Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Oogonia: Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTESSteroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Methoxychlor: An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Receptors, Gonadotropin: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Vinyl CompoundsCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLMenstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Mice, Inbred CBARecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Dendritic Cells, Follicular: Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Alopecia Areata: Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Cautery: The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oophoritis: Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ovarian Function Tests: Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle. 9'. Follicle ... The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is ... following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. The follicle first forms a corpus hemorrhagicum ... The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, ...
Ovaries. Follicles. *corpus *hemorrhagicum. *luteum. *albicans. *Theca of follicle *externa. *interna. *Follicular antrum * ...
... is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle. This fluid is ...
The ovaries are distinct and pubescent. The follicles are distinct and linear. Flowers bloom in the month October. The flowers ...
The ovary hardly enlarges after anthesis. The fruit consists of 4 follicles joined at the base. The seeds are numerous and ... The ovary is superior and consists of 4 carpels that are large compared to the rest of the flower. The carpels are usually ... The 4 carpels, which have suggested the Generic name, are perfectly free even in the earliest state of the ovary. - William ...
ovarian follicle, briefly, then along full ovary length. No. Large. No. Nomorhamphus megarrhamphus, Nomorhamphus weberi, and ... ovarian follicle. No. Large. None. -. Southeast Asian populations of Dermogenys pusilla. 2. ovarian follicle. Yes. Small. via ... ovarian follicle, briefly, then along full ovary length. Yes. Small. Partial. Nomorhamphus ebrardtii. Late-stage embryos are ... ovarian follicle, briefly, then along full ovary length. Yes. Small. Via expanded belly sac. 2. Dermogenys viviparus. ...
The human ovary contains a population of primordial follicles. At 18-22 weeks post-conception, the female ovary contains its ... Another approach is to examine the ovaries by gynecologic ultrasonography and to determine their size as ovaries depleted of ... The ovary is generally thought of as an egg bank from which the woman draws during her reproductive life. ... Ovarian reserve is a term that is used to determine the capacity of the ovary to provide egg cells that are capable of ...
"Zona pellucida components are present in human fetal ovary before follicle formation". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. ... As well as the failure to form primordial follicles, knockout mice also lacked zona pellucida genes Zp1, Zp2, and ZP3 ... expression of the FIGLA transcription factor is associated with primordial follicle formation in the human fetal ovary". ... gene in ovarian follicles and oocytes". Molecular Human Reproduction. 8 (12): 1087-95. doi:10.1093/molehr/8.12.1087. PMID ...
The ovarian cortex is the outer portion of the ovary. The ovarian follicles are located within the ovarian cortex. Ovarian ...
2008). "Zona pellucida components are present in human fetal ovary before follicle formation". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 289 (1-2 ...
For women, fertility medication is used to stimulate follicle development of the ovary. There are currently very few fertility ... Gonadotropins are the hormones in the body that normally stimulate the gonads (testes and ovaries). For medication, they can be ... hMG is a medication containing a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and a lutenizing hormone (LH). There currently are no ... Estrogen antagonists and gonadotropins may stimulate multiple follicles and other ovarian hormones leading to multiple birth ...
The follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the secondary oocyte to escape. The secondary oocyte is caught by the ... The release of an oocyte does not alternate between the two ovaries and seems to be random. After removal of an ovary, the ... When an oocyte is developing in an ovary, it is encapsulated in a spherical collection of cells known as an ovarian follicle. ... In a woman's body the tube allows passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus. Its different segments are (lateral to ...
The testis is developed in much the same way as the ovary, originating from mesothelium as well as mesonephros. Like the ovary ... Sawyer H, Smith P, Heath D, Juengel J, Wakefield S, McNatty K (2002). "Formation of ovarian follicles during fetal development ... The ovary is thus formed mainly from the genital ridge and partly from the mesonephros. Later the mass is differentiated into a ... The ovary is differentiated into a central part, the medulla, covered by a surface layer, the germinal epithelium. The immature ...
One or several follicles of the ovary start to grow. Their number is species specific. Typically this phase can last as little ... the pituitary gland that secretes follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and the ovary itself that releases sex ... A set of follicles starts to develop near the end of proestrus and grows at a nearly constant rate until the beginning of the ... Thus the ovaries of cycling rats contain three different sets of corpora lutea at different phases of development. Buffaloes ...
Ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Once an egg is released from its follicle during ... Most references state that it is more feasible to treat bilateral dermoid cysts of the ovaries discovered during pregnancy if ... It frequently consists of skin, hair follicles, and sweat glands, while other commonly found components include clumps of long ... Sometimes fluid accumulates inside the follicle, forming a simple (containing only fluid) cyst. The majority of these ...
The FSH makes several follicles grow in one of the ovaries. Each follicle contains an immature ova (egg). These follicles ... The follicle that contains the ovum swells and breaks open. (In the next stage, the leftover cells of the follicle turn into an ... The follicle cells that used to hold the ovum now release progesterone into the body. This causes the endometrium to get even ... All but one of the follicles dies off. The one that is left releases even more estrogen. Once again, the lining of the uterus ...
Ovarian damage resulting from embolic material migrating to the ovaries. Loss of ovarian function, infertility, and loss of ... Menopause - iatrogenic, abnormal, cessation of menstruation and follicle stimulating hormones elevated to menopausal levels. ...
The coiled, tubular testes consist of a single follicle, and the ovaries are polytrophic. All families of adephagan have paired ...
... the remnants of the follicle are quickly resorbed by the ovary. The ovary of teleosts is often contains a hollow, lymph-filled ... Most normal female fish have two ovaries. In some elasmobranchs, only the right ovary develops fully. In the primitive jawless ... Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the ... Fish ovaries may be of three types: gymnovarian, secondary gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are ...
GDF9 plays an important role in the development of primary follicles in the ovary. It has a critical role in granulosa cell and ... GDF9 stimulates growth of preantral follicles by preventing granulosa cell apoptosis. This may occur through increased follicle ... results in decreased ovary size, halted follicular development at the stage of the primary follicle and the absence of any ... Molecular Characterization of the Follicle Defects in the Growth Differentiation Factor 9-Deficient Ovary. Molecular ...
Disc longer than ovary. Ovary pubescent at apex. Follicles 2, cylindric, to 30 X 0.8-1.2 cm, yellow hirsute. Seeds oblong, 1-2 ...
... in the ovary of mammals. In the primary ovarian follicle, and later in follicle development (folliculogenesis), granulosa cells ... "A new model of development of the mammalian ovary and follicles". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e55578. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055578. ... Zamboni, L.; Bezard, J.; Mauleon, P. (1979). "The role of the mesonephros in the development of the sheep fetal ovary". Annales ... Sawyer H, Smith P, Heath D, Juengel J, Wakefield S, McNatty K (2002). "Formation of ovarian follicles during fetal development ...
Without it, female mice have small ovaries with less mature follicles. In addition, the production of SOX9 is blocked. In ... For instance, TAFIIs 105 is now encoded, a subunit of the TATA binding protein for RNA polymerase in ovarian follicle cells. ... "WNT4 is expressed in human fetal and adult ovaries and its signaling contributes to ovarian cell survival". Molecular and ...
Even after long-term androgen therapy, ovaries usually retain usable follicles. Eventual use of frozen ovaries will require ... After long-term androgen therapy, ovaries may develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) morphology. (In both PCOS and ... Testosterone is converted (within the cells of the hair follicle's dermal papilla) by 5α-reductase to DHT. There are two forms ... The action of testosterone on hair follicles is mainly due to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, DHT. With androgen ...
Fruits are two straight slender narrowly cylindrical widely divergent follicles. Seeds are many, flat, oblong, with a long tuft ... Pistil is bicarpellary, with free ovaries, many ovuled with distinct styles. ...
ovarian follicle development. • Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • peptide hormone processing. • positive ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ... FSHB, HH24, follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit, Follitropin subunit beta. معرفات خارجية. MGI: MGI:95582 HomoloGene: 430 ... follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling ...
... Author(s). Gerritsen, R.; Laurenssen, B. ... This paper presents follicle development and hormone profiles for sows with normal ovulation or cystic follicles during an ... either full cystic ovaries (n = 6) or partial ovulation (n = 2). Increase in follicle size of these sows was similar to that of ... cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. The risk of developing (partly) cystic ovaries was higher when IS ...
... follicle diameter of sows that developed cystic ovaries was similar to the follicle diameter of the sows that ovulated (P,0.10 ... sows repeatedly developed cystic ovaries. The aim of this study is to describe the follicle development, hormone levels and ... Studies have shown that 2-6% of culled sows have cystic ovaries (e.g. Heinonen et al. (1998) Anim Reprod Sci 52: 235-244). ... Furthermore, most studies examining hormone profiles of sows with cystic ovaries have used ACTH to induce the cysts. The ...
In the ovary sections of mature female fish, this mRNA was detected in a line surrounding ovarian follicles of all sizes. A ... Collagen Type-I α1 Chain mRNA is Expressed in the Follicle Cells of the Medaka Ovary. ... "Collagen Type-I α1 Chain mRNA is Expressed in the Follicle Cells of the Medaka Ovary," Zoological Science 25(9), 937-945, (1 ... "Collagen Type-I α1 Chain mRNA is Expressed in the Follicle Cells of the Medaka Ovary," Zoological Science, 25(9), 937-945, (1 ...
It was too risky to proceed as each of the four dominant follicles may release an egg which could result in multiple ... IVF diary of a single woman: Overstimulated ovaries and too many follicles. Michelle Hardy , July 08, 2019. ... she told me I had four dominant follicles on the left ovary. One at 18mm, one at 15mm and two at 13mm. I didnt question this ... that the hormones had overstimulated my ovaries and it was too risky to proceed as each of the four dominant follicles may ...
... Thomas W. Kelsey1 and W. Hamish ... with our recent model of nongrowing follicles (NGFs) in the human ovary for ages 25 through 51. When both models are log- ... Furthermore we can deduce that an ovary of 3 cm3 volume (or less) contains approximately 1000 NGF (or fewer). These strong ...
Follistatin288 Regulates Germ Cell Cyst Breakdown and Primordial Follicle Assembly in the Mouse Ovary.. [Zhengpin Wang, Wanbao ... during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. ... continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries. ... In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth ...
Livingston on ovary follicle size: Ovaries contain follicles. One of them becomes the dominant follicle and grows into an egg ... more follicles mature at the same time and you have an increased risk for multiple pregnancies. Your lining is thin. Are you ... 12 mm follicle in Left ovary Day 16 : 14 mm follicle in Left ovary Day 18: 12 mm follicle in Left ovary Can this be possible? ... With Clomid (clomiphene) 50 mg second course lt ovary follicle 8mm right ovary septate follicle 16mm is there chance of ...
Ultrasound Characterization of Ovarian Follicle Dynamics in Women With Amenorrhea ... Clinical trial for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Oligomenorrhea , Amenorrhea , ... In the ovaries, eggs rest in fluid filled sacs called follicles. When follicles grow they form small fluid-filled cysts that ... Further, the follicle-size populations and overall distribution throughout the ovary varies in women - follicles may be ...
Ultrasound Characterization of Ovarian Follicle Dynamics in Women With Amenorrhea ... Clinical trial for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Oligomenorrhea , Amenorrhea , ...
... and contained multiple cysts which on microscopic examination had the typical morphology of follicle cysts. The left ovary was ... The right ovary was removed, measured 15 cm in maximum dimension, ... Multiple Luteinized Follicle Cysts of the Ovary in a Patient With a Pituitary Adenoma: Report of a Case and Review of the ... and contained multiple cysts which on microscopic examination had the typical morphology of follicle cysts. The left ovary was ...
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In the absence of NGF, the growth of primordial follicles is retarded, ... and its two membrane-anchored receptors are expressed in the developing ovary before the organization of the first primordial ... Ovarian Follicle / drug effects, metabolism*. Ovary / anatomy & histology, drug effects, metabolism*. Pregnancy. RNA, Messenger ... a neurotransmitter previously shown to induce FSHR formation in neonatal rat ovaries. After NGF treatment, the ovary acquired ...
... ... The purpose of this study was to determine the role HH plays in primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. HH signaling ... While much is known regarding HH actions in the Drosophila ovary, its role in the developing mammalian ovary remains a mystery ... the mouse ovary transitions from an organ filled with ovigerous cords to one filled with primordial follicles, which are ...
Follicle cell bridges in the mosquito ovary: syncytia formation and bridge morphology ... Follicle cell bridges in the mosquito ovary: syncytia formation and bridge morphology ... Follicle cell bridges in the mosquito ovary: syncytia formation and bridge morphology ... Follicle cell bridges in the mosquito ovary: syncytia formation and bridge morphology ...
Ovaries from 2-d-old mice contain multiple primordial follicles, some naked oocytes, and no follicles at later stages of ... However, in the presence of AMH, cultured ovaries contained 40% fewer growing follicles compared with control ovaries. A ... Anti-Müllerian hormone inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth in the mouse ovary. Publication. Publication. ... We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system, in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57B1/6J mice were cultured for 2 ...
View Stock Photo of Human Graafian Follicle In The Ovary Containing An Oocyte And A Small Primary Follicle He Stain Lm X26. ... Human Graafian follicle in the ovary containing an oocyte and a small primary follicle, H&E stain. LM X26. ...
Metformin Inhibits Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Action in Human Granulosa Cells: Relevance to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. ... Women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are generally insulin-resistant and as a consequence are often treated ...
Cunningham on ovaries show multiple peripheral follicles with central echogenic stroma: but if you have regular periods, not a ... No dominant follicles seen in both ovaries . both ovaries show multiple small follicles measuring 3-8mm. ... An ovarian follicle contains a hollow ball of cells with an immature egg in the center. It is a structure within the ovary ... Both ovaries are slightly bulky and show multiple tiny peripherally follicles are sympton of pcos? Tq ...
Anti-Müllerian hormone expression pattern in the human ovary: Potential implications for initial and cyclic follicle ... Anti-Müllerian hormone expression pattern in the human ovary: Potential implications for initial and cyclic follicle ... Anti-Müllerian hormone/folliculogenesis/primordial follicle recruitment Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gah015, hdl. ...
Evaluation of antral follicle growth in the macaque ovary during the menstrual cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation by high ... Evaluation of antral follicle growth in the macaque ovary during the menstrual cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation by high ... Evaluation of antral follicle growth in the macaque ovary during the menstrual cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation by high ...
Polycystic ovarian morphology and the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: redefining threshold levels for follicle count ...
Control of primordial follicle recruitment by anti-Mullerian hormone in the mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 1999;140(12):5789-96. ... Follicle activation is a significant and immediate cause of follicle loss after ovarian tissue transplantation. J Assist Reprod ... Expression of inhibitor proteins that control primordial follicle reserve decreases in cryopreserved ovaries after ... Expression of inhibitor proteins that control primordial follicle reserve decreases in cryopreserved ovaries after ...
Primordial (A), primary (B), pre-antral (C) and antral (D) follicles stained with PAS-hematoxilin [42]. ... In the adult ovary, one can find follicles at different developmental stages, the most abundant are primordial follicles. Based ... In the adult ovary, one can find follicles at different developmental stages, the most abundant are primordial follicles. Based ... Follicle development in the adult mouse ovary. Primordial (A), primary (B), pre-antral (C) and antral (D) follicles stained ...
The present study investigated the effects of carbonated drinks on ovaries and follicles of animals. Method 150 female non- ... Small Secondary Follicle (SF) and Mature Follicle (MF) were distributed. Follicles developed poorly. Serum levels of FSHR ... values of Follicle Longitudinal Diameter (FLD), Follicle Transverse Diameter (FTD), Follicle Wall Thickness (FWT), Oocyte ... Ovarian and follicle indexes were measured under the light microscope. FSHR levels in ovaries, serum caspase-3, Epidermal ...
From isolation of human ovarian follicles to the artificial ovary: tips and tricks. Maria C. CHITI 1, Jacques DONNEZ 2, ... From isolation of human ovarian follicles to the artificial ovary: tips and tricks. Minerva Ginecol 2018;70:444-55. DOI: ... like the transplantable artificial ovary (TAO), with the noble goal to offer to these patients hope for future conception. This ...
  • Furthermore, most studies examining hormone profiles of sows with cystic ovaries have used ACTH to induce the cysts. (wur.nl)
  • 0.10), but follicle diameter was greater for sows developing cysts from day 5 onwards (P0.10), but in sows that developed cysts, E2 levels did not return to basal levels within 48 h after peak E2. (wur.nl)
  • When follicles grow they form small fluid-filled cysts that can be easily seen when we use ultrasound to view the ovaries. (centerwatch.com)
  • The case represents an example of multiple luteinized follicle cysts, analogous to the phenomenon seen occasionally in pregnancy, but with a different clinical background. (medworm.com)
  • As pertains to the evaluation of follicle cysts encountered during pregnancy the differential diagnosis is with a cystic granulosa cell tumor of either adult or juvenile types, more likely the latter. (medworm.com)
  • That neoplasm also usually shows follicular differentiation typically absent in follicle cysts. (medworm.com)
  • Pathologists should be aware of the rare occurrence of luteinized follicle cysts in patients with a pituitary adenoma to enable correct intraoperative and standard pathologic evaluation. (medworm.com)
  • Sir, ultrasonography report OF my (28yr) says that raised stromal echogenicity with multiple peripheral cysts in ovaries. (healthtap.com)
  • In some women, their ovaries make a lot of small cysts. (webmd.com)
  • 1 In 1935, Stein and Leventhal 2 described masculinized women with amenorrhea, sterility, and enlarged ovaries containing multiple cysts. (aafp.org)
  • Treatment of 2-d-old rat ovaries in organ culture with NGF increased FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA within 8 h of exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This effect was cAMP-independent but additive to the cAMP-mediated increase in FSHR gene expression induced by either forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide, a neurotransmitter previously shown to induce FSHR formation in neonatal rat ovaries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Quantitative measurement of FSHR mRNA demonstrated that the content of FSHR mRNA is reduced in the ovaries of mice carrying a null mutation of the NGF gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FSHR levels in ovaries, serum caspase-3, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR) were measured with ELISA kit. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In laying hens, the small yellow follicle (6-8 mm in diameter) with the highest expression of FSHR will be recruited into the preovulatory hierarchy during ovarian follicle development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, the transcriptomes of chicken small yellow follicles differing in the mRNA expression of FSHR were compared, and a total of 17,993 genes were identified in 3 pairs of small yellow follicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Wnt signaling pathway was significantly enriched in the follicles with the greatest fold change in FSHR expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor or FSH receptor (FSHR) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system, in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57B1/6J mice were cultured for 2 or 4 d in the absence or presence of AMH. (eur.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicle arrest in PCO is characterized in GCs by differential regulation of key genes involved in follicle growth and function. (regionh.dk)
  • During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in identifying the genes that control the assembly and initial growth of ovarian follicles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in the presence of AMH, cultured ovaries contained 40% fewer growing follicles compared with control ovaries. (eur.nl)
  • TUNEL analysis indicated no detectable difference in populations of apoptotic cells of treated or control ovaries. (edu.au)
  • Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for laminin, a common basement membrane protein, revealed a significantly higher number of discontinuous basement membranes around primordial follicles in ovaries extracted from cyclopamine-treated mice. (cornell.edu)
  • Earlier studies using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice suggested that AMH is involved in the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. (eur.nl)
  • Artificial ovaries made with a 3-D printer enabled sterilized mice to have pups and release hormones needed to trigger milk production. (nih.gov)
  • Follicles from mice (green) adhere to gelatin structures of varying porosity (red). (nih.gov)
  • The researchers punched out tiny cylinders (the width of the tip of a new crayon) from these squares and seeded the structures with follicles from mice. (nih.gov)
  • Ovaries were removed from nine mice. (nih.gov)
  • After mating with male mice, three of the mice with artificial ovaries had litters. (nih.gov)
  • The artificial ovaries also enabled the female mice to make the female hormones needed for milk production. (nih.gov)
  • A much higher percent of atresia was noted in the large follicles in both the pesticide exposed and the estradiol-17beta exposed mice. (cdc.gov)
  • In chlordecone treated mice, a decreased pool of healthy large and medium sized follicles occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors suggest that the pool of potentially ovulatory follicles was reduced in the pesticide treated mice. (cdc.gov)
  • It was too risky to proceed as each of the four dominant follicles may release an egg which could result in multiple pregnancies. (kidspot.com.au)
  • Peak levels of oestradiol (E2) were similar but high E2 levels persisted in sows that developed (partly) cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. (wur.nl)