's departure from the EU. (
  • Every time that you read about food from chain restaurants it is usually because they are really bad for you. (
  • A food chain differs from a food web because the complex network of different animals' feeding relations are aggregated and the chain only follows a direct, linear pathway of one animal at a time. (
  • And if you haven't driven past a Bennigan's or TCBY lately, that's because the restaurant business is notoriously difficult, with chains and individual stores failing all the time. (
  • food chain The transfer of energy from green plants (the primary producers) through a sequence of organisms in which each eats the one below it in the chain and is eaten by the one above. (
  • the end-consumer throwing away food that is purchased but not eaten. (
  • Petisi · Stop Chicken Abuse Among Fast Food Chain! (
  • Stop Chicken Abuse Among Fast Food Chain! (
  • They have made good progress in stopping these kind of abuse to chicken in Europe by making fast food restaurant sign Better Chicken Commitment. (
  • Whether it's millions of litres of milk, artisan gin, traditional soda bread or even a favourite chicken dish, Ireland is by far the biggest and most important export market for many of Northern Ireland's leading food and drink producers. (
  • The chicken chain is set to become the third-largest restaurant by sales by the end of this year, according to Kalinowski Equity Research. (
  • A group of brave KFC employees is exposing the fast food chain for its dirty practices when it comes to their famous chicken. (
  • Then in the morning, we do prep with FRESH food and chicken. (
  • Starbucks said on Monday that only one product used chicken provided by Shanghai Husi Food Co, adding that this product has been sold in only 12 provinces. (
  • Since there are Dairy Queens open all over the country it makes it easier to head there for one of these than to your closer fast food restaurant when you feel hungry. (
  • A fast-food restaurant integrated with the place around it often does better business and stays open longer, experts say. (
  • Do you work in a fast food restaurant and want to share your secrets? (
  • This experience gave him deep insights in how a fast food restaurant should be run. (
  • One of the most critical participants in the chain is the wholesaler. (
  • Yum is China's biggest fast food company, with a market share of 5 percent last year, according to London-based researcher Euromonitor International. (
  • Chapagain A, James K (2011) The water and carbon footprint of household food and drink waste in the UK. (
  • The Affordable Care Act requires chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations with the same name and substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. (
  • Just because you are on a diet, it does not mean that you should avoid every burger in the fast food menu. (
  • Mithaas' menu, created by chain head chef Surinder, mines multiple regions - north, south, Mumbai, the border with China (for a raft of Indo-Manchurian dishes) - but doesn't stray from the street-food ethos, so a full feast could equal carb and fried-food overload. (
  • These national chains pride themselves on creating a menu that can appeal to a wide variety of eaters. (
  • As fast-food moves steadily into smaller towns and new frontiers--including limited-menu restaurants in airports, schools, military bases and even Wal-Marts--the results are becoming increasingly visible. (