Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Cyclamates: Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Consumer Product SafetyCalcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.OregonSuburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.PhiladelphiaTaste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.United StatesEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Europe

A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation. (1/393)

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

Effects of ionic compositions of the medium on monosodium glutamate binding to taste epithelial cells. (2/393)

Monosodium glutamate and nucleotides are umami taste substances in animals and have a synergistic effect on each other. We studied the ligand-binding properties of the glutamate receptors in taste epithelial cells isolated from bovine tongue. Specific glutamate binding was observed in an enriched suspension of taste receptor cells in Hanks' balanced salt solution, while no specific glutamate binding was apparent in the absence of divalent ions or when the cells had been depolarized by a high content of potassium in Hanks' balanced salt solution. There was no significant difference between the release of glutamate under depolarized or divalent ion-free conditions and under normal conditions. However, glutamate was easily released from the depolarized cells in the absence of divalent ions. These data suggest that the binding of glutamate to receptors depends on divalent ions, which also have an effect on maintaining binding between glutamate and receptors.  (+info)

Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health. (3/393)

There has been increasing concern about the impact of environmental compounds with hormone-like action on human development and reproductive health over the past decades. An alternative but neglected source of hormone action that may be considered in this connection is hormone residues in meat from husbandry animals treated with sex steroid hormones for growth promotion. Treatment of cattle with naturally occurring or synthetic sex hormones may enhance lean muscle growth and improve feed efficiency and is therefore a very cost effective procedure for cattle producers who have used it for decades in some Western countries, including the USA and Canada. The Joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) expert committee on food additives (JECFA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered, in 1988, that the residues found in meat from treated animals were safe for the consumers. We have re-evaluated the JECFA conclusions regarding the safety of estradiol residues in meat in the light of recent scientific data, with special emphasis on estradiol levels in prepubertal children. These levels are needed for estimates of the normal daily production rates of estradiol in children, who may be particularly sensitive to low levels of estradiol. In our opinion, the conclusions by JECFA concerning the safety of hormone residues in meat seem to be based on uncertain assumptions and inadequate scientific data. Our concerns can be summarized as follows. 1) The data on residue levels in meat were based on studies performed in the 1970's and 1980's using radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods available at the time. The sensitivity of the methods was generally inadequate to measure precisely the low levels found in animal tissues, and considerable variation between different RIA methods for measuring steroids exists. Therefore the reported residue levels may be subject to considerable uncertainty. 2) Only limited information on the levels of the various metabolites of the steroids was given despite the fact that metabolites also may have biological activity. 3) Reliable data on daily production rates of steroid hormones were and are still lacking in healthy prepubertal children. This lack is crucial as previous guidelines regarding acceptable levels of steroid residues in edible animal tissues have been based on very questionable estimates of production rates in children. Thus, even today the US FDA bases its guidelines on the presumably highly overestimated production rates in prepubertal children given in the JECFA 1988 report. 4) The possible biological significance of very low levels of estradiol is neglected. In conclusion, based on our current knowledge possible adverse effects on human health by consumption of meat from hormone-treated animals cannot be excluded.  (+info)

Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? (4/393)

Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) +info)

Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status. (5/393)

Inulin and oligofructose are a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world's population. Daily intakes for the U.S. and Europe have been estimated at up to 10 g, specifically 1-4 g for the 97th percentile in the U.S. Because both inulin and oligofructose are macroingredients, it is difficult to apply classical toxicology tests. Although some high dose animal tests have been performed, none have revealed any toxic effects. The safety of inulin and oligofructose for use in foods was evaluated by many legal authorities worldwide. As a result, both inulin and oligofructose are accepted in most countries as food ingredients that can be used without restrictions in food formulations. In the U.S., a panel of experts performed a generally accepted as safe (GRAS) Self-Affirmation Evaluation in 1992 and concluded similarly. At high doses, increased flatulence and osmotic pressure can cause intestinal discomfort. These doses vary widely from person to person and also depend on the type of food in which inulin or oligofructose is incorporated. With regard to labeling, both inulin and oligofructose are gradually being accepted as "dietary fibers" in most countries around the world. The mention of their "bifidogenic effect" on food labels has also been legally accepted in several countries.  (+info)

Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans. (6/393)

BACKGROUND: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a well-known inhibitor of iron absorption, whereas the effects of the less-phosphorylated derivatives of IP(6) are less known. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates (IP(3), IP(4), and IP(5), respectively) on iron absorption in humans. DESIGN: Iron absorption was measured in 5 experiments from single meals by extrinsic labeling with (55)Fe and (59)Fe and determination of whole-body retention and the erythrocyte uptake of isotopes. In experiments 1-3 the meals contained white-wheat rolls to which 10 mg P as IP(5), IP(4), or IP(3), respectively, was added. Inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate [Ins(1,2, 6)P(3)] and a mixture of isomers of IP(4) and IP(5) were studied. White-wheat rolls contained 10 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 2 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 4 and 20 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 3 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 5; inositol phosphates were obtained via fermentation of sodium phytate. Each experiment had 8-11 subjects. RESULTS: In experiment 1, iron absorption was reduced by 39%, whereas there was no significant effect on iron absorption in experiments 2 and 3. In experiments 4 and 5, iron absorption was reduced by 54% and 64%, respectively, suggesting that IP(3) and IP(4) contributed to the inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: IP(5) has an inhibitory effect on iron absorption, whereas IP(3) and IP(4) in isolated form have no such effect. IP(3) and IP(4) in processed food contribute to the negative effect on iron absorption, presumably by binding iron between different inositol phosphates. To improve iron absorption from cereals and legumes, degradation of inositol phosphates needs to be to less-phosphorylated inositol phosphates than IP(3).  (+info)

Changes in thyroid function during development of thyroid hyperplasia induced by kojic acid in F344 rats. (7/393)

To clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis by kojic acid (KA), dose and time dependence of iodine uptake in the thyroid gland and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels were investigated in F344 rats fed a diet containing 2% KA. After 4 weeks, thyroid hyperplasia was apparent in males, associated with a decrease in (125)I uptake into the thyroid gland to only 3% of that in controls. The serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) levels dropped to 0.36 ng/ml, 1.7 micrograms/dl from the initial values of 0.61 ng/ml, 4.0 micrograms/dl and TSH increased seven times to 15 ng/ml. In females, the effects on thyroid weight and (125)I uptake were less prominent, although the changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels were similar to those in males. Time-dependent changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels correlated with the inhibition of iodine uptake in the thyroid. Inhibition of organic iodine formation was only observed after 3 weeks treatment. On return to the control diet, normal serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels became evident within 48 h in both sexes. These data suggest that KA interrupts thyroid function, primarily by inhibiting iodine intake, consequently causing a decrease in serum T(3) and T(4). Increased TSH from the pituitary gland in turn stimulates thyroid hyperplasia, which is reversible on withdrawal of KA.  (+info)

Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger. (8/393)

OBJECTIVE: Phytase is a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger that enhances phosphate bioavailability in the gut, and therefore has been increasingly used as an animal feed additive since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to assess whether work related respiratory symptoms among workers in a so called premix factory producing animal feed additives, could be due to type I (mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) allergic sensitisation to phytase. METHODS: Preparations of specific IgE against phytase as used in the factory were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in serum samples of 11 exposed workers who regularly handled the enzyme, in 11 office and laboratory workers of the same plant (non-exposed internal controls), and in 19 laboratory animal workers as external controls. The factory workers also completed a questionnaire on common and work related respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Depending on the cut off level in the EIA for IgE, and the preparation used as coated allergen, antiphytase sensitisation was found in one to four of the 19 external controls, in one to five of the 11 internal controls, and in four to 10 of the 11 exposed workers. Strongest IgE reactions were found in four exposed workers who reported work related respiratory symptoms, particularly wheezing, and in one internal control who possibly had become sensitised because the structure of the factory building did not preclude airborne exposure in the offices and corridors of the plant. Experiments with inhibition EIA for IgE showed that (a) phytase of another commercial source was only partially cross reactive with phytase as used in the premix factory, and (b) phytase used as an animal feed additive did not cross react with common mould extracts, except for extracts from the species of origin, Aspergillus niger. The amount of IgE binding phytase in Aspergillus niger was estimated to be between 0.1% and 1% of the extractable mould proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Phytase is a potentially important new occupational allergen causing specific IgE immune responses among exposed workers. Such IgE sensitisation could probably be the cause of work related asthmatic and other respiratory symptoms if no effective measures are taken to prevent airborne occupational exposure at sites where phytase is handled, particularly during addition of enzyme preparations to animal feed.  (+info)

  • She has worked extensively with government and industry supported research and global strategic alliance projects that have focused on value-added product and process development, additive and preservative application for post-harvest stabilization of food commodities, frozen/chilled shelf-life extension, sensory evaluation, and commercial scale production. (
  • Xanthan Gum food grade is yellowish white powder soluble in water with a high viscosity even at low concentration, It is a microbial polysaccharide produced by fermentation of carbohydrate withXanthomonas campestris which grown naturally from wild cabbage. (
  • The guide covers food additives associated with serious health concerns, ingredients banned or restricted in other countries, and other substances that shouldn't be in food. (
  • With thousands of ingredients lurking in food, EWG wanted to bring attention to additives that may have implications for human health, and we wanted to expose how the food regulatory system has failed us," Johanna Congleton, Ph.D., EWG senior scientist, said. (
  • The Dirty Dozen Guide to Food Additives is based on scientific studies of hundreds of additives and data gathered from EWG's newly released Food Scores: Rate Your Plate database and mobile app.The database houses information on more than 80,000 foods and 5,000 ingredients from about 1,500 brands. (
  • Avoiding nitrates and nitrites can be tricky, as they can be included in "spice mixes" on food labels without being listed as separate ingredients. (
  • In fact, I was given the nickname "Inspector Label" many years ago because of my passion for calling out harmful ingredients lurking in our foods (and because it would take me three hours to walk through a grocery store because I had to read every label on every single product I was interested in buying! (
  • According to a survey we conducted of over 2,600 consumers, 95% said they always read a food label, but 55% admitted they don't recognize half the ingredients on the label ! (
  • Although the amount of additives in our food is getting a bit out of hand (there are more than 6,000 food additives approved for use in the food industry), using ingredients to improve or enhance food has been the norm for centuries. (
  • Over the course of the two years it took my my co-author, Lisa Tsakos, and me to write our first book, Unjunk Your Junk Food (Gallery, 2011) , we thoroughly researched ingredients commonly found in packaged foods across North America and grouped those that caused the most harm to our health into seven categories. (
  • Like the phrase suggests, food additives are ingredients that have been added to a food product, usually to help preserve the item or enhance its flavor or appearance. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Food Additives, Ingredients and Supplements. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Food Additives, Ingredients and Supplements are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICFAIS 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Food Additives, Ingredients and Supplements . (
  • Most concerns about food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods. (
  • Food ingredients and colors. (
  • The consumer group Center for Science in the Public Interest suggests using caution when consuming products with BHT and strictly limiting your intake of foods with this ingredient. (
  • This ingredient is in 49 processed foods, including Sara Lee cinnamon rolls, Weight Watchers cakes, Energy Club nuts and chocolate blend, Entenmann's Coconut Crunch Donuts, Setton Farms' trail mix, and La Banderita corn tortillas. (
  • For their own protection, people with any allergies or food intolerances should always check the ingredient list on the label. (
  • Various market segments Food Grade SAPP, Industrial Grade SAPP and sub-segments Food Industry, Dispersing Agent, Adhesive Agent are also covered in the global Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (Sapp) market report. (
  • Xanthan Gum, Xanthan, Gum manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Xanthan Gum Food Grade (food additives) Viscosity 1600 Cps Min, Acid Thick Agent - Polyacrylamide, Talcum for Soap Manufacturing of Good Quality and so on. (
  • A group of common food additives causes changes to the gut microbiome that promote inflammation and lead to colon cancer, according to a study conducted by researchers from Georgia State University and published in the journal Cancer Research. (
  • And while some regions and in certain times of the year there is limited meat availability and produce growth, most people have unlimited access to fresh foods all year round. (
  • Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is a bacterial enzyme that is a common additive in processed food, such as baked goods, dairy, and meat. (
  • It is important to keep gathering information about the safety of food additives. (
  • Although potassium and sodium nitrates are naturally-occurring mineral salts that have been used for centuries to cure and preserve animal protein, much of the nitrates and nitrites added to food today comes from laboratories. (
  • Artificial coloring is another food additive found in baked goods, candies, salmon farms, some vitamins and beverages. (
  • A diet that eliminates too many foods can be unhealthy because it may lack necessary vitamins and nutrients. (
  • Your gastrointestinal system doesn't simply move food through your body - it does so much more: it synthesizes vitamins and nutrients, metabolizes some medications, maintains gut functioning, and enhances the functioning of your immune system. (
  • Many foods and drinks are fortified and enriched to provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. (
  • The best approach for overall health and nutrition is a diet that limits sugary and processed foods and is rich in fruits, vegetables, grains, and healthy fats such as omega-3 fatty acids found in certain types of fish, flaxseed and other foods. (
  • Besides, Theine has the function of protecting the acridine alkaloid and vitamin in the food, and keep the original lustre and nutrition levels in good condition as well. (
  • Nutrition labels can be confusing, but by arming yourself with the knowledge of at least some of these additives may be the deciding factor as to whether or not you take these items to the check-out counter. (
  • Report any reactions you have to food or food additives to the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). (
  • However, the advent of chemistry as a modern scientific discipline coincided with the industrialization of food production in the 1800s, and artificial food additives were introduced. (
  • those that are direct and serve a specific purpose in the food, or those that are indirect and may get into food during storing, packaging or processing. (
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