Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Receptors, Thyroid Hormone
Human Growth Hormone
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human
Tissue Culture Techniques
Fertilization in Vitro
Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit
Pituitary Hormones, Anterior
Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones
Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit
Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha
Pituitary Gland, Anterior
Pituitary Hormones, Posterior
Gene Expression Regulation
Molecular Sequence Data
Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
Organ Culture Techniques
In Situ Hybridization
Growth Differentiation Factor 9
Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
Rats, Inbred Strains
Amino Acid Sequence
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15
Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit
Receptors, Cell Surface
Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone
Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/5093)(+info)
In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (2/5093)Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles. (+info)
Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (3/5093)This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics. (+info)
Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (4/5093)Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities. (+info)
The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (5/5093)We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (+info)
Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (6/5093)The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period. (+info)
Time at surgery during menstrual cycle and menopause affects pS2 but not cathepsin D levels in breast cancer. (7/5093)Many studies have addressed the clinical value of pS2 as a marker of hormone responsiveness and of cathepsin D (Cath D) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Because pS2 and Cath D are both oestrogen induced in human breast cancer cell lines, we studied the influence of the menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status at the time of surgery on the levels of these proteins in breast cancer. A population of 1750 patients with breast cancer, including 339 women in menstrual cycle, was analysed. Tumoral Cath D and pS2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum oestradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at the day of surgery were used to define the hormonal phase in premenopausal women. There was a trend towards a higher mean pS2 level in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (17 ng mg(-1) and 11 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.09). Mean pS2 was lower in menopausal patients than in women with cycle (8 ng mg(-1) and 14 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in mean Cath D level were observed between the different phases of the menstrual cycle, or between pre- and post-menopausal women. In the overall population, pS2 was slightly positively associated with E2 and Pg levels and negatively associated with FSH and LH, probably reflecting the link between pS2 and menopausal status. In premenopausal women, no association was found between pS2 and E2, Pg, FSH or LH levels. There were no correlations between Cath D level and circulating hormone levels in the overall population. However, in the subgroup of premenopausal women with ER-positive (ER+) tumours, E2 was slightly associated with both pS2 and Cath D, consistent with oestrogen induction of these proteins in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. There are changes in pS2 level in breast cancer throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. This suggests that the choice of the pS2 cut-off level should take the hormonal status at the time of surgery into account. In contrast, the level of Cath D is unrelated to the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. (+info)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection after follicle stimulation with highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone compared with human menopausal gonadotropin. (8/5093)PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality after pituitary down-regulation and ovarian stimulation with highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). METHODS: Fifty-five patients 37 years of age or younger who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, male factor was the only indication for treatment, with no female-related factors identified. Following pituitary down-regulation, patients were stimulated with hMG (n = 20) or highly purified FSH (n = 35). Main outcome measures included ovarian response to stimulation, oocyte maturity, and ICSI fertilization results. Secondary outcome measures included pregnancy rates and outcome. RESULTS: The ovarian response to stimulation was similar for the two groups, as were the percentage of metaphase II oocytes, fertilization and cleavage rates, and number and quality of transferred and cryopreserved embryos. Cycle outcome was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In normogonadotropic subjects, monocomponent therapy with highly purified FSH is as effective as hMG in stimulating ovarian follicular development, synchronization of oocyte maturation, and IVF-ICSI outcome. Our findings support the conclusion that the luteinizing hormone component in the stimulation protocol is unnecessary. (+info)
1. Alopecia areata: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes patchy hair loss on the scalp or body.
2. Androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness): This is a common condition in which men experience hair loss due to hormonal changes.
3. Telogen effluvium: This is a condition where there is an increase in the number of hair follicles that stop growing and enter the resting phase, leading to excessive hair shedding.
4. Alopecia totalis: This is a condition where all hair on the scalp is lost, including eyebrows and lashes.
5. Alopecia universalis: This is a condition where all body hair is lost.
Alopecia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, hormonal imbalances, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Treatment options for alopecia depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, hair transplantation, or other therapies.
In medical literature, alopecia is often used as a term to describe the loss of hair in specific contexts, such as in the treatment of cancer patients or in the management of autoimmune disorders. It is also used to describe the side effects of certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs that can cause hair loss.
Causes of Female Infertility
There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:
1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.
1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is the most common cause of anovulation, affecting up to 75% of women with PCOS.
2. Hypothalamic dysfunction: The hypothalamus regulates hormonal signals that stimulate ovulation. Disruptions in these signals can lead to anovulation.
3. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can disrupt hormone levels and lead to anovulation.
4. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This condition is characterized by the premature loss of ovarian function before age 40.
5. Ovarian insufficiency: This occurs when the ovaries lose their ability to produce eggs, often due to aging or medical treatment.
6. Chronic diseases: Certain conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and obesity can increase the risk of anovulation.
7. Luteal phase defect: This occurs when the uterine lining does not properly thicken during the second half of the menstrual cycle, making it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
8. Ovulatory disorders: Disorders such as ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease can interfere with ovulation.
9. Genetic factors: Some genetic mutations can affect ovulation, such as those associated with Turner syndrome or other rare genetic conditions.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants, can disrupt ovulation.
Anovulation is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including hormone levels and imaging studies. Treatment options for anovulation depend on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Hormonal medications to stimulate ovulation
2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
3. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and stress management
4. Surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove any blockages in the reproductive tract
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as IVF with egg donation or surrogacy.
It's important for women experiencing irregular periods or anovulation to seek medical attention, as timely diagnosis and treatment can improve their chances of conceiving and reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.
The exact cause of follicular cysts is not known, but they may be related to hormonal changes, genetic factors, or blockages within the hair follicle. Treatment options include observation, antibiotics, and surgical removal if the cyst becomes inflamed or infected.
A Follicular Cyst is a benign cystic lesion that forms in the scalp or face and typically arises from the hair follicle. They are usually small, soft to the touch, and painless unless they become inflamed or infected.
Follicular cysts are more common in women than men, and often appear during childhood or adolescence. Although their exact cause is unknown, they may be related to hormonal changes, genetic factors, or blockages within the hair follicle.
Small, soft, painless cysts that form on the scalp or face are usually Follicular Cysts, which are benign and do not produce any symptoms unless they become inflamed or infected. They appear more frequently in women than men and often develop during childhood or adolescence. Their exact cause is unknown but may be related to hormonal fluctuations, genetic factors, or blockages within the hair follicle.
Hypothyroidism can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the body. Treatment typically involves taking synthetic thyroid hormone medication to replace the missing hormones. With proper treatment, most people with hypothyroidism can lead normal, healthy lives.
Hypothyroidism is a relatively common condition, affecting about 4.6 million people in the United States alone. Women are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men, and it is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged women.
Some of the symptoms of Hypothyroidism include:
1. Fatigue or tiredness
2. Weight gain
3. Dry skin
5. Depression or anxiety
6. Memory problems
7. Muscle aches and stiffness
8. Heavy or irregular menstrual periods
9. Pale, dry, or rough skin
10. Hair loss or thinning
11. Cold intolerance
12. Slowed speech and movements
It's important to note that some people may not experience any symptoms at all, especially in the early stages of the condition. However, if left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to more severe complications such as heart disease, mental health problems, and infertility.
POI can be caused by several factors, including:
1. Genetic mutations
2. Autoimmune disorders
3. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy
4. Infections such as mumps or rubella
5. Radiation exposure
6. Unknown causes (idiopathic POI)
Symptoms of POI can include:
1. Irregular or absent menstrual periods
2. Fertility problems
3. Hot flashes and night sweats
4. Vaginal dryness
5. Mood changes such as depression and anxiety
6. Bone loss (osteoporosis)
Diagnosis of POI is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including:
1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels
2. Ultrasound or pelvic imaging to evaluate ovarian function
3. Genetic testing to identify genetic causes
Treatment for POI typically focuses on managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes. Options may include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to alleviate hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes
2. Fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or egg donation
3. Medications to stimulate ovulation
4. Bone density testing and treatment for osteoporosis
5. Psychological support to address emotional aspects of the condition.
It is important for women with POI to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and goals. With appropriate care, many women with POI can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their reproductive goals.
Types of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Functional cysts: These cysts form during the menstrual cycle and are usually small and disappear on their own within a few days or weeks.
2. Follicular cysts: These cysts form when a follicle (a tiny sac containing an egg) does not release an egg and instead fills with fluid.
3. Corpus luteum cysts: These cysts form when the corpus luteum (the sac that holds an egg after it's released from the ovary) does not dissolve after pregnancy or does not produce hormones properly.
4. Endometrioid cysts: These cysts are formed when endometrial tissue (tissue that lines the uterus) grows outside of the uterus and forms a cyst.
5. Cystadenomas: These cysts are benign tumors that grow on the surface of an ovary or inside an ovary. They can be filled with a clear liquid or a thick, sticky substance.
6. Dermoid cysts: These cysts are formed when cells from the skin or other organs grow inside an ovary. They can contain hair follicles, sweat glands, and other tissues.
Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Pelvic pain or cramping
2. Bloating or discomfort in the abdomen
3. Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding
4. Pain during sex
5. Frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder
6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Pelvic examination: A doctor will check for any abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can help identify the presence of a cyst and determine its size, location, and composition.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to check hormone levels and rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
4. Laparoscopy: A laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera and light) is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the ovaries and remove any cysts.
5. Surgical removal of cysts: Cysts can be removed by surgery, either through laparoscopy or open surgery.
6. Medications: Hormonal medications may be prescribed to shrink the cyst and alleviate symptoms.
It is important to note that not all ovarian cysts cause symptoms, and some may go away on their own without treatment. However, if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above or have concerns about an ovarian cyst, it is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common symptoms include pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects ovulation and can cause cysts on the ovaries. Symptoms include irregular periods, acne, and excess hair growth.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include pelvic pain, heavy bleeding, and infertility.
4. Ovarian cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the ovaries. It is rare, but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and vaginal bleeding.
5. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This is a condition in which the ovaries stop functioning before the age of 40. Symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and infertility.
6. Ovarian torsion: This is a condition in which the ovary becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, nausea, and vomiting.
7. Ovarian abscess: This is an infection that forms on the ovaries. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and vaginal discharge.
8. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, bleeding, and fainting.
9. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign or cancerous. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects the ovaries, causing symptoms such as irregular periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many possible conditions that can affect the ovaries. If you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your pelvic area, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.
1. Alopecia areata: This is a condition where patches of hair fall out, resulting in bald spots on the scalp or other parts of the body.
2. Androgenetic alopecia: This is the most common form of hair loss, also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness. It occurs when hormones cause hair to thin and fall out, leading to a receding hairline in men and a gradual thinning of hair on the top of the head in women.
3. Telogen effluvium: This is a condition where there is a sudden increase in the number of hair follicles that stop growing and enter the resting phase, leading to excessive hair shedding.
4. Trichotillomania: This is a psychological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to pull out one's own hair, often resulting in noticeable hair loss.
5. Lichen planus: This is a skin condition that can cause hair loss, as well as itching and inflammation on the scalp.
6. Tinea capitis: This is a fungal infection of the scalp that can cause hair loss and inflammation.
7. Folliculitis: This is an inflammation of the hair follicles, which can cause hair loss and scarring.
8. Traction alopecia: This is a condition where hair loss occurs due to constant pulling or tugging on the hair, such as with tight hairstyles like braids or ponytails.
9. Chemical damage: Exposure to harsh chemicals in hair products can damage the hair and lead to hair loss.
10. Hair thinning: This is a condition where hair becomes thinner over time, often due to hormonal imbalances or nutritional deficiencies.
These are just a few examples of hair diseases that can affect people. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medical care and changes to one's lifestyle and diet. If you suspect you have a hair disease, it's important to consult a dermatologist or other qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.
PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.
There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:
1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea
PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.
There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:
1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.
It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.
The symptoms of thyroid hormone resistance syndrome can vary depending on the severity of the mutation and may include:
1. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
2. Growth retardation
3. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH)
4. Neonatal hypothyroidism (NH)
6. Mental retardation
7. Developmental delays
8. Short stature
9. Coarse facial features
10. Elevated TSH levels
The diagnosis of thyroid hormone resistance syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment options for this condition include:
1. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy to normalize metabolic function and growth.
2. Monitoring TSH levels to ensure that the thyroid hormone dosage is appropriate.
3. Management of associated symptoms such as hypoglycemia or growth retardation.
4. Genetic counseling to discuss the risks of passing on the condition to future generations.
The prognosis for individuals with thyroid hormone resistance syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional health problems. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve growth and developmental outcomes, but some individuals may experience persistent health issues or intellectual disability.
* Infertility or low fertility
* Irregular menstrual cycles in women
* Low libido (sex drive) in both men and women
* Erectile dysfunction in men
* Hot flashes, mood changes, and vaginal dryness in women
Hypogonadism can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Hormonal imbalances
* Pituitary gland problems
* Brain tumors or other lesions
* Chronic illnesses such as hypopituitarism, hyperthyroidism, and liver or kidney disease
* Injury to the testicles or ovaries
* Certain medications
* Chromosomal abnormalities
Treatment for hypogonadism usually involves hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to replace the deficient sex hormones. However, the specific treatment plan will depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and other interventions.
It is important to note that hypogonadism can have significant psychological and social impacts, particularly in men who experience decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. It is essential for healthcare providers to address these issues sensitively and provide adequate support and resources to patients.
In summary, hypogonadism is a condition characterized by low levels of sex hormones, which can lead to a range of symptoms and health complications. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important for improving quality of life and addressing any related psychological and social issues.
Some common types of pituitary neoplasms include:
1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that grow slowly and often do not cause any symptoms in the early stages.
2. Craniopharyngiomas: These are rare, slow-growing tumors that can be benign or malignant. They can affect the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and other areas of the brain.
3. Pituitary carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that grow quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.
4. Pituitary metastases: These are tumors that have spread to the pituitary gland from another part of the body, such as breast cancer or lung cancer.
Symptoms of pituitary neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
* Hormonal imbalances, which can lead to a variety of symptoms including fatigue, weight gain or loss, and irregular menstrual cycles
* Cognitive changes, such as memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Pressure on the brain, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and weakness or numbness in the limbs
Diagnosis of pituitary neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans, and hormone testing to determine the level of hormones in the blood. Treatment options can vary depending on the type and size of the tumor, but they may include:
* Watchful waiting: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging tests.
* Medications: Hormone replacement therapy or medications to control hormone levels may be used to manage symptoms.
* Surgery: Tumors can be removed through a transsphenoidal surgery, which involves removing the tumor through the nasal cavity and sphenoid sinus.
* Radiation therapy: May be used to treat residual tumor tissue after surgery or in cases where the tumor cannot be completely removed with surgery.
Overall, pituitary neoplasms are rare and can have a significant impact on the body if left untreated. If you suspect you may have a pituitary neoplasm, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Graves' disease, which causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Other causes include inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), thyroid nodules, and certain medications.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Rapid weight loss
* Nervousness or irritability
* Increased heart rate
* Heat intolerance
* Changes in menstrual cycle
* Muscle weakness
If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to more serious complications such as heart problems, bone loss, and eye problems. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism include medications to reduce hormone production, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.
In pregnant women, untreated hyperthyroidism can increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and intellectual disability in the baby. Treatment options for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism are similar to those for non-pregnant adults, but may need to be adjusted to avoid harm to the developing fetus.
It is important for individuals suspected of having hyperthyroidism to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Some common types of growth disorders include:
1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.
Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.
Pituitary dwarfism is characterized by short stature, typically defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or under, and can be associated with other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and gonadal insufficiency. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
Treatment for pituitary dwarfism typically involves replacement therapy with growth hormone to promote growth and development, as well as management of any associated medical conditions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor that is affecting GH production. With appropriate treatment, individuals with pituitary dwarfism can experience significant improvement in their growth and overall health.
In addition to its clinical significance, pituitary dwarfism also has important implications for genetic counseling and family planning. The condition is often inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. This means that individuals with pituitary dwarfism have a 50% chance of passing the mutation on to each of their children, and may need to consider genetic testing and counseling to understand their risk.
Overall, pituitary dwarfism is a rare but important condition that can have significant implications for an individual's growth, development, and overall health. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, individuals with this condition can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their full potential.
There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:
1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.
Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
10. Hot flashes
Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:
1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus
The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation
There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:
1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.
The symptoms of hypopituitarism can vary depending on the specific hormone deficiency and can include:
1. Growth hormone deficiency: Short stature, delayed puberty, and decreased muscle mass.
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency: Weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood pressure.
3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency: Hypothyroidism, decreased metabolism, dry skin, and constipation.
4. Prolactin deficiency: Lack of milk production in lactating women, erectile dysfunction, and infertility.
5. Vasopressin (ADH) deficiency: Increased thirst and urination.
6. Oxytocin deficiency: Difficulty breastfeeding, low milk supply, and uterine atony.
Hypopituitarism can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Traumatic brain injury or surgery
2. Tumors, cysts, or inflammation in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus
3. Radiation therapy
4. Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
5. Autoimmune disorders such as hypophyseal lymphocytic infiltration
6. Genetic mutations
Diagnosis of hypopituitarism involves a series of tests to assess the levels of hormones in the blood and urine, as well as imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to evaluate the pituitary gland. Treatment depends on the specific hormone deficiency and can include hormone replacement therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. In some cases, hypopituitarism may be a temporary condition that resolves once the underlying cause is treated. However, in other cases, it may be a lifelong condition requiring ongoing management.
In conclusion, hypopituitarism is a rare but potentially debilitating disorder that can affect various aspects of human physiology. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism and seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, individuals with hypopituitarism can lead relatively normal lives.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
There are several types of alopecia areata, including:
1. Alopecia areata patchy - This is the most common form of the disease, where hair loss occurs in patches on the scalp or other parts of the body.
2. Alopecia totalis - Hair loss occurs over the entire scalp.
3. Alopecia universalis - Hair loss occurs over the entire body, including the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes.
4. Alopecia areata barbae - Hair loss occurs in the beard area.
5. Alopecia areata traction - Hair loss occurs due to pulling or tension on the hair shaft, often seen in children who pull their own hair.
The symptoms of alopecia areata may include:
1. Patchy hair loss
2. Thinning of hair
3. Redness and scalp inflammation
4. Itching or burning sensation on the scalp
5. Nail changes such as ridging, thinning, or pitting
Alopecia areata can be diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history. A skin scraping or biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for alopecia areata depends on the severity and location of hair loss, as well as the individual's overall health. Options may include:
1. Topical corticosteroids - Medicated creams or ointments applied directly to the affected area to reduce inflammation and promote hair growth.
2. Oral corticosteroids - Medications taken by mouth to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
3. Anthralin - A medication that is applied to the skin to reduce inflammation and promote hair growth.
4. Immunotherapy - Injections or tablets that stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells, but also can cause hair loss.
5. Wigs, hats, or other hairpieces - Used to cover up patchy hair loss.
6. Counseling or therapy - To help cope with the emotional impact of hair loss.
7. Hair transplantation - A surgical procedure that involves moving healthy hair follicles from one part of the scalp to another.
It is important to note that these treatments may not work for everyone and may have side effects. It's important to talk to a doctor or dermatologist to determine the best course of treatment for alopecia areata.
In addition to medical treatment, there are also some natural remedies that can help with alopecia areata such as:
1. Diet and nutrition - Eating a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals can promote hair growth.
2. Stress management - High stress levels have been linked to alopecia areata, so finding ways to manage stress, such as through exercise or meditation, may help.
3. Saw palmetto - A herb that has been shown to promote hair growth and slow down hair loss.
4. Fish oil - Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil have been shown to promote hair growth.
5. Coconut oil - Applying coconut oil to the scalp may help to stimulate hair growth.
6. Henna - A natural dye that can be used to color and strengthen hair, and may also help to promote hair growth.
7. Rosemary essential oil - May help to promote hair growth by increasing blood flow to the scalp.
8. Lavender essential oil - May help to reduce stress and promote relaxation, which can help with alopecia areata.
Infertility can be classified into two main categories:
1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.
There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:
1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.
OHSS typically occurs when too many eggs are stimulated to mature during ovulation, leading to an imbalance in hormone levels. The syndrome is more common in women who undergo IVF with high-dose fertility medications, multiple embryo transfer, or those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Symptoms of OHSS may include:
1. Enlarged ovaries that are painful to the touch
2. Abdominal bloating and discomfort
3. Pelvic pain
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Diarrhea or constipation
6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding
7. Elevated hormone levels (estradiol and/or LH)
OHSS can be diagnosed through ultrasound and blood tests. Treatment options for OHSS include:
1. Cancellation of further fertility treatment until symptoms resolve
2. Medications to reduce hormone levels and inflammation
3. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of fluid from the ovaries
4. Hospitalization for monitoring and supportive care
Prevention is key, and fertility specialists take several measures to minimize the risk of OHSS, such as:
1. Monitoring hormone levels and ultrasound assessment of ovarian response during treatment
2. Adjusting medication dosages based on individual patient needs
3. Limited embryo transfer to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies
4. Avoiding the use of high-dose stimulation protocols in women with PCOS or other risk factors
Early detection and proper management are crucial to prevent complications and ensure a successful outcome for fertility treatment. If you suspect you may have OHSS, it is essential to consult a fertility specialist immediately.
Some common types of skin abnormalities include:
1. Birthmarks: These are benign growths that can be present at birth or appear later in life. They can be flat or raised, and can be made up of different types of cells, such as blood vessels or pigment-producing cells.
2. Moles: These are small, dark spots on the skin that are usually benign but can occasionally become cancerous.
3. Warts: These are small, rough bumps on the skin that are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
4. Psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin.
5. Eczema: This is a chronic condition that causes dry, itchy skin and can lead to inflammation and skin thickening.
6. Acne: This is a common condition that causes blackheads, whiteheads, and other types of blemishes on the skin.
7. Scars: These are areas of damaged skin that can be caused by injury, surgery, or infection.
8. Vitiligo: This is a condition in which the skin loses its pigment, leading to white patches.
9. Impetigo: This is a bacterial infection that causes red sores on the skin.
10. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, painless bumps on the skin.
Skin abnormalities can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of abnormality and its underlying cause, but may include topical creams or ointments, medications, laser therapy, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any changes in your skin, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The word "acromegaly" comes from the Greek words "akros," meaning "tip" or " extremity," and "megas," meaning "large." It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe the condition.
Symptoms of acromegaly can include:
* Enlarged hands and feet
* Coarsening of facial features
* Joint pain and limited joint mobility
* Carpal tunnel syndrome
* Sleep apnea
* Vision problems
If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Treatment options for acromegaly include surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, radiation therapy, and medications to reduce GH production.
It's worth noting that acromegaly is different from gigantism, which is a condition where children experience excessive growth and height due to an overproduction of growth hormone during childhood. Acromegaly only occurs in adults and is typically caused by a benign tumor on the pituitary gland, while gigantism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injuries, and certain medical conditions.
1. Medical Definition: In medicine, dwarfism is defined as a condition where an individual's height is significantly below the average range for their age and gender. The term "dwarfism" is often used interchangeably with "growth hormone deficiency," but the two conditions are not the same. Growth hormone deficiency is a specific cause of dwarfism, but there can be other causes as well, such as genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Genetic Definition: From a genetic perspective, dwarfism can be defined as a condition caused by a genetic mutation or variation that results in short stature. There are many different genetic causes of dwarfism, including those caused by mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene, the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene, and other genes involved in growth and development.
3. Anthropological Definition: In anthropology, dwarfism is defined as a physical characteristic that is considered to be outside the normal range for a particular population or culture. This can include individuals who are short-statured due to various causes, including genetics, nutrition, or environmental factors.
4. Social Definition: From a social perspective, dwarfism can be defined as a condition that is perceived to be different or abnormal by society. Individuals with dwarfism may face social stigma, discrimination, and other forms of prejudice due to their physical appearance.
5. Legal Definition: In some jurisdictions, dwarfism may be defined as a disability or a medical condition that is protected by anti-discrimination laws. This can provide legal protections for individuals with dwarfism and ensure that they have access to the same rights and opportunities as others.
In summary, the definition of dwarfism can vary depending on the context in which it is used, and it may be defined differently by different disciplines and communities. It is important to recognize and respect the diversity of individuals with dwarfism and to provide support and accommodations as needed to ensure their well-being and inclusion in society.
1. Hypothyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and depression.
2. Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. Symptoms can include weight loss, anxiety, tremors, and an irregular heartbeat.
3. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths on the thyroid gland that can be benign or cancerous.
4. Thyroid cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland. There are several types of thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer.
5. Goiter: This is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid nodules.
6. Thyrotoxicosis: This is a condition where the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to symptoms such as weight loss, anxiety, tremors, and an irregular heartbeat.
7. Thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.
8. Congenital hypothyroidism: This is a condition where a baby is born without a functioning thyroid gland or with a gland that does not produce enough thyroid hormones.
9. Thyroid cancer in children: This is a type of cancer that affects children and teenagers, usually in the form of papillary or follicular thyroid cancer.
10. Thyroid storm: This is a life-threatening condition where the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones, leading to symptoms such as fever, rapid heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.
These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the thyroid gland. It's important to be aware of these conditions and seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or concerns related to your thyroid health.
There are several types of hypotrichosis, including:
1. Congenital hypotrichosis: This type is present at birth and is caused by genetic mutations.
2. Acquired hypotrichosis: This type can develop later in life due to various factors such as hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, or certain medical conditions like thyroid disorders or anemia.
3. Localized hypotrichosis: This type affects only a specific area of the body, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
4. Generalized hypotrichosis: This type affects the entire body.
Hypotrichosis can have a significant impact on an individual's self-esteem and quality of life, especially if it results in noticeable hair loss or thinning. Treatment options for hypotrichosis include medications such as minoxidil (Rogaine) and finasteride (Propecia), as well as non-medical treatments like hair transplantation and low-level laser therapy (LLLT). In some cases, hypotrichosis may be a sign of an underlying medical condition, so it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
There are two main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a benign tumor in one of the parathyroid glands, while secondary hyperparathyroidism is caused by another condition that leads to overproduction of PTH, such as kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency.
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can include:
* High blood calcium levels
* Bone loss or osteoporosis
* Kidney stones
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
Treatment for hyperparathyroidism usually involves surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland or glands. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms before surgery. It is important for individuals with hyperparathyroidism to receive prompt medical attention, as untreated hyperparathyroidism can lead to serious complications such as heart disease and kidney failure.
Adenomas are caused by genetic mutations that occur in the DNA of the affected cells. These mutations can be inherited or acquired through exposure to environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, radiation, or certain chemicals.
The symptoms of an adenoma can vary depending on its location and size. In general, they may include abdominal pain, bleeding, or changes in bowel movements. If the adenoma becomes large enough, it can obstruct the normal functioning of the affected organ or cause a blockage that can lead to severe health complications.
Adenomas are usually diagnosed through endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the affected organ to visualize the inside. Biopsies may also be taken to confirm the presence of cancerous cells.
Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and severity. Small, non-pedunculated adenomas can often be removed during endoscopy through a procedure called endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Larger adenomas may require surgical resection, and in some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be necessary.
In summary, adenoma is a type of benign tumor that can occur in glandular tissue throughout the body. While they are not cancerous, they have the potential to become malignant over time if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with adenomas.
Follicle-stimulating hormone insensitivity
Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor
List of OMIM disorder codes
TGF beta signaling pathway
Human reproductive ecology
Melatonin as a medication and supplement
Carl Axel Gemzell
Pharmacology of bicalutamide
Poor ovarian reserve
Relative energy deficiency in sport
Glycogen branching enzyme
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide
Releasing and inhibiting hormones
Combined oral contraceptive pill
Selective androgen receptor modulator
Age and female fertility
Obesity and fertility
Drugs and sexual desire
Natural cycle in vitro fertilization
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
Sp7 transcription factor
Estrogen insensitivity syndrome
Insulin-like growth factor 2
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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- Description: A competitive Inhibition ELISA kit for detection of Follicle Stimulating Hormone from Dog in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (clinical-trial-logistics.com)
- FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit-ELK Biotechnology CO.,Ltd. (elkbiotech.com)
- FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
- Low FSH levels in men may mean parts of the brain (the pituitary gland or hypothalamus) do not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
- FOLLTROPIN ® (porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone for injection) is a powder for solution containing 700 IU (equivalent to 400 mg NIH-FSH-P1) of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) per vial. (nih.gov)
- Do not use FOLLTROPIN ® in cows that are known to be hypersensitive to the active ingredient, porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone. (nih.gov)
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- Control of FSH production is a complex system involving hormones produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- FSH, or follicle stimulating hormone, is produced by your pituitary gland in response to your estrogen levels. (genesisgold.com)
- Mammalian reproduction depends on the gonadotropins , follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone , which are secreted by pituitary gonadotrope cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Finally, we found that recombinant gremlin stimulated Fshb expression in pituitary cultures from WT mice . (bvsalud.org)
- FSH is a hormone secretion, which is produced by the pituitary gland in humans. (flebo.in)
- The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that maintain normal testicular function. (cdc.gov)
- Production of too much prolactin, a hormone made by the pituitary gland (often due to the presence of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or other conditions that damage or impair the function of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may result in low or no sperm production. (cdc.gov)
- Development of multiple follicles with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in women who have previously received pituitary suppression. (drugs.com)
- FOLLTROPIN ® contains a low amount of luteinizing hormone (less than 1000 μg NIH-LH-S19 per vial). (nih.gov)
- FSH tests are conducted concomitantly with other hormone tests that include Luteinizing Hormone, Testosterone, Estradiol, Progesterone etc, and the results are collectively evaluated, since several combinations of outcomes can detect several conditions. (metropolisindia.com)
- It works with luteinizing hormone in different ways throughout your entire cycle. (getting-pregnant.com)
- If you have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), you will want to pay close attention to your FSH levels, or more specifically, the ratio of luteinizing hormone (LH) to FSH. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Geneva, Switzerland, 20 September 2016 - Addex Therapeutics (SIX: ADXN) announced today the publication of new scientific findings that help unravel the mode of action of dual follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LH/CGR) negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). (addextherapeutics.com)
- All of your follicles available that month die away, even if you're not ovulating, so experts don't think that birth control delays menopause. (webmd.com)
- The menopause transition is experienced by women often involves troublesome symptoms due to changes in the level of reproductive hormones. (nih.gov)
- Perfluoroalkyl substances and incident natural menopause in midlife women: the mediating role of sex hormones. (cdc.gov)
- Causal mediation analysis was applied to quantify the degree to which follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels could mediate the associations between PFAS and incident natural menopause. (cdc.gov)
- Your developing follicles produce estrogen trying to be the egg of the month. (genesisgold.com)
- Their ovaries also make the hormones estrogen and progesterone , which control their period ( menstruation ) and the release of eggs ( ovulation ). (webmd.com)
- FSH signals the ovaries to make estrogen, sometimes called the "female hormone" because women need high levels of it for fertility and overall health. (nih.gov)
- The purposes of this study were to determine and evaluate the biological activities for the commercialization of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) in vitro through the cellular internalization using cloned 293T-FSHR cell lines as target. (engii.org)
- In normal conditions follicle stimulating hormone receptors (FSHR) are expressed in zona granulosa cells of the ovary and Sertoli cells of the testis. (viamedica.pl)
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in mammals reproduction, with the actions of FSH mediated by follicle-stimulating hormone receptors (FSHRs) on the surface of target cells. (engii.org)
- In the present study, we provide further evidence for the existence of VSELs in mouse BM and have also examined the effects of a chemotherapeutic agent (5-fluorouracil (5-FU)) and gonadotropin hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) on BM stem/progenitor cells. (nih.gov)
- 2010) Expression of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor in Tumor Blood Vessels. (engii.org)
- Fan, Q.R. and Hendrickson, W.A. (2005) Structure of Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Complex with Its Receptor. (engii.org)
- 2005) Models of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptor Interaction. (engii.org)
- 19. Distinct beta-arrestin- and G protein-dependent pathways for parathyroid hormone receptor-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. (nih.gov)
- Follicle stimulating hormone in women regulates the cycle of menstruation. (flebo.in)
- During the luteal phase, FSH stimulates the production of progesterone. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is often used in conjunction with other tests ( LH , testosterone , oestradiol and progesterone ) in the investigation of infertility in both men and women. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- The aim of this study was to determine the association between prediagnostic levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and subsequent development of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
- In total, 67 incident invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases were each matched to 1 to 2 controls on age, menopausal status, time since last menstrual period, current hormone use and other relevant factors. (nih.gov)
- In women, FSH stimulates the growth and development of ovarian follicles (eggs) during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- As your egg quality and quantity dwindle - your body will try to compensate by producing more FSH in order to stimulate ovarian function. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Follitropins stimulate ovarian follicular growth in women who do not have primary ovarian failure. (drugs.com)
- This cycle is divided into two phases, the follicular and the luteal, by a mid-cycle surge of FSH and luteinising hormone (LH) . (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- Two hormones work closely together during your cycle to help orchestrate ovulation. (getting-pregnant.com)
- Ovulation (release of the egg from the ovary) occurs shortly after this mid-cycle surge of hormones. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- Even if you're using a birth control method that stops ovulation , it doesn't stop your loss of follicles -- the constant process of your ovary taking them from your resting pool of eggs. (webmd.com)
- 11. Proteolytically activated, recombinant anti-mullerian hormone inhibits androgen secretion, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogonia in adult zebrafish testis organ cultures. (nih.gov)
- Standards or samples are added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells then with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH). (elkbiotech.com)
- 17. Initiation and stimulation of spermatogenesis in vitro by mammalian follicle-stimulating hormone in the Japanese newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. (nih.gov)
- As the name of the hormone suggests, it's essential in stimulating immature follicles to grow within the ovary. (getting-pregnant.com)
- The second presenter is Dr. Susan Girdler and her talk is titled Hormone Sensitivity and the Stressful Life Events: Predictors of Response to Transdermal Estradiol in Perimenopausal Women. (nih.gov)
- Production and development of sexual hormones (oestrogen in women and testosterone in men) are regulated by FSH. (flebo.in)
- During the follicular phase, FSH initiates the production of oestradiol by the follicle and the two hormones work together in the further development of the egg follicle. (pathologytestsexplained.org.au)
- Follicle stimulating hormone is found in the blood of humans and the FHS test can determine the FSH level in women and men. (flebo.in)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone levels do not paint the whole picture, but indicate if further testing is needed. (americanpregnancy.org)
- In contrast, no significant improvement was observed in follicle-stimulating hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. (nih.gov)
- Women with POI have high LH levels, more evidence that the follicles are not functioning normally. (nih.gov)
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Levels Test What is a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels test? (nih.gov)
- The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Why take FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone ECLIA Serum Test? (metropolisindia.com)
- What do your Follicle Stimulating Hormone test results mean? (americanpregnancy.org)
- LH test works closely with another hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to control sexual functions. (nih.gov)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone, commonly known as FSH, is an important hormone in the reproductive processes in both men and women. (americanpregnancy.org)
- One of the crucial functions of this hormone is to develop a sexual system for proper functioning in both men and women. (flebo.in)
- Urofollitropin is a preparation of highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. (drugs.com)
- If you want to determine your egg reserve then get your AMH or anti-Mullerian Hormone drawn too. (genesisgold.com)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone is responsible for growth, maturation, and development of puberty and several reproductive processes of the body. (metropolisindia.com)
- 2012) Total Synthesis of the α-Subunit of Human Glycoprotein Hormones: Toward Fully Synthetic Homogeneous Human Follicle- Stimulating Hormone. (engii.org)
- FSH tests are performed to ascertain various ailments caused by FSH hormonal disorder (overproduction or underproduction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone) within a human body. (flebo.in)
- To resolve these dis- for TSE transmission from human urine-derived hormones crepancies, we used a highly sensitive and precise method and other medicines. (cdc.gov)
- 13. Endocrine and local signaling interact to regulate spermatogenesis in zebrafish: follicle-stimulating hormone, retinoic acid and androgens. (nih.gov)
- Transcription factor GATA2 may potentiate follicle-stimulating hormone production in mice via induction of the BMP antagonist gremlin in gonadotrope cells. (bvsalud.org)
- All of the regions and countries important for the global Follicle Stimulating Hormone market have been analyzed on the basis of market size, CAGR, consumption, production, and growth potential. (qyrconsulting.com)
- 6. Fsh stimulates Leydig cell Wnt5a production, enriching zebrafish type A spermatogonia. (nih.gov)
- When trying to conceive, your Follicle Stimulating Hormone level needs to be below 10mIU/ml. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Players could use it to enhance their growth strategies and cement a strong position in the global Follicle Stimulating Hormone market. (qyrconsulting.com)
- Using the segmental analysis offered in the report, players could focus on key growth pockets of the global Follicle Stimulating Hormone market. (qyrconsulting.com)
- FSH Hormone disorders are quite common these days. (flebo.in)
- 5. Grigorova M, Punab M, Poolamets O, Kelgo P, Ausmees K, Korrovits P, Vihljajev V, Laan M. (2010) Increased Prevalance of the -211 T allele of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit promoter polymorphism and lower serum FSH in infertile men . (ut.ee)
- LH signals a mature follicle to release an egg. (nih.gov)