An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Hormones produced in the testis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/5093)

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In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (2/5093)

Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles.  (+info)

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (3/5093)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (4/5093)

Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (5/5093)

We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (6/5093)

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

Time at surgery during menstrual cycle and menopause affects pS2 but not cathepsin D levels in breast cancer. (7/5093)

Many studies have addressed the clinical value of pS2 as a marker of hormone responsiveness and of cathepsin D (Cath D) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Because pS2 and Cath D are both oestrogen induced in human breast cancer cell lines, we studied the influence of the menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status at the time of surgery on the levels of these proteins in breast cancer. A population of 1750 patients with breast cancer, including 339 women in menstrual cycle, was analysed. Tumoral Cath D and pS2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum oestradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at the day of surgery were used to define the hormonal phase in premenopausal women. There was a trend towards a higher mean pS2 level in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (17 ng mg(-1) and 11 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.09). Mean pS2 was lower in menopausal patients than in women with cycle (8 ng mg(-1) and 14 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in mean Cath D level were observed between the different phases of the menstrual cycle, or between pre- and post-menopausal women. In the overall population, pS2 was slightly positively associated with E2 and Pg levels and negatively associated with FSH and LH, probably reflecting the link between pS2 and menopausal status. In premenopausal women, no association was found between pS2 and E2, Pg, FSH or LH levels. There were no correlations between Cath D level and circulating hormone levels in the overall population. However, in the subgroup of premenopausal women with ER-positive (ER+) tumours, E2 was slightly associated with both pS2 and Cath D, consistent with oestrogen induction of these proteins in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. There are changes in pS2 level in breast cancer throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. This suggests that the choice of the pS2 cut-off level should take the hormonal status at the time of surgery into account. In contrast, the level of Cath D is unrelated to the menstrual cycle and menopausal status.  (+info)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection after follicle stimulation with highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone compared with human menopausal gonadotropin. (8/5093)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality after pituitary down-regulation and ovarian stimulation with highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). METHODS: Fifty-five patients 37 years of age or younger who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, male factor was the only indication for treatment, with no female-related factors identified. Following pituitary down-regulation, patients were stimulated with hMG (n = 20) or highly purified FSH (n = 35). Main outcome measures included ovarian response to stimulation, oocyte maturity, and ICSI fertilization results. Secondary outcome measures included pregnancy rates and outcome. RESULTS: The ovarian response to stimulation was similar for the two groups, as were the percentage of metaphase II oocytes, fertilization and cleavage rates, and number and quality of transferred and cryopreserved embryos. Cycle outcome was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In normogonadotropic subjects, monocomponent therapy with highly purified FSH is as effective as hMG in stimulating ovarian follicular development, synchronization of oocyte maturation, and IVF-ICSI outcome. Our findings support the conclusion that the luteinizing hormone component in the stimulation protocol is unnecessary.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone on receptors of follicle-stimulating hormone in the testis of the immature Japanese quail. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. AU - Ishii, Susumu. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Binding of radioactive rat follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to a particulate fraction of testicular homogenate of Japanese quail cockerels increased progressively with age when the cockerels were reared under long-day photoperiods from the day of hatch. The binding per unit weight of tissue (density of binding) showed a rapid increase from Day 23 to 29. It showed a decrease during the period between Days 29 and 36 when active spermatogenesis took place. The binding per testes (total binding) increased during the period from Day 23 to 36, Both density of binding and total binding remained low in cockerels reared under short-day photoperiods. Injections of testosterone to short-day cockerels at 1.0 mg/day for 3 days increased the density of binding 1.3-fold, but ...
low fsh - MedHelps low fsh Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low fsh. Find low fsh information, treatments for low fsh and low fsh symptoms.
PFSH - Pure Follicle-Stimulating Hormone. Looking for abbreviations of PFSH? It is Pure Follicle-Stimulating Hormone. Pure Follicle-Stimulating Hormone listed as PFSH
How is Porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone abbreviated? pFSH stands for Porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone. pFSH is defined as Porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone rarely.
The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level should be checked to rule out primary ovarian failure. In patients with PCOS, FSH levels are within the reference range or low. Luteinizing hormone (LH) le... more
The inhibitory action on FSH secretion of combined oestradiol and progesterone treatment of ovariectomized, immature rats was studied at various ages. At all ages studied (13-35 days) an additional inhibitory action of progesterone, if combined with oestradiol, could be found as compared with the effect of oestradiol alone. Until 20 days of age, the rise in serum FSH concentration as measured 2 days after ovariectomy could be completely prevented by administration of 0·05 μg oestradiol/100 g body weight or by administration of a lower dose of oestradiol (0·01-0·025 μg) combined with progesterone (0·5-1·5 mg/100 g body weight). After 20 days neither oestradiol nor the combined oestradiol/progesterone treatment resulted in an FSH concentration similar to that found in intact rats. However, the lowest FSH concentrations were reached by using combinations of oestradiol and progesterone.. Using progesterone alone, FSH concentration in ovariectomized rats was significantly reduced between 18 ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a member of gonadotropin family, is critical for follicular maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis. Serum FSH levels are known to fluctuate during different phases of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women, and increase considerably after the menopause as a result of ovarian function cessation. There is little existing evidence to guide researchers in estimating the reliability of serum FSH measurements. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of FSH measurement using stored sera from an ongoing prospective cohort - the NYU Womens Health Study. Sixty healthy women (16 premenopausal, 44 postmenopausal), who donated at least two blood samples at approximately 1-year intervals were studied. An immunoradiometric assay using a sandwich monoclonal antibodies technique was used to measure FSH levels in serum. The reliability of a single log-transformed FSH measurement, as determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.70 for postmenopausal
Results: AMH was significantly higher in women with persistently elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy. Women with normal FSH did not have significant difference in AMH level between conceived and non conceived cycles. Women with only one elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy did not have significant difference in AMH level with non pregnant women. Response to gonadotropin stimulation, recommendation to oocyte donation significantly differed between the groups ...
FSH (Follicles Stimulating Hormone) fluctuate during a womans monthly cycle. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland to encourage the egg to ripen and mature. FSH levels are tested by fertility specialists because they give a very good indication about the state of the ovarian reserve. If FSH levels are raised they may indicate increased stress levels and in women over 35, high FSH levels may be indicative of perimenopause. This does not mean that they cannot get pregnant, it simply means that they need help to support healthy ovulation. High levels of FSH also indicate poor egg quality and that a woman may not be able to ovulate regularly each month. For menstruating women, the normal FSH levels during the follicular or luteal phase should range between 5 and 20 IU/L (international units per liter.) Right before ovulation during the mid-cycle peak, FSH levels should be between 30 and 50 IU/L. If a woman is post-menopausal, her FSH levels will be naturally higher, at 50 IU/L or more. If ...
Inhibin B as a serum marker of psermatogenesis: Correlation to differences in sperm concentration and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. A study of 349 Danish men ...
LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), play significant roles in follicular development and maintenance of the estrous cycle. FSH specifically functions to stimulate follicle growth, estrogen synthesis and serve as a selection factor for dominant follicles, which are essential to maintain fertility. FSH exists in two glycoforms: diglycosylated FSH (DiGlycFSH) and tetraglycosylated FSH (TetGlycFSH). The DiGlycFSH contains carbohydrates on the α subunit only, while TetGlycFSH has carbohydrates on both α and β subunits. Pituitary extraction of FSH shows that in young reproductive age women, the DiGlycFSH is more abundant than TetGlycFSH, whereas post menopausal women have more pituitary TetGlycFSH. Bioassay of DiGlycFSH shows that it has greater biological activity than TetGlycFSH. Due to limited availability of DiGlycFSH, bacterial expression of recombinant human (h)FSH (rec hFSH) is needed to provide sufficient glycoform for structural and biological studies. We report our efforts towards ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland. FSH stimulates follicle development and maturation in females. It also plays an important role in spermatogenesis in males, including humans and mice. However, the effects of FSH on male pigs are largely unknown. In this study, we generated transgenic pigs to investigate the effects of FSHα/β overexpression on reproductive traits in boars. After five transgenic F0 founders were crossed with wide-type pigs, 193 F1 animals were obtained. Of these, 96 were confirmed as transgenic. FSHα and FSHβ mRNAs were detected only in pituitary tissue. Transgenic boars exhibited significantly higher levels of FSHα and FSHβ mRNA, serum FSH, and serum testosterone, compared to full-sib non-transgenic boars. Significant increases in testis weight, vas deferens diameter, seminiferous tubule diameter, and the number of Leydig cells were observed, suggesting that the exogenous FSHα/β affects reproductive ...
Package Details:. FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE ( FSH ). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. Its responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. In men, FSH is a part of the development of the gonads as well as sperm production.. LUTEINIZING HORMONE ( LH ). Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an important hormone both men and women produce. This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility.. PROLACTIN. Prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. Its also known as PRL or lactogenic hormone. Prolactin is mainly used to help women produce milk after childbirth.. Insulin Fasting. Your fasting insulin level reflects how healthy your blood glucose levels are over time. Insulin ...
Package Details:. FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE ( FSH ). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. Its responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. In men, FSH is a part of the development of the gonads as well as sperm production.. LUTEINIZING HORMONE ( LH ). Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an important hormone both men and women produce. This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility.. PROLACTIN. Prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. Its also known as PRL or lactogenic hormone. Prolactin is mainly used to help women produce milk after childbirth.. Insulin Fasting. Your fasting insulin level reflects how healthy your blood glucose levels are over time. Insulin ...
There is increased interest in the use of a progesterone cream derived from plant sources as an alternative to conventional hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. Leonetti and colleagues conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of transdermal progesterone cream in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms and preventing bone loss.. The 102 postmenopausal women recruited for the one-year study were within five years of menopause, had not used hormonal products in the preceding year and had serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels that indicated menopause. Assessment at the beginning of the study included history and physical examination, administration of a questionnaire for depression, measurement of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip, and laboratory tests for cholesterol, low-and high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, as well as serum chemistry values. A lipid profile was ...
FSH Levels Definition - FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels in women are measured on day 3 of the menstrual cycle to evaluate menstrual...
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for various reproductive functions in both female and males. FSH level can be checked to evaluate function of reproductive organs and the pituitary gland and can help in diagnosing the cause of infertility, abnormal menstruation etc.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an important role in sexual development. An FSH test to measure the level of FSH in the bloodstream may be done if a boy or girl appears to be entering puberty earlier or later than expected.
Related Articles The interactions between the stimulatory effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and the inhibitory effect of estrogen on mouse primordial folliculogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2010 Jan;82(1):13-22 Authors: Lei L, Jin S, Mayo KE, Woodruff TK Abstract The murine primordial follicle pool develops largely within 3 days after birth through germline nest breakdown and
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by the pituitary gland, a pea-sized gland in the brain that plays an important role in sexual development. An FSH test measures the level of this hormone in the bloodstream.. In kids, FSH levels are normally low. As puberty approaches (usually between ages 10 and 14), the brain produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which starts the changes toward sexual maturity. GnRH signals the pituitary gland to release two puberty hormones into the bloodstream: FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH). Doctors often order a test for LH when ordering a blood test for FSH.. In boys, FSH and LH work together to get the testes to begin producing testosterone, the hormone responsible for the physical changes of puberty and the production of sperm.. In girls, FSH and LH prompt the ovaries to begin producing the hormone estrogen, which causes a girls body to mature and prepares her for menstruation.. Because FSH and LH work so closely with each other, doctors often ...
LH and FSH levels - MedHelps LH and FSH levels Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for LH and FSH levels. Find LH and FSH levels information, treatments for LH and FSH levels and LH and FSH levels symptoms.
Question - Have low FSH and LH. Progesterone levels below 1. Not able to sleep and have pain. Are the hormonal levels ok?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Poor ovarian reserve, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Buy high affinity anti-human Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Monoclonal Antibody for in vitro diagnostic kit manufacturing and research uses - Inquire for details!
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone answers are found in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Hey guys, new thread here because of no more replies/reaction to my 1st. New blood work results. Kinda unsure about the low lh and low test but high normal fsh. Testes look perfectly normal. Currently done with IR b…
Blood Test: Estradiol - KidsHealth Blood Test: Estradiol. (luteinizing hormone, or LH; and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH) that work together to stimulate the ovaries to make estradiol. FSH - Clinical: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Serum FSH In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the
Inclusion Criteria: - 1. Women who are post-menopausal, defined as one of the following 1. , 50 years old and a) have not menstruated during the preceding 12 months per medical record review or self-report or b) have follicle-stimulating hormone levels , 40 IU/L at screening OR 2. 40 IU/L at screening OR 3. history of bilateral oophorectomy per medical record review or self-report. 2. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) per medical record review. 3. Patients must be candidates to receive treatment on the companion therapeutic trial Estrogen Receptor-α Inhibitor in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (ERA PAH) (IRB# 824861 ERA PAH) 4. Participants must be informed of the investigational nature of this study and be willing to provide written informed consent and participate in this study in accordance with institutional and federal guidelines prior to study-specific procedures. Exclusion Criteria: - 1. Inability to tolerate imaging procedures in the opinion of an ...
ACCU Reference Medical Lab is a regional leader in the fields of toxicology, pharmacogenetics and molecular testing, in addition to routine blood and urine testing. In particular, ACCU Reference Medical Lab has revolutionized testing for respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, which allows for a significantly earlier detection of pathogens than any other technology.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gonadotropin modulation of interleukin-1 secretion.. AU - Corwin, E. J.. AU - Cannon, Joseph Gerard. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of pituitary gonadotropins, which increase dramatically in concentration at ovulation and in the early years of the postmenopausal transition, on inflammatory cytokine production. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population sampling, in vitro experimentation. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy subjects, including six men, five women between the ages of 18 and 35 years, and four women who were four to 20 years past menopause. METHOD: Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with physiological concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted into the supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Under basal conditions, FSH stimulated IL-1 beta secretion by cells ...
This is the first ever video footage of ovulation captured with an endoscope inserted through cut in womens vaginal wall, the patient monitored for temperature and hormones to predict when she is about ovulate and when to begin filming, here you can see the ovary end of fallopian tubule covered by finger like projection called fimbria, A mucous plug containing the egg breaks away from the ovary, the fingers move in time with the womens heart beat and become more distinct when the reach for the egg, eventually they sweep egg into the fallopian tube where pass into the uterus The process of ovulation is controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain and through the release of hormones secreted in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, (Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)). In the follicular (pre-ovulatory) phase of the menstrual cycle, the ovarian follicle will undergo a series of transformations called cumulus expansion, this is stimulated by the secretion of FSH. ...
I have a high FSH of 23 but nothing else wrong except since I have had 4 ICSI treatments my periods are all over the place! last treatment 2 years ago, would have thought by now they would have sorted it although I presume by my high fsh it could be that !!! anyway I have had 2 x ICSI with my own eggs and 2 x donor eggs using ICSI . My sister has offered to give me eggs but where I have not had TMT for 2 years I have probably accepted that its all over . I am not what everyone would say as desporate and my life would be over cause I seem to have gone through that and come out the other side , I guess its just an age thing I dont know . I feel I should have councilling to draw the final line under it all but at the same time scared to step foot inside the door for the fear of going backwards !!!! DOES THIS MAKE SENCE???? I am 40 next birthday and Cam will be 50 and we agreed that we would stop when I am 40 . its weird cause I feel like I should pick a day and say thats it but affraid that that ...
Expression of biologically active heterodimeric bovine follicle-stimulating hormone in milk of transgenic mice.: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin)
This is a home for all women over 40 that are trying to beat the odds and have a child. We face special challenges and concerns. Everyone is welcome to visit. Please come and share your experiences and support others in the same situtation.
This is a home for all women over 40 that are trying to beat the odds and have a child. We face special challenges and concerns. Everyone is welcome to visit. Please come and share your experiences and support others in the same situtation.
Fertilisation represents a complex series of changes and interaction between the sperm and the egg. Normally the egg matures within the growing follicle, which is a small fluid filled sac like structure with in the ovary. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) allows development and maturation of the follicle and its egg. The luteinising hormone (LH/hCG) allows the mature follicle to prepare the egg for fertilisation. In natural cycles, only one follicle and egg develops fully. By contrast in an IVF cycle, the ovary is stimulated with hormones to allow multiple eggs to develop simultaneously. At the appropriate time these eggs are removed after they have completed their maturation in the ovary. The egg is surrounded by a shell called the `zona pellucida and a group of cells called the `cumulus oophorus.. Naturally after the sperm are ejaculated in the vagina, they swim upwards, through the womb and into the fallopian tubes where they expect to meet the egg. On the other hand in an IVF cycle, ...
Cinnal-f® (Follitropin alfa) is a recombinant DNA origin based hormone identical to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the pituitary gland. FSH helps to develop eggs in the ovaries.
Book Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Lab Test appointment online at Home. View details of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: procedure, normal range and Get the reports Online
Book Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Lab Test appointment online at Home. View details of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: procedure, normal range and Get the reports Online
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone is one of the four glycoprotein hormones. Proteins of this family share a common α subunit and have a specific β subunit. They present structural features of the superfamily of cysteine knot protein (this superfamily contain the TGFβ family, bone morphogenetic proteins, …) (Fan and Hendrickson, 2005; Grossmann et al., 1997; Vitt et al., 2001).
Hi, I am 32 yrs old my husband is also 32 and we have been trying to have a baby for about 7 years now. I have a very high FSH level of 10.18 and my doctor
FSH also known as follicle stimulating hormone can affect the ability to get pregnant High levels of FSH in the bloodstream could typically indicate low ...
目的探讨GnRH-a降调节后月经第3天血清FSH、LH水平与体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)结局的关系.方法回顾分析2001年4月至2003年6月佛山市第一人民医院妇科生殖中心75例IVF-ET临床妊娠患者GnRH-a降调节后月经第3天血清FSH、LH… Expand ...
The potential benefit of adding recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) during ovarian stimulation is a subject of debate, although there is evidence that it may benefit certain subpopulations, e.g. poor responders. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL) were searched (from 1990 to 2011). Prospective, parallel-, comparative-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in women aged 18-45 years undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or both, treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and r-hFSH plus r-hLH or r-hFSH alone were included. The co-primary endpoints were number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate. Analyses were conducted for the overall population and for prospectively identified patient subgroups, including patients with poor ovarian response (POR). In total, 40 RCTs (6443 patients) were included in the analysis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long GnRH-agonist protocol in an IVF program. T2 - Is it appropriate for women with normal FSH levels and high FSH/LH ratios?. AU - Yang, Jehn Hsiahn. AU - Wu, Ming Yih. AU - Chao, Kuang Han. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. PY - 1997/10/1. Y1 - 1997/10/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine whether subjects with an elevated ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to luteinizing hormone (LH) but normal basal FSH levels should be regarded as poor responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred twenty-five women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the first time were recruited in this retrospective cohort study. Women over 40 years old or having serum basal FSH , 10 mIU/mL were excluded. RESULTS: Various cutoff values for the FSH/LH ratio were chosen, and the ratio demonstrated that pregnancy rates were apparently higher in patients with the long protocol than with the short one if they had an FSH/LH ratio , 3.0 (48.5% ...
article{20d48e6c-fa57-43f8-9d78-27aa9c69d734, abstract = {,p,OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of FE 999049, a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), after multiple dosing in healthy women, taking into account endogenous FSH levels and the reproductive hormone dynamics.,/p,,p,METHODS: Longitudinal measurements of FSH, luteinising hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and inhibin B levels were collected after repeated subcutaneous dosing with 225 IU of FE 999049 in 24 gonadotropin downregulated healthy women. The FSH data were described using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling.,/p,,p,RESULTS: The measured FSH levels were modelled as a sum of endogenous FSH and FE 999049. The FE 999049 population pharmacokinetics were best described using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination, and a transit model for delayed absorption. The apparent clearance and volume of distribution increased with body weight in ...
High FSH and Premature Ovarian Failure - Have you been diagnosed with high fsh or premature ovarian failure? This board offers support and advice and
High FSH and Premature Ovarian Failure, Page 2 - Have you been diagnosed with high fsh or premature ovarian failure? This board offers support and adv
Testicular function declines with normal aging, while serum immunoreactive LH and FSH levels increase. Since there are reports of an age-related decrease in the ratio of bioactivity to immunoreactivity (B/I ratio) for LH, we used a newly available bioassay for FSH to assess age-associated changes in the bioactivity and B/I ratio of FSH in man. Thirty-nine healthy men (23 young and 16 elderly) had single blood samples drawn. In addition, a subset of these men (12 young and 13 elderly) underwent frequent blood sampling for 24 h, both before and after 7 days of clomiphene citrate (CC) administration. Hourly blood samples from the 24-h sampling were pooled, and these, along with the single samples, were assayed for FSH by an in vitro bioassay system, using estrogen production by immature rat granulosa cells as the end point, and by RIA. Baseline single sample mean FSH, as measured by bioassay, was similar in young and elderly men [386 +/- 98 (+/- SEM) and 342 +/- 77 ng/mL, respectively]. Baseline ...
{ consumer: Includes info on follicle-stimulating hormone test, pelvic inflammatory disease, and semen analysis. Also has links to info on hysterectomy, vaginal yeast infections, and enlarged prostate., clinical: Includes info on follicle-stimulating hormone test, pelvic inflammatory disease, and semen analysis. Also has links to info on hysterectomy, vaginal yeast infections, and enlarged prostate. } Centre County, Pennsylvania
To study the effect of LH/FSH ratio and its correlation with insulin resistance in PCOS obese woman. The study includes 100 PCOS obese females of age 18-45 yrs. Further analysis revealed that the majority of obese PCOS woman shows abnormal LH/FSH ratio which correlate with insulin resistance compared to normal control subjects. In PCOS women, normal gonadotropin-ovarian axis is disturbed. This is reflected by the higher levels of LH, lower FSH levels and reversal of LH: FSH ratio. Further Insulin resistance perceived as the main cause for the development of PCOS.
The Bernard lab investigates molecular mechanisms of pituitary hormone synthesis using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Research in the lab concerns: 1) signal transduction mechanisms through which members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily regulate pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis, 2) mechanisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling in pituitary gonadotrope cells, and 3) hypothalamic-pituitary control of thyroid hormone production ...
Aim: To determine the value of basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) levels on cycle day 3 in predicting the ovulation stimulation response in patients receiving exogenous gonadotropins for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Methods: One hundred eleven consecutive females with infertility due to various etiologies were investigated. Cycle day 3 serum levels of FSH, LH, and E2 were determined prior to ovulation induction with a combination of clomiphene citrate and human gonadotropins. Follicular growth was monitored ultrasonically, and when appropriate, oocytes were recruited, counted, graded, and then used, as prearranged, for either IVF or GIFT. Basal hormone levels were compared to the peak E2 concentration, the number of follicles aspirated, and the number of preovulatory oocytes recovered following drug therapy. Details of resulting pregnancies were also recorded. Results: Patients with low basal FSH levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor DNA sequencing. T2 - Investigation into possible glycoprotein receptor mutation in Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome. AU - Sanjeevaiah, Aravind Raj. AU - Vassart, Gilbert. AU - Costagliola, Sabine. AU - Srikanta, Sri S.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58149463971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58149463971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.4158/EP.14.5.648. DO - 10.4158/EP.14.5.648. M3 - Letter. C2 - 18753112. AN - SCOPUS:58149463971. VL - 14. JO - Endocrine Practice. JF - Endocrine Practice. SN - 1530-891X. IS - 5. ER - ...
Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1) PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O) + polycystic ovaries (P) + hyperandrogenism (H) 2) P + O, 3) P + H, and 4) O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (abbreviated FSH, sometimes called Follitropine) is a glycoprotein and sex steroid. It is synthesised in the adeno hypophysis of pituitary gland. In females it will cause the growth of follicles in the ovaries and controlls the synthesising process of progesteron, in males, it will lead to the production of sperm. Other hormones control the release of FSH. Luteinizing hormone will cause ovulation in females, or the production of testosterone in males. ...
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1
Women are born with all of the eggs they will ever have. Over time, their ovarian reserve (the quality and quantity of eggs in their ovaries) declines. This decline is often referred to as Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR). The most common causes of DOR are age and elevated Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). So how can you tell if your FSH is normal? FSH can be determined through a simple blood test by your Reproductive Endocrinologist on day 3 of your menstrual cycle. More recently, an at-home test has come on the market to give you a preliminary FSH reading before seeing a fertility specialist. These at-home tests can help you to gauge the urgency of seeing a fertility doctor to build your family, consider treatments like IVF with donor eggs, or continue trying to conceive with timed intercourse. To find out more about testing your FSH at home, which FSH levels fall in the normal or abnormal range, and when to see a fertility doctor about your ovarian reserve, check out this article by
Patients. 1006 healthy, white, recently postmenopausal women 45 to 58 years of age (mean age 50 y, mean time since menopause 0.6 y), with last menstrual bleeding 3 to 24 months before study entry, or perimenopausal symptoms (including irregular menstruation) and postmenopausal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , 2 SDs greater than the premenopausal mean. Women 45 to 52 years of age who had had a hysterectomy were included if they had increased serum FSH. Exclusion criteria included history of bone disease, cancer, or thromboembolic disease; glucocorticoid therapy for , 6 months; HRT in the past 3 months; or alcohol or drug dependency. ...
Buy Follistatin-344 Peptide Steroid Hormones Inhibits Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Release direct from Peptide Steroid Hormones of China Factory that provide Latest Peptide Steroid Hormones - gearsteroids.
Includes info on follicle-stimulating hormone test, pelvic inflammatory disease, and semen analysis. Also has links to info on hysterectomy, vaginal yeast infections, and enlarged prostate.
Backer, L.C., Rubin, C.S., Marcus, M., Kieszak, S.M., Schober, S.E. . Serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in women aged 35-60 in the U.S. population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on ovarian follicles at three stages of development (emergence, dominance and early static phases) during the first follicular wave (FFW) in Holstein heifers. Heifers (n=20) were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=5 in each group). Heifers received eCG (500 IU; Folligon®; Intervet, Holland; i.m) a) on the day of follicle emergence (day of ovulation; group 1), b) on the dominant phase (dominant follicle (DF): the first day in which follicle was observed at ≥10 mm; group 2, and c) on the early static phase (group 3) of the FFW. Control group heifers did not receive any treatment. Daily ultrasonography was conducted to monitor ovarian structure throughout estrous cycle. All treatment group heifers, regardless of the stage of follicle development, displayed follicle growth after eCG injection. Administration of eCG, in group 1, hastened DF detection and induced co-dominant follicles; whereas,
Genetic rescue of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-deficient mice.: FSH is an alpha:beta heterodimeric pituitary glycoprotein that shares a common alpha-subuni
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may also be involved in decreasing bone mineral density during menopause, according to new research at the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, GA.
In this study, we observed that in PCOS, the cumulative A4 response to low-dose rhFSH is a more valid measure of the number of selected follicles than the cumulative Estradiol (E2) response [13].. The early and midfollicular A4 variations are more critical determinants than the late follicular variations (following follicle selection), because drops or plateauing observed in A4 in the late stages did not influence cycle outcome. The A4 respond to rhFSH was earlier than that of E2 in cycles with progressive follicular growth and conception.. In six cycles cancelled due to lack of response to rhFSH, there was no A4 response. In contrast, in four of the eight cycles cancelled due to excessive response, a dosage step-up had been made due to lack of E2response, while there had already been an initial A4response. If this corrective information could have been taken into account, an unnecessary step-up could have been avoided.. PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, and is reported ...
Was told by my doctor that my only option was Donor Egg, I had a laparoscopy done for right ovarian cyst in July, she never put me on meds afterwards, instead waiting nearly 7 months to check my FSH level which was 24.4 with a very low AMH and than says IVF is off the table for you and goes on to discuss Donor Eggs. Talk about cold hearted! I went for a second opinion with Dr. Zhang of New Hope Feritlity, he says I still have a chance, only had 2 follicles measure 4mm on day 3 of my period. Have an appointment tomorrow I guess to see if the follicles are growing ...
Luteal phase deficiency is one of the major areas of discussion in relation to finding out the causes of infertility. When Luteal phase occurs in women, normal functioning of the incubator in the body gets severely restricted. The process involves not only the egg, but it also interferes with the fetal journey from the ovary to the uterus. Luteal phase deficiency concerns the lack of synthesis of the endometrial covering of the uterus. Read up the rest of this article to bone up authentic information on Luteal phase defect and related issues.. Before elaborating further on Luteal phase deficiency, lets form a basic idea about Luteal phase. Before ovulation takes place, the pituitary gland synthesizes and discharges luteinizing hormone (LH). This hormone, along with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), acts as a stimulant for the ovaries to synthesize estrogen and let the controlling follicle to release a developed egg. Note that the dominant follicle caves in as soon as the egg is released. The ...
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) of human oocytes followed by the replacement of embryo in the uterine cavity has become a well established treatment for female infertility attributable to damaged fallopian tubes, endometriosis or unexplained causes where alternative forms of therapy have failed. The most commonly used protocols of follicular stimulation now employs follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and long-acting agonists of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to prevent the occurrence of a mid-cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and to ensure the induction of well-synchronized larger cohort of ovarian follicles.. The results of a number of studies have demonstrated that in the majority of clinical situations, FSH administration alone is sufficient to achieve successful follicular development. A study had shown that in subjects receiving recombinant human-follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) and recombinant human-luteinizing hormone (r-hLH), pregnancy rates were similar in the younger and ...
Follicle Stimulating HormoneFollicle stimulating hormone is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the body. This hormone regulates ovulation,
Your pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate your menstrual cycle. The level of these hormones fluctuate when a woman experiences menopause, particularly as oestrogen levels decrease.
FSH regulates the development growth, pubertal maturation and reproductive processes of the body. Disregulation of FSH levels is a result of several disease states. Most of these secretory abnormalities are associated with infertility.
What is the difference between FSH and LH? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) are commonly referred to as gonadotropins. FSH...
Testosterone, is also produced by the ovaries and plays a role in generating energy, developing muscle mass and stimulating sexual desire.. The balance of these hormones in your body at any given time is affected by many factors. The pituitary gland, a gland found at the base of your brain, and your ovaries are constantly communicating via their respective hormones, dictating the changing hormone levels of your monthly cycle and the production of eggs. The pituitary gland produces a follicle-stimulating hormone among other hormones. Medications, stress, body weight (over or under), time of day and even time of the moth can all cause temporary changes in your hormone.. Once we reach the Matriarch Phase of life, permanent changes to the hormone levels and hormone balance occur. The ovaries will slowly begin to stop releasing eggs, which at this point may no longer be viable. When this happens they also quit producing their hormones. This will usually happen over a period of time, beginning ...
Goh, H.H.,Karim, S.M.M.,Ratnam, S.S. (1983). Control of gonadotrophin secretion by steroid hormones in male castrates: Site of oestradiol action. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 23 (1) : 39-42. [email protected] Repository ...
I got some very stange lab results in today. Luteinizing Hormone Result |0.1 Flagged Low Units IU/L Range 1.7-8.6 FSH Serum Result 0.3 Flagged Low
Considered one of the most popular herbs in Europe and other Western nations for the support of gynecological imbalances. Inhibit follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): Vitex increases the secretion of luteinising hormone (LH), which in turn increases progesterone. It is affective at lengthening the luteal phase. While it
rhFSH and rhActA have been used in mammalian ovarian follicle culture systems for activation of follicular growth in vitro and suggested to be responsible for primordial follicle survival through MAPK and Akt pathways. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of rhFSH and rhActA on Akt, pAkt, MAPK1/3 and pMAPK1/3 protein levels in bovine ovarian cortical strips cultured in vitro. Ovarian cortical strips from heifers were cultured in the presence of rhFSH (50 ng/mL), rhActA (100 ng/mL) or combination of these factors for 6 days. The strips were embedded in paraffin for histological observations and homogenized for western blot to determine Akt, pAkt, MAPK1/3 and pMAPK1/3 protein levels after the culture. Determination of primordial, primary and secondary follicle proportions at the end of culture as well as comparison of healthy follicle for each developmental stage after the culture was performed to quantify follicle survival and activation. pAkt protein levels were significantly lower in rhFSH
Fertility is a natural process to insure the survival of human species. Through natural selection, we produce many offspring when the reproductive system works at its peak in the suitable environment with plenty of food around. On the other hand, the reproductive system may completely shut down or work at its minimum state in reproduction of offspring, when the environment is hostile including less foods around, war, epidemic, but regardless of all these factors, most women are capable of conceiving during their menstrual stages before menopause ...
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR). This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients.
Testosterone is the most important sex hormone that men have. Learn the causes, symptoms, and treatment of low testosterone from the experts
Synonyms for FSH in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for FSH. 1 synonym for FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone. What are synonyms for FSH?
Question - Trying to concieve, variations in egg size, injections to rupture follicle, not released. Any suggestions? . Ask a Doctor about Follicle-stimulating hormone, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Follistim (follitropin beta) contains human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) that is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology. Follistim AQ cartridge is a prefilled, premixed recombinant gonadotropin.
We need follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and estradiol levels (E2) on either Day 2 or 3 of your cycle.
Note: You DO NOT need to re-record a PFSH if there is an earlier version available on the chart. It is acceptable to review the old PFSH and note any changes. In order to use this shortcut, you must note the date and location of the previous PFSH and comment on any changes in the information since the original PFSH was recorded. For example, if you are seeing an established patient in the office you can write: Comprehensive PFSH which was performed during a previous encounter was re-examined and reviewed with the patient. There is nothing new to add today. For details, please refer to my previous note in this chart, dated 11/23/2004. ( From EMUniversity.com) ...
Luteinizing hormone (FH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are both known as gonadotropins because they stimulate the gonads in both males and females to produce steroid hormones. In males,...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (abbreviated FSH, sometimes called Follitropine) is a glycoprotein and sex steroid. It is ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Follicle-stimulating_hormone&oldid=6422886" ... Other hormones control the release of FSH. Luteinizing hormone will cause ovulation in females, or the production of ... In females it will cause the growth of follicles in the ovaries and controlls the synthesising process of progesteron, in males ...
... luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) (in ... Melatonin can suppress libido by inhibiting secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior ... Melatonin can lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels.[33] Melatonin's effects on human reproduction remain unclear.[34] ... Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.[3] It is primarily released by the pineal gland.[3][4] As a supplement ...
gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone a follicle-stimulating hormone). *glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, an integrin found on platelets that ... Hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Enzyme Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, ... Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and hormone-cell interactions ...
SLC46A1 Follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency, isolated; 229070; FSHB Foveal hyperplasia; 136520; PAX6 Foveomacular dystrophy ... SECISBP2 Thyroid hormone resistance; 188570; THRB Thyroid hormone resistance, autosomal recessive; 274300; THRB Thyroid hormone ... HESX1 Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type IA; 262400; GH1 Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type IB; 612781; GH1 ... GHRHR Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type II; 173100; GH1 Growth hormone insensitivity with immunodeficiency; 245590; ...
Inactivating mutations in PROP1 result in deficiencies of luteinizing hormone (LH; MIM 152780), follicle-stimulating hormone ( ... and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; MIM 188540). See combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD; MIM 262600).[supplied by ... 2000). "Combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a novel mutation of a highly conserved residue (F88S) in the ... 1998). "The PROP1 2-base pair deletion is a common cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency" (PDF). J. Clin. Endocrinol. ...
It directly affects follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Follistatin also is implicated in prostate cancers where ... They also regulate many hormones including pituitary, gonadal and hypothalamic hormones as well as insulin. They are also nerve ... Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), Activin, Nodal and TGFβ's. Signaling begins with the binding of a TGF beta superfamily ligand to ...
The pituitary glycoprotein hormone family includes follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, ... This gene encodes the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone. In conjunction with luteinizing hormone, follicle- ... Shome B, Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ... "Localization of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) immunoreactivity and hormone receptor mRNA in testicular tissue of infertile ...
In contrast, follicle-stimulating hormone levels remained unchanged. A slight but significant increase in prolactin levels was ... "Adverse Effects of Hormones and Hormone Antagonists on the Liver". Drug-Induced Liver Disease. pp. 605-619. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... It has also been studied as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and to treat acne and seborrhea in ... Nilutamide has been studied for use as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women. It has been assessed in ...
Hypothalamic GnRH pulse influences the pulsatile secretion of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Ellison, Peter T. (2001). On Fertile Ground: A Natural History of Human Reproduction. ... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) into the testes, which produce testosterone. The central event in puberty for females is ... The follicle number decrease to 300,000-400,000 at the age of menarche. In the entire reproductive age, these follicles undergo ...
The menstrual cycle process is controlled by four major hormones: FSH (follicle stimulating hormone); LH (luteinising hormone ... The FSH makes several follicles grow in one of the ovaries. Each follicle contains an immature ova (egg). These follicles ... The follicle that contains the ovum swells and breaks open. (In the next stage, the leftover cells of the follicle turn into an ... The follicle cells that used to hold the ovum now release progesterone into the body. This causes the endometrium to get even ...
... can suppress libido by inhibiting secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior ... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion]" [The effect of melatonin on prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH ... Melatonin can lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Melatonin's effects on human reproduction remain unclear. In those ... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion]. Postepy Higieny I Medycyny Doswiadczalnej (in Polish). 60: 431 ...
Gemzell, C. A.; Diczfalusy, E; Tillinger, G (1958). "Clinical effect of human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)". ... Gemzell developed methods to extract the human growth hormone and human gonadotropins from cadaver pituitary glands. In 1958 ... Gemzell was the first to show that extracted gonadotropins containing FSH could be used as fertility medication to stimulate ...
... resulting in an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and levels. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, in ... Bicalutamide can paradoxically stimulate late-stage prostate cancer due to accumulated mutations in the cancer. When used as a ... Dosages of bicalutamide of 10 mg, 30 mg, and 50 mg per day have been found to produce a "moderate" effect on sex hormone levels ... Early clinical results". Hormone Research. 32 Suppl 1: 77-81. doi:10.1159/000181316. PMID 2515147. E.E. Müller (6 December 2012 ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), directly stimulating the ovaries. In women with anovulation, it may be an alternative after ... follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2). The patients are classified as WHO1 (15%) - hypo-gonadotropic, hypo- ... resulting in an increase in secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Medications in use for this effect are mainly clomifene ... In some cases, the egg may have matured properly, but the follicle may have failed to burst (or the follicle may have burst ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), directly stimulating the ovaries. In women with anovulation, it may be an alternative after ... Preparations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mainly include those derived from the urine of menopausal women, as well as ... resulting in an increase in secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Medications in use for this effect are mainly clomifene ... in effect increasing the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). It is relatively easy and convenient to use. ...
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is secreted from the anterior pituitary. FSH plays a key role in development, growth and ... Notable hormone differences occur between CPP and PT patients, so studying these hormone levels is the main biochemical ... CPP is treated with lutenizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone agonists. PT can impact growth velocity and bone age slightly, ... Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that has important implications of puberty and sex hormone secretion. Increased leptin has been ...
The four important sexual hormones are oxytocin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.[page needed ... Both prolactin and oxytocin stimulate milk production in women.[citation needed] Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is ... During this stage, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A negative feedback loop is enacted when ... one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis. Once matured, these are called Graafian follicles.[ ...
"The antral follicle count is a better marker than basal follicle-stimulating hormone for the selection of older patients with ... Elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level measured on day three of the menstrual cycle. (First day of period flow ... It is usually accompanied by high FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) levels. Quality of the eggs may also be impaired. However ... Often diagnosed by elevated gonadotropin (Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH) levels. In some cases (more so in younger ...
... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by about 47% and 55%, respectively; and testosterone levels by about 59% and 68%, ... Desogestrel stimulates the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro, an action that is independent of the classical ... One study found that 150 μg/day and 300 μg/day desogestrel alone in healthy young men suppressed luteinizing hormone (LH) ... Desogestrel also reduces sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels by 50% when given to women alone, but when combined with 30 ...
... lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.) These gonadotropic hormones play a role in stimulating estrogen release ... Gonadotropic hormones "stimulate growth of the gonads and the secretion of sex hormones." (e.g. gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... Patients may also be put on oral contraceptives to stimulate regular periods. In addition to hormone therapy, nutrition ... Progesterone directly stimulates osteoblasts to make new bone. Therefore if the woman is not ovulating, she is not creating ...
Two of these are adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and follicle stimulating hormone. The physiological role for responses to ... A particularly important bone-targeted hormonal regulator is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone is a protein made ... The skeleton is also modified for reproduction and in response to nutritional and other hormone stresses; it responds to ... Nicks KM, Fowler TW, Gaddy D (June 2010). "Reproductive hormones and bone". Curr Osteoporos Rep. 8 (2): 60-7. doi:10.1007/ ...
FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone): secreted by the pituitary, causes the ovarian follicle to develop. Levels of FSH rise ... Stimulates maturation of the follicle, which then in turn secretes estrogen. Unlike most mammals, the mare does not have an ... Estrogen: secreted by the developing follicle, it causes the pituitary gland to secrete more LH (therefore, these 2 hormones ... Hormones involved in the estrous cycle, during foaling, and after birthEdit. The cycle is controlled by several hormones which ...
1989) Follicle stimulating hormone levels on cycle day 3 are predictive of in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertility and ... Also see poor ovarian reserve and Follicle-stimulating hormone for treatment options. DNA damage (naturally occurring) ... At 18-22 weeks post-conception, the female ovary contains its peak number of follicles (about 300,000 in the average case, but ... The rest of them reach atresia, a natural apoptotic process leading to the breakdown of the follicle. Each menstrual cycle one ...
Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone (Intramuscular Route, Subcutaneous Route) Side effects. From Mayo Clinic. ... in goats treated with eCG for the induction of ovulation modulate the luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of a highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle) and recombinant ... "A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of two recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone preparations in patients ...
"Follicle-stimulating hormone increases primordial follicle reserve in mature female hypogonadal mice". The Journal of ...
... stimulates these cells to release luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Thus it is considered a ... As a consequence, levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) fall after a short period of time. ... Histrelin is used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers of the prostate in men and uterine fibroids in women. In addition, ... Since LH and FSH stimulate the gonads to produce estrogens and androgens in females and males respectively, histrelin can ...
The hormones used are typically gonadotropin-like, meaning they stimulate the gonads. Follicle stimulating hormone is the ... The electroejaculator stimulates the male causing an ejaculation, after which the semen is collected. The glove hand collection ... Pregnant cows and mares continue to develop new follicles until the middle of pregnancy. Thus, TUGA can be used to ... This can be achieved by using hormones to manipulate the female's reproductive organs. ...
... is inhibited by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which promotes follicle development. Once the follicle ... Typically around 20 follicles mature each month but only a single follicle is ovulated; the follicle from which the oocyte was ... "Selective inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion by estradiol. Mechanism for modulation of gonadotropin responses ... small follicles are invaded by fibroblast and macrophages; - Cystic: in large follicles, a cavity remains. Undergoing ...
Other methods may include research of high serum levels of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone ... but high serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels.[19] Despite this misunderstanding of the term, ... aspermatogenesis without a-Leydigism and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone". The Journal of Clinical ... Astwood, E. B. (2013-10-22). Recent Progress in Hormone Research: Proceedings of the 1967 Laurentian Hormone Conference. ...
Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the ovarian production of estrogens by the granulosa cells of the ovarian ... In addition to their role as natural hormones, estrogens are used as medications, for instance in menopausal hormone therapy ... The estrogen steroid hormones are estrane steroids. History[edit]. See also: Estradiol § History, Estrone § History, and ...
hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ... "Localization of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) immunoreactivity and hormone receptor mRNA in testicular tissue of infertile ... FSHB, HH24, follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit, Follitropin subunit beta. معرفات خارجية. MGI: MGI:95582 HomoloGene: 430 ...
During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens causes the skin follicle glands to grow larger and make more oily ... IGF-1 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).[10] Other sebum-lowering medications such as topical antiandrogens, peroxisome ... Hair follicle anatomy demonstrating a healthy hair follicle (pictured left), a whitehead or closed comedo (middle picture), and ... acnes biofilm within the hair follicle worsens this process.[45] If the microcomedone is superficial within the hair follicle, ...
During puberty, androgen, LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) production increase and the sex cords hollow out, forming ... Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the ... "Hormones and Behavior. 53 (5): 613-26. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.013. PMC 2706155 . PMID 18374335.. ...
... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the gonads to produce sex hormones. By suppressing ... Msaouel P, Diamanti E, Tzanela M, Koutsilieris M (2007). "Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer ... Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press. 18 May 1976. pp. 682-. ISBN 978-0-08-086630-7.. ... Steroidal AR antagonists tend to have off-target hormonal actions due to their structural similarity to other steroid hormones. ...
... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids.. .mw-parser- ... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... In particular, CRH and vasopressin stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), once known as corticotropin. ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ...
The ratio of LH (Luteinizing hormone) to FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), when measured in international units, is elevated ... Free testosterone, luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio and pelvic sonography in relation to skin ... theca of follicle)分泌過多的雄性素 [25]。確切的基因影響方式尚未被確認[7][23][27]。在少數的案例,單個基因的突變有可能造成綜合性的突變症狀[28]。目前對該綜合症的發病病
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... fat redistribution - FDA FDC - floaters - follicle - follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) - Food and Drug Administration (United ... hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP ... HTLV-II - human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 ...
... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... exogenous FSH is given to stimulate ovarian follicle, followed by human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG) to trigger oocyte release ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes.[2][3][4][5] ...
The polypeptide hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are usually not ... are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.[1] The sex hormones include the androgens, ... "Hormone Research. 71 (4): 194-200. doi:10.1159/000201107. PMID 19258710.. *^ Brook, CG (1999). "Mechanism of puberty". Hormone ... Production rates, secretion rates, clearance rates, and blood levels of major sex hormones Sex Sex hormone Reproductive. phase ...
FSHR (Follicle-stimulating hormone insensitivity, XX gonadal dysgenesis). *GnRHR (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone insensitivity) ... and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).[12][24] Failure in GnRH activity can otherwise be due to the absence of the GnRH ... Hormone replacement therapy[edit]. The method and dose of treatment will vary depending on the individual being treated. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the major form of treatment with the aim to replace the missing testosterone or oestrogen ...
Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ... positive regulation of hair follicle development. • chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus. • cellular response to ... In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF.[18] ... On macrophages: stimulates phagocytosis, and production of IL-1 oxidants and the inflammatory lipid Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were considerably elevated (30-33 mIU/mL and 34-37 mIU/mL, ... follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were 6.7-19.1 mIU/mL and 5.8-13.2 mIU/mL, respectively), and ... anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were normal, while levels of inhibin A and inhibin B were significantly increased.[6] In ... Sex hormone-binding globulin levels were mildly elevated (6.0-10.0 nmol/L), while thyroxine-binding globulin, corticosteroid- ...
... follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH. gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine ... androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas ... NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic drugs, antifibrinolytics, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), bone regulators, beta- ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ...
... acting alongside follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).[9] After ovulation has occurred, IGF-2 promotes progesterone secretion ... hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH ... Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth". Hormone Research. ...
The entire follicle and root are fed by a supply of arteries, and blood carries nutrients to the follicle/root. Any time an ... Fluctuations in hormones will often show in the hair. Not all hair loss is related to what is known as male pattern baldness, ... Brushing the scalp also stimulates the sebaceous gland, which in turn produces more sebum. When sebum and sweat combine on the ... The living parts of hair (hair follicle, hair root, root sheath and sebaceous gland) are beneath the skin, while the actual ...
... in turn suppressing the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in ... The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the ... Along with prolactin, domperidone has, to a lesser extent, been found to increase the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Hyperprolactinemia can suppress the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, ...
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... The release of the hormone oxytocin leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex. Oxytocin stimulates the muscles surrounding ... From the eighteenth week of pregnancy (the second and third trimesters), a woman's body produces hormones that stimulate the ...
"Hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)-regulating hormone: structure, physiology, and ... Most hormone dependent cancers become resistant to treatment after one to three years and resume growth despite hormone therapy ... "Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists". Proc ... Active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy[2]. Prognosis. 5-year survival rate 99% (US)[4] ...
Hair follicle aging. A key aspect of hair loss with age is the aging of the hair follicle.[45] Ordinarily, hair follicle ... Any that affect the body's hormone balance can have a pronounced effect: these include the contraceptive pill, hormone ... A similar situation occurs in women taking the fertility-stimulating drug clomiphene. ... The affected area mainly contains vellus hair follicles or no hair follicles at all, but it does not expand. Its causes are ...
The sweat gland is in the layer of skin called the dermis along with other "equipment," such as nerve endings, hair follicles ... When the sweat gland is stimulated, the cells secrete a fluid (primary secretion) that is similar to plasma -- that is, it is ... overactive thyroid gland (The thyroid hormone increases body metabolism and heat production) ...
... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] The secreted gonadotropins ... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... Hormones[edit]. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone ... In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens, ...
Spaying in female dogs removes the production of progesterone, which is a natural calming hormone and a serotonin uplifter. ... This is done to stimulate and identify estrous females without the risk of transmitting venereal diseases or causing a ... "The phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor ORG 9935 inhibits oocyte maturation in the naturally selected dominant follicle in Rhesus ... They differ from neutering in that they leave the animal's levels and patterns of sex hormone unchanged. Both sexes will retain ...
... luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and growth hormone) remains under ... also called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating ... For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone by the anterior pituitary. ... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids.. ...
Female infertility by chemotherapy appears to be secondary to premature ovarian failure by loss of primordial follicles.[91] ... Treatments to mitigate anemia include hormones to boost blood production (erythropoietin), iron supplements, and blood ... granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, e.g., filgrastim, lenograstim). ... It is usually associated with systemic treatment due to the high mitotic rate of hair follicles, and more reversible than ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone. *Follitropin alfa. *Follitropin beta. *Follitropin epsilon. *Menotropin (human menopausal ... peptide hormone binding. • galanin receptor activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): regulates development, growth, puberty, reproduction.. Intermediate lobe. Here one hormone ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): stimulates the production and release of melanin by melanocytes in skin and hair. MSH ... Luteinizing hormone (LH): in females, it triggers ovulation. In males it stimulates testosterone (acts with next). ... Hormones releasedEdit. The gland releases several kinds of hormones. Anterior pituitaryEdit. The endocrine cells of the ...
... blocking the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.[22][23] In ... Mezo G, Manea M (December 2009). "Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists". Expert Opin Ther Pat. 19 (12): 1771-85. ... GnRH antagonists are able to abolish gonadal sex hormone production and to suppress sex hormone levels into the castrate range ... clinical use of agonists and antagonists of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone. Nat. Clin. Pract. Endocrinol. Metab.: 3: 157 ...
Leutinizing Hormone & Follicle Stimulating Hormone[edit]. Main Article: Leutinizing Hormone LH is released from the pituitary ... such as that observed for Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) have indicated similar pulses into ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and growth hormone (GH). In the nervous system, pulatlility is observed in oscillatory ... "Intrinsic pulsatile secretory activity of immortalized luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-secreting neurons". Proceedings of ...
These organs are responsible for the production of the egg cells (ova) and the secretion of hormones. The process by which the ... On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube. ... The presence of testosterone will stimulate the Wolffian duct which will bring about the development of the male sex organs and ...
"Follicle-Stimulating Hormone". WebMD. Bowen R. "Luteinizing and Follicle Stimulating Hormones". www.vivo.colostate.edu. ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by ... luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle". WikiJournal of Medicine (published 2014-03-26 ... and is responsible for interaction with the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. The sugar portion of the hormone is ...
"Effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on ovarian androgen production in a woman with isolated follicle-stimulating hormone ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) insensitivity, or ovarian insensitivity to FSH in females, also referable to as ovarian ... It is characterized by a resistance or complete insensitivity to the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a ... Wachs DS, Coffler MS, Malcom PJ, Shimasaki S, Chang RJ (May 2008). "Increased androgen response to follicle-stimulating hormone ...
A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland [1] in mammals, that stimulates, in female mammals, ripening of specialized ... structures in the ovary (Graafian follicles [2]) that produce ova and, in males, the formation of sperm in the tes ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin) A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in mammals, that stimulates ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland found in the brain of mammals. In females, ...
The FSH test looks at the level of the hormone in your blood. ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of men ... What Is a Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Level Test?. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive ... Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Test. Medically reviewed by Nicole Galan, RN on January 12, 2016. - Written by Joanna ... Your hormones underlie many basic processes in your body. This article reviews 12 actions you can take to help your hormones ...
FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain. ... The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. ... The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH is a hormone released by the ... In men, FSH stimulates production of sperm. The test is used to help diagnose or evaluate:. *Problems becoming pregnant, or ...
FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. Learn more here. ... The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. ... The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH is a hormone released by the ... In men, FSH stimulates production of sperm. The test is used to help diagnose or evaluate:. *Problems becoming pregnant, or ...
"Follicle-Stimulating Hormone". WebMD.. *^ Pierce, John G.; Parsons, Thomas F. (July 1981). "Glycoprotein Hormones: Structure ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by ... luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle". WikiJournal of Medicine (published 2014-03-26 ... and is responsible for interaction with the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.[4] The sugar portion of the hormone is ...
follicle-stimulating hormone synonyms, follicle-stimulating hormone pronunciation, follicle-stimulating hormone translation, ... English dictionary definition of follicle-stimulating hormone. n. Abbr. FSH A gonadotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary ... gland that stimulates the growth of follicles in the ovary and induces the formation of sperm... ... follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. *follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone- ...
... by 2023 ... - published on openPR.com ... Follicle Stimulating Hormone Market Global In-depth Analysis 2019 Global Follicle Stimulating Hormone Market reports are ... Global Follicle Stimulating Hormone Market 2018 - MSD, IBSA, Livzon, GenSci The global Follicle Stimulating Hormone market ... Global Follicle Stimulating Hormone Industry Market Analysis & Forecast 2018-202 … Global Follicle Stimulating Hormone Industry ...
Normal testicular function without detectable follicle-stimulating hormone. A novel mutation in the follicle-stimulating ... Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nat Genet. 1997;15(2):201-204. ... Spermatogenesis is regulated by the 2 pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ... Complete Sertoli cell proliferation induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) independently of luteinizing hormone activity ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (abbreviated FSH, sometimes called Follitropine) is a glycoprotein and sex steroid. It is ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Follicle-stimulating_hormone&oldid=6422886" ... Other hormones control the release of FSH. Luteinizing hormone will cause ovulation in females, or the production of ... In females it will cause the growth of follicles in the ovaries and controlls the synthesising process of progesteron, in males ...
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (Porcine) (UNII: 8FYM5179QJ) (Follitropin - UNII:076WHW89TW) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (Porcine ... of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) per vial. FOLLTROPIN® contains a low amount of luteinizing hormone (less than 1000 µg NIH ... FOLLTROPIN® (porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone for injection) is a powder for solution containing 700 IU ( ... porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone. ... follicle stimulating hormone (porcine) kit. Product Information ...
The pituitary hormone extract contains variable levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH).. ... PLUSET- porcine follicle stimulating hormone, porcine luteinizing hormone kit. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL ... PLUSET- porcine follicle stimulating hormone, porcine luteinizing hormone kit. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by ... follicle stimulating hormone 35 UNT/ML / luteinizing hormone 35 UNT/ML Injectable Solution [Pluset]. SBD. ...
It is important to measure the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) level along with the FSH level. ...
... and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were developed, based on commercial IFMA kits designed for determining LH and FSH. Both ... Time resolved immunofluorometric assays (IFMAs) for determining luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ... Time-resolved immunofluorometric assays for urinary luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.. ... NIOSH-Author; Analytical-methods; Urinalysis; Fluorometry; Gonadotropic-hormones; Immunochemistry; Reproductive-system; ...
There are several connections between luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, including the fact that luteinizing ... While predominantly known as female reproductive hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are both ... FSH stimulates the maturation of follicles and eggs in the ovaries. Being gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are both gonadotropins that are created by the pituitary ...
Trusted information about follicle stimulating hormone from leading Australian health organisations, including links to ... Follicle stimulating hormone. 1 min read. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. ... Follow the links below to find trusted information about follicle stimulating hormone. ... Testosterone is one of a group of hormones known as androgens. It is the primary sex hormone produced by males but is also ...
Hormones. Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. Physiological Effects of Drugs ... Immunogenicity of Repeated Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulation Cycles. The safety and scientific validity of this ... FSH (Follicle stimulation hormone, 75 IU/vial) will be administered to women according to their need and response assessed by ...
... is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. FSH plays a major role in promoti.. ... Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the ... FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) act together in reproduction process.A journal is a periodical publication intended to ...
... is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinzing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone, and ... These heterodimeric hormones share a common alpha subunit and differ in their hormone-specific beta subunit. The biologica … ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinzing hormone (LH), ... Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility Nat Genet. 1997 Feb;15(2):201-4 ...
Computer model showing the structure of the human follicle stimulating hormone (blue, green) complexed with its receptor ( ... Human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) complexed with its receptor. ... Caption: Human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) complexed with its receptor. Computer model showing the structure of the ... human follicle stimulating hormone (blue, green) complexed with its receptor (magenta).. Release details: Model release not ...
... 2014-08-27 03:15:24 , BioPortfolio ... Chronic low-dose (CLD) protocols of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), aimed at finding the threshold amount of FSH necessary ... Home » Topics » Womens Health » Research » Recombinant Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (Gonal-f®): Use in Ovulation ... More From BioPortfolio on "Recombinant Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (Gonal-f®): Use in Ovulation Induction". *Related ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in follicle-stimulating hormone activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in follicle-stimulating hormone activity pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
LB2FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone (mIU/mL). Variable Name: LB2FSH. SAS Label: Follicle stimulating hormone (mIU/mL). ... LB2FSHSI - Follicle stimulating hormone (IU/L). Variable Name: LB2FSHSI. SAS Label: Follicle stimulating hormone (IU/L). ... Coulston Foundation Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, follitropin) is a glycoprotein ... Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Serum FSH and LH levels and questionnaire data on menstrual ...
Genomes and Genes about Oocyte-derived R-spondin2 as a Follicle Stimulating Hormone ... hormones*mice*diptera*in situ hybridization*ovarian follicle*follicle stimulating hormone*phosphotransferases*protein kinases* ... Oocyte-derived R-spondin2 as a Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Summary. Principal Investigator: AARON JW HSUEH ... Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oocyte-derived R-spondin2 as a Follicle Stimulating Hormone Abstract: The ...
Background: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important hormone responsible for growth, maturation and function of the ... "A comprehensive curated resource for follicle stimulating hormone signaling", BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, 2011. ... FSH regulates the synthesis of steroid hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, proliferation and maturation of follicles in ...
The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level should be checked to rule out primary ovarian failure. In patients with PCOS, FSH ... The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level should be checked to rule out primary ovarian failure. In patients with PCOS, FSH ... What is the role of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level testing in the workup of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are elevated for Tanner stage, sex, and age. The LH-to-FSH ratio is usually greater than 3. ...
Follicle stimulating hormone is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone which is used widely in reproductive and developmental medicine ... Immunoassays for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are used in the diagnosis of disorders of reproduction and development, ... Follicle stimulating hormone international standards and reference preparations for the calibration of immunoassays and ...
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) at a wide range of doses is routinely added to culture media during in vitro maturation (IVM ... Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Affects Metaphase I Chromosome Alignment and Increases Aneuploidy in Mouse Oocytes Matured in ... "Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Affects Metaphase I Chromosome Alignment and Increases Aneuploidy in Mouse Oocytes Matured in ... "Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Affects Metaphase I Chromosome Alignment and Increases Aneuploidy in Mouse Oocytes Matured in ...
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (LH-HCG) CONCENTRATIONS IN PAIRED ... FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (LH-HCG) CONCENTRATIONS IN PAIRED ... FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (LH-HCG) CONCENTRATIONS IN PAIRED ... FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (LH-HCG) CONCENTRATIONS IN PAIRED ...
  • FSH has a beta subunit of 111 amino acids (FSH β), which confers its specific biologic action, and is responsible for interaction with the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) complexed with its receptor. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Computer model showing the structure of the human follicle stimulating hormone (blue, green) complexed with its receptor (magenta). (sciencephoto.com)
  • We will then use a rodent model of low FSH responsiveness (FSH receptor haploinsufficient heterozygous mutants) to test the ability of R-spondin2 in the promotion of early follicle development for subsequent gonadotropin stimulation and the generation of mature oocytes. (labome.org)
  • In this study, we developed in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques for the evaluation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in the ovary and fallopian tube. (nih.gov)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor was expressed in 6 of 6 whole tissue IHs along with the positive control via PCR. (ovid.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor was not present in the negative control samples. (ovid.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor is enriched in the pericytes of IH, suggesting that this cell type may be involved in the pathogenesis of the tumor. (ovid.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphism and ovarian responses to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF-ET. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using human ovarian surface epithelium, we cloned two new splice variants of the human follicle‐stimulating hormone receptor (FSH‐R) gene, hFSH‐R2 and hFSH‐R3. (bionity.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and its receptor (FSHR) are important in ovarian functions and may implicate in ovarian carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression and actions of both the follicle stimulating hormone receptor and the luteinizing hormone receptor in normal ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer. (springer.com)
  • FSHR: Receptor for follicle-stimulating hormone. (mybiosource.com)
  • This beta subunit contains an amino acid sequence that exhibits large homologies with that of the beta subunit of hCG and both stimulate the same receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the luteal-follicle phase transition period the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen (primarily estradiol) decrease and no longer suppress the release of FSH, consequently FSH peaks at about day three (day one is the first day of menstrual flow). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the follicle matures and reaches 8-10 mm in diameter it starts to secrete significant amounts of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sharp increase in estradiol production by the dominant follicle (possibly along with a decrease in gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor) cause a positive effect on the hypothalamus and pituitary and rapid GnRH pulses occur and an LH surge results. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FSH test may be used with other tests that look at the levels of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone to determine a woman's ovarian reserve. (healthline.com)
  • Because FSH and LH work so closely with each other, doctors often order these tests together, as well tests for testosterone (the male sex hormone) and estradiol (a form of estrogen, the female sex hormone). (kidshealth.org)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol should be checked together in the early follicular phase (days 2 to 4 of the cycle). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phenol and UV filters decreased levels of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas parabens increased levels of estradiol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, there were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the change over time in serum estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is a description for a series of diagrams showing the reference ranges for the blood content of the hormones estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone , follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the menstrual cycle , as established on a reference group in Switzerland using the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. (wikiversity.org)
  • Tepper PG, Randolph JF, McConnell DS, Crawford SL, El Khoudary SR, Joffe H, Gold EB, Zheng H, Bromberger JT, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Trajectory clustering of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menopausal transition among women in the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN). (umassmed.edu)
  • During the follicular phase, FSH will initiate the production of estradiol by the follicle, and the two hormones work together in further development of the egg follicle. (nuimagemedical.com)
  • METHODS: Longitudinal measurements of FSH, luteinising hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and inhibin B levels were collected after repeated subcutaneous dosing with 225 IU of FE 999049 in 24 gonadotropin downregulated healthy women. (lu.se)
  • Aim: To determine the value of basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) levels on cycle day 3 in predicting the ovulation stimulation response in patients receiving exogenous gonadotropins for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). (sun.ac.za)
  • FSH is part of a complex dance of hormones that includes luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (verywellhealth.com)
  • In women, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates production of eggs and a hormone called estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle. (angelmobilehealth.com)
  • Treatment of granulosa cells with estradiol and FSH produced a synergistic increase in progesterone concentrations, but did not affect FSH-stimulated P450scc mRNA accumulation. (elsevier.com)
  • FSH is a hormone made in the brain (pituitary gland) that signals the ovaries to ovulate (and make estrogen measured as estradiol in your blood). (truly-md.com)
  • The hormone inhibin as well as estradiol and progesterone help control the amount of FSH released by the pituitary gland. (1mg.com)
  • With the rise in estrogens, LH receptors are also expressed on the maturing follicle, which causes it to produce more estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its structure is similar to those of luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Low frequency gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses increase FSH mRNA levels in the rat, but is not directly correlated with an increase in circulating FSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there is evidence that gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor produced by small follicles during the first half of the follicle phase also exerts a negative feedback on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion amplitude, thus allowing a more favorable environment for follicle growth and preventing premature luteinization. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ) A proteinaceous, gonadotropic hormone (see GONADOTROPIN ) secreted by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) that stimulates spermatogenesis in the testis and the growth of follicles in the ovary. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As puberty approaches (usually between ages 10 and 14), the brain produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which starts the changes toward sexual maturity. (kidshealth.org)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinzing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone, and chorionic gonadotropin. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation testing with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist induces a characteristic rise in ovarian-derived 17-hydroxyprogesterone after 24 hours. (medscape.com)
  • Penny, R., Olambiwonnu, N. O., and Frasier, S. D.: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (LH-HCG) concentrations in paired maternal and cord sera. (aappublications.org)
  • Joffe H, Crawford S, Economou N, Kim S, Regan S, Hall JE, White D. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infertility technologies often employ exogenous gonadotropin therapy to increase antral follicle production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cholinergic system is involved in the reproduction and the fertility control because some neuropeptides control the synthesis of selected glycoproteins like the luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin (Vijayan 1985). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Since previous studies had shown that litter separation for short periods of time augmented sexual receptivity and fertility of the doe, the changes in FSH and LH reported may influence the massive release of gonadotropin releasing hormone, LH and FSH triggered by mating or artificial insemination in litter-separated mothers. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • The pituitary glycoprotein hormone family includes follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. (psu.edu)
  • In the present study, we provide further evidence for the existence of VSELs in mouse BM and have also examined the effects of a chemotherapeutic agent (5-fluorouracil (5-FU)) and gonadotropin hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) on BM stem/progenitor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is referred to as a glycoprotein gonadotropin, as it stimulates the sex glands (gonads) in both men and women. (bodytomy.com)
  • To compare the ovarian responses after administration of two recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH) preparations under gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue downregulation, we conducted a phase 3, randomized, multicenter, assessor-blind, active-controlled, parallel group study. (aging-us.com)
  • Alternatively, it can be induced by gonadotropin administration after suppression of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. (aging-us.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a member of gonadotropin family, is critical for follicular maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FSH is a member of the gonadotropin family, which includes also luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary to release FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH), a closely-related hormone which is also involved in reproduction. (1mg.com)
  • The production of LH is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its structure is similar to that of the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If pregnancy occurs, LH levels will decrease, and luteal function will instead be maintained by the action of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), a hormone very similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH signals the pituitary gland to release two puberty hormones into the bloodstream: FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH). (kidshealth.org)
  • However, follicular deviation and late-stage growth of a single dominant follicle requires GnRH-dependent LH pulses. (psu.edu)
  • Eventually, when the follicle has fully matured, a spike in 17α-hydroxyprogesterone production by the follicle inhibits the production of estrogens, leading to a decrease in estrogen-mediated negative feedback of GnRH in the hypothalamus, which then stimulates the release of LH from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA-secreting neurons that innervate GnRH-1 neurons also can stimulate GnRH-1 release. (wikipedia.org)
  • FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically, activation of Sertoli cells by FSH sustains spermatogenesis and stimulates inhibin B secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In men the hormone stimulates spermatogenesis. (cmft.nhs.uk)
  • In men, FSH stimulates the production of sperm cells ( spermatogenesis ). (emf-portal.org)
  • In males, FSH helps control spermatogenesis, while in females it regulates follicle growth. (24houranswers.com)
  • In men, follicle stimulating hormone acts on the Sertoli cells of the testes to stimulate sperm production (spermatogenesis). (yourhormones.info)
  • FSH is vital for human reproduction, stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles and contributes to ovum ripening in females, and stimulates spermatogenesis in males. (ophthalmologymanagement.com)
  • Sertoli cells respond to increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels at the onset of puberty by producing paracrine factors which affect germ cells and trigger robust onset of spermatogenesis. (usda.gov)
  • This seems to be critical in selecting only the most advanced follicle to proceed to ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone will cause ovulation in females, or the production of testosterone in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • once a follicle is fully mature, an LH surge causes that follicle to release an ovum as part of ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Both luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone play a major role in ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Contraceptive methods, such as birth control pills, leverage luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to manipulate ovulation and avoid pregnancy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oral contraceptives use luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to manipulate ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • To understand the role of ovulation-regulating hormones in the etiology of ovarian cancer, we prospectively analyzed the association of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin B with ovarian cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ovulation will occur shortly after the mid-cycle surge of hormones. (nuimagemedical.com)
  • This Phase IV, open-label, multicentre, randomized study (MEnTOR) compared two low-dose recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) protocols for ovulation induction. (springermedizin.de)
  • Conclusion: Cycle day 3 FSH levels are predictive of the ovulation response and probability of pregnancy in stimulated cycles and can be of value in patient selection and counseling in IVF and GIFT programs. (sun.ac.za)
  • In women, this hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation . (yourhormones.info)
  • However, as the follicle grows, and more and more oestrogen is produced from the follicles, it simulates a surge in luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which stimulates the release of an egg from a mature follicle - ovulation. (yourhormones.info)
  • After ovulation the ruptured follicle forms a corpus luteum that produces high levels of progesterone . (yourhormones.info)
  • Many women are often anxious to hear they will need to take shots to stimulate ovulation. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The release of the egg from the ovary (ovulation) occurs shortly after this increased production of hormones. (1mg.com)
  • This "LH surge" triggers ovulation, thereby not only releasing the egg from the follicle, but also initiating the conversion of the residual follicle into a corpus luteum that, in turn, produces progesterone to prepare the endometrium for a possible implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive feedback by estrogens also occurs in the gonadal axis of female mammals and is responsible for the midcycle surge of LH that stimulates ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. (healthline.com)
  • In women, FSH helps manage the menstrual cycle and stimulates the ovaries to produce eggs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reference ranges for the blood content of follicle-stimulating hormone levels during the menstrual cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Having a reliable test for circulating AMH for clinical use allows measurement of a hormone that, unlike follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, does not fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle for premenopausal women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There, it stimulate the growth of eggs during your menstrual cycle. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • In women it functions to stimulate follicular maturation during the follicular phase of the normal menstrual cycle and sufficient production is essential for a normal cycle. (cmft.nhs.uk)
  • Hormone ranges vary between cases at the same biological stage of the menstrual cycle. (wikiversity.org)
  • FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles (eggs) during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in women, which is divided into two phases, the follicular and the luteal, by a mid-cycle surge of FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH). (nuimagemedical.com)
  • For a woman who is having problems with her menstrual cycle or who cannot become pregnant, more than one blood sample may be needed to help identify a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) problem. (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • In total, 67 incident invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases were each matched to 1 to 2 controls on age, menopausal status, time since last menstrual period, current hormone use and other relevant factors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In women, when hormone levels fall towards the end of the menstrual cycle , this is sensed by nerve cells in the hypothalamus. (yourhormones.info)
  • Thus, during each menstrual cycle, there is a rise in follicle stimulating hormone secretion in the first half of the cycle that stimulates follicular growth in the ovary. (yourhormones.info)
  • Towards the end of the cycle the corpus luteum breaks down, progesterone production decreases and the next menstrual cycle begins when follicle stimulating hormone starts to rise again. (yourhormones.info)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone, or FSH, is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain that stimulates an egg follicle to grow each month as part of the menstrual cycle . (verywellhealth.com)
  • While FSH levels keep fluctuating during the menstrual cycle in women, the FSH levels in men are quite stable, unless the pituitary gland is not functioning well and is unable to secrete the hormone. (bodytomy.com)
  • As mentioned earlier, FSH is secreted in the beginning of the menstrual cycle so as to stimulate the growth of the ovarian follicle, which is why the function of FSH can be tested by checking the FSH levels on the second or third day of the cycle. (bodytomy.com)
  • FSH affects the growth and maturation of egg follicles in the ovaries during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. (1mg.com)
  • FSH stimulates the growth and recruitment of immature ovarian follicles in the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in mammals, that stimulates, in female mammals, ripening of specialized structures in the ovary ( Graafian follicles ) that produce ova and, in males, the formation of sperm in the testis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A gonadotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the growth of follicles in the ovary and induces the formation of sperm in the testis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The reason for this increase is a rise in the woman's follicle-stimulating hormone produced by the brain, that can encourage the growth of more than one follicle or fluid-filled sac in the ovary, capable of releasing an egg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For VFC, the FSH portion targets the protein to the ovary and stimulates follicle growth, whereas VEGF enhances local vascular development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, we report the production and characterization of a long-acting, bifunctional VEGF-FSH-CTP protein that is superior to combination therapy for enhancing VEGF activity in the ovary and stimulating follicular angiogenesis in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) manifests by defects in ovarian function (folliculogenesis, sex steroid hormone production), in hypothalamic-pituitary function and by abnormal androgen metabolism. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has increased levels of male hormones (androgens). (adam.com)
  • Urofollitropin may also be used to cause the ovary to produce several follicles, which can then be harvested for use in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). (creativebiomart.net)
  • The rise in follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the growth of the follicle in the ovary. (yourhormones.info)
  • Most often, raised levels of follicle stimulating hormone are a sign of malfunction in the ovary or testis . (yourhormones.info)
  • This is because greater amounts of the hormone are required for the ovary to recruit and stimulate an egg follicle. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Once a mature egg is released from the ovary, and it gets fertilized with a sperm, hormones such as estrogen help in thickening the uterine lining so as to enable a woman to support a pregnancy. (bodytomy.com)
  • This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • To test the hypothesis that specific IGFBP-4 proteolysis is associated with selection of the dominant follicle, we induced codominant follicles (co-DFs) during the first follicular wave of the estrous cycle. (bioone.org)
  • Follicular fluid was collected by aspiration from the two largest follicles/heifer 12 h after the last injection. (bioone.org)
  • 0.05) from the single dominant follicle of controls in size, or in concentration of progesterone or level of IGFBP-4 in follicular fluid. (bioone.org)
  • en] In all mammalian females, follicular growth and maturation are essentially dependent on the pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH. (ac.be)
  • Moreover, FSH works with LH and oestrogen to stimulate proliferation of granulosa cells, leading to follicular growth (Crommelin et al. (24houranswers.com)
  • Near the end of the follicular phase, the production of FSH and luteinizing hormone increases. (1mg.com)
  • The cohort of small antral follicles is normally sufficient in number to produce enough Inhibin B to lower FSH serum levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a woman nears perimenopause, the number of small antral follicles recruited in each cycle diminishes and consequently insufficient Inhibin B is produced to fully lower FSH and the serum level of FSH begins to rise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone , oestradiol and inhibin B to measure ovarian reserve have the limitation of being cycle dependent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With this growth, the cells of the follicles produce increasing amounts of oestradiol and inhibin. (yourhormones.info)
  • In men, the production of follicle stimulating hormone is regulated by the circulating levels of testosterone and inhibin, both produced by the testes. (yourhormones.info)
  • If the gonads fail to create enough oestrogen, testosterone and/or inhibin, the correct feedback control of follicle stimulating hormone production from the pituitary gland is lost and the levels of both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone will rise. (yourhormones.info)
  • Inhibin, activin, and sex hormones do not affect genetic activity for the beta subunit production of LH. (wikipedia.org)
  • corpus luteum hormone progesterone . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the luteal phase, FSH will stimulate the production of progesterone. (nuimagemedical.com)
  • The amounts of FSH and other hormones (luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone) are measured in both a man and a woman to determine why the couple can't become pregnant (infertility). (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • You may be asked to stop taking medicines (including birth control pills) that contain estrogen or progesterone or both for up to 4 weeks before having a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test. (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • In the perimenopause stage , the ovaries begin to shut down and stops producing certain hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, decreasing the chance of becoming pregnant. (birthcontrolbuzz.com)
  • In women, follicle stimulating hormone levels also start to rise naturally in women around the menopausal period, reflecting a reduction in function of the ovaries and decline of oestrogen and progesterone production. (yourhormones.info)
  • To examine the role of cAMP in mediating granulosa cell P450scc mRNA accumulation, granulosa cells were treated with forskolin, cholera toxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, 8-bromo-cGMP, 5′AMP, or cAMP analogs that differentially stimulate the two isoenzymes of protein kinase-A. Increased specific P450scc mRNA accumulation and progesterone production occurred in response to each agent except 5′AMP and 8-bromo-cGMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated concentrations of P450scc mRNA, but markedly suppressed progesterone production. (elsevier.com)
  • Being gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are messengers that trigger gonads to release estrogen and testosterone and to complete specific reproductive functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses of a sample of body fluids (typically serum or urine) to determine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), one of the hormones that control the functional activity of the gonads (i.e., gonadotropins). (ophthalmologymanagement.com)
  • Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. (psu.edu)
  • Gonadotropins then stimulate ovaries to produce multiple dominant follicles that yield multiple oocytes for fertilization. (aging-us.com)
  • To improve the safety and convenience of the administration of human gonadotropins, highly purified urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (HP-uFSH) and hMG (HP-hMG) were developed and used for more than four decades [ 5 - 8 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • The life cycle of infantile hemangioma (IH) and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are identical. (ovid.com)
  • The causes of polycystic ovarian syndrome are not clearly known but often it is attributed to excessive secretion of androgens or the male hormones and lesser secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) work together in the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. (healthline.com)
  • Ovarian stimulation with exogenous Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) allows a greater number of ova to be produced than normally produced in a single reproductive cycle. (nih.gov)
  • While predominantly known as female reproductive hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are both crucial in male reproduction because they send messages to cells in the testes . (wisegeek.com)
  • It is an important hormone for normal functioning of the reproductive system in men and women . (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Endogenous Circadian Regulation of Female Reproductive Hormones. (harvard.edu)
  • It is also indicated for the development of multiple follicles in ovulatory women participating in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) programme, such as in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone which is used widely in reproductive and developmental medicine both as a diagnostic analyte and as a therapeutic product. (nih.gov)
  • Reproductive hormone-induced, STAT3-mediated interleukin 6 action in normal and malignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of FE 999049, a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), after multiple dosing in healthy women, taking into account endogenous FSH levels and the reproductive hormone dynamics. (lu.se)
  • Reproductive endocrinologists use a form of FSH to stimulate the ovaries to produce egg follicles for either IUI (intrauterine insemination) or IVF ( in vitro fertilization ). (verywellhealth.com)
  • Secretion of this hormone is extremely essential for reproductive processes to take place in a normal fashion. (bodytomy.com)
  • Here's some information on follicle stimulating hormone function that will help you understand how this hormone affects the reproductive processes in men and women. (bodytomy.com)
  • During her reproductive years, a woman goes through cyclical changes that are brought about by the interplay of various hormones. (bodytomy.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for various reproductive functions in both female and males. (shifa4u.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a key role in the development and function of the reproductive system and is widely used both in clinical and research settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of corifollitropin alfa is superior in terms of pregnancy outcome parameters as compared to recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during ovarian stimulation protocols in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1996). In this paper, we will discuss the biotechnology involved in the process of producing recombinant follicle stimulating hormone from a recombinant cell line producing r-hFSH via its characterization and the analysis of the final product. (24houranswers.com)
  • Cauley JA, Ruppert K, Lian Y, Finkelstein JS, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Harlow SD, Lo JC, Burnett-Bowie SM, Karlamangla A, Greendale GA. Serum Sex Hormones and the Risk of Fracture Across the Menopausal Transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. (harvard.edu)
  • When stopping oral contraceptives during perimenopause a serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level test should be done on the last day of the pill. (birthcontrolbuzz.com)
  • ODG1 is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by primary amenorrhea, variable development of secondary sex characteristics, and high serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (mybiosource.com)
  • In girls, FSH and LH prompt the ovaries to begin producing the hormone estrogen, which causes a girl's body to mature and prepares her for menstruation. (kidshealth.org)
  • and the sex hormones, estrogen from the ovaries and androgen from the testes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another gonadotropic hormone called luteinizing hormone helps in secretion of estrogen from the follicle and also causes the ovum to be released from the ovaries. (bodytomy.com)
  • Your increased FSH levels also instigate the production of estrogen , another important pregnancy hormone. (mamiexpert.com)
  • In early (small) antral follicles, FSH is the major survival factor that rescues the small antral follicles (2-5 mm in diameter for humans) from apoptosis (programmed death of the somatic cells of the follicle and oocyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • FSH-deficient females are infertile due to a block in folliculogenesis prior to antral follicle formation. (nih.gov)
  • Pre-treatment with R-spondin1-Fc led to the induction of early antral follicles capable of responding to sequential eCG and hCG treatment, leading to the generation of mature oocytes. (labome.org)
  • The suggestion that superovulation may cause aneuploidy and fetal abnormalities prompted us to study the potential role of FSH in the genesis of chromosomal abnormalities during meiosis I. Mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) isolated from the antral follicles of unprimed, sexually immature B6CBF 1 mice were cultured in increasing concentrations of FSH. (bioone.org)
  • However, treatment with VFC significantly increased follicle vascular development while concurrently increasing the number of large antral follicles produced. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another connection is that luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone carry out their duties by triggering the actions of second messengers once they bind to cell receptors in the gonads. (wisegeek.com)
  • If diseased gonads malfunction or are removed, LH and FSH cannot carry out negative feedback duties, which means they cannot signal to the pituitary gland when enough hormone has been secreted so that production can stop. (wisegeek.com)
  • Hormones are produced by various organs and body tissues, but mainly by the endocrine glands , such as the pituitary, thyroid, and gonads (testes and ovaries). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Control of FSH production is a complex system involving hormones produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), the hypothalamus and the pituitary. (nuimagemedical.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone made by the pituitary gland that affects the gonads (female ovaries and males testes). (repropedia.org)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. (harvard.edu)
  • Within these developing follicles, granulosa cells showed the greatest expression, although both theca interna and theca externa were also positive, interna greater than externa. (nih.gov)
  • Granulosa cells in both primary and primordial follicles were positive, with primordial follicles showing only weak focal positivity. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of metformin on FSH and forskolin-stimulated aromatase expression in human granulosa cells was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. (ovid.com)
  • Studies of in vivo ovarian CTGF expression in FSH-beta knockout mice by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated high levels of CTGF expression in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles blocked from further development owing to the absence of FSH. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Importantly, other ovarian expressed TGF-beta superfamily members (GDF-9 and activin, 10 ng/ml) stimulated granulosa cell CTGF mRNA in a similar fashion to TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml), and this was also inhibited by FSH (10 ng/ml). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • FSH is the primary hormonal inducer of ovarian follicle maturation and a critically important regulator of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. (elsevier.com)
  • To assess possible feedback effects of steroid or sterol on FSH-stimulated P450scc mRNA concentrations, granulosa cells were treated with aminoglutethimide to block or with low density lipoprotein to stimulate steroid production. (elsevier.com)
  • Failure to select a dominant follicle in the GnRHr-ant group was associated with reduced concentrations of LH but not FSH. (psu.edu)
  • In boys, FSH and LH work together to get the testes to begin producing testosterone, the hormone responsible for the physical changes of puberty and the production of sperm. (kidshealth.org)
  • The test may also be used to check for damage or disease of the testes or ovaries, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus, an almond-sized area of the brain that links the nervous system with the hormone-producing endocrine system. (kidshealth.org)
  • In men, FSH will stimulate the testes to produce mature sperm and will promote the production of androgen binding proteins as well. (nuimagemedical.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone is one of the hormones essential to pubertal development and the function of women's ovaries and men's testes . (yourhormones.info)
  • The production and release of follicle stimulating hormone is regulated by the levels of a number of circulating hormones released by the ovaries and testes. (yourhormones.info)
  • The released follicle stimulating hormone is carried in the bloodstream where it binds to receptors in the testes and ovaries. (yourhormones.info)
  • Using this mechanism follicle stimulating hormone, along with luteinising hormone, can control the functions of the testes and ovaries. (yourhormones.info)
  • FOLLTROPIN ® contains a low amount of luteinizing hormone (less than 1000 µg NIH-LH-S19 per vial). (nih.gov)
  • The pituitary hormone extract contains variable levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). (nih.gov)
  • It is important to measure the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) level along with the FSH level. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Time-resolved immunofluorometric assays for urinary luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. (cdc.gov)
  • Time resolved immunofluorometric assays (IFMAs) for determining luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were developed, based on commercial IFMA kits designed for determining LH and FSH. (cdc.gov)
  • What Is the Connection between Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone? (wisegeek.com)
  • Located in the head, the pituitary gland produces hormones -- such as luteinizing hormone -- and regulates several other glands of the body's endocrine system. (wisegeek.com)
  • When the levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone decrease due to age or increase due to disease, physiological effects can occur. (wisegeek.com)
  • In such cases, excess luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone may build up in the bloodstream, causing pituitary tumors . (wisegeek.com)
  • FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) act together in reproduction process.A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. (omicsonline.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are elevated for Tanner stage, sex, and age. (medscape.com)
  • Your healthcare provider may also order a blood test that measures another pituitary hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH). (brighamandwomens.org)
  • This prompted us to undertake the present study whose aim was to examine the effect of litter separation for 48 h on 24-h changes in plasma prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of the doe. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Immunocytochemical evidence for production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in separate cells in the bovine. (ac.be)
  • Reference : Immunocytochemical evidence for production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimul. (ac.be)
  • In conjunction with luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone induces egg and sperm production. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Effects of in vivo administration of testosterone propionate on in vitro production of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by pituitaries of pony mares. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The in vitro incorporation of [3H]leucine into immunoprecipitable follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was assessed for pituitaries from pony mares treated with testosterone propionate (TP) or oil (controls). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity. (harvard.edu)
  • These heterodimeric hormones share a common alpha subunit and differ in their hormone-specific beta subunit. (nih.gov)
  • All of these glycoproteins consist of an identical alpha subunit and a hormone-specific beta subunit. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone is a heterodimer composed of an alpha-subunit and beta-subunit with glycosylation sites located on each of the subunits. (isrctn.com)
  • However, the hCG beta subunit contains an additional 24 amino acids, and the two hormones differ in the composition of their sugar moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eligible women (18-37 years), with World Health Organization Group II anovulatory infertility, were randomized to receive r-hFSH (starting daily dose: 75 IU) as a chronic low-dose (CLD) (37.5 IU dose increase on Day 14) or low-dose (LD) (37.5 IU dose increase on Day 7) protocol if no follicles were ≥10 mm. (springermedizin.de)
  • 2013). Previously, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparations for infertility treatment were derived from the urine of postmenopausal women (Group, 1998). (24houranswers.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone is a gonadotropic hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland. (bodytomy.com)
  • Using a single-strand RNA probe, we demonstrated that FSHR mRNA expression is strongest in Graafian follicles. (nih.gov)
  • Low density lipoprotein, which increases intracellular sterol, also did not alter basal or FSH-stimulated P450scc mRNA accumulation, suggesting that neither the utilization nor the availability of sterol regulates specific P450scc mRNA levels. (elsevier.com)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oocyte-derived R-spondin2 as a Follicle Stimulating Hormone Abstract: The Wingless (Wnt) signaling pathway is essential for cell proliferation from flies to mammals. (labome.org)
  • So there is evidence that the thyroid synergizes with the follicle-stimulating hormone , and in turn, has effects on the corpus luteum formation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is important in the development of follicles produced by the ovaries. (creativebiomart.net)
  • FSH is produced by the pituitary gland, and its production is controlled by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and hormones produced by the ovaries or testicles. (1mg.com)
  • An FSH blood test detects the level of this hormone in the blood to check whether a woman's levels are normal. (centerforhumanreprod.com)
  • We look at follicle stimulating hormone range in the context of a woman's age and other factors. (centerforhumanreprod.com)
  • Better AMH specificity makes sense because AMH reflects the smaller follicles, which represent a majority of a woman's ovarian reserve. (centerforhumanreprod.com)
  • When it comes to fertility testing for women or testing a woman's fertility reserve, seeing how likely they will get pregnant easily, there are three important reasons why testing for Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is more effective and efficient than testing for Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) . (rmact.com)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormones work with Lh and instructs a woman's body to ovulate at just the right tie. (testsmartlylabs.com)
  • In both males and females, FSH stimulates the maturation of primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FSH) A hormone that stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In females it will cause the growth of follicles in the ovaries and controlls the synthesising process of progesteron, in males , it will lead to the production of sperm . (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus . (scielo.sa.cr)
  • In females, it stimulates growth of the ovarian follicles. (repropedia.org)
  • Low FSH levels in men may mean parts of the brain (the pituitary gland or hypothalamus) do not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) a neuropeptide secreted by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that binds to specific receptors on the corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary and stimulates the secretion of corticotropin . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control:Body temperatureHungerMoodRelease of hormones from many glands, especial. (adam.com)
  • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is released from the hypothalamus and binds to receptors in the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate both the synthesis and release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone. (yourhormones.info)
  • In turn, the production of these hormones is sensed by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and less gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone will be released. (yourhormones.info)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone regulates testosterone levels and when these rise they are sensed by nerve cells in the hypothalamus so that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion and consequently follicle stimulating hormone is decreased. (yourhormones.info)
  • Effect of litter separation on 24-hour rhythmicity of plasma prolactin, follicle-stimulating. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential regulator of gonadal function and fertility. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Is FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) the Best Fertility Test Available? (rmact.com)
  • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is a fertility hormone produced by your pituitary gland . (mamiexpert.com)
  • We used conditional logistic regression to assess the relationship between hormones and risk of ovarian cancer overall and by subtype (types I and II). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gankyrin facilitates follicle-stimulating hormone-driven ovarian cancer cell proliferation through the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α/cyclin D1 pathway. (springer.com)
  • Prediagnostic circulating follicle stimulating hormone concentrations and ovarian cancer risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the association between prediagnostic levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and subsequent development of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FOLLTROPIN ® (porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone for injection) is a powder for solution containing 700 IU (equivalent to 400 mg NIH-FSH-P1) of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) per vial. (nih.gov)
  • Do not use FOLLTROPIN ® in cows that are known to be hypersensitive to the active ingredient, porcine pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone. (nih.gov)
  • follicle-stimulating hormone: an anterior pituitary peptide that stimulates the development of Graafian follicles in the female and spermatozoa in the male. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • LH promotes the production of androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and testosterone) from cholesterol and pregnenolone, by stimulating 17α-hydroxylase activity in the thecal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells produce more gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, which in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to produce more follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone, and release these into the bloodstream. (yourhormones.info)
  • These glycoprotein hormones have many similarities, but their action, based on high affinity binding to specific membrane receptors, are quite different. (ac.be)
  • The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits (labeled alpha- and beta- subunits) that are non-covalently associated: The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all other vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not exist in invertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence and early growth of follicles (until about 8 mm) requires the periovulatory FSH surge but not LH pulses. (psu.edu)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. (omicsonline.org)
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH or hFSH) is a glycoprotein synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary. (cmft.nhs.uk)
  • Glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland . (emf-portal.org)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is one such hormone that is secreted by cells in the anterior pituitary gland. (bodytomy.com)
  • FSH (Follicle stimulation hormone, 75 IU/vial) will be administered to women according to their need and response assessed by the Investigator. (clinicaltrials.gov)